Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Part I
 Part II
 Back Matter
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and strange adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073622/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and strange adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 463 p. : ill. (1 col.) ; 25 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Paget, Walter, 1863-1935 ( Illustrator )
Naumann, P ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
International Publishing Co. (Chicago, Ill.) ( Publisher )
W.B. Conkey Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: International Pub. Co.
Place of Publication: Chicago
Publication Date: 1890
Copyright Date: 1890
Edition: Unabridged ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1895   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Illinois -- Chicago
United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
United States -- New York -- New York
General Note: Cover and spine title: Robinson Crusoe; half-title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: On spine: W.B. Conkey Co., Chicago-New York.
General Note: Ill. by Paget; engraved by Naumann.
General Note: Same contents as W.B. Conkey ed. cited in Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 859.
General Note: Parts I and II Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: as related by himself ; by Daniel Defoe ; containing one hundred and seventeen ill.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073622
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27081922

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Page 1
        Page 1a
        Page 2
    Title Page
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    List of Illustrations
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Part I
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
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        Page 248
        Page 249
    Part II
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
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    Back Matter
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
    Back Cover
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
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though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen,
who settled first at Hull; he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had mar-
_.- .. + +t ~ . L- -if


I WAS born in the year I632, in the city of York, of a good family,

though not of that country, my father being a foreigner, of Bremen,
who settled first at Hull; he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had mar-
ried my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Krcutznacr; but, by
the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoc; and so my companions always
called mte.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more
than my father or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts; my father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-
education and a country free-school generally goes, and designed me for
the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands,
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propen-
sion of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent courtn


.sel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning
into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject; he asked me what reasons, more
than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's house
and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things were
all either too far above me or too far below me ; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited
to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labor
and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with
the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. lie
told me I might judge of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz.,
that this was the state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to
this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities of
life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so iany
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not
subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or miid, as
those were who, by vicious living, luxury and extravagances on one hand,
or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet on the
other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living ; that the middle station of life was calculated for all
kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, not
embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life
of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the
passion of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but,
in easy .circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.


After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner,
not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which
nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would
do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had just been recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt;
in a word, that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and
settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my
misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic,
though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself-I say, I
observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when he
spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke of my having
leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse and told me his heart was so full he could say no more
to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore
it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I
did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more
pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent
upon seeing the world that I should never settle to anything with resolu-
tion enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old,
which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that
I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time., but I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home
again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time that I had lost.


This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it would
be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he
knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much
for my hurt, and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me, and that in short, if I
would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might depend I should
never have their consent to it; that for her part she would not have so much
hand in my destruction, and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard after-
ward that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after
a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh: "That boy might be happy
if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad he will be the most miser-
able wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the
meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to busi-
ness, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my inclinations
prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and
without any purpose of making an elopement at that time-but I say, being
there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allure-
ment of a sea-faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine.
The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began to
blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never
been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving
my father's house and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my
parents, my father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into
my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would


have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought
it did, in the trough or hollow'of the sea, we should never rise more; in this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please
God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon


dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into
a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the good-
ness of his observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how
comfortable he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to



tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted,
and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it; however, I was very
grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening
followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing, and having little or no wind and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it,
the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion
who had enticed me away comes to me.
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you do
after it? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it blew
but a capful of wind? "
"A capful d'you call it? said I; 'twas a terrible storm."
"A storm, you fool, you! replies he; do you call that a storm? why,
it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors;
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with it; and in that one
night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatlniit'lt
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and appre-
hensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and
the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again sometimes;
but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a dis-
temper, and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had, in five or six days, got
as complete a victory over my conscience as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave
me entirely without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance,
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among
us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the


wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here
we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for seven or eight
days, during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the
same Roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided it
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or
five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as
an harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike
our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship went forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out
to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost! we shall be all
undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so apparently trampled
upon, and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing, too, like the first; but when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea ran mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us; two ships that rode near us, we found, had
cut their.masts by the board, being deep-laden; and our men cried out that
a ship which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more
ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at
all adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove,
and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before the
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship
to let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder,


he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that
away also, and make a clear deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had wick-
edly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the ter-
ror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep-laden, and wallowed in the sea, so
that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder. It was
my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible
than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest
of our distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed,
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers who,
not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the
sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress.
I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken, or
some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell
down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to my-
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet
as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out
just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board
or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope


over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which
they, after much labor and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close
under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for them
or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship; so
all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as

YARMOUTHu." (f. 20)." '

much as we could; and our master promised them that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partly row-
ing and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping
towards the shore almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much"morc than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we


za;i~ .
is .:-I



saw her .sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror
of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves,
we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the
strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made but slow way
towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer,
and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as
we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it
be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.- Certainly, noth-
ing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against .two
such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters-I say the first time he saw
me, it appeared his tone was altered; and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad: his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
" Young man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-faring


man." "Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more?" That is another
case," said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he, "what
are you; and on what account did you go to sea? Upon that I told him
some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of
passion: What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee
again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of
his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterward talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. "And, young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more; which way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I traveled to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to.my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have often since
observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of mankind is,
especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such cases,
viz., that they, are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but
are ashamed of the returning which only can make them be esteemed wise
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance
continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had
in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,
which hurried me into the wild and undigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of my
father-I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel


bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learned the duty and
office of a foremast man, and in time might have qualified myself for a mate
or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose for
the worst, so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman;
and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to suchloose and misguided young fellows as
I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very
early; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the master of a
ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; this captain taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say
I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him,
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this cap-
tain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I.increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 40 I
had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me,. I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost 300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.

Guinea-A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where theland runs nearly due east and west.
The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone, Grain
Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin.


