Citation
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title:
Classics for children
Creator:
Lambert, William H ( William Harrison ), 1842-1912
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Ginn and Company
J.S. Cushing Co ( Printer )
AGP Matthews, Inc ( Engraver )
Place of Publication:
Boston U.S.A
Publisher:
Pub. by Ginn & Co.
Manufacturer:
J.S. Cushing & Co.
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1883
Language:
English
Physical Description:
vi, 257 p. : ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1889 ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages -- 1889 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
fiction ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Cover ill. with title: Robinson Crusoe; on spine: Robinson Crusoe / Lambert.
General Note:
Publisher's statement on cover: Ginn, Heath & Co.
General Note:
Series from cover.
General Note:
An abridged version of part I of Robinson Crusoe with a brief biographical sketch of Defoe. Cf. Pref.
General Note:
Probably a reissue of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 657.
General Note:
Cover ill. engraved(?) by Matthews.
General Note:
Part I of Robinson Crusoe retold.
Statement of Responsibility:
by Daniel Defoe ; edited for the use of schools by W.H. Lambert.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
26812739 ( OCLC )

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Full Text
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

or

ROBINSON CRUSOKH,

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

EDITED, FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS,
BY

W. H. LAMBERT,

PRINCIPAL OF THE HIGH SCHOOL, FALL RIVER, MASS.

BOSTON, USS.A.:
PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY.
1889.





Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by
GINN, HEATH, & CO.
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

TypoGcraPHy By J. S. Cusninc & Co., Bosron, U.S.A.

PREsswork By Ginn & Co., Boston, U.S.A.





PREFACE.

REAT improvements have been made within recent years in the
methods of instruction employed in schools; but in no direc-
tion has the progress been greater than in the manner in which read-
ing is taught. Formerly the scholar was confined to a single reader
for one, and often for two or three years, until the language of the
book, by mere repetition, had been memorized, and for lack of variety,
a distaste for reading had been created. It is now admitted that the
interest can be kept alive, and a desire to read implanted only by the
perusal of many books. But there are objections to the ordinary
series of readers. The selections are brief, and though often taken
from classic and famous works, yet they are mere fragments, without
unity, and incapable of holding the attention. Besides, many of the
pieces, and in some cases, the contents of the whole book, are written
especially for the occasion, not by authors of good repute, but by men
and women whose trade it is to make books. If we wish to form in
children a taste for good reading, to create in them an appetite which
craves only the healthiest literary food, we must make them, as early
as possible, familiar with the best English classics.

To increase the facilities for supplementary reading, and to enable
teachers to make their pupils acquainted with the most famous
books, the present volume has been prepared. Robinson Crusoe easily
stands at the head of books which are adapted to interest the young.
No book in the English language has been more popular, or more
fully possesses the elements of immortality. The simplicity of the





iv PREFACE.

diction, the verisimilitude of the incidents, and the natural unfolding
of the events of the narrative, are calculated to excite in the youthful
reader an extraordinary degree of fascination.

The original work has been abridged by omitting a few of the
more uninteresting episodes, and by condensing many of the lengthy
moral reflections, where they seem to impede the onward flow of the
story. All the gross terms and allusions, which render the unexpur-
gated text unfit for schools, have been removed; and the long and
involved sentences, which characterize the writers of the age of Defoe,
have been cast into a simpler form, while the diction of the author has
been carefully preserved. The story has been divided into chapters,
and judicious notes have been added, sufficient to explain the text.



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

—e*oo—_

ANIEL DEFOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe, was born

in London in the year 1661. His father was a butcher,

and his grandfather a Northamptonshire farmer. The name of

the family was Foe, but Daniel, who in early life was accus-

tomed to subscribe himself D. Foe, changed it first to De Foe,

and then to Defoe, the form in which it is now known in liter-
ature.

Defoe’s school education was very limited. At fourteen
years of age he was sent by his father to an academy to be pre-
pared for the ministry ; but after remaining there five years, he
concluded that the profession for which he was intended was
not to his liking, and was therefore withdrawn from school.
He was engaged at various times in business. He was a hose
merchant, a brick manufacturer, and a woollen importer, but in
none of these occupations did he prosper. It was as an author
that he gained success. He began to write political pamphlets
at twenty-two years of age, and at the time of his death the
different books and pamphlets that he had written numbered
nearly two hundred and fifty volumes. Some of his best-known
works are The True-Born Englishman, a poem, The Shortest
Way with the Dissenters, A Journal of the Plague of 1665, Moll
Flanders, and the Memoirs ofa Cavalier.

His greatest work, and that on which his fame rests, is
Robinson Crusoe. The story is founded upon an actual occur-
rence. In 1704 a sailor, Alexander Selkirk by name, was aban-
doned by the captain of his vessel on the Island of: Juan Fernan-





vi BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

dez, off the coast of Chili, where he remained in solitude for
four years, when he was taken off by a passing vessel, and
carried to England. The account of his strange experience
excited among his countrymen a good deal of interest, and
Defoe created out of it his celebrated narrative. Robinson Cru-
soe, when first published, was so popular that the author imme-
diately wrote a second book, called Further Adventures of Rob-
imson Crusoe. This was followed by a third book, entitled
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe. Neither of these
latter possessed any great interest, and only the first book is
now much read.

Defoe’s last years were passed in concealment, probably to
escape his creditors, of whom he is said to have had a great
many. He died in an obscure lodging in London in 1731, at
the age of seventy.



THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—0te40o——
CHAPTER I.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father had given me a competent sharé of
learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea. My
father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he saw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon the subject. He pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to hurry myself into miseries

_ which nature and the station of life I was born in seemed

to have provided against; but if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. >
While my father was talking, I observed the tears 1 Pe
down his face very plentifully; and when he spoke
1






2; LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he
was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more. I was
sincerely affected with this discourse, and resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days
wore it all off, and in a few weeks after, I resolved to run
quite away.

Being one day at Hull, and one of my companions being
about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompt-
ing me to go with him, with the common allurement of
seafaring men, namely, that it should cost me nothing
for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them a word of my journey,
but leaving them to hear of it, as they might, without
asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, on the first
of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner or contined longer than mine. +The
ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner. As I had never been to sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind.
I began now to seriously reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All
the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears and my
mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 8

very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after.
But it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would swallow us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once more my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set foot
into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some time after;
but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was
very grave for all the day, being also a little sea-sick still.
But towards night the weather cleared up, the wind. was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed. The
sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth roads. The wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, namely, at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a
great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait.
for a wind from the river.





4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After we had lain here four or five days, the wind again
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables were veered out
to the end.)

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, “Lord be merciful to us; we shall be
all lost, we shall be all undone!” and the like. I could
ill re-assume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against. I thought
the bitterness of death had been passed and that this
would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of
my cabin and looked out, but such a dismal sight I never
saw. The sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress around us. Two ships that
rode near us we found had cut their masts by the board,



ORO ne, aa

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. §

being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea with not a mast standing. The light
ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove and came close by us, run-
ning away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do. But the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not, the ship would founder,
he consented. When they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
But the worst was not come yet. The storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deeply laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know
what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often
seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sen-
sible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men who had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak. Another said there
were four feet of water in the hold; then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat. However, the men roused me,





6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and told me that I, who was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred
up, and went to the pump and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
which, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered
a gun to be fired as a signal of distress. I, who knew not
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought that the
ship had broken, or some dreadful thing had happened.
In a word, I was so surprised that I fell in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead,
and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, though the
storm began to abate a little. Yet, as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, the master
continued to fire guns for help. A light ship, that had
ridden out the storm just ahead of us, ventured out a
boat to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat
came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side. At last, the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to
save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with
the buoy to it, and then veered it outa great length, which
they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so, all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards



v



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. es

shore as much as we could. Our master promised them
that if the boat were wrecked he would make it good to
their master; so, partly rowing and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking. My heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright, and
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was
yet before me.

At last, though not without much difficulty, we all got
safe on shore, and walked on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as
well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have-goné home, I had been happy, and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Savior’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for, hearing that the ship I was in
had been cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. Having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
having quite laid aside the thought of returning to my
parents, I began to look out for a voyage.

"OS



8 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER II.

T was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
unguided young fellows as I then was. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. Hearing me say I had a
mind tosee the world, he told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense. I should be his
messmate and his companion, and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have the advantage of it that the trade
would admit, and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement.

I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friend-
ship with the captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing
man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of
my friend the captain, I increased considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy.

This was the only voyage which, I may say, was suc-
cessful in all my adventures. This success I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain, under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation. I learned how to keep
an account of the ship’s course, to take an observation,
and, in short, to understand some things that were needful
to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to in-



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

struct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant. I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London at my return almost
three hundred pounds. Yet even in this voyage I had my
misfortunes, too. I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent fever by the excessive heat of the climate ;
our principal trade being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself. —

I was now set up for a Guinea trader. My friend; %to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I re-
solved to go the same voyage again, and I entbarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made.

&

My first misfortune was this, namely: our ship, making? :

her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
gray of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,t who
gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread
or our masts carry. But finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight,— our ship ‘having twelve guns and
the rogue eighteen. About thiee in the -afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, just athwart our quar-
ter instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot

1 A port on the west coast of Morocco; at one time a stronghold of
the pirates who infested the Mediterranean.



6 ae
19 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

from near two hundred men whom he had on board,
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but the next time, coming upon our quarter,
he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three ef our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended. Nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed. Now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which, I thought, was now so effectually
brought to pass, that I could not be worse. The hand
of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the
story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he woaldggake me with him
when he went to sea again, believing it would some time
or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu-
guese man-of-war,‘and that then I should be set at liberty.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 11

But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for, when he
went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden and do the common drudgery of slave about his
house; and, when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to
communicate it to, who would embark with me. No fel-
low-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman was
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, —
which, I heard, was for want of money,— he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out
into the road a-fishing. And, as he always took me and
a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ;
insomuch, that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing, we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day and all the next night. When the morning came,



12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the shore. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labor and some danger; for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning, but particularly
we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the long-boat of our English ship he had taken,
he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision. So he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also an English slave, to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer
’ and haul home the main-sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-ofsnutton sail, and the boom gibed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, particu-
larly lis bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily. He had sent on
board the boat over night a larger store of provisions than
ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready three small
fusees, with powder and shot, which he had on board his

ship, for they designed some sport at fowling as well as
fishing.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 138

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her flag and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests. By and
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for his friends were to sup at his house. He com-
manded that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it
home to his house. All which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command. My master being gone, I pre-
pared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for
a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.



14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ee

a“

CHAPTER III.

Y first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to

this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on

board; for I told him we must not presume to eat our pat-
ron’s bread. He said that was true. So he brought a large
basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with
fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case
of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make were
taken out of some English prize; and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially him who was to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also. His name was Ismael, which they call Muly, or
Moley; so I called to him,—‘“ Moley,” said I, “ our pat-
ron’s guns are on board the boat. Can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “ Yes,” says he,
“Tll bring some”; and accordingly he brought a great
leathern pouch which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 15

master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another. Thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were,
and took no notice of us. We were not above a mile out
of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down
to fish. The wind blew from the north-north-east, which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at
least reached to the Bay of Cadiz. But my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing (for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them), I said to the Moor, “This will
not do, our master will not be thus served. We must
stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat, set the sails. As I had
the helm, I ran the boat out near a league further, and
then brought her to as if I would fish. Giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his legs, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be
taken in. He told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind.
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done no
hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him none.







16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

“ But,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach the shore.
The sea is calm. Make the best of your way to the shore,
and I will do you no harm. But if you come near the
boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty.” So he turned himself about and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt that he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to take the Moor with me
and drown the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me, Pll make you a great man. But if you will not
stroke your beard to me,” (that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea, too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I
could not mistrust him. He swore to be faithful to me,
and to go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor, who was swimming, I
stood directly out to sea with the boat, that they might
think me gone towards the strait’s mouth (as indeed any
one who had been in their wits must have been supposed
todo). For who would have supposed we would sail south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of
negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but
we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a
little toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore.
Having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s domin-
ions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw
no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop nor go on shore, nor come to anchor.
The wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days, and the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
would now give over. So I ventured to make the coast,
and came to anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what or where. I neither saw nor desired to see any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country.
But as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but
it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.” “Then we give them the shot gun,”
says Xury, laughing; “make them run away.” Such Eng-
lish Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. After all,
his advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, coming down
to the sea-shore and running into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling. them-



18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

selves. They made such hideous howlings and yellings
as I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I,
too; but we were both more frightened when we heard one
of these mighty creatures swimming towards our boat.
We could not see him, but we knew by his blowing that
he was a monstrous and furious beast. Xury said it was
a lion, and it might be so for aught I knew. Poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. ‘No,
Xury,” says I; “we can slip our cable with a buoy to it and
go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so than I perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars’ length. I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which
he immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
again,

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun,—a thing I have some rea-
son to believe those creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for
us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on
shore in the day was another question too. For, to have
zallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as
bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers ; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it may, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. When or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

me. I asked him why he would go? Why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with
so much affection that it made me love him ever after.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them. They shall kill neither of
us.” So we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our guns and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river. But the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it. By and by, I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or fright-
ened by some wild beast, and I ran forward towards. him
to help him. But when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot; like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat. But the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
had seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water; for, a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up. So we filled our jars,
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.



20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER IV.

x I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the
Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far off from the coast.
But as I had no instruments to take an observation, to
know what latitude we were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them. My
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies
waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes
having abandoned it and gone further south for fear of the
Moors, who did not think it worth inhabiting by reason of
its barrenness.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the peak
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries. I had a great mind to venture out in
hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after
we had left this place. Once, in particular, being early in



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me that we had best go further off the shore.
“For,” says he, “look! yonder lies a dreadful monster on
the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little
over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore
and kill him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “‘ Me
kill! he eat me at one mouth”; one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still.
I took our biggest gun, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder and with two slugs, and laid it down. Then I
loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could, with the first piece, to shoot
the lion in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at’
first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head. However, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him fn the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I. So the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to the
shore with the other hand; and coming close to the crea-



22, LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ture, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but no food. I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him. So he comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what,
Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. How-
ever, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot,
and brought it with him. It was a monstrous one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
the lion might one way or another be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take it off if I could. So Xury and I
went to work. But Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both the whole day; but at last we got the hide off, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward contin-
ually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our
provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was to make the River Gambia
or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape De
Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship. If I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish thére among the
negroes. I -knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape, or those islands. In a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, —
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited. In two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us. We could
also perceive they were quite black. I was once inclined
to go on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me, a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long, slender stick, which Xury said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them
by signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by. Two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
flesh and some corn, as is the produce of their country.
But we neither knew what the one nor the other was.
However, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute; for I was not venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But
they took a safe way for us all; for they brought it to the
shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it down on board, and then came close
to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
with whick to repay them. But an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for, while
we were lying by the shore, there came two mighty crea-



24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

tures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea. Whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly fright-
ened. The man who had the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did. However, as the two crea-
tures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged into
the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected. But I lay ready for him;
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury to load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in |
the head. Immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life. So, indeed, he was. He immediately
made for the shore; but, between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun. Some
of them were even ready to die of fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the crea-
ture dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs
to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came,
and began to search for the creature. I found*him by his
blood staining the water; and, by the help of a rope,
which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

they dragged him on shore. He was found to be a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree,
and the negroes held up their hands with admiration to
think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favor from me. When
I made signs to them that they might take him, they were
very thankful. Immediately they fell to work with him,
and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making
as if I would give it them; but I made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends; and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
supposed, in the sun. This they set down for me, as

‘before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled

them all three.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made
forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great

~~



26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five
leagues before me; and, the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing! to make this point. At length, doubling
the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward. Then I con-
cluded that this was the Cape de Verde, and those the
islands called from thence the Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not
tell what I had best do; for, if I should be taken with a
fresh wind, I might reach neither the one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into
the cabin and set me down, Xury having the helm. On
a sudden the boy cried out, “* Master! Master! a ship with
a sail!” And the foolish boy was frightened out of his
wits, thinking it needs must be some of his master’s ships
sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and saw
not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for ne-
groes. But when I observed the course she steered, I
was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and
did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon
which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolv-
ing to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them. But, after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it .
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses ; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and, as I had my patron’s flag on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a

1 An offing is a part of the open sea at a good distance off the shore.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. oT

gun, both which they saw; for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me,
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, in. Spanish,
and in French. But I understood none of them. At last
a Scottish sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, and
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in. I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Bra-
zils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides,” says he, “when I carry you
to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if
I should take away from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no, Seignor, Mr. Englishman; I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had. Then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back

» eo



28 E LIFE AND ADVENTURES

an exact inventory of them, that I might have them;
even so much as my earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use,
and asked me what I would have for it. I told him he
had been so generous to me in everything, that I could
not offer to make any price on the boat, but would leave
it entirely to him. He told me he would give me a note
of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight! for it at
Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s lib-
erty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury say-
ing he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
All Saints Bay in about twenty-two days after. And now
I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life, and what to do next with myself I was
now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of me
for my passage, gave me twenty ducats? for the leopard’s

1 A Spanish piece of eight reals is equivalent to a dollar in our money.

2 A ducat was a coin used in many countries of Europe, and had a
greatly varying value. A silver ducat was nearly equivalent to an
American dollar.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me. What I was willing to sell he bought, —
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece
of the lump of bee’s-wax, for I had made candles of the
rest. In a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.





30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER V.

HAD not been long in the Brazils, when I was recom-
mended to the house of a good and honest man, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation and a
sugar house. I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself by that means with the manner of planting and
making of sugar. Seeing how the planters lived, and
how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
license, to settle there. I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization,
I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, who was in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as
his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

to come. But we both wanted help; and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.

I had now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
began to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion. I had not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow
planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore,
which was our port. In my discourses among them I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the ne-
groes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes for the
service of the Brazils in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying of negroes.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me. After
enjoining secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as this was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the ne-
groes when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and



32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

divide them among their own plantations. In a word, the
question was, whether I would go as their supercargo! in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea. They offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of becoming very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, who had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more, in order to
be worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, —for me
to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.

But I, who was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as
I should direct if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship who
saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging
him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.

14 person appointed by the owners of a ship to have charge of
the cargo.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as
much prudence in looking into my own interest, and
making a judgment of what I ought to have done and not
to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason. Accordingly, the
ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the first of Sep-
tember —being the same day eight years that I went
from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the
rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.



84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER VI.

UR ship was about one hundred and twenty tons

burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides
the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for
our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast when we should
reach about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude.
We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E.
by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line? in about twelve days’ time, and were
by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hurri-
cane took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive. Scudding away before it, we let it

1 The line of the equator.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds
directed. During these twelve days I need not say that
I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of fever, and one man and the boy were
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
west from Cape St. Augustino;! so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the river
Oronoco, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take, for the ship
was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and, looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to, till we came within the circle of the Carribee Islands.
Therefore, we resolved to stand away for Barbadoes,
which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraught of
the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily reach, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was

1'The young reader should trace upon the map the course of the
ship, as shown by the latitude and longitude mentioned in this chapter.



386 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity west-
ward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” We
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon sand, and, in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that
we expected we should all have perished immediately.
We were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we
were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited.
As the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, expecting death every moment, and every man
acting as if preparing for another world, for there was lit-
tle or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

Now, though we found that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and stick-
ing too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
stove by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to
sea, so there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubt-
ful thing. However, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her
over the ship’s side, and getting all into her, we let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea. Ny

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it. So we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew, that when the boat came
nearer the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether



38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

steep or shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if
we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might run our boat
in, or get under the lee of the land, and perhaps make
smooth water.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling a-stern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup-de-grace In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and we were all swal-
lowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water. Though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if 1 could;
and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible. My greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great

} The blow that would kill us.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the
sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface
of the water. Though it was not two seconds of time
that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out. Finding the water had spent itself, and began to
return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels and ran with what strength
I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very fiat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me. The sea having hurried’ me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that
with such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed help-
less, ag to my own deliverance; for, the blow taking my
side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body. Had it not returned again immediately, I must



40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a
piece of the rock, and so hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away. The next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the clefts of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case where-
in there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave. I walked
about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself. As for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not a



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41

CHAPTER VII.

FTER I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look around me
to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to
be done. I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in
a word, I had a dreadful deliverance. For, I was wet,
had no’ clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts, That which was particularly
afflicting to me, was that I had no weapon either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box;
this was all my provision, and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
heart to consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick, bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for, as yet, I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could: find any.fresh —





42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

water to drink, which I did, to my great joy. Having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavy-
ored to place myself so that if I should sleep I might
not fall. Having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and being exces-
sively fatigued, fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition.

When I awoke, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand
where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by dashing against it.
This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed
her, up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to get to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where
I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of
a mile of the ship. Here I found a fresh renewing of my
grief; for I saw, evidently, that if we had kept on board,



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now
was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but, as there
was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was
hot to extremity, and took the water. But, when I came
to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.
I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at
first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low, that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water.
By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was
in that part was dry; for, you may be sure, my first work
was to search and see what was spoiled and what was
free. I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for
I had no time to lose. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

Tt was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to
be had, and this extremity roused my application. We
had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of



44 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship. I resolved
to fall to work with these, and flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope that they might not drive away. When
this was done I went down the ship’s side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as well as I could in the form of a raft. Laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways,
I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being
too light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s
saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft with a great deal of labor and pains.
But hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encour-
aged ine to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion. +

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but Twas not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emp-
tied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of
these I filed with provisions, namely, bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all
about five or six gallons of rack!; these I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam
on board in them and my stockings. However, this put
me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use; for I
had other things which my eye was more upon: as, first,
tools to work with on shore. It was after long searching
that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed
avery useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rud-
der, and the least capful of wind would have overset all
my navigation.

1 Spirituous liquors,



46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T had three encouragements: a smooth, calm sea, the
tide rising and setting into the shore, and what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. Thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. ° For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find
some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of
the tide setting into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I
had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if
T had, I think verily would have broke my heart. Know-
ing nothing of the coast, one end of my raft ran aground
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in; but, holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level. A little after, the water still rising,
my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel. Then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the

river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and there-
" fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here
I had liked to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again ;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of the
float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink so low, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the high-
est, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it
did. As soon as I found water enough (for my raft drew
about a foot of water), I thrust her on upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, —one on one side near
one-end, and one on the other side near the other end.
Thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.

x



48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER VIII.

Y next work was to view the country, and seek a

proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited,
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a
hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills
which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols and a horn
of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up
to the top of that hill. After I had with ereat labor and
difficulty got to the top, I saw that I was on an island
environed everyway with the sea. There was no land to
be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way off, and
two small islands less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was on was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none. I saw abun-
dance of fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither when I
lalled them could I tell what was fit for food, and what
not. Atimy coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I
saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood, —I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from



OF ROBINSON CRUSOF. 49

all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number
of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and
crying every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak
resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than com-
mon; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day. What to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed did I know where to rest;
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I after-
wards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the bird.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. As I
knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft. But this appeared
impracticable ; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down. I did so, only that I stripped before I went



50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt,
and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps on my
feet.

I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a sec-
ond raft. Having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet
I brought away several things very useful to me. In the
carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full of nails
and spikes, a great serew-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of pow-
der more, a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll
of sheet lead. This last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these things,
I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare
foretop-sail, hammock, and some bedding. With this I
loaded my second raft, and brought all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that, at least, my provisions might be
devoured on shore. But, when I came back, I found no
sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild
cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She
sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in
my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away. I tossed her a bit of biscuit; though, by the



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled it, ate it, and looked as pleased for more; but I
thanked her, and could spare no more, so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels (for they were too heavy, being large casks), I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose. Into this tent
I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either with
rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without. Spreading one of the beds on the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, being very weary; for
the night before I had slept little, and had labored very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the
ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds, now, that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one’ man, but I was not satis-
fied still; for, while the ship sat upright in that posture,
I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I
could. So every day at low water I went on board, and
brought away something or other. The third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as, also, all the small ropes and rope twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, with which to mend the
sails upon occasion, and fhe barrel of wet gunpowder.

ty

we



a i i a ieee SIS at wae tol Te kk ses ee gy ot eR a eae ae



52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful
to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was that, last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with, I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets? of
rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour. This was surprising to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. Having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goeds and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that after I had entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but, as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,

1 Small casks.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it
into the water—a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could be well
supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece. But, preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise.
However, at low water I went on board, and, though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks. In another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O
Drug!” said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.
One of these knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee. Remain where thou art, and go
to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth sav-
ing.” However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to
think of making another raft. But, while I was preparing



54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

this, I fuund the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain
to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at
all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I wus gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection; namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be use-
ful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages (if any should appear)
or wild beasts, if any were in the island. I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in
the earth or a tent upon the earth. I resolved upon both,
of the manner and description of which it may not be
improper to give an account.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me. Health and fresh water,
I just now mentioned; shelter from the heat of the sun;
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast;
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this
little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of this
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like
the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really
any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door. At the end it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill, so that
I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries
is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.



6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Gr

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post.

This fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal
of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the woods,
bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top. When
I was in, I lifted the ladder over after me. So I was com-
pletely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above. I made me a large
tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made double;
namely, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent
above it, and covered the uppermost with a large tarpau-
lin? which I had saved among the sails-f

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which

1 A piece of canvas covered with tar to make it water-proof.

\



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet. Having thus enclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I
had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,
by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half. Thus I made me a cave
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labor, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for setting up my tent and making the cave,
that, a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: “O my powder!” My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that at one blast all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me with food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger;
though, had the powder taken fire, I had never known
what had hurt me. \



58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building,
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate the powder, and keep it a little and a little
in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds’ weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not ap-
prehend any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen. The rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once, at least, every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and,
as near as [ could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently
discovered that there were goats in the island, which was
a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult
thing in the world to come at them. But I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them:
I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but, if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me. From this



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them. So afterwards I took
this method: I always climbed the rocks first, to get
above them, and then I had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat. This grieved me heartily, because she had a little
kid by her, to which she gave suck. But when the old one
fell, the kid stood stockstill by her till I came and took
her up. When I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure.
I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my
bread especially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel
to burn. What I did for that, as, also, how I enlarged
my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a
full account of in its place; but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that, in this desolate place and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run



60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself, why
Providence should thus completely ruin his creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help,
abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life. .

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and reprove me. One day, walking with
my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were they not saved and you lost? Why were you sin-
gled out? Is it better to be here or there?” and then
I pointed to the sea. “ All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
them.”

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if the ship had not floated from the place where she first
struck, so near the shore that I had time to get all these
things out of her? What would have been my case if I
had been obliged to live in the condition in which I first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries
to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “what should I have done without a
gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make any-
thing, or to work with; without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering?” NowI had all these toa
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when
my ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want, as long as I lived. For
I considered from the beginning how I should provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should

be spent, but even after my health or strength should
decay.





62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER IX.

ND now, being about to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my ac-
count, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above
said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun
being to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of 9 degrees and 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books and pen and ink, and should
even forget the sabbath days from the working days. To
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it
up on the shore where I first landed; namely, I camE oN
SHORE HERE ON THE 30TH OF SEpT., 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one. Thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the several
voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

several things of less value, but not all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular,
pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tive glasses, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no. I
found, also, three very good Bibles which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and among
them two or three prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. I must not forget, that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me. As for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, or any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,
but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost.
Tshall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread. As for linen,! I soon learned to want that with-
out much difficulty.

1 He had very little need of linen, and so was easily reconciled to
the loss of it.



64 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely fin-
ished my little pale or surrounded habitation. The piles
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home. I spent, sometimes, two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground.

But why need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in? nor had I any other employment if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

T have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables. I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside, and, after some time,
I think it was a year and a half, I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs
of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the
rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind
me; but I must observe, too, that at first this was a con-
fused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, took
up all my place, and I had no room to turn myself. So
I set to work to enlarge my cave and work farther into
the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it. When I found I
was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to
the right hand into the rock; and then, turning to the



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were,
a back way to my tent and to my store-house, but gave
me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, as, particularly, a
chair and a table; for, without these, I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not
write or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure
without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that, as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so, by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time,
by labor, application, and contrivance, I found that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things,
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that,
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if
I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on a hedge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then smcoth it with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any
more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.





66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

UWowever, I made me a table and a chair, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards which I brought on my
raft from the ship. When I had wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, oue over another, all along one side of my
cave, on which to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work,
and, in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things. I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much
discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been
full of many dull things.

I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told
many particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for,
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself, at



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

the dismal circumstances I was brought to; namely, I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to,
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before
me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1. In the morning J saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven
on shore again much nearer the island. This was some
comfort; for, seeing her sit upright, and not broken to
pieces, J hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food or necessaries out of her for my relief.
On the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might, perhaps, have built us a boat
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day, also, it con-
tinued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather. It seems this was
the rainy season.

Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being



68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and
that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might
not spoil them.

Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Toward night I fixed upon a proper
place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work,
wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined within
with cables and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country, when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home; which I afterward killed also because it would
not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion. Every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I
had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay down to
sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the
evening, to work again. The working part of this day,
and of the next, was wholly employed in making my
table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand; but was surprised and almost frightened with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
for that time.

Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled, fair weather. The
Tth, 8th, 9th, 10th, and a part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and
with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times. Mote.—I soon neglected my keeping Sun-



70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

days; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.

Nov. 18. This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied
with terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me
dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days
I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
Note.— Three things I wanted exceeding for this work ;
namely, a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket ;
so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for a
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel
or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed,
T could do nothing without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of
this, with great labor and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home too with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 71

The excessive hardness of the wood made me a long
while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually by
little and little into the form of a shovel or spade, the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would
not last me so long. However, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was
a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in
making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. ing no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker ware, —at least none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so
I gave it over. For carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up
no less than four days; I mean always excepting my morn-
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom failed; and very
seldom failed, also, bringing home something to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished,
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods
commodiously.



72 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Note. — During all this time, I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar; as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that
sometimes in the wet season of the year it rained so hard
that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees like a
thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when, on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large), a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side, so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and
not without reason, too; for, if I had been under it, I had
never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for, I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more importance, I
had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

Dee. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post. This I fin-
ished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards,
in about a week more I had the roof secured. The posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20. Now I carried everything into the cave, and



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me
another table.

Dee. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring
out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.

Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.

Dee. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home by a string. When I
had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broken. N.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and
the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but, by nursing
it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at
my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for
food. This time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.

January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys, which lay
towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down. ;

Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,



74 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

for they all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong. »

N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal. It is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and per-
fecting this wall, though it was no more than about twen-
ty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from one place
in the rock to another place about eight yards from it, —
the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure until this wall was fin-
ished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles
out of the woods, and driving them into the ground, for
I made them much bigger than I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fence with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I pursuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this tae I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, wAen the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage. Particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks. Taking



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 75

some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame,
and did so; but, when they grew older, they flew away,
which, perhaps, was at first from want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.

And now, in managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of
them, it was; for instance, I could never make a cask to
be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making
one by them, though I spent many weeks about it. I could
neither put in the heads, or joint the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water, so I gave that also
over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bee’s-wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now. The only
remedy I had was, that wheu I killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made mea lamp. This gave me light, though not a clear,
steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labors,
it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but



76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

husks and dust. Being willing to have the bag for some
other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of lightning, or some such use), I shook the
husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification
under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there. About amonth after, or thereabouts, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out of the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
vome out, which were perfect green barley of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had
very few uotions of religion in my head, or had enter-
tained any seuse of anything that had befallen me, other-
wise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Provi-
dence in these things, or his order in governing events in
the world; but after I saw barley grow there in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that
I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely ;
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes; and I began to bless myself, that such a prodigy



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

of nature should happen upon my account. This was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I
had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island,
where I had been before, peeping in every corner and
under every rock to see for more of it, but I could not find
any. At last it occurred to my thought, that I had shook
a bag of chicken’s meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease. And I must confess, my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon
discovering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon; though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been mira-
culous. For it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint ten or twelve grains of corn
to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that
I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it
being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immedi-
ately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June, and lay-
ing up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hop-
ing in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me
with bread. It was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order.



78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would
have done: of which in its place.

Besides the barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind or to the same purpose;
namely, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall
by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside
of my habitation.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

CHAPTER X.

PRIL 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the

ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and

let it down on the inside. This was a complete inclosure

to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing

could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus. As I was busy in the inside
of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frightened with a most surprising thing;
for, on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill, over my head, and two of the posts I had
set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was
really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before; and, for fear
I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder. Not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll
down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the
firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could



80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

be supposed to have stood on the earth.
of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea.
But the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was «
in, filled me with horror. I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent, and all my household
goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive; but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while I had not the least serious religious thought, —
nothing but the common, “Lord, have mercy upon me”;
and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grown
cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a
sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with the breach of the water; the trees were torn
up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

AN this while I sat upon the ground very much terri-
fied and dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and
over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my
tent; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy for fear it
should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to
cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink to let
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed.

It continued raining all that night, and a great part of
the next day, so that I could not stir abroad. But my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best
do, concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or
men. If I stayed where I was, I concluded, I should cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hang-
ing precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent
the next two days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation.



82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The fear of being swallowed up alive, prevented me
from sleeping in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it. Still,
when I looked about and saw how everything was put in
order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loth to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. With this resolution I composed myself for a
time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and cables, in a circle as be-
fore, and set my tent up in it when it was finished; but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was fin-
ished and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution; but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians), but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were full of notches and
dull; and, though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it
and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point
of polities, or a judge upon the life and death of a man.
At length, I contrived a wheel witha string, to turn it with
my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty. I
had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not
to take notice how it was done, though since, I have ob-
served, it is very common there; besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week’s work to bring ‘it to perfection.



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone per-
forming very well.

April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.

May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore big-
ger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I came
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane. Looking towards the wreck itself, I thought
it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon
found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and
went on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed
up, as it were, and cast on one side. The sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that, whereas there
was a great place of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake. As by this



84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had
loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by de-
grees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation. I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any
way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learnt not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other
to me.

May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together. When I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but, the tide coming in, I was obliged
to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just
going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made
me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet
I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck. Cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck. Got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts
of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent
not to work; but found the weight of the wreck had
broke itself down, the beams being cut, that several pieces
of the ship seemed to lie loose. The inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full
of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water orsand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt, also, the roll of English lead, and could
stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 18, 14. Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other; but, as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water ;
but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, nearly two miles off. I



86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with
the crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated
out, and two of the seamen’s chests. The wind blowing
from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in
it; but the salt water and sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed
out. By this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and
iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how. I also got, at several times, and in several
pieces, near a hundred weight of the sheet lead.

June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place, or scarcity; for, had I happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid
dear enough for them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.



Y OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.

June 21. Very ill, frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull,
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being
all confused.

June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.

June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague, very violent. The fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed
a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay abed all
day, and neither ate nordrank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but
was light-headed; and, when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, “ Lord,
look upon me; Lord, pity me; Lord, have mercy upon
me.” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the night. When I waked I found myself much
refreshed, but weak and exceedingly thirsty. However, as



88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie
till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep I had this terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great,
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and alight upon the
ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him. His counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words
to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked to my
apprehension as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward toward me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me. When he came to a rising ground, at
some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terri-
ble that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood was this, “Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die”; at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at
this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any
more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind, when I awaked, and found it was but a
dream.

June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again next day, and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed.
Then I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled it on
the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and, withal, very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell. This was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing on, even,
as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself
so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never
went out without that). So I went but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, very calm and smooth.

I rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed.
But my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no ineli-
nation to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted
my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sion of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and I
had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not
quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest



0 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the
chest, and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco ;
and, as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which
to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as incli-
nation, to look into. I say I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit
one way or other: I first took a piece of a leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost
stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and I had not been used to it. Then I took some, and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to
take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, and I held
almost to suffocation.

In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time.
Only having opened the book casually, the first words
that occurred to me were these: “Call on me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify

me.” aK

~

The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
me. The thing was so remote, so impossible, in my appre-

hension of things, that I began to say, as the children of



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, “Can
God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say,
“Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And as
it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. However, the
words made a very great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew, now, late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dosed my head so much, that
I inclined to sleep. So I left my lamp burning in the
cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But, before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in all my life; I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum
in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong
and rank of the tobacco, that, indeed, I could scarce get
it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I
found, presently, it flew up into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till noon the
next day. Nay, to this hour, Iam partly of the opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for, otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done. If I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should
have lost more than one day. But certainly I lost a day
in my account and never knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or other, when I waked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry.



92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for
the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too far.
I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose,
and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat
them; so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were
very good. This evening I renewed the medicine which
I had supposed did me good the day before, namely, the
tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head
over the smoke. However, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it at first, and doubled the quan-
tity which I drank.

July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon the scripture, “I will deliver thee”; and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. But, as I was discour-
aging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind°
that I pored so much on my deliverance from the main af-
flietion, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received;
and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these; namely, “ Have I not been delivered, and won-
derfully, too, from sickness? from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me?
And what notice had T taken of it? Had I done my



OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

part? ‘God had delivered me; but I had not glorified
him:’ that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful
for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
deliverance ?”

This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
kneeled down and gaye God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night, not tying myself to the number of chap-
ters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It
was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the
wickedness of my past life.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
“ Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense
from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no no-
tion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in. For, though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down
all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing ;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; it was all of no consideration in comparison of this.
And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it,
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than
deliverance from affliction.



94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

But, leaving this part, | return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind.
My thoughts being directed, by a constant reading of the
scripture, and praying to God, to things of a higher nature,
Thad a great deal of comfort within, which till now I knew
nothing of. Also, as my health and strength returned, |
bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I
wanted, and to make my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with a gun in my hand, a little and a lit-
tle at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how
low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The ap-
plication which I made use of was perfectly new, and per-
haps what had never cured an ague before. Nor can I
recommend it to any one. Though it did carry off the fit,
yet it rather contributed to weaken me; for I had fre-
quent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this, in particular: that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my
health that could be, especially in those rains which came
attended with storms and hurricanes of wind. For, as the
rain which came in the dry season was always most ac-
companied with such storms, so I found this rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.



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LIFE AND ADVENTURES

or

ROBINSON CRUSOKH,

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

EDITED, FOR THE USE OF SCHOOLS,
BY

W. H. LAMBERT,

PRINCIPAL OF THE HIGH SCHOOL, FALL RIVER, MASS.

BOSTON, USS.A.:
PUBLISHED BY GINN & COMPANY.
1889.


Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1883, by
GINN, HEATH, & CO.
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.

TypoGcraPHy By J. S. Cusninc & Co., Bosron, U.S.A.

PREsswork By Ginn & Co., Boston, U.S.A.


PREFACE.

REAT improvements have been made within recent years in the
methods of instruction employed in schools; but in no direc-
tion has the progress been greater than in the manner in which read-
ing is taught. Formerly the scholar was confined to a single reader
for one, and often for two or three years, until the language of the
book, by mere repetition, had been memorized, and for lack of variety,
a distaste for reading had been created. It is now admitted that the
interest can be kept alive, and a desire to read implanted only by the
perusal of many books. But there are objections to the ordinary
series of readers. The selections are brief, and though often taken
from classic and famous works, yet they are mere fragments, without
unity, and incapable of holding the attention. Besides, many of the
pieces, and in some cases, the contents of the whole book, are written
especially for the occasion, not by authors of good repute, but by men
and women whose trade it is to make books. If we wish to form in
children a taste for good reading, to create in them an appetite which
craves only the healthiest literary food, we must make them, as early
as possible, familiar with the best English classics.

To increase the facilities for supplementary reading, and to enable
teachers to make their pupils acquainted with the most famous
books, the present volume has been prepared. Robinson Crusoe easily
stands at the head of books which are adapted to interest the young.
No book in the English language has been more popular, or more
fully possesses the elements of immortality. The simplicity of the


iv PREFACE.

diction, the verisimilitude of the incidents, and the natural unfolding
of the events of the narrative, are calculated to excite in the youthful
reader an extraordinary degree of fascination.

The original work has been abridged by omitting a few of the
more uninteresting episodes, and by condensing many of the lengthy
moral reflections, where they seem to impede the onward flow of the
story. All the gross terms and allusions, which render the unexpur-
gated text unfit for schools, have been removed; and the long and
involved sentences, which characterize the writers of the age of Defoe,
have been cast into a simpler form, while the diction of the author has
been carefully preserved. The story has been divided into chapters,
and judicious notes have been added, sufficient to explain the text.
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

—e*oo—_

ANIEL DEFOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe, was born

in London in the year 1661. His father was a butcher,

and his grandfather a Northamptonshire farmer. The name of

the family was Foe, but Daniel, who in early life was accus-

tomed to subscribe himself D. Foe, changed it first to De Foe,

and then to Defoe, the form in which it is now known in liter-
ature.

Defoe’s school education was very limited. At fourteen
years of age he was sent by his father to an academy to be pre-
pared for the ministry ; but after remaining there five years, he
concluded that the profession for which he was intended was
not to his liking, and was therefore withdrawn from school.
He was engaged at various times in business. He was a hose
merchant, a brick manufacturer, and a woollen importer, but in
none of these occupations did he prosper. It was as an author
that he gained success. He began to write political pamphlets
at twenty-two years of age, and at the time of his death the
different books and pamphlets that he had written numbered
nearly two hundred and fifty volumes. Some of his best-known
works are The True-Born Englishman, a poem, The Shortest
Way with the Dissenters, A Journal of the Plague of 1665, Moll
Flanders, and the Memoirs ofa Cavalier.

His greatest work, and that on which his fame rests, is
Robinson Crusoe. The story is founded upon an actual occur-
rence. In 1704 a sailor, Alexander Selkirk by name, was aban-
doned by the captain of his vessel on the Island of: Juan Fernan-


vi BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.

dez, off the coast of Chili, where he remained in solitude for
four years, when he was taken off by a passing vessel, and
carried to England. The account of his strange experience
excited among his countrymen a good deal of interest, and
Defoe created out of it his celebrated narrative. Robinson Cru-
soe, when first published, was so popular that the author imme-
diately wrote a second book, called Further Adventures of Rob-
imson Crusoe. This was followed by a third book, entitled
Serious Reflections of Robinson Crusoe. Neither of these
latter possessed any great interest, and only the first book is
now much read.

Defoe’s last years were passed in concealment, probably to
escape his creditors, of whom he is said to have had a great
many. He died in an obscure lodging in London in 1731, at
the age of seventy.
THE

LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

—0te40o——
CHAPTER I.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father had given me a competent sharé of
learning, as far as house education and a country free
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea. My
father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excel-
lent counsel against what he saw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon the subject. He pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to hurry myself into miseries

_ which nature and the station of life I was born in seemed

to have provided against; but if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel
when there might be none to assist in my recovery. >
While my father was talking, I observed the tears 1 Pe
down his face very plentifully; and when he spoke
1



2; LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he
was so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told
me his heart was so full he could say no more. I was
sincerely affected with this discourse, and resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father’s desire. But, alas! a few days
wore it all off, and in a few weeks after, I resolved to run
quite away.

Being one day at Hull, and one of my companions being
about to sail to London in his father’s ship, and prompt-
ing me to go with him, with the common allurement of
seafaring men, namely, that it should cost me nothing
for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any
more, nor so much as sent them a word of my journey,
but leaving them to hear of it, as they might, without
asking God’s blessing or my father’s, without any con-
sideration of circumstances or consequences, on the first
of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never any young adventurer’s misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner or contined longer than mine. +The
ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner. As I had never been to sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind.
I began now to seriously reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of heaven for
leaving my father’s house and abandoning my duty. All
the good counsel of my parents, my father’s tears and my
mother’s entreaties, came now fresh into my mind, and
my conscience reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of my duty to God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 8

very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after.
But it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would swallow us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage,
if ever I got once more my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set foot
into a ship again while I lived; that I would take his
advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these
any more. These wise and sober thoughts continued all
the while the storm continued, and indeed some time after;
but the next day the wind was abated and the sea calmer,
and I began to be a little inured to it. However, I was
very grave for all the day, being also a little sea-sick still.
But towards night the weather cleared up, the wind. was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed. The
sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yar-
mouth roads. The wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, namely, at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a
great many ships from Newcastle came into the same
roads, as the common harbor where the ships might wait.
for a wind from the river.


4 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

After we had lain here four or five days, the wind again
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned and not in
the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day in
the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and we thought
once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which
our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode
with two anchors ahead, and the cables were veered out
to the end.)

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself
say several times, “Lord be merciful to us; we shall be
all lost, we shall be all undone!” and the like. I could
ill re-assume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon and hardened myself against. I thought
the bitterness of death had been passed and that this
would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should
be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of
my cabin and looked out, but such a dismal sight I never
saw. The sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I
could see nothing but distress around us. Two ships that
rode near us we found had cut their masts by the board,
ORO ne, aa

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. §

being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two
more ships being driven from their anchors, were run out
of the roads to sea with not a mast standing. The light
ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove and came close by us, run-
ning away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do. But the boatswain
protesting to him that if he did not, the ship would founder,
he consented. When they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
But the worst was not come yet. The storm continued
with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deeply laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the
seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know
what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often
seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sen-
sible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men who had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak. Another said there
were four feet of water in the hold; then all hands were
called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the
side of my bed where I sat. However, the men roused me,


6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and told me that I, who was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another; at which I stirred
up, and went to the pump and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers,
which, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip
and run away to sea, and would not come near us, ordered
a gun to be fired as a signal of distress. I, who knew not
what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought that the
ship had broken, or some dreadful thing had happened.
In a word, I was so surprised that I fell in a swoon. As
this was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead,
and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder, though the
storm began to abate a little. Yet, as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a port, the master
continued to fire guns for help. A light ship, that had
ridden out the storm just ahead of us, ventured out a
boat to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat
came near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board,
or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side. At last, the
men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to
save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with
the buoy to it, and then veered it outa great length, which
they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so, all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards



v
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. es

shore as much as we could. Our master promised them
that if the boat were wrecked he would make it good to
their master; so, partly rowing and partly driving, our
boat went away to the northward.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship before we saw her sink, and then I understood
for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look
up when the seamen told me she was sinking. My heart
was as it were dead within me, partly with fright, and
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was
yet before me.

At last, though not without much difficulty, we all got
safe on shore, and walked on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as
well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good
quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have-goné home, I had been happy, and my father, an
emblem of our blessed Savior’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for, hearing that the ship I was in
had been cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason and my more composed judgment to
go home, yet I had no power to do it. Having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and
having quite laid aside the thought of returning to my
parents, I began to look out for a voyage.

"OS
8 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER II.

T was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
unguided young fellows as I then was. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship who had been on the
coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. Hearing me say I had a
mind tosee the world, he told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense. I should be his
messmate and his companion, and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have the advantage of it that the trade
would admit, and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement.

I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friend-
ship with the captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing
man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of
my friend the captain, I increased considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy.

This was the only voyage which, I may say, was suc-
cessful in all my adventures. This success I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend the captain, under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics and the rules of navigation. I learned how to keep
an account of the ship’s course, to take an observation,
and, in short, to understand some things that were needful
to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to in-
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 9

struct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant. I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London at my return almost
three hundred pounds. Yet even in this voyage I had my
misfortunes, too. I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent fever by the excessive heat of the climate ;
our principal trade being upon the coast, from the latitude
of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself. —

I was now set up for a Guinea trader. My friend; %to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I re-
solved to go the same voyage again, and I entbarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got command of the ship. This was
the unhappiest voyage that ever man made.

&

My first misfortune was this, namely: our ship, making? :

her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the
gray of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,t who
gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread
or our masts carry. But finding the pirate gained upon
us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight,— our ship ‘having twelve guns and
the rogue eighteen. About thiee in the -afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, just athwart our quar-
ter instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again,
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small shot

1 A port on the west coast of Morocco; at one time a stronghold of
the pirates who infested the Mediterranean.
6 ae
19 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

from near two hundred men whom he had on board,
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but the next time, coming upon our quarter,
he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short
this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled,
and three ef our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were all carried prisoners into Sallee,
a port belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended. Nor was I carried up the country to the
emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed. Now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which, I thought, was now so effectually
brought to pass, that I could not be worse. The hand
of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without
redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the
story.

As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he woaldggake me with him
when he went to sea again, believing it would some time
or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu-
guese man-of-war,‘and that then I should be set at liberty.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 11

But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for, when he
went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden and do the common drudgery of slave about his
house; and, when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to
communicate it to, who would embark with me. No fel-
low-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman was
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, —
which, I heard, was for want of money,— he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the
weather was fair, to take the ship’s pinnace, and go out
into the road a-fishing. And, as he always took me and
a young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish ;
insomuch, that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not
half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and
rowing, we knew not whither or which way, we labored
all day and all the next night. When the morning came,
12 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the shore. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labor and some danger; for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning, but particularly
we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the long-boat of our English ship he had taken,
he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a
compass and some provision. So he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also an English slave, to build a little
state-room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer
’ and haul home the main-sheet, and room before for a hand
or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-ofsnutton sail, and the boom gibed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and
had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, particu-
larly lis bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as
I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went
without me. It happened that he had appointed to go out
in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily. He had sent on
board the boat over night a larger store of provisions than
ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready three small
fusees, with powder and shot, which he had on board his

ship, for they designed some sport at fowling as well as
fishing.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 138

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her flag and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests. By and
by my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for his friends were to sup at his house. He com-
manded that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it
home to his house. All which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command. My master being gone, I pre-
pared to furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for
a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as
consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.
14 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ee

a“

CHAPTER III.

Y first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to

this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on

board; for I told him we must not presume to eat our pat-
ron’s bread. He said that was true. So he brought a large
basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with
fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron’s case
of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make were
taken out of some English prize; and I conveyed them
into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above a
hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use
to us afterwards, especially him who was to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also. His name was Ismael, which they call Muly, or
Moley; so I called to him,—‘“ Moley,” said I, “ our pat-
ron’s guns are on board the boat. Can you not get a little
powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner’s stores in the ship.” “ Yes,” says he,
“Tll bring some”; and accordingly he brought a great
leathern pouch which held about a pound and a half of
powder, or rather more; and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat. At the same time I had found some powder of my
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 15

master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another. Thus furnished with every-
thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle
which is at the entrance of the port knew who we were,
and took no notice of us. We were not above a mile out
of the port before we hauled in our sail, and set us down
to fish. The wind blew from the north-north-east, which
was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly I
had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at
least reached to the Bay of Cadiz. But my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from that
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing (for
when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them), I said to the Moor, “This will
not do, our master will not be thus served. We must
stand farther off.” He, thinking no harm, agreed, and
being in the head of the boat, set the sails. As I had
the helm, I ran the boat out near a league further, and
then brought her to as if I would fish. Giving the boy
the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took
him by surprise with my arm under his legs, and tossed
him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and calling to me, begged to be
taken in. He told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would
have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind.
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-
pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done no
hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him none.




16 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

“ But,” said I, “you swim well enough to reach the shore.
The sea is calm. Make the best of your way to the shore,
and I will do you no harm. But if you come near the
boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty.” So he turned himself about and swam
for the shore, and I make no doubt that he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to take the Moor with me
and drown the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they
called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me, Pll make you a great man. But if you will not
stroke your beard to me,” (that is, swear by Mahomet and
his father’s beard), “I must throw you into the sea, too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently that I
could not mistrust him. He swore to be faithful to me,
and to go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor, who was swimming, I
stood directly out to sea with the boat, that they might
think me gone towards the strait’s mouth (as indeed any
one who had been in their wits must have been supposed
todo). For who would have supposed we would sail south-
ward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of
negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes and
destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but
we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk, I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a
little toward the east, that I might keep in with the shore.
Having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

o’clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s domin-
ions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for we saw
no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands,
that I would not stop nor go on shore, nor come to anchor.
The wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days, and the wind shifting to the southward, I con-
cluded that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
would now give over. So I ventured to make the coast,
and came to anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what or where. I neither saw nor desired to see any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country.
But as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. “ Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but
it may be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to
us as those lions.” “Then we give them the shot gun,”
says Xury, laughing; “make them run away.” Such Eng-
lish Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. After all,
his advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little
anchor and lay still all night. I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them) of many sorts, coming down
to the sea-shore and running into the water, wallowing
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling. them-
18 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

selves. They made such hideous howlings and yellings
as I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I,
too; but we were both more frightened when we heard one
of these mighty creatures swimming towards our boat.
We could not see him, but we knew by his blowing that
he was a monstrous and furious beast. Xury said it was
a lion, and it might be so for aught I knew. Poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. ‘No,
Xury,” says I; “we can slip our cable with a buoy to it and
go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.” I had no sooner
said so than I perceived the creature (whatever it was)
within two oars’ length. I immediately stepped to the
cabin door, and, taking up my gun, fired at him, upon which
he immediately turned about and swam towards the shore
again,

But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon
the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of the gun,—a thing I have some rea-
son to believe those creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for
us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on
shore in the day was another question too. For, to have
zallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as
bad as to have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers ; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as it may, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. When or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 19

me. I asked him why he would go? Why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with
so much affection that it made me love him ever after.
Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.”
“Well, Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them. They shall kill neither of
us.” So we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing
but our guns and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river. But the
boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it. By and by, I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or fright-
ened by some wild beast, and I ran forward towards. him
to help him. But when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot; like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat. But the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
had seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water; for, a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up. So we filled our jars,
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
20 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER IV.

x I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the
Cape de Verde Islands also, lay not far off from the coast.
But as I had no instruments to take an observation, to
know what latitude we were in, I knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them. My
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now
was must be that country which, lying between the
Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies
waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes
having abandoned it and gone further south for fear of the
Moors, who did not think it worth inhabiting by reason of
its barrenness.

Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw the peak
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe
in the Canaries. I had a great mind to venture out in
hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water after
we had left this place. Once, in particular, being early in
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 21

the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of
land which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were
more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to
me, and tells me that we had best go further off the shore.
“For,” says he, “look! yonder lies a dreadful monster on
the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little
over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore
and kill him.” Xury looked frightened, and said, “‘ Me
kill! he eat me at one mouth”; one mouthful he meant.
However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still.
I took our biggest gun, and loaded it with a good charge
of powder and with two slugs, and laid it down. Then I
loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets.
I took the best aim I could, with the first piece, to shoot
the lion in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a
little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the
knee, and broke the bone. He started up, growling at’
first, but finding his leg broken, fell down again, and then
got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head. However, I took up the second piece
immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him fn the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
go on shore. “ Well, go,” said I. So the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to the
shore with the other hand; and coming close to the crea-
22, LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ture, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him
in the head again, which dispatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but no food. I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him. So he comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. “For what,
Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he. How-
ever, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot,
and brought it with him. It was a monstrous one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
the lion might one way or another be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take it off if I could. So Xury and I
went to work. But Xury was much the better workman
at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both the whole day; but at last we got the hide off, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward contin-
ually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our
provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no
oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. My design in this was to make the River Gambia
or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape De
Verde, where I was in hopes to meet with some European
ship. If I did not, I knew not what course I had to take,
but to seek for the islands, or perish thére among the
negroes. I -knew that all the ships from Europe, which
sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape, or those islands. In a word,
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, —
either that I must meet with some ship or must perish.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 23

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited. In two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us. We could
also perceive they were quite black. I was once inclined
to go on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me, a good way. I
observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one,
who had a long, slender stick, which Xury said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with
good aim. So I kept at a distance, but talked with them
by signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this
I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by. Two of them
ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried
flesh and some corn, as is the produce of their country.
But we neither knew what the one nor the other was.
However, we were willing to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute; for I was not venturing on
shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us. But
they took a safe way for us all; for they brought it to the
shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way
off till we fetched it down on board, and then came close
to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing
with whick to repay them. But an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for, while
we were lying by the shore, there came two mighty crea-
24 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

tures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea. Whether they
were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and,
in the second place, we found the people terribly fright-
ened. The man who had the lance or dart did not fly
from them, but the rest did. However, as the two crea-
tures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged into
the sea, and swam about as if they had come for their
diversion. At last, one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected. But I lay ready for him;
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and
bade Xury to load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in |
the head. Immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life. So, indeed, he was. He immediately
made for the shore; but, between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun. Some
of them were even ready to die of fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. But when they saw the crea-
ture dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs
to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came,
and began to search for the creature. I found*him by his
blood staining the water; and, by the help of a rope,
which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25

they dragged him on shore. He was found to be a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree,
and the negroes held up their hands with admiration to
think what it was I had killed him with.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favor from me. When
I made signs to them that they might take him, they were
very thankful. Immediately they fell to work with him,
and though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much more
readily, than we could have done with a knife. They
offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making
as if I would give it them; but I made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provision, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends; and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
supposed, in the sun. This they set down for me, as

‘before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled

them all three.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I made
forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great

~~
26 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five
leagues before me; and, the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing! to make this point. At length, doubling
the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side to seaward. Then I con-
cluded that this was the Cape de Verde, and those the
islands called from thence the Cape de Verde Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not
tell what I had best do; for, if I should be taken with a
fresh wind, I might reach neither the one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into
the cabin and set me down, Xury having the helm. On
a sudden the boy cried out, “* Master! Master! a ship with
a sail!” And the foolish boy was frightened out of his
wits, thinking it needs must be some of his master’s ships
sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and saw
not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for ne-
groes. But when I observed the course she steered, I
was soon convinced they were bound some other way, and
did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon
which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolv-
ing to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but they would be gone by
before I could make any signal to them. But, after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it .
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses ; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and, as I had my patron’s flag on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a

1 An offing is a part of the open sea at a good distance off the shore.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. oT

gun, both which they saw; for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me,
and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, in. Spanish,
and in French. But I understood none of them. At last
a Scottish sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I
answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, and
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

It was inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was in. I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance. But he generously told
me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Bra-
zils. “For,” says he, “I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides,” says he, “when I carry you
to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if
I should take away from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have
given. No, no, Seignor, Mr. Englishman; I will carry
you thither in charity, and those things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had. Then he
took everything into his own possession, and gave me back

» eo
28 E LIFE AND ADVENTURES

an exact inventory of them, that I might have them;
even so much as my earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use,
and asked me what I would have for it. I told him he
had been so generous to me in everything, that I could
not offer to make any price on the boat, but would leave
it entirely to him. He told me he would give me a note
of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight! for it at
Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath
to take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy’s lib-
erty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he
would give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten
years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury say-
ing he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
All Saints Bay in about twenty-two days after. And now
I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life, and what to do next with myself I was
now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of me
for my passage, gave me twenty ducats? for the leopard’s

1 A Spanish piece of eight reals is equivalent to a dollar in our money.

2 A ducat was a coin used in many countries of Europe, and had a
greatly varying value. A silver ducat was nearly equivalent to an
American dollar.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 29

skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat,
and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered me. What I was willing to sell he bought, —
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece
of the lump of bee’s-wax, for I had made candles of the
rest. In a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.