"SURPRIc'_'f IN iir if, \ -F -.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
'0oo of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 2oo left which I had
lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz., our ship
making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by
a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our
masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing-to by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought eight
of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him,
which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in


also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us on
board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our
decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging.
We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners
into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor
was I carried up the country to the Emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this
surprising change of my circumstances from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have
none to relieve me; which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass, that I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes that he would
take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or
other be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portuguese man-
of-war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope
of mine was soon taken away;
for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about
his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin
to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing
but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it; but
found no way that had the least
probability in it; nothing pre- "I PROVED VERY DEXTEROUs." (. 25).


sented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the encouraging
prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years; an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pin-
nace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I
proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing with him in a calm morning,
a fog rose so thick, that, though we were not half a league from shore, we
lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way we labored
all day, and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we
had pulled out to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were
at least two leagues from the land. However, we got well in again,
though with a great deal of labor, and some danger; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of
himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his
ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand
behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before for a
hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bot-
tles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice
and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was most dex-
terous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that
he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with
two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had
provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-
night a larger store of provisions than usual; and had ordered me to get


ready three fusils* with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed; and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by and by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat and catch them some fish; for that his friends were to sup at his house;
he commanded me, too, that as soon as I had got some fish, I should bring
it home to his house; all which I prepared to do. #
This morhent, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command; and my
master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider,
whither I would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to this Moor, to
get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not
presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said, that was true; so he brought
a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize,
and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of
beeswax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterward, especially the wax to make candles. Another
trick I tried upon him which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him: "Moely," said
I, "our patron's guns are all on board the boat; can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies" (a fowl like our
curlews) "for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
"Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;" accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my mas-
ter's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and
thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the port before
we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the
N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had
*Fmusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or frelock.
t Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseigne, for a flag, or the man who carrie it,


V - - -

I c -U- ~ -"s



been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay
of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be
gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate..
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish
on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said
to the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus served; we must
stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head
of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near
a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would fish; when, giving
the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
in, telling me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one
of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: "But," said I,
"you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near
the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make
no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was
gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, Xury,
if you will be faithful to me, I'11 make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me" (that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard), I must throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in
my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits'* mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly barbarian
coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
should be devoured by savage beasts, or mere merciless savages of human
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the
east, that I might keep in with the shore, and having a fair, fresh gale of
*Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.


wind and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next
day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king there-
abouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful


apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop or go
on shore or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair till I had sailed in
that manner five days, and then, the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast and came to an anchor in
the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where; neither what lati-


tude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw nor desired to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was
dark and discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures,
of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I
won't, but it may be we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as
those lions." "Then we give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing,
"make them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a
dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice was good and I took it. We dropped our little anchor and lay still
all night. I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous
howlings and yelling that I never, indeed, heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I, too;, but we were
both more frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his
blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion
and it might be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh
the anchor and row away. "No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our cable, with
the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner
said so but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which he immediately
turned about and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises and hideous cries and
howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some
reason to believe those creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day was another question, too; for to
have fallen into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to have
fallen into the paws of lions and tigers, at least we were equally apprehen-
sive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other
for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was
the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy
answered with so much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says


he, "If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey." "Well, Xury," said I,
"we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on
shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and three jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up
the country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards me.
I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I ran forward towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to him,
I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and longer legs; however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and
feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least not
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have
found some of these islands. But my hope was that if I stood along this
coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some
of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be
that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the
negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers,
lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbor there; so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time; and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a


great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having failed
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was -pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me
that we had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look, yonder lies
a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster, indeed, for it was a terrible
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of
the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him. "Xury," says I, "you shall
go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said; "Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more
to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets, and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he
lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee and broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs,
and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and making but little
noise, he lay struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking the little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his
ear, and shot him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for
nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?"
said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off
his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a mon-
strous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up


both the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it
on the top of our cabin, the sun erc.-~se'iIy dried it in two days' time, and
it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very pjrir ,on.l on our provisions, which began to abate
very much, and z-...,. no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to for
fresh water. My Rdi .-i in this was to make the River Gambia or Senegal;
that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not I knew not what course I
had to take but to seek for the islands or perish there among the negroes.
I knew that all the ships from Europe which a -[' : either to the coast of
Guinea or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape or those islands
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three places
as we sailed by we saw p ;c'ple ia ad upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them, but Xury was my better counselor and said
to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran jl in -- the shore by me a good way; I
:.b-r.,:-.cL rj i~ .= had no -a r.,..lna, in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them
a great way with good aim, so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat and they would fetch me some meat.
Upon this, 1 lowered the top of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came back and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us;
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid
it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully, for while we were lying on the shore came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea- I-XeTher it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter, because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night,
and in the second place we found the people terrlbJ frighted, especially


the women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water
they did not offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their diversion. At
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected, but
I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition,
and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach I fired, and shot him directly in the head. Immediately he sank
down into the water, but rose instantly and plunged up and. down as if he
was struggling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to the
shore, but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the stran-
gling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were ready even to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature
dead, and sunk into the water, and that I made signs to them to come to
the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and I found that is was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence
they came, nor could I at that distance know what it was. I found quickly
the negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made signs to them
that they might take it, they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell
to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece
of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provision, which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning its bottom upward, to show that is was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and there
came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt as I
suppose in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a


great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most
certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called,
from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken
with a fresh gale of wind, I might neither reach one nor other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and sat
me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
Master, master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pur-
sue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the
shore; upon which I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was
some European boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship that
was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which they saw; for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French,
but I understood none of them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on
board, called to me; and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman,
that had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee; they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of
the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me,
when I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved your life on no
other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,"
said he, "when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own


country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there,
and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no," says he; Seignor
Inglese (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen that none should offer to touch any-
thing I had; then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even to my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me,
he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what I would have
for it. I told him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
upon which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one
offered to give more,,he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered
me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remem-
ber; he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats
for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me;
and what I was willing, to sell, he bought of me: such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns and a piece of the lump of beeswax, for I had made candles
of the rest; in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as: they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house), I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting and mak-
ing of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this pur-


pose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was I call him
neighbor, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very
sociably together. My
stock was but low, as
well as his; and we
rather planted for food
than anything else, for
about two years. How- .
ever, we began to in-
crease, and our land be-
gan to come into order;
so that the third year
we planted some tobac-
co, and made each of us
a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes
in the year to come;
but we both wanted
help; and now I found,
more than before, I had
done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to
do wrong that never did
right, was no great won- -
der. I had no remedy
but to go on. I had got ...
into employment quite
remote to my genius and
directly contrary to the
life I delighted in, and
for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice; nay, I was coming
into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my father
advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have stayed at home, and never fatigued myself in the world, as I have
done; and I used often to say to myself, "I could have done this as well in
England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as