30 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER V.

HAD not been long in the Brazils, when I was recom-
mended to the house of a good and honest man, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation and a
sugar house. I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself by that means with the manner of planting and
making of sugar. Seeing how the planters lived, and
how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get
license, to settle there. I would turn planter among them,
resolving in the meantime to find out some way to get
my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization,
I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and
settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, who was in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor,
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as
his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order; so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 31

to come. But we both wanted help; and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.

I had now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
began to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion. I had not only learned the language, but had con-
tracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow
planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore,
which was our port. In my discourses among them I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the ne-
groes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold dust,
Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, etc., but negroes for the
service of the Brazils in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying of negroes.

It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
morning and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me. After
enjoining secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as this was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the ne-
groes when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
32 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

divide them among their own plantations. In a word, the
question was, whether I would go as their supercargo! in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea. They offered me that I should have my equal
share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of becoming very considerable, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, who had nothing to do but go on
as I had begun, for three or four years more, in order to
be worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, —for me
to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be
guilty of.

But I, who was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as
I should direct if I miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so. I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship who
saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging
him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will,
one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.

14 person appointed by the owners of a ship to have charge of
the cargo.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 33

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half as
much prudence in looking into my own interest, and
making a judgment of what I ought to have done and not
to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views
of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing
of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy rather than my reason. Accordingly, the
ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the first of Sep-
tember —being the same day eight years that I went
from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the
rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER VI.

UR ship was about one hundred and twenty tons

burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides
the master, his boy, and myself. We had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for
our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design
to stretch over for the African coast when we should
reach about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude.
We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our course N. E.
by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In this course
we passed the line? in about twelve days’ time, and were
by our last observation in seven degrees twenty-two min-
utes northern latitude, when a violent tornado or hurri-
cane took us quite out of our knowledge. It began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could
do nothing but drive. Scudding away before it, we let it

1 The line of the equator.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds
directed. During these twelve days I need not say that
I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.

In this distress, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of fever, and one man and the boy were
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as
he could, and found he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
west from Cape St. Augustino;! so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the river
Oronoco, commonly called the Great River, and began to
consult with me what course he should take, for the ship
was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and, looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded
there was no inhabited country for us to have recourse
to, till we came within the circle of the Carribee Islands.
Therefore, we resolved to stand away for Barbadoes,
which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraught of
the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily reach, as we
hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas, we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered
away N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief. But our voyage was

1'The young reader should trace upon the map the course of the
ship, as shown by the latitude and longitude mentioned in this chapter.
386 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

otherwise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us,
which carried us away with the same impetuosity west-
ward, and drove us so out of the very way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning cried out, “Land!” We
had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes
of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon sand, and, in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner, that
we expected we should all have perished immediately.
We were immediately driven into our close quarters, to
shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.

It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where we
were, or upon what land it was we were driven, whether
an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited.
As the rage of the wind was still great, though rather
less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn imme-
diately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, expecting death every moment, and every man
acting as if preparing for another world, for there was lit-
tle or nothing more for us to do in this. That which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that
contrary to our expectation the ship did not break yet, and
that the master said the wind began to abate.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 37

Now, though we found that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and stick-
ing too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a
dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to
think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
stove by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next
place she broke away, and either sunk or was driven off to
sea, so there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubt-
ful thing. However, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her
over the ship’s side, and getting all into her, we let go,
and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy and the wild sea. Ny

And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As
to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have
done anything with it. So we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew, that when the boat came
nearer the shore she would be dashed in a thousand pieces
by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
38 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

steep or shoal, we knew not. The only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was, if
we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of
some river, where by great chance we might run our boat
in, or get under the lee of the land, and perhaps make
smooth water.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling a-stern of us, and plainly bade us expect
the coup-de-grace In a word, it took us with such a fury,
that it overset the boat at once; and we were all swal-
lowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water. Though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavored to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no
means or strength to contend with. My business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if 1 could;
and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible. My greatest con-
cern now being that the sea, as it would carry me a great

} The blow that would kill us.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 39

way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry
me back again with it when it gave back towards the
sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could
feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my
might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, to my immediate relief,
I found my head and hands shoot out above the surface
of the water. Though it was not two seconds of time
that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,
gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again
with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out. Finding the water had spent itself, and began to
return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels and ran with what strength
I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again, and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very fiat.

The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me. The sea having hurried’ me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that
with such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed help-
less, ag to my own deliverance; for, the blow taking my
side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body. Had it not returned again immediately, I must
40 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a
piece of the rock, and so hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away. The next run I took I got to the mainland, where,
to my great comfort, I clambered up the clefts of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved in a case where-
in there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life
what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave. I walked
about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my
deliverance, making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself. As for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not a
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41

CHAPTER VII.

FTER I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look around me
to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to
be done. I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in
a word, I had a dreadful deliverance. For, I was wet,
had no’ clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat
or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts, That which was particularly
afflicting to me, was that I had no weapon either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to
kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me
but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box;
this was all my provision, and this threw me into terrible
agonies of mind, that for a while I ran about like a mad-
man. Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
heart to consider what would be my lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time
was, to get up into a thick, bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die, for, as yet, I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could: find any.fresh —


42 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

water to drink, which I did, to my great joy. Having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavy-
ored to place myself so that if I should sleep I might
not fall. Having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon,
for my defence, I took up my lodging, and being exces-
sively fatigued, fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition.

When I awoke, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand
where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by dashing against it.
This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that, at least, I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had tossed
her, up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore to get to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where
I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbed so far out that I could come within a quarter of
a mile of the ship. Here I found a fresh renewing of my
grief; for I saw, evidently, that if we had kept on board,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got safe
on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now
was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but, as there
was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible to get to
the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was
hot to extremity, and took the water. But, when I came
to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on board, for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of.
I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a
small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at
first, hanging down by the fore-chains so low, that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water.
By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was
in that part was dry; for, you may be sure, my first work
was to search and see what was spoiled and what was
free. I found that all the ship’s provisions were dry and
untouched by the water; and, being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for
I had no time to lose. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.

Tt was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to
be had, and this extremity roused my application. We
had several spare yards, and two or three large spars of
44 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship. I resolved
to fall to work with these, and flung as many of them
overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope that they might not drive away. When
this was done I went down the ship’s side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both
ends, as well as I could in the form of a raft. Laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-ways,
I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it
was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being
too light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter’s
saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added
them to my raft with a great deal of labor and pains.
But hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encour-
aged ine to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion. +

My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea;
but Twas not long considering this. I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the seamen’s chests, which I had broken open and emp-
tied, and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of
these I filed with provisions, namely, bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat’s flesh, which we
lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought
to sea with us. There had been some barley and wheat
together; but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for
liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 45

skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all
about five or six gallons of rack!; these I stowed by them-
selves, there being no need to put them into the chest,
nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I
had left on shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my
breeches, which were only linen and open-kneed, I swam
on board in them and my stockings. However, this put
me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use; for I
had other things which my eye was more upon: as, first,
tools to work with on shore. It was after long searching
that I found out the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed
avery useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a
ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time
to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water. Those two I
got to my raft with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rud-
der, and the least capful of wind would have overset all
my navigation.

1 Spirituous liquors,
46 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T had three encouragements: a smooth, calm sea, the
tide rising and setting into the shore, and what little
wind there was blew me towards the land. Thus, having
found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws,
an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put to sea. ° For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I
found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived that there was some
indraft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find
some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of
the tide setting into it, so I guided my raft as well as I
could to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I
had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if
T had, I think verily would have broke my heart. Know-
ing nothing of the coast, one end of my raft ran aground
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the
water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust
off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in; but, holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in
which time the rising of the water brought me a little
more upon a level. A little after, the water still rising,
my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel. Then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 47

land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running
up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the

river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and there-
" fore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near, that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here
I had liked to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again ;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of the
float, if it run on shore, would lie so high, and the other
sink so low, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the high-
est, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so it
did. As soon as I found water enough (for my raft drew
about a foot of water), I thrust her on upon that flat piece
of ground, and there fastened or moored her by sticking
my two broken oars into the ground, —one on one side near
one-end, and one on the other side near the other end.
Thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.

x
48 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER VIII.

Y next work was to view the country, and seek a

proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited,
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a
hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills
which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces and one of the pistols and a horn
of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up
to the top of that hill. After I had with ereat labor and
difficulty got to the top, I saw that I was on an island
environed everyway with the sea. There was no land to
be seen, except some rocks which lay a great way off, and
two small islands less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was on was barren, and,
as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by
wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none. I saw abun-
dance of fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither when I
lalled them could I tell what was fit for food, and what
not. Atimy coming back, I shot at a great bird, which I
saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood, —I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since
the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but from
OF ROBINSON CRUSOF. 49

all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number
of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and
crying every one according to his usual note; but not one
of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its color and beak
resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than com-
mon; its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of that day. What to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed did I know where to rest;
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing
but some wild beast might devour me, though, as I after-
wards found, there was really no need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a hut for that night’s lodging. As
for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself,
except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the bird.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to land, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. As I
knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft. But this appeared
impracticable ; so I resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down. I did so, only that I stripped before I went
50 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

from my hut, having nothing on but a checkered shirt,
and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps on my
feet.

I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a sec-
ond raft. Having had experience of the first, I neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet
I brought away several things very useful to me. In the
carpenter’s stores, I found two or three bags full of nails
and spikes, a great serew-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows,
and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of pow-
der more, a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll
of sheet lead. This last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these things,
I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare
foretop-sail, hammock, and some bedding. With this I
loaded my second raft, and brought all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that, at least, my provisions might be
devoured on shore. But, when I came back, I found no
sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild
cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She
sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in
my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away. I tossed her a bit of biscuit; though, by the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 51

way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great.
However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled it, ate it, and looked as pleased for more; but I
thanked her, and could spare no more, so she marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels (for they were too heavy, being large casks), I
went to work to make me a little tent with the sail and
some poles which I cut for that purpose. Into this tent
I brought everything that I knew would spoil, either with
rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks up
in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without. Spreading one of the beds on the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, being very weary; for
the night before I had slept little, and had labored very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the
ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds, now, that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one’ man, but I was not satis-
fied still; for, while the ship sat upright in that posture,
I thought I ought to get everything out of her that I
could. So every day at low water I went on board, and
brought away something or other. The third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could,
as, also, all the small ropes and rope twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvas, with which to mend the
sails upon occasion, and fhe barrel of wet gunpowder.

ty

we



a i i a ieee SIS at wae tol Te kk ses ee gy ot eR a eae ae
52 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as
much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful
to be sails, but as mere canvas only.

But that which comforted me more still, was that, last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with, I say, after all this, I
found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets? of
rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour. This was surprising to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage. Having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables. Cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and
having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goeds and came away. But my
good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that after I had entered the
little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the
shore; but, as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost,

1 Small casks.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53

especially the iron, which I expected would have been of
great use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labor; for I was fain to dip for it
into the water—a work which fatigued me very much.
After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.

I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could be well
supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece. But, preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind begin to rise.
However, at low water I went on board, and, though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks. In another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O
Drug!” said I, aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.
One of these knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee. Remain where thou art, and go
to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth sav-
ing.” However, upon second thoughts, I took it away,
and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas, I began to
think of making another raft. But, while I was preparing
54 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

this, I fuund the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain
to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at
all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and
swam across the channel, which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of things I had about me, and partly the
roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I wus gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory re-
flection; namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get everything out of her that could be use-
ful to me; and that, indeed, there was little left in her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
anything out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards
did; but those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-
ing myself against either savages (if any should appear)
or wild beasts, if any were in the island. I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of
dwelling to make; whether I should make me a cave in
the earth or a tent upon the earth. I resolved upon both,
of the manner and description of which it may not be
improper to give an account.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 55

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me. Health and fresh water,
I just now mentioned; shelter from the heat of the sun;
security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast;
a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of
which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this
little plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of this
rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like
the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really
any cave or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above an
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door. At the end it descended
irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill, so that
I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries
is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter,
from its beginning and ending.
6 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Gr

In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the
ship, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post.

This fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal
of time and labor, especially to cut the piles in the woods,
bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder to go over the top. When
I was in, I lifted the ladder over after me. So I was com-
pletely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried
all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores,
of which you have the account above. I made me a large
tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one
part of the year are very violent there, I made double;
namely, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent
above it, and covered the uppermost with a large tarpau-
lin? which I had saved among the sails-f

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which

1 A piece of canvas covered with tar to make it water-proof.

\
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the
ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet. Having thus enclosed
all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I
had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said,
by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half. Thus I made me a cave
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labor, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for setting up my tent and making the cave,
that, a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a
sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the light-
ning itself: “O my powder!” My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that at one blast all my powder might
be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me with food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger;
though, had the powder taken fire, I had never known
what had hurt me. \
58 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over I laid aside all my works, my building,
and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate the powder, and keep it a little and a little
in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my
powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty
pounds’ weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not ap-
prehend any danger from that, so I placed it in my new
cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen. The rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once, at least, every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for food, and,
as near as [ could, to acquaint myself with what the
island produced. The first time I went out, I presently
discovered that there were goats in the island, which was
a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with
this misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so
subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult
thing in the world to come at them. But I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for, after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them:
I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but, if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me. From this
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 59

I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them. So afterwards I took
this method: I always climbed the rocks first, to get
above them, and then I had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat. This grieved me heartily, because she had a little
kid by her, to which she gave suck. But when the old one
fell, the kid stood stockstill by her till I came and took
her up. When I carried the old one with me upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure.
I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my
bread especially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel
to burn. What I did for that, as, also, how I enlarged
my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a
full account of in its place; but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was
not cast away upon that island without being driven, as
is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of man-
kind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination
of Heaven that, in this desolate place and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run
60 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself, why
Providence should thus completely ruin his creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help,
abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be
rational to be thankful for such a life. .

But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts and reprove me. One day, walking with
my gun in my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: “ Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were they not saved and you lost? Why were you sin-
gled out? Is it better to be here or there?” and then
I pointed to the sea. “ All evils are to be considered with
the good that is in them, and with what worse attends
them.”

Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case
if the ship had not floated from the place where she first
struck, so near the shore that I had time to get all these
things out of her? What would have been my case if I
had been obliged to live in the condition in which I first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries
to supply and procure them? “Particularly,” said I aloud
(though to myself), “what should I have done without a
gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make any-
thing, or to work with; without clothes, bedding, a tent,
or any manner of covering?” NowI had all these toa
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 61

myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun when
my ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want, as long as I lived. For
I considered from the beginning how I should provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, even not only after my ammunition should

be spent, but even after my health or strength should
decay.


62 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER IX.

ND now, being about to enter into a melancholy rela-
tion of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my ac-
count, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above
said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun
being to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in
the latitude of 9 degrees and 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books and pen and ink, and should
even forget the sabbath days from the working days. To
prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large post in
capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it
up on the shore where I first landed; namely, I camE oN
SHORE HERE ON THE 30TH OF SEpT., 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one. Thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the several
voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 63

several things of less value, but not all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular,
pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s,
mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping; three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tive glasses, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I
huddled together, whether I might want them or no. I
found, also, three very good Bibles which came to me in
my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and among
them two or three prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. I must not forget, that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me. As for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, or any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me,
but that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost.
Tshall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact; but after that was gone I could not, for I could
not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread. As for linen,! I soon learned to want that with-
out much difficulty.

1 He had very little need of linen, and so was easily reconciled to
the loss of it.
64 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily,
and it was nearly a whole year before I had entirely fin-
ished my little pale or surrounded habitation. The piles
or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were
a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and
more by far in bringing home. I spent, sometimes, two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground.

But why need I have been concerned at the tediousness
of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do
it in? nor had I any other employment if that had been
over, at least that I could foresee, except ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did more or less every day.

T have already described my habitation, which was a
tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong
pale of posts and cables. I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside, and, after some time,
I think it was a year and a half, I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs
of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the
rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind
me; but I must observe, too, that at first this was a con-
fused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, took
up all my place, and I had no room to turn myself. So
I set to work to enlarge my cave and work farther into
the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded
easily to the labor I bestowed on it. When I found I
was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to
the right hand into the rock; and then, turning to the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were,
a back way to my tent and to my store-house, but gave
me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, as, particularly, a
chair and a table; for, without these, I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world. I could not
write or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure
without a table.

So I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that, as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so, by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things,
every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art.
I had never handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time,
by labor, application, and contrivance, I found that I
wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things,
even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that,
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if
I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on a hedge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then smcoth it with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any
more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labor
which it took me to make a plank or board. But my
time or labor was little worth, and so it was as well
employed one way as another.


66 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

UWowever, I made me a table and a chair, and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards which I brought on my
raft from the ship. When I had wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, oue over another, all along one side of my
cave, on which to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work,
and, in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up.

So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things. I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to
me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to
find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in too much
discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been
full of many dull things.

I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told
many particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for,
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship’s
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself, at
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 67

the dismal circumstances I was brought to; namely, I had
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to,
and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before
me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

October 1. In the morning J saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven
on shore again much nearer the island. This was some
comfort; for, seeing her sit upright, and not broken to
pieces, J hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food or necessaries out of her for my relief.
On the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the
men been saved, we might, perhaps, have built us a boat
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. I spent great part of this day
in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day, also, it con-
tinued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather. It seems this was
the rainy season.

Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but, being in shoal water, and the things being
68 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and
that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and
securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might
not spoil them.

Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Toward night I fixed upon a proper
place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work,
wall, or fortification made of double piles, lined within
with cables and without with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country, when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home; which I afterward killed also because it would
not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 69

like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon
went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time
of diversion. Every morning I walked out with my gun
for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed
myself to work till about eleven o’clock; then ate what I
had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay down to
sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the
evening, to work again. The working part of this day,
and of the next, was wholly employed in making my
table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed I took off
the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-
shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not
understand; but was surprised and almost frightened with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing, not well
knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me
for that time.

Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking;
nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled, fair weather. The
Tth, 8th, 9th, 10th, and a part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and
with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times. Mote.—I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
70 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

days; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.

Nov. 18. This day it rained, which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied
with terrible thunder and lightning, which frightened me
dreadfully for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three days
I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent into
the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
Note.— Three things I wanted exceeding for this work ;
namely, a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow or basket ;
so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for a
pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper
enough, though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel
or spade. This was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed,
T could do nothing without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Brazils
they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness. Of
this, with great labor and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a
piece and brought it home too with difficulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 71

The excessive hardness of the wood made me a long
while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually by
little and little into the form of a shovel or spade, the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would
not last me so long. However, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but never was
a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in
making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. ing no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker ware, —at least none yet found out; and as to a
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel,
but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so
I gave it over. For carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
laborers carry mortar in, when they serve the bricklayers.

This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up
no less than four days; I mean always excepting my morn-
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom failed; and very
seldom failed, also, bringing home something to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished,
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods
commodiously.
72 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Note. — During all this time, I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a
cellar; as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that
sometimes in the wet season of the year it rained so hard
that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees like a
thatch.

December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when, on a sudden (it seems I had made it too
large), a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
and one side, so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and
not without reason, too; for, if I had been under it, I had
never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had
a great deal of work to do over again; for, I had the loose
earth to carry out, and, which was of more importance, I
had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

Dee. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly,
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of boards across over each post. This I fin-
ished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards,
in about a week more I had the roof secured. The posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang everything up
that could be hung up; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20. Now I carried everything into the cave, and
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 73

began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made me
another table.

Dee. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring
out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.

Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.

Dee. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another, so
that I caught it, and led it home by a string. When I
had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broken. N.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and
the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but, by nursing
it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at
my door, and would not go away. This was the first time
that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening for
food. This time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.

January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys, which lay
towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty
of goats, though exceeding shy and hard to come at;
however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
hunt them down. ;

Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,
74 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

for they all faced about upon the dog; and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.

Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very thick and strong. »

N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal. It is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and per-
fecting this wall, though it was no more than about twen-
ty-four yards in length, being a half-circle from one place
in the rock to another place about eight yards from it, —
the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.

All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
I should never be perfectly secure until this wall was fin-
ished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor
everything was done with, especially the bringing piles
out of the woods, and driving them into the ground, for
I made them much bigger than I need to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fence with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I pursuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter
upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this tae I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, wAen the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage. Particularly I found a kind of wild
pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks. Taking
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 75

some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up tame,
and did so; but, when they grew older, they flew away,
which, perhaps, was at first from want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.

And now, in managing my household affairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first it
was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as to some of
them, it was; for instance, I could never make a cask to
be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed
before, but I could never arrive to the capacity of making
one by them, though I spent many weeks about it. I could
neither put in the heads, or joint the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water, so I gave that also
over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bee’s-wax with which I made candles in my
African adventure, but I had none of that now. The only
remedy I had was, that wheu I killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I
made mea lamp. This gave me light, though not a clear,
steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labors,
it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all
devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
76 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

husks and dust. Being willing to have the bag for some
other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of lightning, or some such use), I shook the
husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification
under the rock.

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any-
thing there. About amonth after, or thereabouts, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out of the
ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
vome out, which were perfect green barley of the same
kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had
very few uotions of religion in my head, or had enter-
tained any seuse of anything that had befallen me, other-
wise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end of Provi-
dence in these things, or his order in governing events in
the world; but after I saw barley grow there in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that
I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely ;
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that
wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes; and I began to bless myself, that such a prodigy
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 17

of nature should happen upon my account. This was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along
by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I
had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting but that there was
more in the place, I went all over that part of the island,
where I had been before, peeping in every corner and
under every rock to see for more of it, but I could not find
any. At last it occurred to my thought, that I had shook
a bag of chicken’s meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease. And I must confess, my religious
thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon
discovering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon; though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been mira-
culous. For it was really the work of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint ten or twelve grains of corn
to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the
rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that
I should throw it out in that particular place, where, it
being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immedi-
ately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June, and lay-
ing up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hop-
ing in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me
with bread. It was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even
then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its order.
78 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

T lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least, not as it would
have done: of which in its place.

Besides the barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care, and
whose use was of the same kind or to the same purpose;
namely, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it up without baking, though I did that also
after some time. But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall
by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside
of my habitation.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 79

CHAPTER X.

PRIL 16. I finished the ladder, so I went up with the

ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and

let it down on the inside. This was a complete inclosure

to me; for within I had room enough, and nothing

could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labor overthrown at once, and myself
killed. The case was thus. As I was busy in the inside
of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave,
I was terribly frightened with a most surprising thing;
for, on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge
of the hill, over my head, and two of the posts I had
set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I
was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was
really the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave
was falling in, as some of it had done before; and, for fear
I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder. Not
thinking myself safe there either, I got over my wall for
fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll
down upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the
firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that could
80 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

be supposed to have stood on the earth.
of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile from
me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I
never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into violent motion by it; and I believe the
shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth
made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea.
But the noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it
were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was «
in, filled me with horror. I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent, and all my household
goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive; but sat still upon the ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All
this while I had not the least serious religious thought, —
nothing but the common, “Lord, have mercy upon me”;
and when it was over, that went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grown
cloudy, as if it would rain. Soon after that the wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane. The sea was all on a
sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore was
covered with the breach of the water; the trees were torn
up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two
hours more it was stark calm, and began to rain very hard.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

AN this while I sat upon the ground very much terri-
fied and dejected, when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and
over, and I might venture into my cave again. With this
thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my
tent; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it, and I was forced to go into my
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy for fear it
should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to
cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink to let
water go out, which would else have drowned my cave.
After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no
more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to be more
composed.

It continued raining all that night, and a great part of
the next day, so that I could not stir abroad. But my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best
do, concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave,
but I must consider of building me some little hut in an
open place, which I might surround with a wall as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or
men. If I stayed where I was, I concluded, I should cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it stood, which was just under the hang-
ing precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken
again, would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent
the next two days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in
contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
82 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The fear of being swallowed up alive, prevented me
from sleeping in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it. Still,
when I looked about and saw how everything was put in
order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loth to remove.

In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I must
be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had
formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. With this resolution I composed myself for a
time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed
to build me a wall with piles and cables, in a circle as be-
fore, and set my tent up in it when it was finished; but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was fin-
ished and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution; but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians), but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were full of notches and
dull; and, though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it
and grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought
as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point
of polities, or a judge upon the life and death of a man.
At length, I contrived a wheel witha string, to turn it with
my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty. I
had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not
to take notice how it was done, though since, I have ob-
served, it is very common there; besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a
full week’s work to bring ‘it to perfection.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grind-
ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone per-
forming very well.

April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced my-
self to one biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.

May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore big-
ger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When I came
to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the
wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by the late
hurricane. Looking towards the wreck itself, I thought
it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon
found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone.
However, I rolled it farther on shore for the present, and
went on upon the sands as near as I could to the wreck of
the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand,
was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern, which was
broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed
up, as it were, and cast on one side. The sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that, whereas there
was a great place of water before, so that I could not
come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake. As by this
84 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had
loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by de-
grees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation. I busied myself mightily, that
day especially, in searching whether I could make any
way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was
choked up with sand. However, as I had learnt not to
despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to
pieces that I could of the ship, concluding that every-
thing I could get from her would be of some use or other
to me.

May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together. When I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side
which lay highest; but, the tide coming in, I was obliged
to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just
going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made
me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had no hooks, yet
I frequently caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat;
all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck. Cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from the
decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore
when the tide of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck. Got several iron bolts
out of her, and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts
of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent
not to work; but found the weight of the wreck had
broke itself down, the beams being cut, that several pieces
of the ship seemed to lie loose. The inside of the hold
lay so open that I could see into it; but it was almost full
of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow
to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water orsand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt, also, the roll of English lead, and could
stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10, 11, 12, 18, 14. Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I could not
cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other; but, as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow
to drive the hatchet.

May 16. It had blowed hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water ;
but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, nearly two miles off. I
86 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with
the crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated
out, and two of the seamen’s chests. The wind blowing
from the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces
of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in
it; but the salt water and sand had spoiled it.

I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be when
the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed
out. By this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and
iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had
known how. I also got, at several times, and in several
pieces, near a hundred weight of the sheet lead.

June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which,
it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
place, or scarcity; for, had I happened to be on the other
side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them
every day, as I found afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid
dear enough for them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed
in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all day, and I stayed within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
Y OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.

June 21. Very ill, frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help.
Prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull,
but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being
all confused.

June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.

June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then
a violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague, very violent. The fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak. However, I killed
a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it,
and made some broth, but had no pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay abed all
day, and neither ate nordrank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up, or to
get myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but
was light-headed; and, when I was not, I was so ignorant
that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried, “ Lord,
look upon me; Lord, pity me; Lord, have mercy upon
me.” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours,
till, the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the night. When I waked I found myself much
refreshed, but weak and exceedingly thirsty. However, as
88 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie
till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep I had this terrible dream.

I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great,
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and alight upon the
ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I
could but just bear to look towards him. His counte-
nance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words
to describe. When he stepped upon the ground with his
feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake, and all the air looked to my
apprehension as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.

He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward toward me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me. When he came to a rising ground, at
some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terri-
ble that it is impossible to express the terror of it. All
that I can say I understood was this, “Seeing all these
things have not brought thee to repentance, now thou
shalt die”; at which words I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at
this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a
dream, I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any
more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind, when I awaked, and found it was but a
dream.

June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up;
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would
return again next day, and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill.
The first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed.
Then I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh and broiled it on
the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but
was very weak, and, withal, very sad and heavy-hearted
under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted in the
ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell. This was the
first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s blessing on, even,
as I could remember, in my whole life.

After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself
so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never
went out without that). So I went but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before me, very calm and smooth.

I rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat,
and went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed.
But my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no ineli-
nation to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and lighted
my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehen-
sion of the return of my distemper terrified me very much,
it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and I
had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not
quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
0 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the
chest, and found what I looked for, namely, the tobacco ;
and, as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out
one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and which
to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as incli-
nation, to look into. I say I took it out, and brought
both that and the tobacco with me to the table.

What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for it or no; but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit
one way or other: I first took a piece of a leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first, almost
stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and I had not been used to it. Then I took some, and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to
take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, and I held
almost to suffocation.

In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time.
Only having opened the book casually, the first words
that occurred to me were these: “Call on me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify

me.” aK

~

The words were very apt to my case, and made some
impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
me. The thing was so remote, so impossible, in my appre-

hension of things, that I began to say, as the children of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

Israel did when they were promised flesh to eat, “Can
God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began to say,
“Can God himself deliver me from this place?” And as
it was not for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. However, the
words made a very great impression upon me, and I
mused upon them very often. It grew, now, late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dosed my head so much, that
I inclined to sleep. So I left my lamp burning in the
cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
to bed. But, before I lay down, I did what I never had
done in all my life; I kneeled down and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in
the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my
broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum
in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong
and rank of the tobacco, that, indeed, I could scarce get
it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I
found, presently, it flew up into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till noon the
next day. Nay, to this hour, Iam partly of the opinion
that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for, otherwise, I know not how I
should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done. If I
had lost it by crossing and recrossing the line, I should
have lost more than one day. But certainly I lost a day
in my account and never knew which way.

Be that, however, one way or other, when I waked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful. When I got up, I was stronger than I was
the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry.
92 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for
the better. This was the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too far.
I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose,
and brought them home, but was not very forward to eat
them; so I ate some more of the turtle’s eggs, which were
very good. This evening I renewed the medicine which
I had supposed did me good the day before, namely, the
tobacco steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head
over the smoke. However, I was not so well the next
day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it at first, and doubled the quan-
tity which I drank.

July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon the scripture, “I will deliver thee”; and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. But, as I was discour-
aging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind°
that I pored so much on my deliverance from the main af-
flietion, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received;
and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these; namely, “ Have I not been delivered, and won-
derfully, too, from sickness? from the most distressed con-
dition that could be, and that was so frightful to me?
And what notice had T taken of it? Had I done my
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 93

part? ‘God had delivered me; but I had not glorified
him:’ that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful
for that as a deliverance; and how could I expect greater
deliverance ?”

This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
kneeled down and gaye God thanks aloud for my recovery
from my sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible, and, begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night, not tying myself to the number of chap-
ters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It
was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the
wickedness of my past life.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
“ Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a different sense
from what I had ever done before ; for then I had no no-
tion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in. For, though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down
all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing ;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; it was all of no consideration in comparison of this.
And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it,
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than
deliverance from affliction.
94 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

But, leaving this part, | return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind.
My thoughts being directed, by a constant reading of the
scripture, and praying to God, to things of a higher nature,
Thad a great deal of comfort within, which till now I knew
nothing of. Also, as my health and strength returned, |
bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I
wanted, and to make my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with a gun in my hand, a little and a lit-
tle at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength
after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how
low I was, and to what weakness I was reduced. The ap-
plication which I made use of was perfectly new, and per-
haps what had never cured an ague before. Nor can I
recommend it to any one. Though it did carry off the fit,
yet it rather contributed to weaken me; for I had fre-
quent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time.

I learnt from it also this, in particular: that being abroad
in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my
health that could be, especially in those rains which came
attended with storms and hurricanes of wind. For, as the
rain which came in the dry season was always most ac-
companied with such storms, so I found this rain was much
more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
October.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 95

CHAPTER XI.

HAD been now on this unhappy island above ten

months. All possibility of deliverance from this con-
dition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly
believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought,
fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more per-
fect discovery of the island, and to see what other pro-
ductions I might find, which I yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little
brook of running water, and very fresh and good; but this
being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it; at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as
it could be perceived.

On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant
savannas or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass. On the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds, where the water, as it might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants which I had no notion of or under-
standing about; and might, perhaps, have virtues of their
own which I could not find out.
96 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all
that climate make their bread of, but I could find none. I
saw large plants of aloes, but did not then understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want
of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back musing with my-
self what course I might take to know the virtue and
goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short,
I had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils,
that I knew little of the plants of the field; at least, very
little that might serve me to any purpose now in my
distress. "a

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again.
After going something farther than I had done the day
before, I found the brook and the savannas began to cease,
and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits, and particularly I found
melons upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes
upon the trees. The vines had spread, indeed, over the
trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now ‘> their
prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising dis-
covery, and I was exceedingly glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, remem-
bering that, when IJ was ashore in Barbary, the eating of
grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves
there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. But I
found an excellent use for these grapes, and that was to cure
or dry them in the sun and keep them as dried grapes or
raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed
they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no
grapes might be had.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. _ OT

I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I
might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well. The next morning, I proceeded upon my discovery,
travelling near four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the south and north side of me.

At the end of this march I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west. A little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way; that is, due east. The
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every- .
thing being in a constant verdure, or flourishing of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden.

I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure, (though mixed
with other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all
my own; that I was king and lord of all this country inde-
feasibly, and had a right of possession. If I could convey
it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord
of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange and lemon, and citron-trees, but all wild, and
few bearing any fruit; at least, not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat,
but very wholesome. I mixed their juice afterwards with
water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and
refreshing.

I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home ; and resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching.
98 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In order to do this I gathered a heap of grapes in one
place, and a lesser heap in another place, and a great
parcel of limes and lemons in another place. Taking a
few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved
to come again and bring a bag or sack, or what I could
make, to carry the rest home.

Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave);
but before I got thither the grapes were spoiled. The
richness of the fruit and the weight of the juice having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing. As to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.

The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having
made me two small bags to bring home my harvest. But
I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, which
were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them
all spread abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some
here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured.
By this, I concluded there were some wild creatures there-
abouts which had done this; but what they were I knew
not.

However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack, but that one
way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course. I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun. As for the limes and
lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand
under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 99

with great pleasure on the fruitfulness of that valley, and
the pleasantness of the situation; the security from storms
on that side of the water, and the wood; and concluded
that I had pitched upon a place to fix my abode which
was, by far, the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and
to look out for a place equally safe as where I now was
situated, if possible, in that pleasant and fruitful part of
the island.

This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place
tempting me. But when I came to a nearer view of it, I
considered that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at
least possible that something might happen to my advan-
tage, and that the same ill fate that brought me hither
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same
place; though it was scarce probable that any such thing -
should ever happen; yet, to enclose myself among the hills
and woods, in the centre of the island, was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only improb-
able but impossible. Therefore I concluded I ought not
by any means to remove.

However, I was so enamored of this place, that I spent
much of my time there for the whole remaining part: of
the month of July. Though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little
kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a
strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could
reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood. Here
I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together,
always going over it with a ladder, as before; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast
house. This work took me up to the beginning of August.
100 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy
my labor, when the rains came on, and made me stick
close to my first habitation ; for, though I had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very
well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the
rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August
I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried,
and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun. So I
began to take them down from the trees, and it was very
happy that I did so. For the rains which followed would
have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them.

No sooner had J taken them all down, and carried most
of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and, from
thence, which was the 14th of August, it rained more or
less every day, till the middle of October ; and sometimes
so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for
several days.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be
much wet. In this confinement I began to be straitened
for food; but, venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat.
The last day, which was the 26th, I found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me. My food was regulated
thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast, a piece
of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled
(for to my great misfortune I had no vessel to boil or stew
anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 101

During this confinement in my cover, by the rain, I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave.
By degrees I worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my fence or wall. So I came in and
out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a per-
fect enclosure, whereas now I thought I was exposed; and
yet I could not perceive that there was any living thing to
fear, the biggest creature that I had seen upon the island
being a goat.

September 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniver-
sary of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post,
and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-
five days. I kept this day asa solemn fast, setting it apart
to a religious exercise, prostrating myself on the ground
with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to
God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to him to have mercy on me, through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even to the going down of the sun, I then
ate a biscuit cake, and a bunch of grapes, and went to bed,
finishing the day as I began it.

I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for, as at
first, I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had after
some time omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a
longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did
not really know what any of the days were. But now, hay-
ing cast up the days as above, I found I had been there a
year. So I divided it into weeks, and set apart’ every
seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of
my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning.
102 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down
only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season, and the dry season, began now to ap-
pear regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to
provide for them accordingly. But I bought all my exper-
ience before I had it; and this Iam going to relate, was
one of the most discouraging experiments that I made
at all. Ihave mentioned that I had saved the few ears of
barley and rice which I had so surprisingly found spring
up, as I thought, of themselves, and believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ;
and now I thought it a proper time to sow it after the
rains, the sun being in its southern position going from
me.

Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground, as well as I
could, with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, I sowed my grain. But, as I was sowing, it casually
occurred to my thought, that I would not sow it all at first,
because I did not know when was the proper time for it;
so I sowed about two-thirds of the seeds, leaving about a
handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards
that I did so, for not one grain of that I sowed this time
came to anything; for, the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no
moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all, till
the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it
had been newly sown.

Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imag-
ined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in; and I dug up a piece of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 108

ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my
seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox. This,
having the rainy months of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop;
but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to
sow all that I had yet, I had but a small quantity at last,
my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each
kind.

But by this experience I was made master of my busi-
ness, and knew exactly when the proper season was to
sow; and that I might expect two seed-times and two
harvests every year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains
were over, and the weather began to settle, which was
about the month of November, I made a visit up the coun-
try to my bower, where, though I had not been some
months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off of some
trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out, and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots
the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell what
tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was sur-
prised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees
grow. I pruned them, and led them to grow as much alike as
TI could, and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into in three years; so that, though the hedge made
a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the
trees, for such I might now call them, soon covered it. It
made a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the
dry season.
104 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make
me a hedge like this in a semicircle round my wall; I mean
that of my first dwelling, which I did. Placing the trees
or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards’ distance
from my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first
a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now, that the seasons of the year might gener-
ally be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe,
but into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus:

Half February, March, half April— Rainy, the sun being
then on or near the equinox.

Half April, May, June, July, half August — Dry, the sun
being then to the north of the line.

Half August, September, half October — Rainy, the sun
then being come back.

Half October, November, December, January, half Feb-
ruary — Dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter, as
the winds happened to blow ; but this was the general ob-
servation I made. After I had found, by experience, the
ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care
to furnish myself with provisions beforehand, that I might
not be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much
as possible during the wet months.

In this time I found much employment (and very suita-
ble also to the time), for I found great occasion for many
things which I had no way to furnish myself with, but by
hard labor and constant application. Particularly, I tried
many ways to make myself a basket; but all the twigs I
could get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would

*
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 105

do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in
standing at a basket-maker’s in the town oe my father
lived, to see them make their wicker ware. Being, as
boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great ob-
server of the manner how they worked those things, and
sometimes lending a hand, I had by this means so full
knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing
but the materials; when it came into my mind, that the
twigs of that tree, from whence I cut my stakes that grew,
might possibly be as tough as the sallows and willows and
osiers in England, and I resolved to try.

Accordingly, the next day I went to my country house,
as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I
found them to my purpose as much as I could desire;
whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet
to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was
a great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within my
circle or hedges. When they were fit for use, I carried
them to my cave. Here, during the next season, I em-
ployed myself in making (as well as I could) a great many
baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any-
thing, as I had occasion. Though I did not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable
for my purpose; and thus afterwards I took care never to be
without them. As my wicker ware decayed, I made more ;
especially I made strong, deep baskets to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity
of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world
of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how
to supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold anything
106 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost
full of rum, and some glass bottles, some of the common
size, and others, which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, etc. I had not so much as a pot
to boil anything in, except a great kettle which I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I
desired for it, namely, to make broth, and stew a bit of
of meat by itself. The second thing I would fain have
had, was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible for me to
make one; however, J found a contrivance for that, too,
at last.

I employed myself in planting my second row of stakes
or piles, and in this wicker work, all the summer or dry
season ; when another business took me up more time than
it could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and
so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea on the other side of the island.
T now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on
that side; so, taking my gun, and hatchet, and my dog,
and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with
two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my
pouch, for my store, I began my journey. When I had
passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea, to the west; and, it being a very
clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an island or con-
tinent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending
from the west to the W.S. W. at a very great distance ;
by my guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 107

otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America;
and, as I concluded by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had been in a
worse condition than I was now. Therefore I acquiesced
in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to
own, and to believe, ordered everything for the best. I
say, I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself
with fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered,
that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly,
one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way
or other; but, if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazil, which is inhabited by the
worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies
that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, I walked very leisurely for-
ward. I found that side of the island, where I now was,
much pleasanter than mine, the open or savanna fields
sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain would I
have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some pains
taken, catch a young parrot, for I knocked it down with a
stick, and, having recovered it, I brought it home; but it
was some years before I could make him speak. However,
at last, I taught him to call me by my name, very famil-
iarly.

I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds, hares, as I thought them to be, and
foxes, but they differed greatly from all other kinds I
108 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

had met with; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,
though I killed several. But I had no need to be ventur-
ous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good too: especially these three*sorts, goats, pigeons, and
turtle or tortoise; which, added to my grapes, Leaden-
hall Market! could not have furnished a better table than
I, in proportion to the company. Though my case was
deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for thankfulness,
that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but
rather plenty, even to dainties.

T never travelled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts; but J took so many turns
and returns, to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down for all night. Then I either reposed myself in a
tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright
in the ground, either from one tree or another, or so as
no wild creature could come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to
see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island ; for here indeed the shore was covered with innu-
merable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but
three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite num-
ber of fowls of many kinds, some of which I had not seen
before, and many of them very good meat; but such as I
knew not the names of, except those called penguins.

T could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot; and therefore had more
mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better
feed on. Though there were many more goats here than
on the other side of the island, yet it was with much more

1 The name of a market in London.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. L09

difficulty that I could come near them, the country being
flat and even, so that they saw me much sooner than when
I was on the hills.

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter
than mine, but yet I had not the least inclination to
remove ; for, as I was fixed in my habitation, it became nat-
ural to me. I seemed, all the while I was here, to be, as
it were, upon a journey, and from home. However, I trav-
elled along the shore of the sea toward the east, I suppose
abouttwelve miles. Then,setting up a great pole upon the
shore for a mark, I concluded I would go home again, and
the next journey I took should be on the other side of the
island, east from my dwelling, and so round, till I came to
my post again, of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, think-
ing I could easily keep all the island so much in my view,
that I could not miss finding my first dwelling hy viewing
the country ; but I found myself mistaken. For, being
come about two or three miles, I found myself descended
into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and
those hills covered with woods, that I could not see which
was my way by any direction but that of the sun; nor
even then, unless I knew very well the position of the sun
at that time of the day.

It happened, to my farther misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days while I was in this
valley. Not being able to see the sun, I wandered about
very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find out
the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same
way I went. Then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward,
the weather being exceedingly hot, and my gun, ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things very heavy.
110 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and J, running to take hold of it, caught
it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind
to bring it home, if I could; for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and
so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be spent.

T made a collar for this little creature; and, with a string
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty,
till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and
left him; for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without a settled
place of akode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to
me, compared to that; and it rendered everything ..bout
me so comfortable, that I resolved that I would never go
a great way from it again, while it should be my lot to
stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week to rest and regale myself
after my long journey; during which, most of the time
was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for
my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be
well acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the
poor kid, which I had pent in within my little circle, and
resolved to go and fetch it home, and give it some food.
Accordingly I went, and found it where I left it; for,
indeed, it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food, I went and cut boughs of trees and branches


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 111

of such shrubs as I could find, and threw over to it; ‘and,
having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away. —
But it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need
to have tied it; for it followed me like a dog. As I con-
tinually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.




112 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER XII.

HE rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now
come. I kept the 80th of September in the same
solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my land-
ing on the island, having now been there two years, and
no more prospect of being delivered than the first day I
came there. I spent the whole day in humble and thank-
ful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mercies
which my solitary condition was attended with, and with-
out which it might have been infinitely more miserable.
I gave humble and hearty thanks, that God had been
pleased to discover to me, even that it was possible I
might be more happy in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in society, and in all the pleasures of
the world.

Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condi-
tion would break upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the
mountains, the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner
locked up with the eternal bolts and bars of the ocean,
in an uninhabitated wilderness without redemption. In
the midst of the greatest composures of my mind, this
would break out upon me like a storm, and make me
wring my hands, and weep like a child. Sometimes it
would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look down upon the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 118

ground for an hour or two together. This was still
worse to me; for, if I could burst out into tears, or vent
myself by words, it would go off, and the grief, having
exhausted itself, would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts.
I daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts
of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad,
I opened the Bible upon these words: “I will never, never
leave thee, nor forsake thee!” Immediately it occurred
that these words were to me. Why else should they be
directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was
mourning over my condition as one forsaken of God and
man? “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not forsake me,
of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it,
though the world should all forsake me, seeing on
the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose
the favor and blessing of God, there would be no com-
parison in the loss.”

I never opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul
within me blessed God for directing my friend in Eng-
land, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my
goods, and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the
wreck of the ship.

In this disposition of mind, I began my third year.
Though I have not given the reader the trouble of so par-
ticular an account of my works this year as at the first,
yet, in general, it may be observed, that I was very seldom
idle; having regularly divided my time, according to the
several daily employments that were before me, such as,
first, my duty to God, and reading the Scriptures, which
I constantly set apart some time for thrice every day.
Secondly, the going abroad with my gun for food, which
114 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

generally took me up three hours every morning when it
did not rain. Thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving,
and cooking what I had killed or caught for my supply.
These took up great part of the day. Also, it is to be
considered, that, in the middle of the day, the violence of
the heat was too great to stir out; so that about four
hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed
to work in; with this exception, that sometimes I changed
my hours of hunting and working, and went to work in
the morning, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be
added the exceeding laboriousness of my work. For
want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, every-
thing that I did took up many hours out of my time.
For example, I was full two-and-forty days making me
a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas two sawyers, with their tools and saw-pit, would
have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.

My case was this: It was to be a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one.
The tree I was three days a cutting down, and two more
cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log or piece
of timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I
reduced both the sides of it into chips, till it began to be
light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one
side of it smooth and flat as a board, from end to end;
then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and
smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labor of
my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and patience
carried me through that and many other things.

I was now in the months of November and December,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 115

expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured or dug up for them, was not great. As I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of
half a peck; for I had lost one whole crop by sowing in
the dry season. But now my crop promised very well,
when, on a sudden, I found I was in danger of losing it all
again by enemies of several sorts, which it was scarce
possible to keep from it. At first, the goats, and wild
creatures which I called hares, which, tasting the sweet-
ness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it
came up, and ate it so close that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalks.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure
about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of
toil; and the more, because it required a great deal of
speed, the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as
my arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it
totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shoot-
ing some of the creatures in the daytime, I set my dog to
guard it in the night, tying him up to a stake at the gate,
where he would stand and bark all night long. So, in a
little time, the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But, as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was
in the blade, so the birds were as like to ruin me now,
when it was in the ear; for, going along by the place to
see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with
fowls of I know not how many sorts, which stood, as it
were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them (for I always had my gun with me). I
had no sooner shot, but there arose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn

itself. ,
\


116 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that, in a few
days, they would devour all my hopes; that I should be
starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what
to do I could not tell. However, I resolved not to lose
my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and
day. In the first place, I went among it to see what dam-
age was already done, and found they had spoiled a good
deal of it; but that, as it was yet too green for them, the
loss was not so great, but the remainder was like to be a
good crop, if it could be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about
me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the
event proved it to be so; for, as I walked off, as if I was
gone, I was no sooner out of their sight, but they dropped
down one by one into the corn again. I was so provoked,
that I could not have patience to stay till more came on,
knowing that every grain that they ate now was, as it
might be said, a peck loaf to me in the consequence. But
coming up to the hedge, I fired again and killed three of
them. This was what I wished for. So I took them up and
served them, as we serve notorious thieves in England;
that is, hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It
is almost impossible to imagine that this should have such
an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come
at the corn, but in short they forsook all that part of the
island, and I could never see a bird near the place as long
as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of,
you may be sure; and, about the latter end of December,
which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my
corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or a sickle to cut it
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 117

down, and all I could do was to make. one as well as I
could, out of one of the broadswords, or cutlasses, which I
saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as my
crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down.
In short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the
ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had
made, and so rubbed it out with my hands. At the
end of all my harvesting, I found that, out of my half-peck
of seed, I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess,
for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I
foresaw that in time it would please God to supply me
with bread. Yet here I was perplexed again, for I neither
knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or, indeed,
how to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how
to make bread of it; and, if how to make it, yet I knew |
not how to bake it. These things being added to my
desire of having a good quantity for store, and to secure
a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next season, and
in the meantime to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing myself
with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread.
It is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people
have thought much upon; namely, the strange multitude
of little things necessary in the providing, producing,

uring, dressing, making, and finishing, this one article of
bread.

First, I had no ee the earth, no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making a
118 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

wooden spade, as T observed before. But this did my work
in but a wooden manner; and, though it cost me a great
many days to make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only
wore out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and
made it be performed much worse.

However, this I bore with, too, and was content to work
it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the
performance. When the corn was sowed, I had no har-
row, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch the earth, as it
may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.

When it was growing or grown, I have observed already
how many things I wanted, to fence it, secure it, mow or
reap it, cure or carry it home, thresh, part it from the
chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it,
sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and
an oven to bake it in. All these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable
comfort and advantage to me, too. But all this, as I said,
made everything laborious and tedious to me; but that
there was no help for, neither was my time so much loss
to me, because I had divided it. A certain part of it was
every day appointed to these works, and, as I resolved to
use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quan-
tity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself,
wholly by labor and invention, to furnish myself with
utensils proper for the performing all the operations neces-
sary for the making of the corn, when I had it, fit for
my use.

But first, I was to prepare more land, for I had now
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I
did this, I had a week’s work, at least, to make me a
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 119

spade, which, when it was done, was a very sorry one
indeed, aid very heavy, and required double labor to
work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed
my seeds in two large, flat pieces of ground, as near my
house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them
in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut off
that wood which I had set before, which I knew would
grow; so that in one year’s time I knew I should have a
quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair.
This work was not so iittle as to take me up less than
three months; because great part of that time was in the
wet season, when I could not go abroad.

Within door, that is when it rained, and I could not go
out, I found employment on the following occasion, always
observing, that all the while I was at work, I diverted
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to
speak. I quickly taught him *» know his own name, at
least, to speak it out pretty toud, “Poll,” which was the
first word I ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth
but my own. This, therefore, was not my work, but an
assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great
employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long stud-
ied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen
vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not
where to come at them. However, considering the heat
of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I could find out
any such clay, I might botch up some such pot, as might,
being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong enough
to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and
required to be kept so. As this was necessary in prepar-
ing corn, meal, etc., which was the thing I was upon, I
resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to
stauc like jars, to hold what should be put into them.
120 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

It wouid make the reader pity me, or rather iaugh at
me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this
paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not
being stiff enough tc bear its own weight; how many
cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only remov-
ing, as well before as after they were dried; and, in a
word, how, after having labored hard to find the clay, to
dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it, I could
not make above two large earthen, ugly things —I cannot
call them jars —in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard,
I lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in
two greater wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose
for them, that they might not break. As between the pot
and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed
it full of the rice and barley straw; and these two pots
being to stand always dry, I thought it would hold my
dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was
bruised.

Though I misearried so much in my design for large
pots, yet I made several smaller things with better success,
such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins,!
and anything my hand turned to, and the heat of the sun
baked them strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to
get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the
fire, which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat,
when I went to put it out, after I had done with it, I found

1 Small carthen boilers,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 121

a broken piece of my earthen ware vessels in the fire,
burnt as hard as a stone and red as a tile. I was agreeably
surprised to see it, and said to myself, that certainly they
might be made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn me some pots. I had no nction of a kiln, such as
the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though
‘had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large
pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile one upon another,
and placed my firewood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round
vhe outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the
inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run. For
the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I
had gone on. So I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots
began to abate of the red color. Watching them all
night that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good, I will not say handsome,
pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with
the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthen ware for my use; but I must needs say, as
to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when I had no way of making them, but
as the children make dirt pies, or as a woman would make
pies that never learnt to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to

TS gc ier ah 6


122 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they
were cold, before I set one upon the fire again, with soine
water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admitably
well. With a piece of kid I made some very good broth,
though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it so good as I would have had it.

My next concern was to get me astone mortar to stamp
or beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there was no
thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair
of hands. To supply this want Iwas at a great loss; for
of all trades in the world I was as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I any
tools to go about it with. Ispent many a day to find out
a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for
a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in
the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or cut out;
nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness suffi-
cient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would
neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break
the corn without filling it with sand. So, after a great
deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over,
and resolved to look out for a great block of hard wood,
which I found indeed much easier. Getting one as big as
I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the
outside with my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help
of fire and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made
a great, heavy pestle or beater of the wood called the iron-
wood. This I prepared and laid by against I had my
next crop of corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or
rather pound, my corn or meal to make my bread. ;
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 123

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, to dress my
meal, and part it from the bran and the husk, without
wuich I did not see it possible I could have any bread.
This was a most difficult thing,so much as but to think
on; for, to be sure, I had nothing like the necessary
things to make it with; I mean fine, thin canvas or stuff,
to sift tue meal through. And here I was at a full stop
for many months; nor did I-really know what to do.
Linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had
goat’s hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it;
and had I known how, here were no tools to work it with.
All-the remedy I found for this was, that at last I did
remember I had among the seamen’s clothes, which were
saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin.
With some pieces of these I made three small sieves, but
proper enough for the work. Thus I made shift for some
years. How I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered,
and how I should make bread when I came to have corn;
for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, as there was
no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it. But, for an oven, I was, indeed, in great pain.
At length I found out an experiment for that also, which
was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but
not deep; that is to say, about two feet diameter, and not
above nine inches deep. These I burnt in the fire, as I
had done the other, and laid them by. Whek I wanted
to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles, of my own making and
burning also; but I should not call them square. When
the firewood was burnt pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to

7" Pe
124 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

cover it all over. There I let them lie, till the hearth was
very hot. Then, sweeping away all the embers, I set
down my loaf or loaves; and, whelming! down the earthen
pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of

the pot, to keep in and add to the heat. Thus, as well as

in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-loaves,
and became in a little time a pastry-cook into the bargain,
for I made myself several cakes of the rice, and puddings.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me
up most part of the third year of my abode here; for it is
to be observed, that in the intervals of these things, I had
my new harvest and husbandry to manage. I reaped my
corn in its season, and carried it home as well as I could,
and laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, tid I bad
time to rub it out; for I had no floor to thrash it on, ér
instrument to thrash it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place toay
it up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me so
much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and
of the rice as much, or more; insomuch that. I now
resolved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been
quite gone a great while. Also I resolved to see what
quantity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to
sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year ;
so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year
that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would
fully provide me with bread.

1 Throwing down so as to cover them. x

‘
fe

OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 125

CHAPTER XIII.

LL the while these things were doing, you may be
sure my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect
of lénd which I had seen from the other side of the island;
ang J was not without secret wishes that I was on shore
theg@® fancying that, seeing the main-land and an inhabited
I might find some way or other to convey myself
, perhap8, at last find some means of escape.
Pt. 1 this while, I made no allowance for the dangers
0 ‘uch a condition, and how I might fall into the hands
offfvages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to
t far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa. That,
if I once came into their power, I should run a hazard,
nere than a thousand to one, of being killed, and perhaps
# being.eaten; for I had heard that the people of the
Garibbean coast were cannibals or men-eaters. I knew







@&py the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore.

All these things, I say, which I ought to have considered
well of, and F-did cast up in my thoughts afterwards, yet
took none of my apprehensions at first. My head ran
continually upon the thought of getting over to that shore.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long boat with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a
thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in
vain. Then I thought I would go and look on our ship’s
boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore


126 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

a great way in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds,
almost bottom upwards, against the high ridge of a beachy,
rough sand, but no water about her as before.