never to hear from any part of the world that had the least knowledge
of me."
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret.
I had nobody to converse with but now and then this neighbor; no work to
be done but by the labor of my hands; and I used to say, I lived just like a
man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but him-
self. But how just has it been; and how should all men reflect, that when
they compare their present conditions with others that are worse. Heaven
may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
felicity by their experience-I say, how just has it been that the truly soli-
tary life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be my lot,
who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had in all probability been exceedingly prosper-
ous and rich.
I was in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the planta-
tion before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea,
went back; for the ship remained there, in providing her lading, and prepar-
ing for her voyage, near three months; when, telling him what little stock I
had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
"Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me) if you will give
me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person
who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give
orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it.come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly pre
pared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures.
my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me.
The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods,


such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
my direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have
him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country,'I found means to sell them at a very great advantage; so that I
may say I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor-I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave and an Euro-
pean servant also; I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbors,
and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now increas-
ing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of projects and under-
takings beyond my reach; such as are indeed often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of; but other things attended
me, and I was still to be the willful agent of all my own miseries; and par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being
a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted;
and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery


that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and a state
of health in the world.
To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story:
You may suppose that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils,
and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Sal-
vadore, which was our port; and that, in my discourse among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants' teeth, etc., but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the Assiento, or permission, of the King of Spain and
Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock; so that few negroes were
brought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance,.and talking of those things very earnestly,
three of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed of with them the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of
the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had noth-
ing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.


But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them that I would go with all
my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings and covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the
captain of the ship
that had saved my
live, as before, my
universal heir, but -
obliging him to
dispose of my ef- -
fects as I had di-.
rected in my will;
one-half of the
produce being .
to himself, and ', ':
the other to be
shipped to Eng- i
land. o:.
In short, I took
all possible cau- ,,
tion to preserve .o a
my effects, and to .
keep up my plan- .
station. Had I used
half as much .pru- .
dence to have .,
looked into my
own interest, and
have made a judg-
ment of w h at I LOOKING OVER THE CHARTS" (p. 43).
ought to have
done, and not to
have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an under-
taking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo finished, and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the Ist of September, 1659,


being the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself. We had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over fo- the African
coast, when they came into about ten or twelve degrees of northern lati-
tude; which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days. We
had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own
coast till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keep-
ing farther off at sea, we lost sight of .land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about
twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees
twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from the southeast, came
about to the northwest, and then settled into the northeast, from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever
fate and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve days, I

". -J

^^^^^,^ ^;^^^"



need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men
died of the calenture, and a man and a boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as
well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees of north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones towards that
of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and now he
began to consult with me what course he should take, for the ship was
leaky, and very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that, and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited coun-
try for us to have recourse to till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by
keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steared away N.W. byW.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined, for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
awhy with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
one morning cried out, "Land!" and we had no sooner run out of the cabin
to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the
ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped,the
sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we should all have
perished immediately, and we were even driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. We
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven;
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking
in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death


every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to
our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect herget-
ting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just
before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rud-
der, and in the next place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off
to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another boat on board,
but now to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's side; and get-
ting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well
called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we all saw plainly that the
sea went so high that the boat could not escape, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution, for we all knew
that when the boat came near the shore, she would be dashed in a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we
hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got
under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such a
fury that it overset the boat at once, and separating us as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God!" for we
were all swallowed up in a moment.


Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank
into the water, for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I
took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the mainland than I expected, I got upon my feet,
and endeavored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to con-

,' i, . . '


tend with; my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the
water, if I could, and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself toward the shore if possible; my greatest concern now being that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface

- -: -: i i .:.-T: l ,: --.-. -.
,- .. -.. ,. -: - ,_- ,_.- q.. -1 -. .. - -_

-" -.-- V r- ." - '. -" -- -. - "- -^'- ^'" .*. .. -




of the water, and though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep
myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I
was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it out;
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after-me again; and twice more I was lifted up
by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and in-
deed helpless, as to my own deliverance, for the blow, taking my side and
breast, beat the breath as it were quite out of my body, and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water, but I recov-
ered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered
again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so
to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away, and the next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me
down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes
before scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to
the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved,
as I may say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that
custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up,
and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign


of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance, for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any pros-
pect before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision; and this threw
me into terrible agonies of mind, that for awhile I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up
into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where
I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my great
joy; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place
myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging; and being

S -. .- .. ---- - --

---i^* -' -" -" "

_I -



excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe,
few could have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed
with it than I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day,the weather clear, and the storm abated,
so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she
lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dash-
ing me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I
was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board,
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a
neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half
a mile broad, so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present sub-
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far
out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that if we had kept
on board, we had been all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore,
and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again, but
as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship;
so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took
the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round
her twice, and the second time I espied a small piece of rope, which I
wondered I did not see at first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low
that, with great difficulty, I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. By this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what was
free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went
to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in
the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed,


need enough of to spirit me for
3 : what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat, to
furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and
wish for what was not to be had;
-" and this extremity roused my ap-
plication. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and
a spare topmast or two in the ship. I
S resolved to fall to work with these, and
I flung as many of them overboard as I
could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done I went down
"i FELL FAST ASLEEP" (p. 49). the ship's side, and pulling them to me I
tied four of them together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of
plank upon them, crossways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light.
So I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My next


care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what
I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the first of these
I filled with provisions-viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little remainder
of European corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that
the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters,
and, in all, about five or six gallons of arrack. These I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which
were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stock-
ings. However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other
things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest, which
was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-
lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin and two pistols. These I secured
first, with some powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew
not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well
freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, ore, nor rudder, and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: first, a smooth, calm sea; secondly, the
tide rising and setting into the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken
oars, belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in the chest,
two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile,
or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before, by which I perceived
that there was some indraught of the water, and consequently, I hoped to


find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to get
to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land. I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my
raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think verily would have broken my heart, for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did
my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the
mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide
running up. I looked on both sides for. a proper place to get to shore, for
I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping in time to see
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I
had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep-that is to say, sloping-there was no place to land but where
one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink
lower as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar
like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over, and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground-one on one side near one
end, and one on the other side near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever
might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent or
an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild
beast or not. There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which
lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces,


and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; -and thus armed, I traveled for
discovery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labor and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction-viz., that I
was in an island environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of which, however, I
saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds; neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my
coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired but from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, mak-
ing a confused screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note,
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work
to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the day; what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the chests
and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that
night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out of
the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved
to set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could
get. Then I called a council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I
should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to
go as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt, a pair
of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and, hav-
ing had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded
it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as, first,


in the carpenter's stores I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes,
a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece,
with some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and
a spare foretopsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that
at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came back
I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon
one of the chests, which, when 'I came towards it, ran away a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked
full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it,
and ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was obliged to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very
quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy, for the night before I had
slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch those things
from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could; so every day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope twine