Had I had hands to have refitted her, and have launched
ner into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her
easily enough; but I might have easily foreseen that I
could no more turn her, and set her upright upon her
bottom, than I could remove the island. However, I went
to the wood, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them
to the boat, resolving to try what I could do; suggesting
to myself, that, if I could but turn her down, I might
easily repair the damage she had received, and she would
be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in her very
easily.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless
toil, and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it. At
last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little
strength, I fell to digging away the sand to undermine it,
and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to
thrust and guide it right in the fall. '

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up
again, or to get under it; much less, to move it forwards
towards the water; so I was forced to give it over. And
yet, though I gave over hopes of the boat, my desire to
venture over for the main increased, rather than decreased,
as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not
possible to make myself a canoe or periagua, such as the
natives of those climates make, even without tools, or, as
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 127

e

I might say, without hands; namely, of the trunk of a
great tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy;
and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making ~
it, and with my having much more convenience for it
than any of the negroes or Indians. I did not at all con-
sider the particular inconveniences which I lay under more
than the Indians did; namely, want of hands to move
it into the water, when it was made, —a difficulty much
harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of
want of tools could be to them. But my thoughts were
so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I never
once considered how I should get it off the land; and it
was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide
it over forty-five miles of sea, than above forty-five fath-
oms of land where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased
myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it. Not but that the difficulty
of launching my boat came often into my head; but I put
a stop to my own inquiries into it by this foolish answer
which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I will war-
rant I will find some way or other to get it along when it
is done.”

This was a most preposterous method; but the eager-
ness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went, and felled
a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the building of the temple of Jerusalem. It
was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the
stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end of
twenty-two feet, after which it lessened for a while, and ~
then parted into branches. It was not without infinite


128 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

labor that I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking
and hewing at it at the bottom. I was fourteen more get-
ting the branches and limbs and the vast spreading head
of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my
axe and hatchet, with inexpressible labor. After this, it
cost ine a month to shape it and dub! it to a proportion, and
to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim
upright as it ought. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact
boat of it. This I did indeed without fire, by mere mallet
and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor; till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big
enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When [had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than
I ever saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be
sure. There remained nothing but to get it into the
water. Had I gotten it into the water, I make no ques-
tion but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and
the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was under-
taken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me,
though they cost infinite labor too. It lay about one hun-
dred yards from the water, and not more. But the first
inconvenience was, it was up-hill towards the creek. Well,
to take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into
the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I
began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains. But
who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view?

1 To hew it.
CF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 129

When this was worked through, and this difficulty man-
aged, it was still much at one;! for I could no more stir
the canoe than I could the other boat.

Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved
to cut a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe,
seeing I could not bring the canoe down to the water.
Well, I began this work. But when I calculated how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be
thrown out, I found that by the number of hands I had,
being none but my own, it must have been ten or twelve
years before I should have gone through with it; for the
shore lay high, so that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep. So, at length, though with great
reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too
late, the folly of beginning a work before we count the
cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in
this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devo-
tion, and with as much comfort, as ever before; for, by a
constant study, and serious application 6f the word of
God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained a differ-
ent knowledge from what I had before. I entertained
different notions of things. I looked now upon the world
as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do with, no ex-
pectation from, and indeed no desires about. -In a word, I
had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever like to
have. So I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look
upon it hereafter, namely, as a place I had lived, ing*but
was come out of it. And well might I say, as. Father

1 It was in much the same condition as before. f ‘B


180 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Abraham to Dives, ‘ Between me and thee there is a great
gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was removed from all the wicked-
ness of the world here. I had neither the lust of the
flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had
nothing to covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoy-
ing. I was lord of the manor; or, if I pleased, I might
call myself king or emperor over the whole country which
I had possession of. There were no rivals. I had no
competitor, none to dispute sovereignty or command with
me! I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had
no use for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough
for my oceasion. I had tortoises or turtles enough; but
now and then, one was as much as I could put to any use.
Thad timber enough to have built a fleet of ships. I had
grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cured into
raisins to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.

I had, as I hinted before, a parcel. of money, as well
gold as silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas!
there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay. I had no manner
of business for it, and I often thought with myself, that I
would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-
pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would
have given it all for six-penny worth of turnip and carrot
seed out of England, or for a handful of peas and beans,
and a bottle of ink.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or
very much wasted, and near spent. My ink, as I ob-
served, had been gone for some time, all but a very little,
which I eked out with water a little and a little, till it

‘See Cowper’s poem of Alexander Selkirk.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

was so pale it scarce left any appearance of black upon
the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to min-
ute down the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me; and first, by casting up times past,
I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of
days in the various providences which befell me, and
which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have
looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed that the same day that I broke
away from my father and my friends, and ran away to
Hull in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards, I was
taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave.

The same day of the year that I escaped out of the
wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day of
the year afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in the
boat.

The same day of the year I was born on, namely, the
30th of September, the same day I had my life so miracu-
lously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on
shore in this island; so that my wicked life and solitary
life both began on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my
bread; I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the
ship. This I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing
myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year, and
yet I was quite without bread for near a year before I got
any corn of my own; and great reason I had to be thank-
ful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been
already observed, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay. As to linen, I had
had none a good while, except some checkered shirts


182 ' LIFE AND ADVENTURES

which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and
which I carefully preserved, because many times I could
bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was a very
great help to me that I had, among all the men’s clothes
of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There were,
also, several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s, which were
left indeed, but they were too hot to wear.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the
creatures that I killed, —I mean four-footed ones ; and I
had hung them up stretched out with sticks in the sun,
by which means some of them were so dry and hard that
they were fit for little; but others, it seems, were very
useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap
for my head, with the hair on the outside to shoot off the
rain. This I performed so well, that, after this, I made
a suit of clothes wholly of those skins; that is to say, a
waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose ;
for they were rather wanted to keep me cool than ‘to keep
me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they
were wretchedly made; for, if I was a bad carpenter, I
was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made
very good shift with; and, when I was abroad, if it
happened to rain, the hair of the waistcoat and cap being
outmost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to
make me an umbrella. I was, indeed, in great want of
one, and had a great mind to make one. I had seen them
made in the Brazils, where they are very useful in the
great heats which are there; and I felt the heats every
jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equi-
nox.! Besides, as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was

1 That is, the equator,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 138

a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the
heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while
before I could make anything likely to hold. Nay, after
I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before
I made one to my mind; but, at last, I made one that
answered indifferently well. The main difficulty I found
was to make it to let down. I could make it to spread;
but if it did not let down too, and draw in, it would not
be portable for me any way, but just over my head, which
would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to
answer. I covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so
that it cast off the rain like a pent-house,! and kept off the
sun so effectually that I could.walk out in the hottest of
the weather with greater advantage than I could before in
the coolest. When I had no need of it, I could close it,
and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived very comfortably, my mind ere entirely
composed, by resigning to the will of God, and throwing
myself wholly upon the disposal of his Providence.

I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extraordi-
nary thing happened to me; but I lived on in the same course,
in the same posture and place, just as before. The chief
thing I was employed in, besides my yearly labor of plant-
ing my barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both
which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient
stock of the year’s provisions beforehand; I say, besides
this yearly labor, and my daily labor of going out with my
gun, I had one labor to make me a canoe, which at last I
finished. By digging a canal to it six feet wide, and four ©
feet deep, I brought it into the creek, almost half a mile.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet

1 A shed.


184 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

the size of it was not at all answerable to the design which
I had in view, when I made the first; I mean of venturing
over to the terra firma, where it was above forty miles
broad. Accordingly, the smallness of my boat assisted to
put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of
it. But, as I had a boat, my next design was to make a
tour round the island; for, as I had been on the other side,
in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over
the land, so the discoveries I made in that journey made
me very eager to see other parts of the coast. Now I had
a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with
discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the

‘ship’s sails, which lay in store, and of which I had a great
store by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I
found she would sail very well. Then, I made little
lockers and boxes at each end of my boat, to put provisions,
necessaries, and ammunition, etc., into, to be kept dry,
either from rain, or the spray of the sea. A little, long,
hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could
lay my gun, making a flap to hang down over it to keep it
dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a
mast, to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun
off me, like anawning. Thus I every now and then took a
little voyage upon the sea, but never went far out, nor far
from the little creek. But at last, being eager to view the
circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
tour, and accordingly I victualed my ship for the voyage;
putting in two dozen of my loaves (cakes, I should rather
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. , 185

call them) of barley bread ; an earthen pot full of parched
rice, a food I ate a great deal of; a little bottle of rum,
half a goat, and powder with shot for killing more; and
two large watch-coats, of those which, as I mentioned be-
fore, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests. These I took,
one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.


136 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER XIV.

T was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my
reign, or my captivity, which you please, that I set out
on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected.
Though the island itself was not very large, yet when I
came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks
lie out about two leagues into the sea, some above water,
some under it. Beyond this was a shoal of sand, lying dry
half a league more; so that I was obliged to go a great
way out to sea to double that point.

When I first discovered these obstacles, I was going to
give over my enterprise, and come back again, not knowing
how far it might oblige me to go out to sea, and above all,
doubting how I should get back again. So I came to an
anchor, for I had made me a kind of an anchor, with a
piece of broken grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun, and went on
shore, climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that
point, where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to
venture.

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I
perceived a strong, and, indeed, a most furious current,
which ran to the east, and even came close to the point. I
took the more notice of it, because I saw there might be
some danger that when I came into it, I might be carried
out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 187

the island again. And, indeed, had I not gotten first upon
this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there was
the same‘current on the other side of the island, only that
it set it off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a
strong eddy under the shore. So I had nothing to do but
to get out of the first current, and I should presently be
in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days; because the wind blow-
ing pretty fresh (E. at S. E., and that being just contrary
to the said current) made a great breach of the sea upon the
point; so that it was not safe for me to keep too close to
the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off because of
the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated
over night, the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I ama
warning-piece again to all rash and ignorant pilots. For
no sooner was I come to the point, when I was not my
boat’s length from the shore, but I found myself in a great
depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill. It
carried my boat along with it with such violence that all
I could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of
it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from
the eddy, which was on the left hand. There was no
wind stirring to help me, and all that I could do with my
paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give
myself over for lost. For, as the current was on both
sides the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they
must join again, and then I was irrevocably gone. Nor
did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no
prospect before me but of perishing; not by the sea, for
that was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had,
indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I


1388 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

could lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a
great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one of my earthen
pots. But what was all this to being driven into the vast
ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland
or island, for a thousand leagues at least !

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God
to make the most miserable condition that mankind could
be in worse. Now I looked back upon my desolate, solitary
island, as the most pleasant place in the world, and that
all the happiness my heart could wish for, was to be there
again. I stretched out my hands to it with eager wishes.
“O happy desert,” said I, “I shall never see thee more!”
*O, miserable creature!” said I, “whither am I going?”
Then I reproached myself with my unthankful temper,
and how I had repined at my solitary condition. And
now what would I give to be on shore there again!
Thus, we never see the true state of our condition, till it
is illustrated to us by its contraries ; or know how to
value what we enjoy, but by the want o it, It is scarce
possible to imagine the consternation I was now in, being
driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me
now to be) into the wild ocean, almost two leagues, and
in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. How-
ever, I worked hard, till indeed my strength was almost
exhausted ; and kept my boat as much to the northward,
that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy
lay on, as possibly I could. When, about noon, as the sun
passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of
wind in my face, springing up from the $8. 8. E. This
cheered my heart a little, and especially when, in about
half an hour more, it blew a pretty small, gentle gale. By
this time I was gotten at a frightful distance from the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

island ; and, had the least cloud or hazy weather intervened,
I had been undone another way too ; for I had no compass
on board, and should never have known how to have steered
towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it. But
the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up
my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the
north as much as possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began
to stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness of the water,
some alteration of the current was near ; for, where the cur-
rent was so strong, the water was foul. But, perceiving
the water clear, I found the current abate, and presently I
found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the sea
upon some rocks. These rocks, I found, caused the cur-
rent to part again; and, as the main stress of it ran away
more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the
other returned by the repulse of the rock, and made a
strong eddy, which ran back again to the north-west with
a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to
them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just
going to murder them, or who have been in such like
extremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy
was, and how gladly I put my boat into the stream of this
eddy. And the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread
my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and
with a strong tide or eddy under foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back
again directly towards the island, but about two leagues
more towards the northward than the current lay, which
carried me away at first; so that, when I came near the
island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it,
140 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that
which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of
way by the help of this current or eddy, I found it was
spent, and served me no further. However, I found that
being between the two great currents, namely, that on
the south side which had hurried me away, and that on
the north, which lay about two leagues on the other side,
I say, between these two, in the west of the island, I
found the water at least still, and running no way; and
having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steer-
ing directly for the island, though not making such fresh
way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within
about a league of the island, I stretched across this eddy,
slanting north-west, and in about an hour came within
about a mile of the shore. It being smooth water, I soon
got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave
God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all
thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and, refreshing
myself with such things as I had, I brought my boat close
to the shore, in a little cove that I had espied under some
trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with
the labor and fatigue of the voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat. J had run so much hazard, and knew too much of
the case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out;
and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side)
I knew not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures.
So I only resolved in the morning to make my way west-
ward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 141

where I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have-
her again if I wanted her. In about three miles, or there-
abouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet, or
bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came to a
very little rivulet, or brook, where I found a convenient
harbor for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been
in a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in,
and, having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to
look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where
I had been before when I travelled on foot to that shore;
so, taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and my
umbrella, for it was exceeding hot, I began my march.
The way was comfortable enough after such a voyage as
I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in the
evening, where I found everything standing as I left it;
for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said before,
my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, —for I was very weary, —and fell asleep. But
judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise
I must be in, when I was awaked out of my sleep by a
voice calling me by my name several times, “ Robin, Robin,
Robin Crusoe, poor Robin Crusoe!” “Where are you,
Robin Crusoe?” ‘Where are you?” “Where have you
been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing,
or paddling, as it is called, the first part of the day, and
walking the latter part, that I did not awake thoroughly;
and, dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I
dreamed that somebody spoke to me. But, as the voice
continued to repeat, “ Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe,” at last

eis iro LAs 2 SR moe
142 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I began to awake more perfectly, and was at first dread-
fully frightened, and started up in the utmost consterna-
tion. But no sooner were my eyes open, than I saw my
Poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and immediately
knew that this was he that spoke to me; for just in such
bemoaning language I used to talk to him, and teach
lim. He had learned it so perfectly, that he would
sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and
ery, “Poor Robin Crusoe, where are you?” “ Where
have you been?” “How came you here?” — and such
things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and
that, indeed, it could be nobody else, it was a good while
before I could compose myself. First, I was amazed how
the creature got thither, and then how he should just keep
about the place,and nowhere else. But as I was well satis-
fied it could be nobody but honest Poll, I held out my
hand, and called him by his name. The sociable creature
came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do.
He continued talking to me, Poor Robin Crusoe, and how
did I come here? and where had I been? just as if he had
been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him
home along with me.

T had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
enough to do for many days to sit still, and reflect upon
the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad
to have had my boat again on my side of the island, but I
knew not how it was practicable to get it about. As to
the east side of the island, which I had gone round, I knew
well enough there was no venturing that way. My very
heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to
think of it. As to the other side of the island, I did not
know how it might be there. But, supposing the current
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 148

ran with the same force against the shore at the east, as
it passed by it on the other, I might run the same risk of
being driven down the stream, and carried by the island,
as I had been before of being carried away from it. So
with these thoughts I contented myself to be without
any boat, though it had been the p#duct of so many
months’ labor to make it, and of so many more to get
it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a
year, and lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well
suppose. My thoughts being very much composed as to
my condition, and being fully comforted in resigning my-
self to the dispensations of Providence, I thought I lived
really very happily in all things, except that of society.

I improved myself, in this time, in all the mechanic ex-
ercises which my necessities put me upon applying myself
to. I believe I could, upon occasion, have made a very

- good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in
my earthenware, and contrived well enough to make them
with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better,
because I made things round and shapeable, which before
were filthy things indeed to look on. But I think I never
was more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for
anything I found out, than for my being able to make a
tobacco-pipe. Though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing
when it was done, and only burnt red like other earthen
ware, yet as it was hard and firm, and would draw the
smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it. For I had
always been used to smoke, and there were pipes in the
ship, but I forgot them at first, not knowing there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched
the ship again, I could not come at any pipes at all.





ee ee ee ee ee en Lk ee et a hee eee ae eee ee Ae te
144 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In my wicker ware I also improved much, and made
abundance of necessary baskets as well as my invention
showed me, though not very handsome, yet convenient for
my laying things up in, or fetching things home in. For
example, if I killed a goat abroad I could hang it up in a
tree, flay it, and dress it, and cut it in pieces, and bring it
home in a basket; and the like by a turtle. I could cut
it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the flesh,
which was enough for me, and bring them home in a
basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also large, deep,
baskets were my receivers for my corn, which I always
rubbed out as soon as it was dry and cured; and kept it
in great baskets instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated consider-
ably; and this was a want which it was impossible for me
to supply. Then I began seriously to consider what I
must do when I should have no more powder ; that is to
say, how should I do to kill any goats. I had, as I
observed, in the third year of my being here, kept a young
kid and bred her tame. I was in hopes of getting a he-
kid, but I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my
kid grew an old goat; and I could never find it in my
heart to kill her, till she died at last of mere age.

But, being now in the eleventh year of my residence,
and, as I have said, my ammunition growing low, I set
myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive. To
this purpose I made snares to hamper them; and I believe
they were more than once taken in them. But my tackle
was not good, for I had no wire, and always found them
broken, and my bait devoured. At length I resolved to
try a pit-fall; so I dug several large pits in the earth, in


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 145

places where I had observed the goats used to feed, and
over these pits I placed hurdles of my own making, too,
with a great weight upon them. Several times I put ears
of barley, and dry rice, without setting the trap. I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in, and eaten up
the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At
length, I set three traps in one night, and, going the next
morning, I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten
and gone. This was very discouraging. However, I altered
my trap; and, not to trouble you with particulars, going
one morning to see my traps, I found in one of them a
large, old he-goat; and, in one of the others, three kids, a
male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him. He
was so fierce I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to
say, to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted.
I could have killed him, but that was not my business,
nor would it answer my end; so I e’en let him out, and
he ran away as if he had been frightened out of his wits.
But I did not then know what I afterwards learned, that
hunger would tame a lion. If I had let him stay there
three or four days without food, and then have carried
him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would
have been as tame as one of the kids; for they are very
sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are well used.

However, for the present, I let him go, knowing no
better at that time. Then I went to the three kids, and,
taking them one by one, I tied them with strings together;
and, with some difficulty, brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but, throw-
ing them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they
began to be tame. And now I found that, if I expected

es
146 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to supply myself with goat’s flesh, when I had no powder
or shot left, breeding some up tame was my only way,
when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a
flock of sheep. But then it presently occurred to me, that
I must keep the tame from the wild, or else they would
always run wild when they grew up. The only way
for this was to have some enclosed piece of ground, well
fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so
effectually that those within might not break out, or those
without break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands.
Yet, as I saw there was an absolute necessity of doing it,
my first piece of work was to find out a proper piece of
ground; namely, where there was likely to be herbage for
them to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to keep
them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures, will think I
had very little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place
very proper for all these, being a plain, open piece of
meadow-land, or savanna (as our people call it in the
western colonies), which had two or three little rills of
fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody. I say
they will smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them
I began my enclosing of this piece of ground in such a
manner, that my hedge or pale must have been, at least,
two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so great as
to the compass; for, if it was ten miles about, I was like
to have time enough to do it in. But I did not consider
that my goats would be as wild in so much compass, as if
they had had the whole island; and I should have so
much room to chase them in, that I should never catch
them. My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 147

about fifty yards, when this thought occurred to me. So
I presently stopped short, and, for the first beginning, I
resolved to enclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty
yards in length, and one hundred yards in breadth, which,
as it would maintain as many as I should’ have in any
reasonable time, so, as my flock increased, I could add
more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to
work with courage. I was about three months hedging
in the first piece; and, till I had done it, I tethered the
three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as
near me as possible, to make them familiar. Very often
I would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a hand-
ful of rice, and feed them out of my hand; so that, after
my enclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they
would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a
handful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half
T had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in
two years more I had three and forty, besides several I
took and killed for my food. After that, I enclosed five
several pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens
to drive them into, to take them as I wanted them; and
gates out of one piece of ground into another.

But this was not all. For now I not only had goat’s
flesh to feed on when | pleased, but milk, too, —a thing
which, indeed, in my beginning, I did not so much as
think of, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was
really an agreeable surprise; for now I sat up my dairy, and
had, sometimes, a gallon or two of milk in a day. And,
as Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature,
dictates, even naturally, how to make use of it, so I, that


148 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or seen butter
or cheese made, very readily and handily, though after a
great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter
and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards.

How mercifully can our great Creator treat his crea-
tures, even in those conditions in which they seem to
be overwhelmed in destruction! How can he sweeten the
bitterest providences, and give us cause to praise him for
dungeons and prisons! What a table was here spread for
me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to
perish for hunger!

It would have made a stoic! smile to have seen me and
my little family sit down to dinner. There was my maj-
esty, the prince and lord of the whole island. I had the
lives of all my subjects at absolute command. I could
hang, draw, give liberty, and take it away, and no rebels
among all my subjects!

Then to see how like a king I dined, too, all idee at-
tended by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my favor-
ite, was the only person permitted to talk tome. My dog,
which was now grown old and crazy, sat always at my
right hand; and two cats, one on one side the table, and
one on the other, expecting now and then a bit from my
hand as a mark of special favor.

) A storc is a man who is not moved either by pleasure or pain.

+
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 149

CHAPTER XY.

WAS something impatient, as I have observed, to have
the use of my boat, though very loth to run any more
hazard. Therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to get
* her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down
contented enough without her. But I had a strange un-
easiness in my mind to go down to the point of the island,
where, as I have said, in my last ramble, I went up the
hill to see how the shore lay, and how the current set, that
I might see what I had to do. This inclination increased
on me every day; and at length I resolved to travel thither
by land, and following the edge of the shore, I did so.
But had-any one in England been to meet sucha man as I
was, it must either have frightened him or raised a great
deal of laughter; and, as I frequently stood still to look. at
myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my travel-
ling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such _
adress. I had a great, high, shapeless cap, made of goat’s-
skin, with a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the
sun from me, as to shoot the rain off from running into
my neck; nothing. being so hurtful in these climates as
the rain upon the flesh under the clothes. I had a short
jacket of goat’s-skin, the skirts coming down to about the
middle of my thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of
the same. The breeches were made of the skin of an old
he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either
side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my



witht oN inde a 8 ee te ae a et a ooops. | pRB ESB DE cad
150 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but I made me a
pair of something, I scarce know what to call them, like
buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like
spatterdashes ;1 but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed
were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s-skin dried, which I drew
together with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; °
and, ina kind of frog on either side of this, instead of a
sword and dagger, hung a little saw and hatchet; one on
one side, one on the other. J had another belt not so broad,
and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my
shoulder ; and, at the end of it, under my left arm, hung
two pouches, both made of goat’s-skin too; in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my
back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and
over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat’s-skin umbrella,
but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I had ©
about me, next to my gun. As for my face, the color of
it was really not so Mulatto-like as one might expect from
a man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten
degrees of the equinox. My beard Ihad once suffered jp
grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but, as I
had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it
pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I
had trimmed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers,
such as I had seen worn by some Turks whom I saw at
Sallee; for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks
did. Of the mustachios, or whiskers, I will not say they
were long enough to hang my hat upon them; but they
were of length and shape monstrous enough, and such as
in England would have passed for frighful.

1 Gaiters.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 151

But all this is by-the-by; for, as to my figure, I had so
few to observe me that it was no manner of consequence,
so Isay no more to that part. In this kind of figure I
went my new journey, and was out five or six days. I
travelled first along the sea-shore, directly to the place
where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get up upon
the rocks. Having no boat now to take care of, I went
over the land a nearer way to the same height that I was
upon before; when, looking forward to the point of the
ock I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said
above, I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet;
no rippling, no motion, no current, any more there than in
other places.

J was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved
to spend some time in the observing of it, to see if nothing

from the sets of the tide had occasioned it. But I was’

presently convinced how it was; namely, that the tide of
ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current of
waters from some great river on the shore, must be the
occasion of this current; and that, accordingly, as the
wr blew more forcibly from the west, or from the north,
this current came nearer, or went farther from the shore.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to
do but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide ;
and I might very easily bring my boat about the island
again. But when I began to think about putting it in
practice, I had such terror upon my spirits at the remem-
brance of the danger I had been in, that I could not think
of it again with any patience. On the contrary, I took
up another resolution, which was more safe, though more
laborious; and this was, that I could build, or rather
make me another periagua, or canoe, and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.
152 LIFE AND ADVENTURES ¥

You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it,
two plantations in the island; one, my little fortification,
or tent, with the wall about it under the rock, with the
cave behind me, which, by this time, I had enlarged into
several apartments, or caves, one within another. One of
these, which was the driest and largest, was all filled up
with large earthern pots, of which I have given an
account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which
would hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my
stores of provisions, especially my corn, some in the 4
cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out
with my hands.

As for my wall, made as before, with long stakes or
piles, those piles grew all like trees, and were by this
time grown so big, and spread so very much, that there
was not the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any
habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within
the land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of
corn ground, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and
which duly yielded me their harvest in its season. Wh
ever I had occasion for more corn, I had more ne
adjoining as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a
tolerable plantation there also. For, first, I had my little
bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair; that is to
say, I kept the hedge which circled it in constantly fitted
up to its usual height, the ladder standing always in the
inside. I kept the trees, which, at first, were no more
than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, —
I kept them always so cut that they might spread and
grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 158

which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of
this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of sail
spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and which
never wanted any repair or renewing. Under this, I
had made me a squab or couch, with the skins of the
creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a
blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bedding,
which I had saved, and a great watch-coat to cover me.
Here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief
eat, I took up my country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my enclosures for my cattle;

_that is to say, my goats. And, as I had taken an incon-
ceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose this ground, I
was so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should
break through, that I never left off, till, with infinite labor,
I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small
stakes, and so near to one another, that it was rather a
pale than a hedge; and there was scarce room to put a
hand through between them. When those stakes grew,
as they all did in the next rainy season, this made the
7 strong like a wall; indeed, stronger than any

L.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared nec-
essary for my comfortable support. For I considered the
keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand
would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and
cheese for me, as long as I lived in the place, if it were to
be forty years; and that keeping them in my reach
depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclosures to
such a degree that I might be sure of keeping them
together.

ot tool) A ee
154 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

In this place, also, I had my grapes growing, which I
principally depended on for my winter store of raisins,
and which I never failed to preserve very carefully as the
best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and,
indeed, they were not only agreeable, but physical, whole-
some, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half way between my other
habitation and the place where I had laid up my boat, I
generally stayed and lay herein my way thither; for I used
frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about o
belonging to her in very good order. Sometimes I wen
out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous voyages
would I go, nor scarce ever above a stone’s cast or two from
the shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of
my knowledge again by the currents, or winds, or any other
accident. But now I come to anew scene of my life.

~»

=
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 155

CHAPTER XVI.

T happened one day about noon, going towards my
boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a
an’s naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to be
en in the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if
had seen an apparition. I listened; I looked around me.
could hear nothing, nor see anything. I went up to a
rising ground to look farther. I went up the shore, and
down the shore, but it was all one; I could see no other
oe but that one. I went to it again, to see if there
e any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy;
DWP there was no room for that, for there was exactly the
very print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot.
H6WAit came thither I knew not, nor could not in the least
i e. But after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like
n perfectly confused, and out of myself, I came home
to my fortification, not feeling, as we‘-say, the ground I
went on, but terrified to the last degree, looking behind
me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and
tree, and fancying every stump at a distance to be a man.
Nor is it possible to describe how many various shapes an
affrighted imagination represented things to me in; how
many wild ideas were formed every moment in my fancy,
and what strange unaccountable whimajes came into my
thoughts by the way.
When I came to my castle, for so I think I called it
156 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ever after this, I fled into it like one pursued. Whether I
went over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at
the hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot re-
member. No, nor could IT remember the next morning ;
for never frightened hare fled to cover, or fox to earth,
with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

[had no sleep that night. The farther I was from the
oceasion of my fright the greater my apprehensions were ;
which is something contrary to the nature of such things,
and especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fe
But IT was so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas
the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imagination
to myself, even though T was now a great way from it.

At last I coneluded that it must be some more danger-
ous creature; namely, that it must be some of the savages
of the main-land over against me, who had wandered ott
to sea in their canoes, and, cither driven by the curréiiits
or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had Wee
on shore, but were going away again to sea, being as léath,
perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island as I @@éild
have been to have had them. .

While these reflections were rolling upon my mi
was very thankful in my thought that I was so happy as
not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not
see my boat, by which they would have concluded that
some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps have
searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked
my imaginations about their having found my boat, and
that there were people here ; and that, if so, I should cer-
tainly have them come again in great numbers, and de-
vour me; that if it should happen so that they should not
find me, yet they would find my inclosure, destroy all my
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 157

corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I should

perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope. All that
former confidence in God which was founded upon such
wonderful experience as I had had of His goodness, now
vanished ; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto,
could not preserve by His power the provision which He
had made for me by His goodness. I reproached myself
with my easiness, that would not sow any more corn one

ear than would just serve me till the next season, as if no

ecident could intervene to prevent my enjoying the crop

hat was upon the ground. And this I thought so just a
F-reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three

years’ corn beforehand, so that whatever might come, I
might not perish for want of bread.

hese thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I

say, weeks and months. One particular effect of my

ations on this occasion I cannot omit. One morning

e lying in bed, and filled with thoughts about my

t from the appearance of savages, I found it dis-

sed me very much; upon which those words of the

pture came into my thoughts, “Call upon me in the

day of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt
glorify me.”

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and
reflections, it came into my thoughts one day, that all this
might be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot
might be the print of my own foot when I came on shore
from my boat. This cheered me up a little, too, and I
began to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it
was nothing else but my own foot. And why might not I
come that way from the boat as well as I was going that

@
158 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

way to the boat? Again, I considered also that I could
by no means tell for certain where I had trod, and where
I had not; and that, if at last this was only the print of
my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who
strive to make stories of spectres and apparitions, and
then are themselves frightened at them more than any-
body else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again.
For I had not stirred out of my castle for three days an
nights, so that I began to starve for provision ; for I h
little or nothing within doors but some barley cakes an
water. Then I knew that my goats wanted to be milke
too, Which usually was my evening diversion ; and the poor
creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want
of it. Indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and alm
dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that 4
was nothing but the print of one of my own feet (an ;
I might be truly said to start at my own shadow), I §
to go abroad again, and went to my country-house t
my flock. But to see with what fear I went forward,
often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now a
then, to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would
have made any one have thought I was haunted with an
evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly
frightened. So indeed I had.

However, as I went down thus two or three days, and
having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to
think there was really nothing in it but my own imagina-
tion. But I could not persuade myself fully of this till I
should go down to the shore again, and see this print of a
foot, and measure it by my own, and see if there was any
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 159

similitude of fitness, that I might be assured it was my

own foot. But when I came to the place first, it appeared

evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat, I could not
possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts. Secondly, when

I came to measure the mark with my own foot, I found my

foot not so large by a great deal. Both these things filled

my head with new imagination, and gave me the vapors
again to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like
one in an ague, and I went home again, filled with the he-
ef that some man or men had been on shore there; or,
short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be
urprised before I was aware. What course to take for
my security I knew not.
# This confusion of my thoughts kept me ate all night.
* Butin the morning I fell asleep, and having by the amuse-
t of my mind been, as it were, tired, and my spirits ex-
ted, I slept very soundly, and awaked much better
sed than I had ever been before. And now I began
ink sedately ; and, upon the utmost debate with my-
concluded that this island, which was so exceeding
nt, fruitful, and no farther from the main-land than
had seen, was not so entirely abandoned as I might
imagine. That although there were no stated inhabitants
who lived on the spot, yet that there might sometimes
come boats off from the shore, which, either with design,
or perhaps never but when they were driven by cross
winds, might come to this place.

That I had lived here fifteen years now, and I had not
met with the least shadow or figure of any people before;
and that, if at any time they should be driven here, it was
probable they went away again as soon as ever they could,
seeing they had never thought fit to fix there upon any
occasion to this time.







160 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

That the most I could suggest any danger from was
from any such casual accidental landing of straggling
people from the main, who, as it was likely, if they were
driven hither, were here against their wills; so they made
no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed,
seldom staying one night on shore lest they should not
have the help of the tides and daylight back again. And
that, therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some
safe retreat, in case I should see any savages land upon
the spot. ,

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cav
so large as to bring a door through again, which door, a
I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined to
the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I
resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the man
of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just wher,
planted a double row of trees about twelve years be
of which I made mention. These trees having
planted so thick before, there wanted but a few pil
be driven between them, that they should be thicke
stronger, and my wall would be finished.

So I had now a double wall, and my outer wall
thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every-
thing I could think of to make it strong; having in it
seven holes about as big as I might put my arm out at.
In the inside of this I thickened my wall to about ten feet
thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying
it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it. Through
the seven holes I contrived to plant muskets, of which
I took notice that I got seven on shore out of the ship.
These, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them
into frames that held them like a carriage, so that I could



















OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 161

fire all the seven guns in two minutes’ time. This wall
I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never
thought myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground without my

wall, for a great way every way, as full with stakes or sticks
of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as
they could well stand; insomuch that I believe I might
set in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty
arge space between them and my wall, that I might have
om to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter
om the young trees, if they attempted to approach my
uter wall.
@hus, in two years’ time I had a thick grove, and in
e or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling,
wh so monstrous thick and strong that it was, indeed,
cetly impassable; and no man of what kind soever
ever imagine that there was anything beyond it,
less a habitation. As for the way I proposed myself
in and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting
dders, one to a part of the rock which was low, and
roke in and left room to place another ladder upon
So, when the two ladders were taken down, no
man living could come down to me without mischiefing
himself; and if they had come down, they were still on
the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could
suggest for my own preservation; and it will be seen, at
length, that they were not altogether without just reason,
though I foresaw nothing, at that time, more than my
mere fear suggested.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of
my other affairs; for I had a great concern upon me for
162 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

my little herd of goats. They were not only a present
supply to me upon every occasion, and began to be suffi-
cient for me without the expense of powder and shot, but
also abated the fatigue of my hunting after the wild ones.
And I was loath to lose the advantage of them, and to
have them all to nurse up over again.

To this purpose, after long eonsilerstois I “said think
but of two ways to preserve them. One was to find
another convenient place to dig a cave under ground, an
to drive them into it every night; and the other was
enclose two or three little bits of land, remote from o
another, and as much concealed as I could, where I mig
keep about half a dozen young goats in each place;
that, if any disaster happened to the flock in general,
might be able to raise them again with little trouble
time. And this, though it would require a great de
time and labor, I thought was the most rational desi

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the
retired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one,
was as private, indeed, as my heart could wish. It
little, damp piece of ground in the middle of the h
and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost
myself once before, endeavoring to come back that way
from the eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear
piece of land, near three acres, so surrounded with woods
that it was almost an enclosure by nature. At least, it
did not want near so much labor to make it so as the
other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

T immediately went to work with this piece of ground;
and, in less than a month’s time, I had so fenced it round
that my flock or herd (call it which you please), which
were not so wild now as at first they might be supposed











OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 163

to be, were well enough secured in it. So, without any
farther delay, I removed ten she-goats and two he-goats to
this piece. When there, I continued to perfect the fence
till I made it as secure as the other; which, however, I
did at more leisure, and it took me up more time by a
great deal.

All this labor I was at the expense of purely from my
apprehensions on the account of the print of a man’s foot
which I had seen. For as yet, I never saw any human
reature come near the island; and I had now lived two
ears under these uneasinesses, which, indeed, made my
much less comfortable than it was before, as may well
imagined by any who know what it is to live in the
stant fear of man.
ut to go on. After I had thus secured one part
y little living stock, I went about the whole island
hing for another private place to make such another
it. When, wandering more to the west point of
land than I had ever done yet, and looking out
, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea ata great

ce. I had found a perspective glass or two in one
e seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship; but
Thad it not about me. This object was so remote that I
could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it
till my eyes were not able to look any longer. Whether
it was a boat, or not, I do not know; but, as I descended
from the hill I could see no more of it, soI gave it over,
only I resolved to go no more without a perspective glass
in my pocket.

When I was come down the hill, to the end of the
island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I was pres-
ently convinced that the seeing of the print of a man’s foot









164 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was not such a strange thing in the island as I imagined ;
and, but that it was a special providence that I was cast
upon the side of the island where the savages never came,
I should easily have known that nothing was more fre-
quent than for the canoes from the main, when they
happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to
that side of the island for harbor. Likewise, as they often
met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken
any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore; where
according to their dreadful customs, being all cannibals
they would kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I saa
above, being the 8. W. point of the island, I was perfec
confounded and amazed. Nor is it possible for me
express the horror of my mind at seeing the shore spr
with skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bo
And particularly I observed a place where there had
a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a coc
where it is supposed the savage wretches had sat
to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their f
creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things tha
T entertained no notions of any danger to myself from it
for a long while. All my apprehensions were buried in
the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman brutality, and
the horror of the degeneracy of human nature; which,
though I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a
view of before. In short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle. My stomach grew sick, and I was just
at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the dis-
order from my stomach; and, having vomited with an
uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but could not












OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 165

bear to stay in the place a moment. So I got me up the
hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on tow-
ards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of ise part of the island, I
stood still awhile as amazed. Then, recovering myself, I
looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with
a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks that He had
cast my first lot in a part of the world where I was dis-
inguished from such dreadful creatures as these. And,
ough I had esteemed my present condition very miser-
le, yet He had given me so many comforts in it, that I
still more to give thanks for, than to complain of.

s above all, that I had, even in this miserable condition,
n comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and the
of His blessing, which was a felicity more than
iently equivalent to all the misery which I had suf-
or could suffer.
his frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle,
egan to be much easier now, as to the safety of my
stances, than ever I was before. For I observed
ese wretches never came to this island in search of
at they could get; perhaps not seeking nor wanting,
or not expecting anything here; and having often, no
doubt, been up in the covered, woody part of it without
finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been
here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps of a human creature there before ; and might be
here eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I was
now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no
manner of occasion to do, it being my only business to
keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found
a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself
known to.














166 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the wretch-
ed, inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one
another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and kept
close within my own circle for almost two years after this.
When I say my own circle, I mean by it my three planta-
tions; namely, my castle, my country-seat, which I called
my bower, and my enclosure in the woods. Nor did I
look after this for any other use than as an enclosure for
my goats. For the aversion which nature gave me
these inhuman wretches was such, that I was as fearful
seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. Nor did
much as go to look after my boat in all this time, B
began rather to think of never making any more attem
to bring the other boat round the island to me, le
should meet with some of these creatures at sea, in w
if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I
what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I
no danger of being discovered by these people, be
wear off my uneasiness about them; and I began t
just in the same composed manner as before, only
this difference, that I used more caution, and kept my
eyes more about me than I did before, lest kKshould happen
to be seen by any of them. And particularly, I was more
cautious of firing my gun, lest any of them being on the
island should happen to hear it. It was, therefore, a very
good providence to me, that I had furnished myself with a
tame breed of goats, that I had no need to hunt any more
about the woods, or shoot at them. If I did catch any more
of them after this, it was with traps and snares, as I had
done before. So that for two years after this, I believe I













OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 167

never fired my gun once off, though I never went out
without it; and, which was more, as I had saved three
pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out with me,
or, at least, two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin
belt. I likewise furbished up one of the great cutlasses
that I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to put it
in, also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to
look at when I went abroad, if you add to the former
description of myself the particular of two pistols, and a
eat broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but with-
ut a scabbard.
168 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER XVII.

HINGS going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I
seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my
former calm, sedate way of living. All these things tende
to show me more and more how far my condition wai
from being miserable, compared to some others; nay,
many other particulars of life, which it might have pleas®at
God to have made my lot. It put me upon reflecting
how little repining there would be among mankind, g
any condition of life, if people would rather compare tY
condition with those that are worse, in order to be thé
ful, than be always comparing them with those which
better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.
As in my present condition there were not really
things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought the frig
had been in about these savage wretches, and the concé
I had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the
edge of my invention for my own conveniences. And I had
dropt a good design, which I had once bent my thoughts
upon. That was, to try if I could not make some of
my barley into malt, and then try to brew myself some
beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved
myself often for the simplicity of it. For I presently saw
there would be the want of several things necessary to
the making of my beer, that it would be impossible for me
to supply. As, first, casks to preserve it in, which was a












OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 169

thing that, as I have observed already, I could never com-
pass; no, though I spent, not many days, but weeks, nay
months, in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it
work, no copper or kettle to make it boil. And yet, had
not all these things intervened, I mean the frights and
terrors I was in about the savages, I had undertaken it,
and perhaps brought it to pass, too; for I seldom gave
anything over without accomplishing it, when I once had
t in my head enough to begin it.

But my invention now ran quite another way. For,
ight and day, I could think of nothing but how I might
troy some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody
~ entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they should
. bring hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume
men this whole work is intended to be to set down all the
rivances I hatched, or rather brooded upon in my
ghts, for the destroying of these creatures, or, at least,
tening them, so as to prevent their coming hither any
; but all was abortive. Nothing could be possible to
effect unless I was to be there to do it myself. And

At could one man do among them, when, perhaps there
might be twenty or thirty of them together, with their
darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they could
shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?

Sometimes I contrived to dig a hole under the place
where they made their fire, and put in five or six pounds
of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would
consequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it.

But, as in the first place, I should be very loath to waste
‘so much powder upon them, my store being now within
the quantity of a barrel, so neither could I be sure of its










170 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

going off at any certain time when it might surprise them;
and, at best, that it would do but little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not
sufficient to make them forsake the place. So I laid it
aside, and then proposed that I would place myself in
ambush, in some convenient place, with my three guns all
double-loaded, and in the middle of their bloody ceremony
let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or wound
perhaps two or three at every shot; and then, falling in
upon them with my three pistols and my sword, I mad
no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should ki
them all. This fancy pleased ny thoughts for some weeks,'
and I was so full of it that I often dreamt of it, and sora
times, that I was just going to let fly at them in my sleep.

I went so far with it in my indignation, that I employeq
myself several days to find out proper places to put mys
in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them. And I w
frequently to the place itself, which was now grown 1
familiar to me; and especially while my mind was
filled with thoughts of revenge, and of a bloody pu
twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I may ca
But the horror I had at the place, and at the signal
the barbarous wretches devouring one another, abated
my malice.

Well, at length I found a place in the side of the hill,
where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any
of the boats coming, and might then, even before they
would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen
into thickets of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely. There I might
sit and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full
aim at their heads, when they were so close together that



















OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 171

it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shoot,
or that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the
first shoot.

Tn this place, then, I resolved to fix my design; and ac-
cordingly I prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-
piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs
each, and four or five smaller bullets, about the size of
pistol-bullets, and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a
handful of swan-shot of the largest size. I also loaded my

istols with about four bullets each. In this posture,
ell provided with ammunition for a second and third
charge, I prepared myself for my expedition.

After I had thus laid the scheme for my design, and in
"my imagination put it in practice, I continually made my
tour every morning up to the top of the hill, which was
from my castle, as I called it, about three miles or more,
mesee if I could observe any boats upon the sea coming
the island, or standing over towards it. But I began
e of this hard duty after I had for two or three
hs constantly kept my watch; but came always back
out any discovery, there having not in all that time

fen the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but not on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses
could reach every way.

I went and removed my boat, which I had on the other
side the island, and carried it down to the east end of the
whole island, where I ran it into a little cove which I
found under some high rocks, and where I knew, by
reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least
would not, come with their boats, upon any account
whatsoever. a

With my boat I carried away everything that I had left
172 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

there belonging to her, though not necessary for the bare
going thither ; namely, a mast and sail, which I had made
for her, and a thing like an anchor; but, indeed, which
could not be called either anchor or grappling. However,
it was the best I could make of its kind. All these I
removed, that there might not be the least shadow of any
discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any habi-
tation upon the island.

Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than
ever, and seldom went from my cell other than upon m
constant employment; namely, to milk my she-goats, an
manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite
on the other part of the island, was quite out of danger.
For, certain it is, that these savage people, who sometimes
haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of find-
ing anything here, and consequently never wandered it a
from the coast; and I doubt not but they might have bee
several times on shore after my apprehensions of time.
had made me cautious, as well as before. Indeed, I logeqmead
back with some horror upon the thoughts of whatâ„¢jiy
condition would have been if I had chopped! upon tk
and been discovered when naked and unarmed, except
with my gun, and that loaded often only with small shot.
I walked everywhere peeping and peeping about the island,
to see what I could get. What a surprise should I have
been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot,
I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages,
and found them pursuing me; and, by the swiftness of
their running, no possibility of my escaping them!

The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul within

1 Chop is an old English word, now out of use, and means to come
suddenly upon anything.







Ol’ ROBINSON CRUSOE. 173

me, and distressed my mind so much, that I could not soon
recover it. I confess that these anxieties, these constant
dangers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me,
put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances
that I had laid for my future accommodations and conven-
iences. I had the care of my safety more now upon my
hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail,
or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I should
make should be heard. Much less would I fire a gun, for
he same reason. And above all, I was intolerably uneasy
at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a
eee distance in the day, should betray me. For this rea-
son I removed that part of my business which required
fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, etc., into my new
apartment in the woods. After I had been some time
here, I found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere nat-
Pe cave in the earth, which went in a vast way, and
e, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth of
uld be so hardy as to venture in, nor indeed would
‘man else, but one who, like me, wanted nothing so
ch as a safe retreat.
~The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if I did not
see an abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to
Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches
of trees to make charcoal; and before I go on, I must
observe the reason of my making this charcoal, which
was thus :—
I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as
I said before; and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, ete. So I contrived to
burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England, un-



174 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

der turf, till it became chark, or dry coal; and then putting
the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home, and per-
form the other services which fire was wanting for at home,
without danger of smoke.

But this is by-the-by. While I was cutting down some
wood here, I perceived that behind a very thick branch of
low bruslwood, or underwood, there was a kind of hollow
place. I was curious to look into it, and getting with dif-
ficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large,
that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright in it, and
perhaps another with me. But I must confess to you, ly
made more haste out than I did in, when, looking farther .
into the place, which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad, .
shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I
knew not, which twinkled like two stars, the dim light
from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the
reflection. "ae

However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and
gan to call myself a thousand fools, and tell myself.
he that was afraid to see the devil, was not fit to
twenty years in an island all alone, and that I durst to
lieve there was nothing in this cave that was more fright-
ful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage, I
took up a great firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the
stick flaming in my hand. I had not gone three steps in,
but I was almost as much frightened as I was before ; for
I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in some pain.
This was followed by a broken noise, as if of words half-
expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back,
and was indeed struck with such a surprise, that it put me
into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat on my head,
I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted




j} i
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 175

it off. But still, plucking up my spirits as well as I could,
and encouraging myself a little, with considering that the
power and presence of God was everywhere, and was
able to protect me, I stepped forward again. By the light
of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw
lying on the ground a frightful, old he-goat, gasping for
life, and dying indeed of mere old age.

I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out. He
essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself. I

Qpoought with myself, he might even lie there; for he had
frightened me so, he would certainly fright any of the
savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to come in
there, while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to
look round me, when I found the cave was but very small;
that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in

> no manner of shape, either round or square, no hands ever
haying been employed in making it but those of mere na-

*. Sturge. I observed also, that there was a place at the far-
ther side of it that went in farther, but was so low, that it
required me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into
it, and whither I went I know not. Having no candle, I
gave it over for some time, but resolved to come again the
next day, provided with candles and a tinder-box, which I
had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with some
wild-fire! in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day, I came provided with six
large candles of my own making (for I made very good
candles now of goat’s tallow); and going into this low
place, I was obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said,

1 An inflammable material, capable of burning for a long time, and
hard to extinguish. It was also called ‘‘ Greek fire.”


176 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

almost ten yards; which, by the way, I thought was a
venture bold enough, considering that I knew not how far
it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I was got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe
nearly twenty feet. Never was such a glorious sight seen
in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the side
and roof of this vault or cave. The walls reflected an
hundred thousand lights to me from my two candles.
What it was in the rock, whether diamonds, or any other
precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it to be, l®
knew not.

The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or
grotto, of its kind, as could be expected, though perfectly
dark. The floor was dry and level, and had a sort of small,
loose gravel upon it; so that there was no nauseous or
venomous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp
or wet on the sides or roof. The only difficulty in it was
the entrance, which, however, as it was a place of security,
and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that was a con-
venience. I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and -
solved, without any delay, to bring some of those things
which I was most anxious about to this place. Particu-
larly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine of powder,
and all my spare arms; namely, two fowling-pieces (for I
had three in all) and three muskets (for of them I had
eight in all). So I kept at my castle only five, which
stood ready mounted, like pieces of cannon, on my out-
most fence, and were ready also to take out upon any ex-
pedition.

Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I took
occasion te open the barrel of powder which I took up
out of the sea, and which had been wet. I found that the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 177

water had penetrated about three or four inches into the
powder on every side, which, caking and growing hard,
had preserved the inside like a kernel in a shell; so that

I had nearly sixty pounds of very good powder in the
centre of the cask. This was an agreeable discovery to
me at that time. I carried all away thither, never keep-
ing above two or three pounds of powder with me in my
castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets.

@ ! fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants,
who are said to live in caves and holes in the rocks,
where none could come at them. For I persuaded myself
while I was here, if five hundred savages were to hunt me,
they could never find me out; or if they did, they would
not venture to attack me here.

The old goat whom I found expiring, died in the mouth
of the cave the next day after I made this discovery. I
found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw
him in, and cover him with earth, than to drag him out.
$6 I interred him there.

* I was now in my twenty-third year of residence in this
island, and was so naturalized to the place and to the
manner of living, that, could I have but enjoyed the
certainty that no savages would come to the place to dis-
turb me, I could have been content to have capitulated
for spending the rest of my time there, even to the last
moment, till I had laid me down and died, like the old
goat in the cave. I had also arrived to some little diver-
sions and amusements, which made the time pass more
pleasantly with me, a great deal, than it did before. First,
I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak. This
he did so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain,


178 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

that it was very pleasant to me. He lived with me no
less than six and twenty years. How long he might
live afterwards, I know not; though I know they nave a
notion in the Brazils that they live a hundred years. Per-
haps poor Poll may be alive there still, calling after poor
Robin Crusoe to this day. My dog was a very pleasant
and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen
years of my time, and then died of mere old age. As
for my cats, they multiplied to that degree, that I was
obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from
devouring me and all I had. But, at length, when the two
old ones I brought with me were gone, and after some
time continually driving them from me, and letting them
have no provision with me, they all ran wild into the
woods, except two or three favorites, which I kept tame,
and whose young, when they had any, I always drowned,
and these were part of my family. Besides these, I always
kept two or three household kids about me, which I taught
to feed out of my hand. I had also more parrots which
talked pretty well, and would all call Robin Crusoé,
but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I take the pains
with any of them that I had done with him. I had also
several tame sea-fowls, whose names I know not, which
I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings. The little
stakes which I had planted before my castle wall, being
now grown up to a good, thick grove, these fowls all lived
among these low trees, and bred there, which was very
agreeable to me, so that, as I said above, I began to be
very well contented with the life I led, if it might but
have been secured from the dread of the savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss
for all people who shall meet with my story, to make this
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 179

just observation from it; namely, how frequently, in the
course of our lives, the evil which, in itself, we seek most
to shun, and which, when we are fallen into, is the most
dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of
our deliverance, by which alone we can be raised again
from the affliction we are fallen into. I could give many
examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life;
but in nothing was it more particularly remarkable than
in the circumstances of my last two years of solitary resi-
@blence in this island.



eos Sere a A Rt il Hat ae ew oe
180 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

CHAPTER XVIII.

T was now the month of December, as I said above, in
my twenty-third year; and this being the southern
solstice, for winter I cannot call it, was the particular time te
of my harvest, and required my being pretty much abroad
in the fields. Going out pretty early in the morning, even
before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised with see-
ing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from
me of about two miles, towards the end of the island,
where I had observed some savages had been before; not
on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my
side of the island.

I was, indeed, terribly surprised at the sight, and stop-
ped short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I
might be surprised. Yet I had no more peace within,
from the apprehensions I had that, if these savages, in ram-
bling over the island, should find my corn standing or cut,
or any of my works and improvements, they would imme-
diately conclude that there were people in the place, and
would then never give over till they had found me out. In
this extremity, I went back directly to my castle, pulled
up the ladder after me, having made all things without
look as wild and natural as I could.

Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a
posture of defence. I loaded all my cannon, as I called
them, that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

upon my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved
to defend myself to the last gasp. Nor did I forget seri-
ously to commend myself to the divine protection, and
earnestly to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of
the barbarians. In this posture I continued about two
hours, but began to be very impatient for intelligence
abroad, for I had no spies to send out.

After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance
@longer. So, setting up my ladder to the side of the hill
where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and
then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again,
and mounted to the top of the hill. Pulling out my per-
spective glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me
down flat on the ground, and began to look for the place.
I presently found there were no less than nine naked say-
ages sitting round a small fire they had made; not to
warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather
being extremely hot; but, as I supposed, to dress some of
their barbarous diet of human flesh, which they had
brought with them, whether alive or dead, I could not
know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled
up upon the shore; and, as it was then tide of ebb, they
seemed to me to wait for the return of the flood to go away
again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight
put me into, especially seeing them come on my side the
island, and so near me too. But, when I observed their
coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I be-

gan afterwards to be more sedate in my mind, being satis- ©

fied that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the
tide of flood, if they were not on shore before. Having
182 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

made this observation, I went abroad about my harvest
work with more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for, as soon as the tide
made to the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row
(or paddle, as we call it) allaway. I should have observed,
that for an hour and more before they went off, they went
to dancing, and I could easily discern their postures and
gestures by my glasses.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two
guns upon my shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle, and #
my great sword by my side, without a scabbard ; and with
all the speed I was able to make, I went away to the hill,
where I had discovered the first appearance of all. As
soon as I got thither, which was not less than two hours
Cor I could not go apace, being so loaded with arms as
I was), I perceived there had been three canoes more of
savages on that place; and looking out farther, I saw they
were all at sea together, making over for the main.

This was a dreadful sight to me, especially when, going
down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror which
the dismal work they had been about had left behind it;
namely, the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of hu-
man bodies, eaten and devoured by those wretches with
merriment and sport. I was so filled with indignation at
the sight, that I began now to premeditate the destruction
of the next that I saw there, let them be who or how many
soever.

It seemed evident to me that the visits which they thus
made to this island were not very frequent; for it was
above fifteen months before any more of them came on
shore there again, that is to say, I never saw them, or any
footsteps or signals of them in all that time. And I found
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 183

they did not come in the rainy season. Yet all this while
I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the constant appre-
hensions I was in of their coming upon me by surprise.

One night, in the rainy season, in March, the four-and-
twentieth year of my first setting foot in this land of soli-
tariness, I had the following dream. As I was going out
in the morning, as usual, from my castle, I saw upon the
shore two canoes, and eleven savages coming to land, and
that they brought with them another savage, whom they
were going to kill, in order to eat him; when, on a
sudden, the savage that they were going to kill made his
escape, and ran for his life. Then I thought, in my sleep,
that he came running into my little grove, before my
fortification, to hide himself. I, seeing him, and not per-
ceiving that the others sought him that way, showed
myself to him, and encouraged him. He kneeled down
to me, seeming to pray to me to assist him. Upon this I
showed him my ladder, made him go up, and carried
him into my cave, and he became my servant. As soon
as I had got this man, I said to myself, “Now I may
venture to the main-land, for this fellow will serve me
as a pilot, and tell me what to do, and whither to go
for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being
devoured; what places to venture into, and what to
escape.” I awoke with this thought, and was under
such inexpressible impressions of joy at the prospect
of my escape in my dream, that the disappointment I
felt upon coming to myself, and finding it was no more
than a dream, was really extravagant the other way, and
threw me into a very great dejection of spirits.

Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my
only way to go about an attempt for an escape, was to try
184 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to get a savage in my possession; and, if possible, it
should be one of their prisoners, whom they had con-
demned to be eaten, and should bring hither to kill.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself
upon the scout, as often as possible; and indeed, so often
till Iwas heartily tired of it. Iwas not, at first, more
careful to shun the sight of these savages, and avoid being
seen by them, than I was now eager to be upon them.

Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one, nay, two
or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them
entirely slaves to me, to do what I should direct them,
and to prevent their being able, at any time, to do me any
hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with
this affair; but nothing still presented. All my fancies
and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came near
me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I had entertained these
notions, and by long musing had, as it were, resolved to
put them into execution, I was surprised one morning
early with seeing no less than five canoes all on shore
together, on my side of the island, and the people. who
belonged to them all landed. The number of them broke
all my measures; for, seeing so many, and knowing that
they always came four, or sometimes more, in a boat, I
could not tell what to think of it, or how to take my
measures to attack twenty or thirty men single-handed ;
so I lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted.
However, I put myself into all the same postures for an
attack that I had formerly provided, and was just ready
for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a
good while, listening to hear if they made any noise, at
length, being very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 185

my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill by my
two stages, as usual; standing so, however, that my head
did not appear above the hill, so that they could not
perceive me by any means. I here observed, by the help
of my perspective glass, that they were no less than thirty
in number, that they had a fire kindled, and that they had
meat dressed. How they cooked it, that I knew not, or
what it was. But they were all dancing, in I know not
how many barbarous gestures and figures, ound the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my
perspective glass, two miserable wretches dragged from
the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by, and were
now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of
them immediately fall, being knocked down, I suppose,
with a club, or wooden sword, for that was their way;
and two or three others were at work, cutting him open .
for their cookery, while the other victim was left standing
by himself till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment, the poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty,
nature inspired him with hopes of life, and he started
away from them, and ran with incredible swiftness along
the sands, directly towards me; I mean, towards that part
of the coast where my habitation was.