I could get,,- --
with a piece of
spare canvas,
which was to
mend the sails
upon occasion,
and the barrel of .it i -n,. [: -,',i r.
In a word, I brought ,. v ;.- al t111 :
sails, first and last; :iil, tihat I %.A -I
fain to cut them inI [po:.:.-, ani
bring as much at a t,,ii a. I o..ul.J,
for they were no mn'i...i:e .i-. to
me for sails, but a- !r:ie c .-:.ina-
But that which l.Imt.:lti t...l m
more still was that at 1.i-t .-.t IIl,
after I had made :-. c .i -.ix i.i.:li
voyages as these, :r-l tl.:ii.,liAt I
had nothing more t,: '\.l : .: I Hin
the ship that was .-,i tlhmi m,: ni.-
dling with-I say, attr all tii.-, I
found a great
hogshead of
bread, three
large runlets
of rum, or spir-
its, a box of
fine sugar, and
a barrel of fine
flour; this was
surprising to r
me, because I
had given over
expecting any
more provis-
ions except \, .
what was '
spoiled by the "" "
water. I soon
emptied the e
hogshead o f
the bread, and ; .,
wrapped it up,
parcel by par-

CRYING" (p. 53).


eel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe
on shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable. Cut-
ting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and
a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get, and having cut down
the spritsail yard, and the mizzen yard, and everything I could to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came away. But
my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so over-
laden, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have been
of great use to me; however, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labor, for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable of bringing; though I verilybelieve, had the
calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece;
but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind began to
rise. However, at low water I went on board, and though I thought I had
rummaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be found, yet
I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money-some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. Oh, drug!" said I aloud,
"what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me-no, not the taking off
the ground; one of those knives is worth, all this heap; I have no manner
of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a
creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas, I began to think of
making another raft, but while I was preparing this I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me that it was in vain to pre-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my business to
be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to
reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had


about me, and partly from the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked, out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over anymore thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as, indeed, divers pieces
of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in this land;
and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make-whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent
upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and descrip-
tion of which it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed
would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot
of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper
for me; first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned; secondly, shelter
from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing
to banish my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of
a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side,
so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the side of the
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch
my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards brotd, and about twice
as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on
the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to the W. and by S. sun or thereabouts, which, in those
countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and ending.


In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, upon one another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top, which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all my riches, all
my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there. I made it double-viz., one
smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the upper-
most part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet, and having thus inclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and re-passed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bring-
ing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid
them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labor and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it occurred, after I
had laid my scheme for the setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a
storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with the
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself, Oh, my
powder! :' My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,


all my powder might be destroyed, on which not my defense only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in hopes that, whatever might come, it might not all take
fire at once; and to keep it so apart that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think
my powder, which in all was about one hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had
been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cane, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, mark-
ing very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill any-
thing fit for food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the
-island produced. The first time I went out, I presently discovered that
the;e were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then- it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world
to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded
that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards I
took this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and
then had frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock-still by her, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my inclosure; upon which I
laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat; so I was forced
to kill it and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much
as I possibly could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to pro-


vide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as
also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a
full account of in its place; but I must now give some little account of my-
self, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were
not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my con-
dition, for as I was not cast away u'II"''
that island without being driven, i- i-
said, by a violent storm quite i-.it :t
the course of our intended voya:... :niii
a great way, viz., some hund:c;i I-,
leagues, out of the ordinary co-.ni c -,t -.
the trade of mankind, I had great r.-i-
son to consider it as a determinatc-.n
of Heaven that in this desolate 1j1C.:-
and in this desolate manner, I tli,-uld.
end my life. The tears would run picri-
tifully down my face when I mad.. tl .:.-e
reflections; and sometimes I would ex-
postulate with myself why Pro-
vidence should thus completely --.i
ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable,
so without help abandoned, and -:, -n- '
tirely depressed, that it could Iilly . '
be rational to be thankful for such a i : i'
But something always return d, ic I t I'
upon me to check these thougl:t aiind ''-''
to reprove me; and particularly on d.1 I'J' '
walking with my gun in my han;rid b.
the sea-side, I was very pensive up1-.-n ', "''
the subject of my present coiiritioni, .. ,'
when Reason, as it were, put in c.'l-..,- .- ;
tulating with me the other way, th.us: ..
"Well, you are in a desolate condition,
it is true; but, pray remember, where TE KID FOLLOWED ME" (. 9).
are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where
are the ten? Why were not they saved,
and you lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?"
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good
that is in them and with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsist-


ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where first
she struck, and was driven so near to the shore that I had time to get all
these things out of her? What would have been my case, if I had been
forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them? Par-
ticularly," said I aloud (though to myself), what should I have done with-
out a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to
work with? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of coverings?"
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way
to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without
any want as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning how I
would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even
after my health and strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of myammunition being
destroyed at one blast-I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
and this made the thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the
30th of September when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon
this horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head, for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days it came into my thoughts
that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books and pen and ink,
and should even forget the Sabbath-day from the working days; but to pre-
vent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and
making it into a great cross I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz., "I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Uponthesides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my knife and
every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one, and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink and
paper, several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's and carpenter's keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I huddled together,


whether I might want them or no; also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two
or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats
of whose eminent history I must have occasion to say something in its place,
for I carried both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me. I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could
not do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost, and I shall show that while my ink lasted I kept things
very exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any
ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all
that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one, as also a spade, pick-
axe and shovel to dig or remove the earth, needles, pins and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was near
a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounding
habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift,
were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home, so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the ground, for
which purpose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself
of one of the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I
have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had
been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to
seek for food, which I did, more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to
have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them,
and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse, and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the com-
fort I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:


I am cast upon a horrible, desolate
island; void of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as
it were, from all the world, to be mis-

I am divided from mankind, a soli-
tary;one banished from human society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or means
to resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or relieve

But I am alive; and not drowned, as all my
ship's company was.
But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
crew, to be spared from death; and He that mirac-
ulously saved me from death can deliver me from.
this condition.
But I am not starved, and perishing on a bar-
ren place, affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes,
I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island where I Eee no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa;
and what if I had been shipwrecked there?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that I have got out so many
necessary things as will either supply my wants
or enable me to supply myself, even as long as I