I was dreadfully frightened (that I must acknowledge)
when I perceived him to run my way; and especially
when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole body.
I expected that part of my dream was coming to ‘pass, and
he would take shelter in my grove. But I could not.
depend, by any means, upon my dreams for the rest of it;
namely, that the savages would not pursue him thither,
and find him there. However, I kept my station, and my
spirits began to recover when I found that there were not
186 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

above three men that followed him; and still more was
I encouraged, when I found that he outstripped them
exceedingly in running, and gained ground of them, so
that if he could but hold out for half an hour, I saw he
would fairly get away from them all.

There was, between them and my castle, the creek,
which I mentioned often at the first part of my story,
when I landed my cargoes out of the ship. This I knew
he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would
be taken there. But when the savage, who was escaping,
came thither, he made nothing of it, though the tide was
then up; but, plunging in, he swam through it in about
thirty strokes or thereabouts, landed, and ran on with
exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three pur-
suers came to the creek, I found that two of them could
swim, but the third could not; and that he, standing on
the other side, looked at the others, but went no farther,
and soon after went softly back again; which, as it hap-
pened, was very well for him.

I observed that the two who swam were yet twice as
long swimming over the creek as the fellow was that fled
from them. It came now very warmly upon my thoughts,
that now was my time to get me a servant, and perhaps a
companion or assistant, and that I was called plainly by
Providence to save this poor creature’s life. JI immedi-
ately got down the ladders, fetched my two guns, for they
were both at the foot of the ladders, and getting up again
with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards
the sea. Having a very short cut, and all down hill, I
clapped myself in the way between the pursuers and the
pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking
back, was at first as much frightened at me as at them. But
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 187

I beckoned with my hand to him to come back, and, in
the mean time, I slowly advanced towards the two that
followed. Then, rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I was
loath to fire, because I would not have the rest to hear,
though at that distance it would not have been easily
heard, and, being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would
not have known what to make of it. Having knocked
this fellow down, the other who followed him stopped, as
if he had been frightened, and I advanced apace towards
him. But, as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had
a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to shoot at me, so I
was then necessitated to shoot at him first, which I did,
and killed him at the first shot. The poor savage who
fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his enemies
fallen, and killed (as he thought), yet was so frightened
with the noise and fire of my piece, that he stood stock-
still, and neither came forward nor went backward, though
he seemed rather inclined to fly than to come on. I
hallooed again to him, and made signs to him to come for-
ward, which he easily understood, and came a little way,
then stopped again, and then a little farther, and stopped
again. Then he stood trembling, as if he had been taken
prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two
enemies were. I beckoned to him again to come to me,
and gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of. He came nearer and nearer, kneeling down
every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknowledgment for
saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly,
and beckoned to him to come still nearer. At length he
came close tome. ‘Then he kneeled down again, kissed the
ground, and, taking my foot, set it upon his head. This,


188 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave forever.
I took him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But I perceived the savage whom I knocked
down was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began
to come to himself. So I pointed to him, showing him the
savage, that he was not dead. Upon this, he spoke some
words to me, and though I could not understand them,
yet I thought they were pleasant to hear, for they were
the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own
excepted, for above five-and-twenty years. But there was
no time for such reflections now. The savage who was
knocked down recovered himself so far as to sit upon the
ground, and I perceived that my savage began to be afraid.
When I saw that, I presented my other piece at the man,
as if I would shoot him. Upon this, my savage, for so 1
call him now, made a motion to me to lend him my sword,
which hung naked in a belt by my side; so I did. He no
sooner had it than he ran to his enemy, and, at one blow,
cut off his head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany
could have done it sooner or better; which I thought very
strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a
sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords.
However, it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their
wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard,
that they will cut off heads and arms with them, and at
one blow too. When he had done this, he came laughing
to me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again,
and laid it down, with the head of the savage he had killed,
just before me.

He was astonished how I had killed the other Indian
so far off. Going to him, he stood like one amazed, look-
ing at him, turning him, first on one side, then on the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 189

other ; looking at the wound that the bullet had made,
which was in the breast, where it had made a hole, and no
great quantity of blood had followed, but he had bled in-
wardly, for he was quite dead. Then he took up his bows
and arrows, and came back, and I beckoned for us to go
away, making signs that more might come after them.
Upon this, he signed to me that he should bury them with
sand, that they might not be seen by the rest if they fol-
lowed. So I made signs for him to do so. He fell to
work, and had them both buried in the sand in about a
quarter of an hour. I then called him away, and took
him not to my castle, but my cave, on the farther part of
the island. So Idid not let my dream come to pass in
that respect; namely, that he came into my grove for shel-
ter. Here I gave him bread, and a bunch of raisins to eat,
and a draught of water, which he was in great distress for,
by his running. Having refreshed him, I made signs for
him to go to sleep, pointing to a place where I had laid a
great parcel of rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I
used to sleep upon myself sometimes. So the poor crea-
ture lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a handsome fellow, perfectly well-made, tall,
and well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of
age. He hada very good countenance, not a fierce and surly
aspect, but seemed to have something very manly in his
face, and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of an
European in his countenance too, especially when he
smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like wool,
his forehead very high and large, and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color of his skin was
not quite black, but very tawny, and yet not of an ugly,
yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians, and Virginians,
190 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of
dun olive color, that had in it something very agreeable,
though not very easy to describe. His face was round and
plump, his nose small, not flat like the negroes, a very
good mouth, thin lips, and his teeth fine, well set, and
white as ivory. After he had slumbered about half an
hour, he waked, and came out of the cave to me, for I had
been milking the goats in the enclosure just by. When he
espied me he came running, and laid himself on the ground
again, with all the possible signs of a humble, thankful dis-
position, making many antic gestures to show it. At last,
he lays his head flat upon the ground, close to my foot,
and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before.
After this, he made all the signs to me of subjection, servi-
tude, and submission imaginable, to let me know how much
he would serve me as long as he lived. I understood him
in many things, and let him know I was well pleased with
him. In a little time I began to speak to him and teach
him to speak to me; and first, made him know his name
should be Friday, which was the day I saved his life. I
likewise taught him to say, “ Master,” and then let him
know that was tobe my name. I also taught him to say,
“Yes,” and “No,” and to know the meaning of them. I
gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and some bread,
and let him see me drink some before him, and sop my
bread in it, which he quickly imitated, and made signs
that it was very good for him.

I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it
was day, I took him away with me. As we went by the
place where he had buried the two men, he pointed ex-
actly to the spot, and showed me the marks he had made
to find them again, making signs to me that we should dig
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 191

them up and eat them. At this I appeared very angry,
expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit
at the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him
to come away, which he immediately did, with great sub-
mission. I then led him to the top of the hill, to see if
his enemies were gone. Pulling out my glass, I looked,
and saw plainly the place where they had been, but no
appearance of them or their canoes. So they were quite
gone.

T then took my man Friday with me, giving him the
sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back,
which I found he could use very dexterously, making him
carry one gun for me, and I two for myself, and away we
marched to the place where these creatures had been.
When I came there, my very blood ran chill in my veins,
and my heart sank within me at the horror of the specta-
cle. Indeed, it was a dreadful sight. The place was coy-
ered with human bones, the ground dyed with the blood,
great pieces of flesh left here and there, half eaten, man-
gled, and scorched, and, in short, all the tokens of the
triumphant feast they had been making there, after a
victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands,
and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abun-
dance of other parts of the bodies. Friday, by his signs,
made me understand that they brought over four prisoners
to feast upon, that three of them were eaten, and that he,
pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a
great battle between them and their next king, whose sub-
jects it seems he had been one of, and that they had taken
a great number of prisoners, all of which were carried to
several places by those that had taken them in the fight,
in order to feast upon them, as was done here by these
wretches.
192 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I caused Friday to gather all the bones and flesh that
remained, and lay them together in a heap, and burn them
to ashes. I found that he had still a hankering stomach
after the flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; -but
I displayed such abhorrence at the very thoughts of it,
that he durst not discover it; for I let him know that I
would kill him if he offered it.

When we had done this, we came back to our castle,
where I gave Friday first of all a pair of linen drawers,
which I had found in a wreck, and which, with a little’
alteration, fitted him very well. Then I made him a jer-
kin of goat’s skin, as well as I was able; and I gave him
a cap, which I had made of a hare’s skin. Thus he was
dressed, for the present, tolerably well. He was pleased
to see himself almost as well clothed as his master. He
went awkwardly in these things at first. Wearing the
drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the
jerkin galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms; but
he soon got used to them.


OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 193

CHAPTER XIX.

HE next day, after I came home to my hut with him,
I began to consider where I should lodge him. I
made a little tent for him in the vacant place between the
two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the out-
side of the first. As there was an entrance there into my
cave, I made a framed door-case, and a door to it of
boards, and set it np in the passage, a little within the .
entrance. Causing the door to open in the inside, I
barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders too; so
that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my
innermost wall, without making so much noise in getting
over, that it must needs awaken me. For my first wall
had now a complete roof over it of long poles, covering
all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill, which
was again laid across with smal] sticks instead of laths,
and then thatched over a great thickness with the rice
straw, which was strong like reeds. At the hole or place
which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed
a kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on
the outside, would not have opened at all, but would have
fallen down and made a great noise. I took care to take
all the weapons into my side every night.
But I needed none of these precautions, for never was a
more faithful, loving, sincere servantthan Friday was to
me. He was without passions, sulleness, or designs.

Pa ited Ni alla a I ies at MEI a eit alles, te Bi leh, Ae teat aoe hae


194 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

His very affections were tied to me, like those of a child
to his father; and, I dare say, he would have sacrificed his
life for the saving of my own, upon any occasion whatever.

I was greatly delighted with him, and made it my busi-
ness to teach him everything that was proper and useful;
and especially to make him speak, and understand me
when I spoke. He was a very apt scholar, and he was so
merry, so diligent, and so pleased when he could under-
stand me, or make me understand him, that it was very
pleasant for me to talk to him. And now my life began
to be very easy and happy.

After I had been two or three days returned to my
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his
horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s
stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh. So I took
him out with me one morning to the woods, and I saw a
she-goat lying down in the shade, and two young kids
close by her. I caught hold of Friday. “Hold,” said I;
“stand still;”? and made signs to him not to stir. Immedi-
ately I presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids.
The poor creature, who had, at a distance indeed, seen
me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled,
and shook, and looked so amazed, that I thought he would
have sunk down. He did not see the kid I had shot at,
nor perceive [ had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat to
feel if he was not wounded. As I found,-he thought I was
resolved to kill him; for he came and kneeled down to
me, and, embracing my knees, said a great many things
I did not understand, but I could see that his meaning
was to pray to me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 195

him no harm. Taking him by the hand, I laughed at
him, and, pointing to the kid I had killed, beckoned to
him to run and fetch it, which he did. While he was
looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my
gun again. By and by, I sawa great fowl, like a hawk,
sitting upon a tree within shot. So, to let Friday under-
stand a little what I would do, I called him to me again,
pointing at the fowl, which was a parrot, though I thought
it had been a hawk. I say, pointing to the parrot and to
my gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to let him
see I would make him fall, I made him understand that I
would shoot and kill that bird. Accordingly I fired, and
bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall.
He stood like one frightened again, notwithstanding all
I had said to him. I found he was the more amazed,
because he did not see me put anything into the gun; but.
thought there must be some wonderful fund of death and
destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or
any other thing, near or far off. I believe, if I would have
let him, he would have worshipped me and my gun. As
for the gun itself, he would not so much as touch it for
several days after, but would speak to it, and talk to it, as
if it had answered him ; which, as I afterwards learned of
him, was to desire it not to kill him.

Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this, I
pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which
he did, but staid some time; for the parrot, not being
quite dead, was fluttered a good way off from the place
where she fell. However, he found her, took her up, and
brought her to me. As I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the
gun again, and not let him see me do it, that I might be
196 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ready for any other mark, but nothing offered at that time.
So I brought home the kid, and the same evening took
the skin off, and cut it up as well as I could. Having a
pot for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh,
and made some very good broth. After I had begun to
eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad
of it, and liked it very well. But that which was
strangest to him, was to see me eat salt with it. He made
a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat, and putting
a little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and
would spit and sputter at it, washing his mauth with fresh
water after it. On the other hand, I took some meat in
my mouth, without salt, and I pretended to spit and
sputter for want of salt, as fast as he had done at it, but
it would not do.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was
resolved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of
the kid. This I did by hanging it before the fire in a
string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting
two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across
the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting the
meat turn continually. This Friday admired much; but
when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to
tell me how well he liked it, that I could not but under-
stand him. At last he told me he would never eat man’s
flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn
out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do. He soon
understood how to do it as well as I, especially after he
had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to
make bread of. After that I let him see me make my
bread, and bake it too; and ina little time Friday was able
to do all the work for me as well as I could do it myself.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 197

I began now to consider that, having two mouths to feed
instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,
and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do; so
I marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence
in the same manner as before, in which Friday not only
worked very hard, but very cheerfully. I told him that it
was for corn to make more bread, because he was now
with me, and that I might have enough for him and my-
self too. -He appeared very sensible of that part, and let
me know that he would work the harder for me, if I would
tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I lead in
this place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and to under-
stand the names of almost everything I had occasion to
call for, and of every place I had occasion to send him to;
so that, in short, I began to have some use for my tongue

‘again. Besides the pleasure of talking to him, I had a
‘ singular satisfaction in the fellow himself. His simple,

unfeigned honesty appeared more and more every day.
I began really to love the creature; and I believe he loved
me as much as possible.

I had a mind once to try if he had any lingering incli-
nation to his own country; and, having taught him English
so well that he could answer me almost any questions, I
asked him whether the nation that he belonged to never
conquered in battle. At which he smiled, and said, “ Yes,
yes; we always fight the better”: that is, he meant, always
get the better in fight; and so we began the following dis-
course : “ You always fight the better!” said 1; “how came
you to be taken prisoner, then, Friday?”

Friday. My nation beat much, for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how
came you to be taken? \


198 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Friday. They more than my nation in the place where
me was: they take one, two, three, and me. My nation
over-beat them in yonder place, where me no was; there
my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your side recover you from
the hands of your enemies, then?

Friday. They run one, two, three, and me, and make
go in the canoe: my nation have no canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do
with the men they take? Do they carry them away, and
eat them, as these did?

Friday. Yes, my nation eat mans too ; eat all up.

Master. Where do they carry them?

Friday. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither?

Friday. Yes, yes, they come hither: come other else place.

Master. Wave you been here with them?

Friday. Yes, I been here. (Points to the N. W. side
of the island, which it seems was their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly
been among the savages, who had used to come on shore
on the farther parts of the island, on the said man-eating
occasions that he had been now brought for; and sometime
after, when I took courage to carry him to that side, he
presently knew the place, and told me he was there once
when they ate up twenty men, two women, and one child.

After I had had this discourse with him, I asked him how
far it was from our island to the shore ; whether the canoes
were not often lost? He told me that there was no danger,
no canoes ever lost; but that, after a little way out to sea,
there was a current, and a wind always one way in the
morning, the other in the afternoon.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 199

This I thought to be no more than the sets of the tide,
as going out or coming in. But I afterwards understood
it was occasioned by the great draught and reflux of the
mighty river Oronoco, in the mouth of which river, as I
thought afterwards, our island lay; and that this land,
which I perceived to the W. and N. W., was the great
island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth of the
river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about the
country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what
nations were near. He told me all he knew, with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the names of
the several nations of his sort of people, but could get no
other names than Caribs. From which I easily understood
that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on
that part of America which reaches from the mouth of the
river Oronoco to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He
told me that up a great way beyond the moon, which
must be west from their country, there dwelt white, bearded
men like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I
mentioned before, and that they had killed “much mans,”
that was his word. By all which I understood he meant
the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America had been spread
over whole countries, and were remembered by all the
nations from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from
this island, and get among those white men? He told me
yes, yes, I might go in “two canoe.” I could not under-
stand what he meant by “two canoe,” till at last, with dif-
ficulty, I found he meant that it must be a large boat, as
big as two canoes.

This part of Friday’s discourse began to relish with me
very well; and from this time I entertained some hopes
200 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me to do it.

I was now wanting to lay a foundation of religious
knowledge in Friday’s mind; particularly I asked him one
time who made him. The poor creature did not under-
stand me, but thought I had asked him who was his father.
But I took it another way, and asked him who made the
sea, the ground he walked on, and the hills and woods.
He told me it was one old Benamuckee, that lived beyond
all. He could describe nothing of this great person, but
that he was very old; much older, he said, than the sea or
the land, than the moon or the stars. I asked him then,
if this person had made all things, why did not all things
worship him? He looked very grave, and with a. perfect
look of innocence said, “All things said O to him.”
I asked him if the people who die in his country went
away anywhere. He said, yes, they all went to Bena-
muckee. Then I asked him whether those they eat up
went thither too. He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the know]l-
edge of the true God. I told him that the great Maker
of all things lived up there, pointing up towards heaven:
that He governs the world by the same power and provi-
dence by which He had made it: that He was omnipotent,
could do everything for us, everything to us, take every-
thing from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes.
He listened with great attention, and received with pleasure
the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and of
the manner of making our prayers to God, and his being
able to hear us, even into heaven. He told me one day,
that if our God could hear us up beyond the sun, he must
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived
but a little way off, and yet could not hear till they went
up to the great mountains where he dwelt, to speak to
him. I asked him if ever he went thither to speak to him.
He said, no; they never went that were young men.
None went thither but the old men, whom he called their
Oowokakee, that is, as I made him explain it to me, their
religious, or clergy; and that they went to say O (so he
called saying prayers), and then came back, and told them
what Benamuckee said. By this I observed that there is
priestcraft even amongst the most blinded, ignorant pagans
in the world.

Sending him for something a great way off, I seriously
prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct this
poor savage, assisting by his Spirit the heart of the poor
ignorant creature to receive the light of the knowledge of
God in Christ, reconciling him to himself, and would
guide me to speak so to him from the word of God, as his
conscience might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his
soul saved. When he came again to me, I entered into a
long discourse with him upon the subject of the redemp-
tion of man, by the Saviour of the world, and of the doc-
trine of the gospel preached from heaven; namely, of
repentance towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord
Jesus. I then explained to him, as well as I could, why
our blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of
angels, but the seed of Abraham, and how, for that reason,
the fallen angels had no share in the redemption; that he
came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and
the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge, in
all the methods I took for this poor creature’s instruction,
202 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

and must acknowledge what I believe all that act upon
the same principle will find, that, in laying things open to
him, I really informed and instructed myself in many
things that I either did not know or had not fully con-
sidered before, but which occurred naturally to my mind,
upon my searching into them for the information of this
poor savage. And I had more affection in my inquiry
after things upon this oceasion than ever I felt before ; so
that whether this poor wild wretch was the better for me
or no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he came
tome. My grief sat lighter upon me, my habitation grew
comfortable to me beyond measure, when I reflected, that,
in this solitary life which I had been confined to, I had not
only been moved myself to look up to heaven, and to seek
the hand that brought me thither, but was now to be
made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life,
and, for aught I knew, the soul, of a poor savage.

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of
my time, and the conversation which employed the hours
between Friday and me were such as made the three years,
which we lived there together, perfectly and completely
happy, if any such thing as complete happiness can be
found in a sublunary state. The savage was now a good
Christian, a much better than I, though I have reason to
hope, and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent,
and comforted restored penitents. We had here the word
of God to read, and no farther off from his Spirit to in-
struct, than if we had been in England. I always ap-
plied myself to reading the Scriptures, and to let him
know, as well as I could, the meaning of what I read.

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted,
and he could understand almost all I said to him, and
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 208

speak fluently, though in broken English to me, I ac-
quainted him with my history. I let him into the mystery
of gunpowder and bullets, and taught him how to shoot.
I gave him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted
with, and I made him a belt with a frog hanging to it,
such as in England we wear hangers! in; and in the frog,
instead of a hanger, I gave him a hatchet.

I described to him the countries of Europe, and partic-
ularly England, which I came from; how we lived, how
we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another, and
how we traded in ships to all parts of the world.

I showed him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when
I escaped, and which was now fallen almost to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing some time,
and said nothing. I asked him what he studied upon ; at
last, says he, “ Me see such boat like come to place at my
nation.”

I did not understand him a good while; but at last,
when I had examined farther into it, I understood by him,
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the
country where he lived, that is, as he explained it, was
driven thither by stress of weather. I presently imag-
ined that some European ship must have been cast away
upon their coast, and the boat had got loose and been driven
ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of men
making their escape from a wreck thither, much less
whence they might come, so I only inquired after a de-
scription of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but
brought me better to understand him when he added, with
some warmth, “ We save the white mans from drown.”

1 A sort of broadsword, short, and curved at the point. =

ela uh ate
204 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

Then I presently asked him if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat. “Yes,” he said, “the boat
full of white mans.” Iasked him, “How many?” He
told upon his fingers seventeen. I asked him, “ What be-
came of them?” He told me, “ They live, they dwell at
my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head again, for I pres-
ently imagined that these might be the men belonging to
the ship that was cast away in sight of my island, and who
after the ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her in-
evitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were
landed upon that wild shore among savages.

Upon this I inquired of him more critically, what was
become of them. He assured me they still lived there,
that they had been there about four years, that the sav-
ages let them alone, and gave them victuals to live. I
asked him how it came to pass that they did not kill them,
and eat them. He said, “No, they make brother with
them,” that is, as I understood him, a truce; and then he
added, “They no eat mans, but when make the war
fight; that is to say, they never eat any men, but such
as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was, after this, some considerable time, that, being
on the top of the hill, at the east side of the island, from
whence I had, in a clear day, discovered the main, or con-
tinent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene,
looks very earnestly towards the main-land, and in a kind
of surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to
me. I asked him what was the matter. “O joy!” says
he, “O glad! There see my country! there my nation!”

I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appear in
his face. His eyes sparkled, and his countenance discoy-
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 205

ered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again. This observation of mine put a great
many thoughts into me, which made me, at first, not so
easy about my new man Friday, as I was before; and I
made no doubt, but that, if Friday could get back to his
own nation again, he would not only forget all his reli-
gion, but all his obligations to me.

But I wronged the poor, honest creature very much, for
which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my
jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little
more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to him as
before, in which I was certainly in the wrong.

Whilst my jealousy of him lasted, I was every day
pumping him, to see if he would discover any of the new
thoughts, which I suspected were in him; but I found
everything he said was honest, and so innocent, that I
could find nothing to nourish my suspicion, and, in spite
of all my uneasiness, he made me, at last, entirely his own
again. Nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy,
and therefore I could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather
being hazy at sea, so that we could not see the continent,
I called to him and said, “ Friday, do not you wish your-
self in your own country, your own nation?” ‘“ Yes,” he
said; “I be much glad to be at my own nation.” “What
would you do there?” said I; “would you turn wild
again, eat man’s flesh again, and be savage, as you were
before?” He looked full of concern, and, shaking his
head, said, “No, no; Friday tell them to live good; tell
them to pray God; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-
flesh, milk; no eat man again.” “Why, then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and


206 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

then said, “No, they no kill me; they willing love learn.”
He meant by this that they would be willing to learn ; he
added, they learned much, of the bearded mans that came
in the boat. Then I asked if he would go back to them.
JIe smiled at that, and told me he could not swim so far.
I told him I would make a canoe for him. He told me he
would go if I would go with him. “TI go,” said I, “why,
they will eat me if I come there.” ‘No, no,” said he, “me
make them no eat you; me make they much love you.”
He meant he would tell them how I had killed his ene-
mies, and saved his life, and so he would make them much
love me.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over,
and see if I could possibly join with these bearded men,
who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese ;
not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method
to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a
good company together, better than I could from an island,
forty miles off the shore, and alone, without help. So,
after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way of
discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to go
back to his own nation. Accordingly, I carried him to
my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island, and,
having cleared it of the water, I brought it out, showed it
him, and we both went into it.

I found he was very dextrous at managing it, and
would make it go almost as swift again as I could; so I
said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to your
nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so, which,
it seems, was because he thought the boat was too small
to go so far. I told him then, I had a bigger. So the
very next day I went to the place where the first boat lay,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 207

which I had made, but which I could not get into the
water. He said that was big encugh: but, as I had taken
no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty
years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it was, in
a manner rotten. Friday told me that such a boat would
do very well, and would carry “much enough vittle,
drink, bread”; that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my
design of going over with him to the continent, that I
told him we would go and make one as big as that, and he
should go home in it. He answered not one word, but
looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the
matter with him. He asked me again thus, — “ Why are
you angry mad with Friday? What me done?” I asked
him what he meant. I told him I was not angry with him
at all. “No angry! no angry!” says he, repeating the
words several times, “ why send Friday home away to my
nation?” “ Why,” said I, “Friday, did you not say you
wished you were there?” “ Yes, yes,” says he, “wish we
both there; no wish Friday there, no master there.” In
a word, he would not think of going there without me.
“You shall go without me; leave me here to live by my-
self as I did before.” He looked confused at this, and run-
ning to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he
takes it up hastily, and gives it me. “What must I do
with this?” said Ito him. “You take kill Friday,” says
he. “What must I kill you for?” said I again. He re-
turns very quick, “ What you sent Friday away for?
Take kill Friday ; no send Friday away.” As he spoke,
tears stood in his eyes, and I was so affected, that I said I
would never send him away, if he was willing to stay with
me.
208 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I found that all the foundation of his desire to go to his
own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people,
and his hopes of my doing them good ; a thing, which, as I
had no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought, or
intention, or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a
strong inclination to attempting an escape, as above,
founded on the supposition gathered from the former dis-
course ; namely, that there were seventeen bearded men
there. Therefore, without any more delay, I went to work
with Friday, to find out a great tree proper to fell, and
make a large periagua, or canoe, for the voyage. After
searching some time, Friday at last pitched upon a tree,
for I found he knew much better than I what kind of
wood was fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what
wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it was very
like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nica-
ragua wood, for it was much of the same color and smell.
Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this tree
out, to make it into a boat; but I showed him how rather
to cut it out with tools, which, after I had showed him how
to use, he did it very handily. In about a month’s hard
labor we finished it, and made it very handsome, especially
when, with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we
cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat.
After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to
get her along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers,
into the water; but when she was in, she would have car-
ried twenty men with ease.

It amazed me to see with what dexterity, and how swift
my man Friday would manage her, turn her, and paddle
her along. So I asked him if he would, and if we might
venture over in her. “Yes,” he said, “me venture over
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 209

in her very well, though great blow wind.” However, I
had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and that
was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an an-
chor and cable. As to the mast, that was easy enough to
get, so I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and which there was plenty of in
the island. I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave
him directions how to shape and order it; but as to the
sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had pieces of
old sails, but as I had had them now twenty-six years by
me, and not being very careful to preserve them, they were
nearly all rotten. However, I found two pieces which
appeared pretty good. With a great deal of pains, and
awkward, tedious stitching, for want of needles, I at length
made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in Eng-
land a shoulder-of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at the bot-
tom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our
ships’ long boats sail with, and such as I best knew how
to manage, because it was such a one as I used in the boat
in which I made my escape from Barbary.

I was near two months in rigging and fitting out my
mast and sails, for I fitted them very complete, making a
small stay, and a sail, or foresail to it, to assist, if we
should turn to windward; and, which was more than all,
I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with, and,
though I was but a bungling shipwright, yet, as I knew
the usefulness and even necessity of such a thing, I applied
myself with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought
it to pass.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach,
as to what belonged to the navigation of my boat. For,
though he knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he


210 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

knew nothing what belonged to a sail and rudder, and
how the sail jibbed, and filled this way or that way, as
the course we sailed changed. I say, when he saw this,
he stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with
a little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and
he became an expert sailor, except that, as to the compass,
I could make him understand very little of that; but
there was not much — for the compass in these
parts.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 211

CHAPTER XX.

WAS now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year

of my captivity in this place; though the three last
years that I had this creature with me ought rather to be
left out of the account, my habitation being quite of
another kind than in all the rest of the time. I kept the
anniversary of my landing here with the same thankful-
ness to God for his mercies as at first; and, if I had such
cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so
now, having such additional testimonies of the care of
Providence over me, and the great hopes I had of being
effectually and speedily delivered. For I had an invincible
impression upon my thoughts, that my deliverance was at
hand, and that I should not be another year in this place.
However, I went on with all my work as usual.

The rainy season was, in the meantime, upon me, when
I kept more within doors than at other times. So I had
stowed our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her
up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I
landed my rafts from the ship; and thus we waited for
the months of November and December, in which I de-
signed to make my adventure.