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative,
or something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direc-
tion, from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this
world-that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the
Having fow brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving
over looking out to sea if I could spy a ship-I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make
things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick, on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get to keep
out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place. I had no room to turn myself, so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth, for it was a
loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed on it, and
so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways,
to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right again worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or


This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as'I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table, for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not
write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work, and here I must needs observe that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring



everything by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labor, application and con-
trivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even
without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labor. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with

\ . ,1 V

~" :F



my axe till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but one board out of
a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience, anymore than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labor which it took me up to make
a plank or board, but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my
raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above I
made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another,
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places that I
might come easily at them; also I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock
to hang my guns and all things that would hang up, so that had my cave
been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things,
and I had everything so ready at my hand that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's employ-
ment, for, indeed, at first I was in too much hurry, and not only a hurry as
to labor, but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would
have been full of many dull things; for example, I must have said thus:
"Sept. the 30th.-After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first vomited,
with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach,
and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands
and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I
was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and had
got all I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I espied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it,
and then, after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit
down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things-in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began, I say, to keep my Journal, of which
I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again), as long as it lasted, for at last, having no more ink, I was
forced to leave off.

September 30, 1659.-I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-


wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this dis-
mal, unfortunate island, which I called "The Island of Despair;" all the rest
of the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me; either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.
October I.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the
island; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit
upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so,
on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or at
least, that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that,
had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24t/h.-All these days entirely spent in many
several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with
some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 24.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it, but
being in shoal-water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during
which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in
the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a
proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semi-circle for my encamp-
ment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods


to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceeding
The 3 st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to seek
for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it would not
November I.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my ham-
mock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards and the pieces of timber which
made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the
place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion: viz., every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to
live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working part
of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this table, for I
was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one
Nov. 5.-This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Every crea-
ture I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I
was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now' it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, Ioth,
and part of the 12th (for the IIth was Sunday according to my'reckoning),
I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it
to pieces several times.
Note.-I soon neglected keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it


was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible.
tha it it i l't I n..t blt in .1ln 'jLm .
.\1... 14, 1;. i',...-- h se ti lee
da,, I I it in Il L littk-


rr( r

C IA- i.ic n ,in Car

0 -.( A IC, t--, n a lc k 1 D- i.l:.

they call the iron-tree, for its exceed-
S' 1i

O i .. I. -i ., I i r i i '. N

ing the woods, I found a tree of that
'woodl, or like it, which in the razilsc

they call the iron-tree, for its exceed-

square chests, or
boxes, which
might hold about
a p.:.:uind, or t.,:'
pu i.lindi at ni:-t, i:.
i[ _,i., .l r; a: rid :,,
lluttlitl C tle pui Lu-

ia t1 [) -li>l: ae I-,_'. I lle

a i':>thC a0 [.., tu I-e. (1,n
''Ine ot tlhi,-c thulLc dti,'
I kill ..l a lau.,c Lird tlh! t
%' i : 1. ...t t -.it, L.u t I
ik n ... n :t 1 ..h l it t.:. cal it.
I- - -TI lay I
Ln-l"tan t .I I >:l'_" ,-In In. ,' m I.nt
int-. th i,, l- t,_, In, l.c r]-,: -n
t,_,l fli, Iu I L I i -:...ir L rl ]i >c;\ .
.\,':, -- II re 'i tl ll -" I
\'anted ex':ecdingl t.:.ir thi'-.
:',Ik: \ I.:., a I c a e a

Iy wU. lk, ard bL._'.tn ,- ,:- n-
'iclder h,, t:. -,.l.| ljl that
l'\ant, 'Mid i.ti -t 11. :o! 1111'
t ,: .\:Ai tI r Il l i'c i:l:i Il
IIi' telt ['I;. till:.. I




ing hardness; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece, and brought it home, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no other way, made
me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like
ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket
I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make -
wicker-ware- at least, none yet' ': .
found out; and as to the wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel; but that I
had no notion of; neither did ;'
I know how to go about it; be-
sides, I had no possible way
to make iron gudgeons for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to
run in; so I gave it'over, and to mk
so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I
made me a thing like a hod,
which the laborers carry mortar .
in when they serve the brick-
layers. This was not so diffi- "A KIND OF WILD PIGEONS (p. 71).
cult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days, I mean always excepting my morning's walk
with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing
home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having stood still, because of my making these
tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.-During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a lodging I kept to the tent;
except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that
I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my


place within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
December Io.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason, too; for if I had been under it, I had never wanted a
grave digger. Upon this disaster I had a great deal of work to do over
again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more
importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down.
Dec. ii.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across
over each post; this I finished the next day, and setting more posts up with
boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts, stand-
ing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 2o.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of board like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but board began to be very scarce with me; also I made me
another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it,
and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg which was broke.
N. B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the
little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I
might have food when my powder and shot were all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the
valleys which lay toward the center of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved
to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him


upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog,
and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my being
attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N. B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the Journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from
the 3d of January to the 14th of April working, finishing and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being
a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the center behind it.
All this time I worked very hard,the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation;
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.
During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when
the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of
something or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones I endeav-
ored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they
flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had
nothing to give them; however, I frequently found their nests and got their
young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself want-
ing in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as, indeed, as to some of them it was; for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, nor
join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so I gave
that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles, so that as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was,
that when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of
clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I


made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag which, as I hinted before, had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry-not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my for-
tification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now
mentioned that I threw this stuff away, taking no
notice of anything, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when,
ab- ,,:t a mniilth aft,-r ,:,i thereabouts, I saw some
it -tall _f ~,,rmethin. green shooting upon the
igundJ. oi hi-h I f-nci. J might be some plant I
had nlt seen, bLt I vla- surprised and perfectly
a t ni i ed when, after a little longer
tuim, I can\ about ten or twelve ears
come our- Lit % which were perfectly green
barle,, ,of the same kind as our
Etlopean-nay, as our English
It is impossible
to express the aston-
ishment and confu-
.. sion of my thoughts
-/ on this occasion; I
had hitherto acted
upon no religious
foundation at all; in-
"" deed, I had very few
notions of religion in
'". my head, nor had en-
',, tertained any sense
of anything that had
befallen me, other-
wise than as a chance,
or, as we lightly say,
--. w what pleases God,
without so much as
Sinquiring into the


these things, or His order in governing events in the world. But after I
saw barley grow there in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn,
and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for
my sustenance in that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a
little, and brought tears out of
my eyes, and I began to bless
myself that such a prodigy of
Nature should happen upon my
account; and this was the more
strange to me because I saw
near it still, all along by the side .
of the rock, some other strag-
gling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, N\
because I had seen it grow in
Africa when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the
pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubt-
ing but that there was more in
the place, I went all over that
part of the island where I had
been before, peering -in every
corner and under every rock,
to see for more of it, but I h "
could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts that
I had shaken the bag of chick-
ens' meat out in that place; and
the wonder began to cease; and
I must confess my religious
thankfulness to God's provi-
dence began to abate too, upon "GRINDING MY TOOLS" (p 77).
the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common;
though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains
of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest,
as if it had been dropped from Heaven; as also that I should throw it out
into that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it


sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I would allow
'myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I
shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season,
by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would have done; of which
in its place.
Besides thisbarley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal:
I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get mywall done,
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over a wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of
my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the top, and
then pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete
inclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at
me from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus: As I was
busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I
was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all
on a sudden, I found the earth came tumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts I
had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful mariner. I was heartily scared;
but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before, and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself
safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which
I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner stepped' down upon
the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the
ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; and a great piece of the
top of the rock which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. .I perceived
also the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.


I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like or dis-
coursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied; and
the motion of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at
sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me as it were, and
rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all my house-
hold goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me
a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I
began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall
again, for fear of being buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly
cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while, I had
not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the common "Lord have
mercy upon me!" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it
would rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less
than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind; the sea was, all
on a sudden, covered with foam and froth; the shore was covered with the
breach of the water; the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm
it was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate; and then in
two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very hard. All this while I
sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it
came into my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequences of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might ven-
ture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive; and
the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but
the rain was so violent that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to gointo my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for
fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work,
viz., to cut a hole through my new fortifications, like a sink, to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been in my
cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store and took a small sup of rum;
which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night, and great
-part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best to do; concluding that if the
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in
a cave, but I must consider of building me some little hut in an open place
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself
secure from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where


it now stood,
which was just
under the
hanging preci-
pice of the
hill; and
S ,which, if it
S should be
7 4 shaken again,
would certain-
ly fall upon
t1 my tent; and
s I spent the two
next days,
Being the Iath
and 2oth of
ti .'- April, in con-
thriving where
and how to re-
': in-:,'.e mti\ lial.;t. nation. The fear of
I inl,. ,aill,,i, d up alive made
.m tHat I ne._a l slept in quiet;
c ad ,,i eyt the a i iPl tensions of lying
aLbi a d,_J \,itlih it any fence were
St. ralm1: t oqi.,al t,: it; but still, when
I ,,lkl-d a :,Liut, and saw how
c L I \ ii. l as p.,ut in order, how
phI at-antly ctonicaled I was, and
i,.w -_ae tLi,-m danger, it made me
Ith t, ,I c-ni, c. In the mean-
time, it :,LccL :.,l to me that it
S. :.lil reliLi c" a vast deal of time
'. f:, ne tI i, o,0 tliii, and that I must
be coiteiitcd t, run the venture
WL \l.e I 'uai, till I had formed a
canip fi,_ Ii; cl f., and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So with
t- i-.-i lsl_.,lutin I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I
"I CAUGHT A YOUNG DOLPHIN" (p. 78). would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and
cables, etc., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it was fin-
ished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 2I1t.


April 22.-The next morning I be-
Sgan t, :c i:-iEr ,'f me:aiin to put this
Sire-ul Ic ini cxnicutltni; Lkut I was at a
S iet I.-.- ab...t mI t --ools I had three
i latl.'e: axe.\ t -, an L.d a un.i,:c ,f hatchets
I' [11 It c a': i ic, I thIe hat.:ltli t s for traffic
\\ \ ith tl Ir-li la' .: I: lut I ith much chop-
[ ring aiid clitin Ii :n.*.tt, lard wood,
they A Iere a ill ..ll,,t nii.t,.ics. and dull;
anii.l th1:. .hl11 I1 a I! ;: id stone, I
S "* Cio. ll.:1 n,:ti tuit ii it and ti 'rin my tools
,to,:. 111i c-.it mi: .A. I1 iuIh thought as
a _tatc.c tilini ,':.I al'l Ia .c l.-t.:iwed upon
a tg aiid f-,.int *.( l, t:.-, ,r a judge
s t^II, ,P_, the l1le arl d iILth -1f1 a m an. A t
b r IClengthI I C::iinti i\ tel a i.iccil vi. th a string
I ti tu rn it V.'tli ni\ t>,'.t. tl, at I m ight
Ia\ -Lth li I hall.-l at iLbertY.
S' .---I lidt i t -lii i\ -Lich thing
ii II ,1i Erin-l.,l ,. at Lcast not to
'tal:c .'*.tl I,' l.,' it was done,
.. tloou 11 iH Lce I lia e observed


it \:r 13 C1i, C i inOi
theic; b, L ,'Id -, that,
my gi ll-t.one \ias
vet'; Iar'_c anid Iheav;.V
Thi niaclhii c, t i-rne

briln it t .-: ,- erfl intion.

Th1 Mt. h lu i -_ -L-
I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine
"for turning my grind- A LARGE TORTOISE, OR TURTLE" (p. 79).
for turning my grind-
stone performing
very well.
April 3o.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I
now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day,
which made my heart very heavy.


May I.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked
like a cask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late hur-
ricane; and looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I
rolled it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as
near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet,
and the stern, which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the
force of the sea soon after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next the stern, that whereas there was a great place of water before,
so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
earthquake; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened,
and which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching
whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to
be expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I
resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that everything I could get from her would be of some use or other to
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which
I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till
I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young
dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks;
yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat: all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought
three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made
swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her, and


other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard, and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.- Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work,- but found
the weight of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being cut; that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full of water and sand.
May 8 -Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the
deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open
two planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron
crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9.--Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body
of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir
it, but it was too heavy to move.
Maly, IO, II, 12, 13, 14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a great
deal of pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron.
May 15 -I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the
roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the
other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any
blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore at a great dis-
tance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found
they were pieces of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with hard
labor I loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing
tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind
blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of tim-
ber and a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the Isth of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always appointed, during
this part of my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber and plank
and iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side I found a large tortoise, or turtle.
This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place or the scarcity; for had I happened to be on the
other side of the island I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.


June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs,
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and pleasant that
ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrible place.
June 18.-Rained all the day and I stayed within. I thought, at this time,
the rain felt cold and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in
that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of
my sad condition-to be sick, and no help; prayed to God, for the first
time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why, my
thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent head-
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.--An ague, very violent; the fit held me seven hours; cold fit,
and hot with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better, and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found
myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty
got it home, and broiled some of it and ate. I would fain have stewed it
and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay abed all day and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak I had no
strength to stand up or to get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God
again, but was light-headed, and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say, only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord,
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did nothing else for
two or three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not awake
till far in the night. When I awoke I found myself much refreshed but
weak, and exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole hab-
itation, I was forced to lie till morning and went to sleep again. In this sec-
ond sleep I had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground,
on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earth-
quake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright
flame of fire, and light upon the ground; he was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his countenance
was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe. When he
stepped upon the ground with his feet I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed
upon the earth but he moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand to kill me, and when he came to a rising ground, at some


distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible
to express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood was this: "See-
ing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt
die;" at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his
hand tL kill rrme.
No ,oef that shall e\vr icad
this a:,C:C:'ilt will \pect that I -f .
should be able to dcc' be thic

X- .



horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for
eight years, of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant conversation with none
but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do
not remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as
tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflec-
tion upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of


good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common
sailors can be supposed to be-not having the least sense, either of the fear
of God in dangers, or of thankfulness to God in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more
easily believed when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries
that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of its
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for my sins, my
rebellious behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were great,
or so much as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages; but I was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence. I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of com-
mon sense only, and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken
up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and honorably
with, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstasy, and
some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have
come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere com-
mon flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had pre-
served me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were
destroyed, or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me.
Even just the same common sort of joy which seamen generally have after
they have got safe ashore from a shipwreck, all which they drown in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over, and all the rest
of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on.this dreadful place, out of
the reach of humankind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,
as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and
perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my preservation and sup-
ply, and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me. These were thoughts
which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at first,


some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as
long as I thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of the thought was removed, all the impression which was raised
from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately
directing to the invisible power which alone directs such things, yet no
sooner was the first fright over but the impression it had made went off also.
I had no more sense of God, or His judgments-much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from His hand-than if I had been in
the most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick,
and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me,
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that had
slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the
justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in
so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me from the second
or third day of my distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as'of
the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me like
praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer attended
with desires or with hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind,
and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors into my
head with the mere apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew
not what my tongue might express. But it was rather exclamation, such
as, Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall cer-
tainly die for want of help, and what will become of me?" Then, the tears
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz., that if I
did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist me in my recovery. Now," said I aloud, my dear
father's words are come to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been
happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the
blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance, who would have lifted me into the world, and would have
made everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with too
great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help, no com-
fort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great


distress." This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my Journal:
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up, and though the fright and terror of my
dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
again the next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill, and the first thing I did, I filled a
large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I
got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat
very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the
turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the
shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to,
even, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could
hardly carry the gun, for I never went out without that; so I went out but
a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat there, some
thoughts such as these occurred to me: "What is the earth and sea, of
which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some Secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed most naturally--"It
is God that has made it all. Well, but then," it came on strongly, if God
has made all these things, He guides and governs them all, and all things
that concern them; for the Being that could make all things must certainly
have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen, in the
great circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.
"And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I am
here, and'am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without His
appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me." Nothing occurred to
my thoughts to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by His direction, He having the sole power, not of me only, but of
everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed: "Why
has God done this to me? What have I done to be thus used?" My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed,'and
methought it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch, dost thou ask what thou
hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself what
thou hast not done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?


Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the fight, when
the ship was taken by the Salle man-of-war? devoured by the wild beasts
off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself? Dost thou ask, 'What have I done?'" I was struck dumb with
these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say-no, not to
answer to myself-but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my
chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thoughts that the Brazilians take no physic, but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the
chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I found a cure
both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had
not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say I took it
out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use
to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was
good for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved
it should heal one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it
in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco
being green and strong, and that I had not been much used to it. Then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take
a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as
well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I lield it almost to suffocation. In
the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but
my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least
at that time; only having opened the book casually, the words first that
occurred to me were these, Call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify Me." These words were very apt to my
case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading
them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as forbeing delivered,
the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so
impossible in my apprehension of things, that I began to say, as the children
of Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table
in the wilderness?" so I began to say, "Can God Himself deliver me from
this place? And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew
now late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I


inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want
anything in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what
I never had done in all my life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to ful-
fill the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the day of trouble, He
would deliver me. After mybroken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank
the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank
of the tobacco that, indeed, I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently,
but 1 fell into a sound sleep and waked no more till, by the sun, it must
necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this
hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night, and till
almost three the day after; for otherwise I know not how I should lose a
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some years
after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line, I
should have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and I
never knew which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed and my spirits lively and cheerful,
when I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but con-
tinued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 3oth was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my gun,
but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something
like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not very forward to
eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle's eggs, which were very good.
This evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me good
the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so
much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the Ist of July,
as I hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but
it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed myself
with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my
full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength,
my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, I will deliver thee;"
and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar
of my ever expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon my deliver-
ance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these,
viz.: "Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness?
from the most distressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful
to me? and what notice had I taken of it? I-lad I done my part? God
had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him; that is to say, I had not

86 -


owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect
greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much; and immediately
I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
Ju11y4.-In the morn-
ing, I took the Bible;
and beginning at the "
New Testament, I be- / ?
gan seriously to read it, :- ; ':
and imposed upon my-
self to read awhile ,;', ; ,' '
every morning and 0 1 '..,

myself to the number /"'
of chapters, but as long / I"'" '
as my thoughts should
engage me. It was not
long after I set seriously
to this work, till I found
my heart more deeply
and sincerely affected
with the wickedness of
my past life. The im- "
pression of my dream
revived; and the words,
"All these things have
not brought thee to re-
pentance," ran seriously
in my thoughts. I was
earnestly begging of ,
God to give me repent- .. .
ance, when it happened cL
providentially the very -' .
day that, reading the .,
Scripture, I came to
these words: He is
exalted a Prince and a "I WENT UP THE CREEK FIRST" (j. 89).
Saviour, to give repent-
ance and to give remis-
sion." I threw down the book; and with my heart as well as my hands
lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus,
Thou Son of David! Jesus, Thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me
repentance! This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life, for now I prayed with a sense of my


condition, and with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encour-
agement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may say, I began to
have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on Me, and
I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever done before;
for then I had no notion of anything being called deliverance but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the worst
sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in another sense; now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins appeared so
dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load
of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it;
it was all of no consideration, in comparison of this. And I added this part
here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way
of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being directed, by
a constant reading the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher
nature, I had a great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew noth-
ing of; also, my health and strength returned, I bestirred myself to furnish
myself with everything that I wanted, and make my way of living as regu-
lar as I could.
From the 4th day of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man that
was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be im-
agined how low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The applica-
tion which I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one to practice,
by this experiment; and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather con-
tributed to weaken me, for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and
limbs for some time. I learned from it also this, in particular, that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in a dry season was always
most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain was much more
dangerous than the rain which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months; all possibility
of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken from me,
and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind,


I had a great desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which yet I knew nothing of.
It was the i5th of July that I began to take a more particular survey of
the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought
my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide
did not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little brook of run-
ning water, and very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there
was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any
stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found
many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about, and
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find out. I
searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that climate make
their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did
not then understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for
want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries
for this time, and came back, musing with myself what course I might take
to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits of plants which I
should discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of
the plants of the field; at least, very little that might serve me to any pur-
pose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going
something further than I had gone the day before, I found the brook and
savannahs cease, and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found melons upon the
ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread
indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime,
very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding
glad of them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapeskilled
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into
fluxes and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were, as wholesome and
as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not.back to my habitation, which
by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from home. In
the night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well; and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery, traveling nearly
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keeping still due


north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north side of me. At the end
of this march I came to an opening, where the country seemed to descend
to the west; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side
of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant


," :-* .- --


verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it with a
secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting thoughts, to
think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I
might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in Eng-
land. 1 saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, orange and lemon, and. citron-

i i'

.~il~p1 a 1 '

r~ .r.



trees; but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very
wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well
of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season, which
I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of
grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me, I
traveled homeward, and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or
what I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having spent three
days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave);
but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they
were good for little or nothing; as to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.
The next day, being the I9th, I went back, having made me two small
bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised when, coming to my
heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces, and dragged about, some here,
some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this, but what they
were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight,
I took another course, for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they might cure and
dry in the sun; and as for the limes and lemons, I carried as many back as
I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situa-
tion; the security from storm on that side of the water, and the wood, and
concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which was by
far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of
removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as where
now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for
some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me, but when I came to a
nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advantage, and that the
same ill fate that brought me hither might bring some other unhappy
wretches to the same place, and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose myself among the hills and
woods in the center of the island was to anticipate my bondage, and to


render such an affair not only improbable but impossible, and that therefore
I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so enamored with
this place that I spent much of my time there for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I resolved as
above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being double hedge as high as I could
reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood, and here I lay very
secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder as before, so that I fancied now I had my country house and my
sea-coast house, and this work took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence and began to enjoy my labor, but the
rains came on and made me stick close to my first habitation; for though I
had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a
cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower and
began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August I found the grapes I had hung
up were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy that I
did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost
the best part of my winter food, for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them. No sooner had I taken them all down and carried most of them
home to my cave but it began to rain, and from hence, which was the I4th
of August, it rained more or less every day till the middle of October, and
sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I
had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats who ran away from me,
or as I thought had been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her till, to
my astonishment she came home about the end of August with three
kittens. This was the more strange to me because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a quite different kind
from our European cats, but the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed as the old one, and both my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive
them from my house as much as possible.
From the I4th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not
stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day killed a
goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise,
which was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus: I ate a bunch
of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for
my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or
stew anything), and two or three of the turtle's eggs for supper.


During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or
three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it on towards one
side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open; for, as I had managed myself
before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, I thought, I lay
exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing
to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing.
I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it
apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging His righteous
judgment upon me, and praying to Him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath-day, for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know
what any of the days were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account
I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began
to fail me, and so I contended myself to use it more sparingly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a
daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began to now appear regular-to
me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly;
but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate
was one of the most discouraging experiments that I made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which
I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I
believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, an'd about twenty of barley;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being
in his southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a piece of
ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my
thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I
did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything; for the
dry months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was sown,


it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had been newly sown.
Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined was by the
drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground, to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of
my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this, having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly,
and yielded a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and
not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but a small quantity at last, my
whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this
experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seedtimes and two
harvests every year. While this corn was growing I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and
the weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, I found all things .just as I left them. The circle or
double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes
which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out
and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the
first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that
the stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to
see the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as
much alike as I could; and it is scarcely credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into, in three years; so that though the hedge made a circle of about
twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them,
soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all
the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at
about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defense also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not
into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus:
The half of February, the whole of March and the half of April-rainy,
the sun being then on or near the equinox.
The half of April, the whole of May, June and July, and the half of
August-dry, the sun being then to the north of the line.
The half of August, the whole of September and the half of October-
rainy, the sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December and January,
and the half of February-dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.


The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter, as the winds hap-
pened to blow, but this was the general observation I made. After I had
found, by experience, the ill consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took
care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be
obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet


months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable also to
the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no way to
furnish myself with but by hard labor and constant application; particularly,
I tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for
the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of
excellent advantage to me now that when I was a boy I used to take great
delight in standing at a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived,


to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very
officious to help, and a great observer of the manner how they worked those
things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so full knowledge
of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came
into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that
grew, might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows and osiers in Eng-
land, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my coun-
try house, as I called it, and, cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next
time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found,
for there was a great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my cir-
cle of hedges, and, when they were fit for use, I carried them to iny cave;
and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I
could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up any-
thing, as I had occasion; and though I did not finish them very handsomely,
yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, after-
wards, I took care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware
decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep baskets to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it,
I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no
vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets, which were
almost full of rum, and some glass bottles-some of the common size, and
others which were case-bottles, square, for the holding of water, spirits, etc.
I had not so.much as a pot to boil anything in, except a great kettle, which
I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I desired it
for, viz., to make broth and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I
fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make
one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself
in planting my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work, all the
summer or dry season, when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and
that I had traveled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and
where I had an opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island. I
now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch
for my store, I began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my
bower stood, as above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it
being a very clear day, I fairly described land-whether an island or a conti-
nent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fif-
teen or twenty leagues off,

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