When the settled season began to come in, the first
thing I did, was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions,
being the store for our voyage; and I intended, in a week
or a fortnight’s time, to open the dock, and launch out
our boat. I was busy one morning upon something of
this kind, when I called to Friday and bade him go to the


212 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise —
a thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake
of the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
long gone, when he came running back, and flew over my
outward wall or fence, like one that felt not the ground;
and, before I had time to speak to him, he cried out to
me, “O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!” “What’s
the matter, Friday?” said J. “ O yonder there,” says he,
“one, two, three canoe! one, two, three!” By this way
of speaking, I concluded there were six; but, on inquiry,
I found there were but three. “Well, Friday,” said I,
“do not be frightened.” So I heartened him up, as well
as I could. However, I saw the poor fellow was most
terribly scared, for nothing ran in his head but that they
were come to look for him, and would cut him in pieces
and eat him; and the poor fellow trembled so, that I
scarce knew what to do with him. I comforted him as
well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as
he, and that they would eat me as wellas him. “ But,”
said I, “Friday, we must resolve to fight them. Can you
fight, Friday?” “Me shoot,” says he, “but there come
many great number.” ‘No matter for that,” said I again,
“our guns will fright them that we do not kill.” So I
asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would
defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I bade him.
He said, “ Me die when you bid die, master.” So I made
him take the two fowling-pieces, and load them with swan
shot, as big as small pistol bullets. Then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five small
bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of
bullets each. I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by
my side, and gave Friday his hatchet.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 213

When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspec-
tive glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what
I could discover. I found quickly, by my glass, that
there were twenty-one savages, three prisoners, and three
canoes; and that their whole business seemed to be the
triumphant banquet upon these three human bodies.

They were landed, not where they had done when Fri-
day made his escape, but nearer to my creek, where the
shore was low, and where a thick wood came close almost
down to the sea. This, with the abhorrence of the inhu-
man errand these wretches came about, so filled me with
indignation, that I came down to Friday, and told him I
was resolved to go down to them, and kill them all, and
asked him if he would stand by me. He had now gotten
over his fright, and was very cheerful, and told me, as
before, “He would die when I bid die.”

In this fit of fury, I took first and divided the arms
which I had charged, as before, between us. I gave Fri-
day one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon
his shoulder. I took one pistol and the other three myself,
and in this posture we marched out. I gave Friday a
large bag with more powder and bullets. As to orders,
I charged him to keep close behind me, and not to
stir, or shoot, or do anything till I bade him; and, in the
meantime, not to speak a word. In this posture, I fetched
a compass! to my right hand, of near a mile, as well to get
over the creek, as to get into the wood, so that I might
come within a shot of them before I should be discovered,
which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.

I entered the wood with all possible wariness and si-
lence (Friday following close at my heels), and marched

1 The original meaning of compass is “ circle.”
214 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

till I came to the skirt of the wood, on the side which was
next to them, only that one corner of the wood lay be-
tween me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and,
showing him a great tree which was just at the corner of
the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word
if he could see there, plainly, what they were doing. He
did so, and came immediately back to me, and told me
they might be plainly viewed there; that they were all
about the fire, eating the flesh of one of their prisoners,
and that another lay bound upon the sand, a little from
them, whom, he said, they would kill next, and which
fired the very soul within me. He told me it was not
one of their own nation, but one of the bearded men
whom he had told me of, that came to their country in
the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming the
white, bearded man. Going to the tree, I saw plainly by
my glass, a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea,
with his hands and feet tied with flags, or things like
rushes, and that he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I
was, which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come
at undiscovered, and that then I should be within half a
shot of them. So I withheld my passion, and, going back
about twenty paces, I got behind some bushes, which held
all the way till I came to the other tree. Then I came
to a little rising ground, which gave me a full view of
them, at the distance of about eighty yards.

Thad now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the
dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled
together, and had just sent the other two to butcher the
poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 215

their fire, and they were stooped down to untie the bands at
his feet. I turned to Friday: “Now, Friday,” said I, “do as
Ibid thee.” Friday said he would. “Then, Friday,” said
I, “ do exactly as you see me do; fail in nothing.” So I
set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece upon
the ground, and Friday did the like by his; and with the
other musket I took my aim at the savages, bidding him
do the like. Then asking him if he was ready, he said,
“ Yes.” “Then fire at them,” said I; and the same mo-
ment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the
side he shot he killed two of them and wounded three
more; and, on my side, I killed one and wounded two.
They were in a dreadful consternation; and all of them
who were not hurt jumped up upon their feet immediately,
but did not know which way to run or which way to look,
‘for they knew not from whence their destruction came.
Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as I bid him, he
might observe what I did. So, as soon as the first shot
was made, I threw down the piece and took up the fowl-
ing-piece, and Friday did the like. He sees me cock and
present; he did the same again. “Are you ready, Fri-
day?” said I. “Yes,” said he. “Let fly, then,” said I;
and with that I fired again among the amazed wretches,
and so did Friday. As our pieces were now loaded
with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol bullets, we
found only two drop; but so many were wounded, that
they ran about yelling and screaming like mad creatures,
all bloody and wounded most of them, and three more fell
quickly after, but not quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” said I, laying down the discharged
pieces and taking up the musket, which was yet loaded,


216 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

’

“follow me,” which he did with a great deal of courage.
Upon which I rushed out of the wood and showed myself,
and Friday close at my foot. As soon as I perceived they
saw me, I shouted as loud as I could, and bade Friday do
so too. Running as fast as I could, which, by the way,
was not very fast, I made directly towards the poor vic-
tim, who was, as I said, lying upon the beach or shore, be-
tween the place where they sat and the sea. The two
butchers, who were just going to work with him, had left
him at the surprise of our first fire and fled, in a terrible
fright, to the sea-side, and had jumped intoa canoe, and three
more of the rest made the same way. I turned to Friday,
and bade him step forwards and fire at them. He under-
stood me immediately, and, running about forty yards to
be nearer them, he shot at them. I thought he had
killed them all, for I saw them all fall on a heap in the
boat, though I saw two of them up again quickly. How-
ever, he killed two of them, and wounded the third, so
that he lay in the bottom of the boat as if he had been
dead.

While Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife and
cut the flags that bound the poor victim. Loosing his
hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him, in the Por-
tuguese tongue, what he was. He answered in Latin,
“ Christianus ’; but was so weak and faint, that he could
scarce stand or speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket
and gave it him, making signs that he should drink, which
he did; and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate.
Then I asked him what countryman he was, and he said,
“ Espagniole ”; and, being a little recovered, let me know,
by all the signs he could possibly make, how much he was
in my debt for his deliverance. I said, in as good Spanish
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 217

as I could, “ We will talk afterwards, but we must fight
now. If you have any strength left, take the pistol and
sword, and lay about you.” He took them very thank-
fully, and no sooner had he the arms in his hands, but, as if
they put new vigor into him, he flew upon his murderers
like a fury, and had cut two of them in pieces in an in-
stant; for they were so surprised and frightened, that they
could make no resistance, nor attempt to escape.

I kept my piece in my hand still, without firing, being
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the
Spaniard my pistol and sword. So I called to Friday,
and bade him run up to the tree from whence we first
fired, and fetch the arms which lay there that had been
discharged, which he quickly did. Then, giving him my
musket, I sat down to load all the rest again, and bade
them come to me when they wanted. While I was load-
ing these pieces, there happened a fierce engagement
between the Spaniard and one of the savages, who made
at him with one of their great wooden swords, the same
weapon that was to have killed him before, if I had not
prevented it. The Spaniard, who was very bold, though
weak, had fought this Indian a good while, and had cut
him two great wounds on his head. But the savage, being

a stout, lusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him
down, and was wringing my sword out of his hand, when
the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely quitted the sword,
drew the pistol from his gine, and shot him dead on
the spot.

Friday, being now left at his tee, pursued the flying
wretches with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet, and
with that he despatched those three who were wounded
at first and fallen, and all the rest he could come up with.
218 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

The Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one of
the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of the say-
ages, and wounded them both. But, as he was not able
to run, they both got from him into the wood, where
Friday pursued them, and killed one of them, but the
other was too nimble for him; and, though he was
wounded, yet had plunged into the sea, and swam with
all his might off to those who were left in the canoe.
The three in the canoe, with one wounded (we know not
whether he died or no), were all that escaped our hands of
one-and-twenty.

Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out
of gun-shot; and, though Friday made two or three shots
at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday
would fain have had me take one of their canoes and
pursue them; and, indeed, I was very anxious about their
escape, lest, carrying the news home to their people, they
should come back, perhaps, with two or three hundred of
their canoes, and devour us by mere multitude. So I con-
sented to pursue them by sea; and, running to one of their
canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow me. But
when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find another
poor creature lying there alive, bound hand and foot, as the
Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with
fear, not knowing what the matter was, for he had not
been able to look up over the side of the boat. He was
tied so hard, neck and heels, and had been tied so long,
that he had little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags, or rushes, that
bound him, and would have helped him up. But he could
not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing,
it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 219

killed. When Friday came, I bade him speak to him, and
tell him of his deliverance ; and, pulling out my bottle,
made him give the poor wretch a dram, which, with the
news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat up in
the boat. But when Friday came to hear him speak, and
looked in his face, it would have moved any one to tears
to have seen how Friday kissed him, embraced him, hugged
him, cried, laughed, hallooed, jumped about, danced, sung,
then cried again, wrung his hands, beat his own face and
head, and then sung and jumped about again, like a dis-
tracted creature. It was a good while before I could
make him speak to me, or tell me what was the matter;
but when he came a little to himself, he said that it was
his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see
what ecstasy and filial affection had worked in this poor
savage at the sight of his father, and of his being deliv-
ered from death. Nor, indeed, can I describe half the
extravagance of his affection after this; for he went into
the boat and out of the boat a great many times. When
he went in to him, he would sit down by him, open his
breast, and hold his father’s head close to his bosom half
an hour together, to nourish it. Then he took his arms
and ankles, which were numbed and stiff with the bind-
ing, and chafed and rubbed them with his hands; and I,
perceiving what the case was, gave him some rum out of
my bottle to rub them with, which did them a deal of
good.

This action put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with
the other savages, who were now gotten almost out of
sight. And it was happy for us that we did not, for it

blew so hard within two hours after, and before they could
220 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

be gotten a quarter of their way, and continued blowing
so hard all night, and that from the north-west, which was
against them, that I could not suppose their boat could
live, or that they ever reached to their own coast.

But to return to Friday. He was so busy about his
father, that I could not find in my heart to take him off
for some time. But after I thought he could leave him a
little, I called him to me, and he came, jumping and
laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme. Then I
asked him if he had given his father any bread. He shook
his head, and said, “ None: ugly dog eat all up self.” So I
gave him a cake of bread, out of a little pouch I carried on
purpose. Talso gave him a dram for himself, but he would
not taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my pocket,
also, two or three bunches of my raisins, so I gave him a
handful of them for his father. He had no sooner given
his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of the
boat, and run away, as if he had been bewitched. He ran
at such a rate (for he was the swiftest fellow of his foot
that ever I saw), I say, he ran at such a rate that he was
out of sight, as it were, in an instant; and, though I
called and hallooed too after him, it was all one. Away
he went, and, in a quarter of an hour, I saw him come
back again, though not so fast as he went. And, as he
came near, I found his pace was slacker, because he had
something in his hand.

When he came to me I found he had been quite home
for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his father some fresh
water, and that he had got two more cakes or loaves of
bread. The bread he gave-me, but the water he carried
to his father. However, as I was very thirsty too, I took
a little sup of it. The water revived his father more than

rad =
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 221

all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he was just
fainting with thirst.

‘When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if
there was any water left. He said, “Yes.” I bade him
give it to the poor Spaniard, who was as much in want of
it as his father. I sent one of the cakes that Friday
brought to the Spaniard, too, who was indeed very weak,
and was reposing himself upon a green place, under the
shade of a tree. His limbs were also very stiff, and very
much swelled with the rude bandage he had been tied
with. Upon Friday’s coming up to him with the water,
he sat up and drank, and took the bread and began to
eat. I went up to him and gave him a handful of raisins.
He looked up in my face with all the tokens of gratitude
and thankfulness that could appear in any countenance ;
but was so weak, notwithstanding he had so exerted him-
self in the fight, that he could not stand upon his feet.
He tried to do it two or three times, but was really not
able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to him.
So I bade him sit still, and caused Friday to rub his
ankles, and bathe them with rum, as he had done his
father’s.

I observed the poor, affectionate creature, every two
minutes, or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turned
his head about to see for his father. At last he missed
him; at which he started up, and, without speaking a
word, flew with that swiftness to him, that one could
scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground as he went.
But when he came, he found he had only laid himself
down to ease his limbs. So. Friday came back to me
presently, and I then told him to help the Spaniard to the
boat. So he took him upon his back, and carried him
222 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

beside his father in the boat. Stepping out again, he
launched the boat off, and paddled it along. the shorc
faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty
hard too. So he brought them both safe into our creek,
and leaving them in the boat, runs away to fetch the other
canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him
whither he went. He told me, “Go fetch more boat.”
So away he went, like the wind, for sure never man or
horse ran like him; and he had the other canoe in the
creek almost as soon as I got to it by land. So he wafted
me over, and then went to help our new guests out of the
boat, which he did; but they were neither of them able to
walk, so that poor Friday knew not what to do.

At last, we made a kind of hand-barrow to lay them on,
and Friday and I carried them up both together upon it
between us. But when we got them to the outside of our
wall, or fortification, we were at a worse loss than before,
for it was impossible to get them over; and I was resolved
not to break it down. So I set to work again; and Friday
and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very handsome
tent, covered with old sails, and above with boughs of
trees, being in the same space without our outward fence,
and between that and the grove of young wood which I
had planted. Here we made them two beds of such things
as I had; namely, of good rice straw, with blankets laid
upon it to lie on, and another to cover them on each bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself
very rich in subjects. It was a merry reflection which I
frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all,
the whole country was my own mere! property, so that I
had an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, my people

1 Distinct, absolute.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 223

were perfectly subjected. I was the absolute lord and
lawgiver. ‘They all owed their lives to me, and were ready
to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion of it,
forme. Jt was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects,
and they were of three different religions. My man Fri-
day was a Protestant. His father was a pagan and a can-
nibal; and the Spaniard was a Catholic. However, I
allowed liberty of conscience to all my subjects.

As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prison-
ers, and given them shelter, and a place to rest upon, I
began to think of making some provision for them. The
first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling goat,
betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock, to be
killed. Then I cut off the hinder quarter, and chopping
it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and
stewing. I made them a very good dish of flesh and broth,
and we all enjoyed it and ate heartily.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday
to take one of the canoes and go and fetch our muskets
and other fire-arms from the place of battle. The next
day I ordered him to go and bury the dead bodies of the
savages, which lay open to the sun, and would presently
be offensive. I also ordered him to bury the horrid re-
mains of their barbarous feast. All of which he punctually
performed.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my
two new subjects. First I set Friday to inquire of his
father what he thought of the escape of the savages in
that canoe, and whether we might expect a return of them
with a power too great for us to resist. His first opinion
was, that the savages in the boat never could live out the
storm which blew that night they went off, but must be
224 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

drowned, or driven south to those other shores, where they
were as sure to be devoured as they were to be drowned,
if they were cast away. But as to what they would do, if
they came on shore, he said, he knew not. It was his
opinion that they were so dreadfully frightened with the
manner of their being attacked, the noise and the fire, that
he believed they would tell their people they were all
killed by thunder and lightning, and not by the hand of
man; and that the two which appeared (namely, Friday
and I) were two heavenly spirits and furies come down to
destroy them, and not with weapons. And this old savage
was right. For though they escaped the sea, they gave
such dreadful accounts in their own country (as I heard
afterwards), that they never ventured from that part to
my island again.

But I was under continual apprehensions for some time,
and kept upon my guard, I and all my army. For, as we
were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a hun-
dred of them in the open field.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the
fear of them coming wore off, and I began to take my
former thoughts of a voyage to the main into considera-
tion, being likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that I
might depend upon good usage from their nation, on his
account, if I would go.

But my thoughts were a little suspended, when I had a
serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I under-
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen and
Portuguese, who, having been cast away, and made their
escape to that side, lived there at peace indeed with the
savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries, and
indeed for life. J asked him all the particulars of their
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 225

voyage, and found they were a Spanish ship, bound from
the Rio de la Plata to Havana, being directed to leave
their loading there, which was chiefly hides and silver,
and to bring back what European goods they could
meet with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen
on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five
of their own men were drowned when first their ship was
lost ; and that these escaped through infinite dangers and
hazards, and arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to be devoured every moment.

He told me they had some arms with them, but they
were perfectly useless, for they had neither powder nor ball,
the washing of the sea having spoiled all their powder, but
a little, which they used at their first landing to provide
themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them
there, and if they had formed no design of making an es-
cape. He said they had many consultations about it, but,
having neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions
of any kind, their counsels always ended in tears and des-
pair. Iasked him how he thought they would receive a
proposal from me, which might tend towards an escape;
and, whether, if they were all here, it might not be done.

He told me they were all under the greatest distress im-
aginable, and if I would undertake their relief, they would
live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve
them, if possible, and to send the old savage and the Span-
iard over to them to treat. But when he had gotten all
things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started an
objection, which had so much prudence in it on one hand,
and so much sincerity on the other hand, that I could not
226 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

but be well satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the
deliverance of his comrades for at least half a year. The
case was thus:— He had been with us now about a
month, during which time I had let him see in what man--
ner I had provided, with the assistance of Providence, for
my support. He saw evidently what stock of corn and
rice I had laid up, which as it was more than sufficient for
myself, so it was not sufficient, at least without good hus-
bandry, for my family, now it was increased to the num-
ber of four. But much less would it be sufficient, if his
countrymen, who were, as he said, fourteen, still alive,
should come over. Least of all, would it be sufficient to
victual our vessel, if we should build one, for a voyage to
any of the Christian colonies of America. So he told me
he thought it would be more advisable to let him and the
two others dig and cultivate more land, as much as I could
spare seed to sow; and that we should wait another har-
vest, then we might have a supply of corn for his country-
men, when they should come; for want might be a tempta-
tion to them to disagree, or not think themselves delivered,
otherwise than out of one difficulty into another.

His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good,
that I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal,
as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity. So we fell to dig-
ging, all four of us, as well as the wooden tools we were
furnished with permitted. In about amonth’s time, by the
end of which it was seed-time, we had gotten as much land
cured, and trimmed up, as we sowed twenty-two bushels
of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice, which was, in short,
all the seed we had to spare.

x
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 297

CHAPTER XXI.

AVING now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of savages, if they
had come, unless their number had been very great, we went
freely all over the island, wherever we found occasion.
As we had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts,
it was impossible, at least for me, to have the means of it
out of mine. To this purpose, I marked out several trees,
which I thought fit for our work, and IJ set Friday and his
father to cutting them down. I caused the Spaniard to
oversee and direct their work. I showed them with what
indefatigable pains I had hewed a large tree into single
planks, and I caused them to do the like, till they had
made about a dozen large planks of good oak, near two
feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to
four inches thick. What prodigious labor it took up, any
one may imagine.

At the same time I contrived to increase my little flock
of tame goats as much as I could. To this purpose, I
made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself
with Friday the next day, for we took our turns. By this
means, we got about twenty young kids to breed up with
the rest; for, whenever we shot the dam, we saved the
kids and added them to our flock. But, above all, the
season for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a
prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that I
228 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

believe, had we been at Alicant, where raisins are cured,
we should have filled sixty or eighty barrels. These,
with our bread, was a great part of our food.

Té was now harvest, and our crop in good order. It
was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the
island. However, it was enough to answer our end. For,
from our twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought in and
thrashed out above two hundred and twenty bushels, and
the like, in proportion, of the rice, which was store enough
for our food to the next harvest, though all the fourteen
Spaniards had been on shore with me; or, if we had
been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully have
victualled our ship to have carried us to any part of the
world, that is to say, of America. When we had thus
housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to work
to make more wicker work; namely, great baskets in
which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests
I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the
main, to see what he could do with those he had left
behind him there. I gave him strict charge not to bring
any man with him, who would not first swear, in the
presence of himself and the old savage, that he would in
no way injure, fight with, or attack the person he should
find in the island, who was so kind as to send for them,
in order to their deliverance; but that they would stand
by and defend him against all such attempts, and wherever
they went, would be entirely under and subjected to his
command; and that this should be put in writing, and
signed with their hands.

Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 229

savage went away in one of the canoes which they came
in, when they were brought as prisoners to be devoured
by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, and about
eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to be
very careful of both, and not to use either of them, but
upon very urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used
by me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven
years and some days. I gave them provisions of bread
and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many
days, and sufficient for all their countrymen for about
eight days; and, wishing them a good voyage, I let them
go, agreeing with them about a signal they should hang
out at their return, by which I should know them again,
when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
shore.

They went away, with a fair gale, on the day that the
moon was at the full, by my account, in the month of
October, as near as I could tell.

It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when
a strange and unforeseen occurrence intervened, of which
the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I was
fast asleep in my hut one morning, when my man Friday
came running in to me, and called aloud, “ Master, master,
they are come, they are come!” I jumped up, and, regard-
less of danger, went out, as soon as I could get my clothes
on, through my little grove. I went without my arms,
which it was not my custom to do. But I was surprised,
when, turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat,
at about a league and a half distance, standing in for the
shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they call it, and
the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in. Also, I
230 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

observed, that they did not come from that side which the
shore lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island.
Upon this, I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for
these were not the people we looked for, and that we did
not know yet whether they were friends or enemies. In
the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective glass, to
see what I could make of them. Having taken the ladder
out, I climbed up to the top of the hill, as I used to do
when I was apprehensive of anything, and to take my
view plainer, without being discovered. J had scarce set
my foot on the hill, when my eye plainly discovered a
ship lying at anchor, at about two leagues and a half dis-
tant from me, §. 8. E., but not above a league and a half
from the shore. It appeared plainly to be an English
ship, and the boat an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in, though the
joy of seeing a ship, and one which I had reason to believe
was manned by my own countrymen, and consequently
friends, was such as I cannot describe. But yet I had
some secret doubts hanging about me, I cannot tell from
whence they came, bidding me to be on my guard. I
began to consider what business an English ship could
have here; since it was not the way to or from any part
of the world where the English had any traffic. And I
knew there had been no storm to drive them in there, as
in distress; and that, if they were English really, it was
probable they were here upon no good design, and that I
had better continue as I was,-than fall into the hands of
thieves and murderers.

I had not kept myself long in this posture, when I saw
the boat draw near the shore, as if they looked for a creek
to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing. However,
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 231

as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see
the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but run
their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile
from me, which was very happy for me; for, otherwise,
they would have landed just, as I may say, at my door,
and would soon have beaten me out of my castle, and,
perhaps, have plundered me of all I had.

When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they
were Englishmen; at least, most of them. One or two I
thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so. There
were, in all, eleven men, whereof three I found were
unarmed, and (as I thought) bound. When the first four
or five of them were jumped on shore, they took these
three out of the boat as prisoners. One of the three I
could perceive using the most passionate gestures of en-
treaty, affliction, and despair; the other two lifted up their
hands sometimes, and appeared concerned indeed, but not
so much as the first.

I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not
what the meaning of it could be. Friday called out to
me in English, as well as he could, “O master, you see
English mans eat prisoners as well as savage mans.”
“Why,” said I, “do you think they are going to eat them,
then?” “Yes,” says Friday, “they will eat them.” “No,
no,” said I, “Friday, I am afraid they will murder them,
indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat them.”

All this while I had no thoughts of what the matter
really was, but expected every moment the three prisoners
would be killed. Once. I saw one of the villains lift up
his arm, with a great cutlass or sword, to strike one of
the poor men, and I expected to see him fall every
moment. J wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and


232 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

the savage that was gone with him; or that I had any
way to have come undiscovered within shot of them, that
I might have rescued the three men, for they had no fire-
arms that I saw.

After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three
men by the insolent seamen, I saw that the fellows ran
scattering about the land, as if they wanted to see the
country. I observed, also, that the three other men had
liberty to go where they pleased, but that they sat down
all three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair.

It was just at the top of high water, when these people
came on shore; and, while partly they stood parleying
with the prisoners they brought, and partly while they
rambled about to see what kind of place they were in,
they had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the
water was ebbed considerably away, leaving the boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who, as I
found afterwards, having drank a little too much brandy,
fell asleep. However, one of them wakening sooner than
the other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him
to stir it, hallooed for the rest, who were straggling about.
Upon this they all soon came to the boat, but it was past
all their strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft, oozy sand, almost
like a quicksand. In this condition, like true seamen,
who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind given to fore-
thought, they gave it over, and away they strolled about
the country again. I heard one of them say aloud to an-
other (calling them off from the boat), “Why, let her
alone, Jack, can’t ye! She'll float next tide.” By which
I was fully confirmed what countrymen they were.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 233

All this while I kept myself close, not once daring to
stir out of my castle, any farther than to my place of
observation near the top of the hill. I knew it would be
no less than ten hours before the boat could be afloat
again; and by that time it would be dark, and I might be
more at liberty to see their motions, and to hear their
discourse, if they had any.

In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as be-
fore, though with more caution, knowing I had to do with
another kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered
Friday also to load himself with arms. I took myself two
fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My figure
indeed, was very fierce. I had my formidable goat-skin
coat on, with the great cap I have mentioned, a naked
sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a Suet
each shoulder.

It was my design, as I said before, not to have made
any attempt until it was dark; but about two o’clock,
being the heat of the day, I found that they were all gone
straggling into the woods, and, as I thought, were all laid
down to sleep. The three poor, distressed men, too
anxious for their condition to get any sleep, were, how-
ever, sitting under the shelter of a great tree, at about
a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I thought, out of
sight of any of the rest.

Upon this I resolved to discover myself to them, and
learn something of their condition. Immediately I marched
with my man Friday at a good distance behind me, as
formidable for his arms as I, but not making quite so star-
ing a spectre-like figure as I did. I came as near them
undiscovered as I could; and then, before any of them
saw me, I called aloud to them, in Spanish, “ What are ye,

gentlemen ? on
234 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

They started up at the noise, but were ten times more
confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure I
made. They made no answer at all, but I thought I per-
ceived them just going to fly from me, when I spoke to
them in English: “Gentlemen,” said I, “do not be sur-
prised at me; perhaps you may have a friend near when
you do not expect it.” “He must be sent directly from
Heaven, then,” said one of them very gravely to me, and
pulling off his hat at the same time, “for our condition is
past the help of man.” “All help is from heaven, sir,”
said I; “but can you put a stranger in the way how to
help you, for you seem to be in some great distress? Isaw
you when you landed; and, when you seemed to make
application to the brutes that came with you, I saw one
lift up his sword to kill you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and
trembling, looking like one astonished, returned, “ Am I
talking to God or man? Is it a real man, or an angel?”
“ Be in no fear about that, sir,” said I, “if God had sent
an angel to relieve you, he would have come better
clothed, and armed after another manner, than you see
me. Pray, lay aside your fears. I am a man, an English-
man, and disposed to assist you, you see. I have one
servant only. We have arms and ammunition; tell us
freely, can we serve you? What is your case?”

“Our case, sir,” said he, “is too long to tell you, while
our murderers are so near. But, in short, sir, I was com-
mander of that ship. My men have mutinied against me.
They have been hardly prevailed upon not to murder me,
and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate place,
with these two men with me, one my mate, the other a
passenger, where we expected to perish, believing the
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. : 235

place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think
of it.”

“Where are those brutes, your enemies?” said I; “do
you know where they are gone?” “There they are, sir,”
said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; “my heart trembles
for fear they have seen us, and heard you speak; if they
have, they will murder us all.” ;

“Have they any fire-arms?” said I. He answered,
“They had only two pieces, and one which they left in
the boat.” ‘ Well, then,” said I, “leave the rest to me.
T see they are asleep. It is an easy thing to kill them all;
but shall we tather take them prisoners?” He told me
there were two desperate villains among them, to whom
it was scarce safe to show any mercy; but if they were
secured, he believed all the rest would return to their
duty. I asked him which they were. He told me he
could not, at that distance, describe them; but he would
obey my orders in anything I would direct. “ Well,”
said I, “let us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest
they awake, and we will resolve farther.” So they will-
ingly went back with me, till the woods covered us from
them. “ Look you, sir,” said 1; “if I venture upon your
deliverance, are you willing to make two conditions with
me?” He anticipated my proposals, by telling me, that
both he and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly
directed and commanded by me in everything; and if the
ship was not recovered, he would live and die with me, in
what part of the world soever I would send him, and the
two others said the same.

“Well,” said I, “my conditions are but two: first, that
while you stay on this island with me, you will not pre-
tend to any authority here; and if I put arms in your
236 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
and do no prejudice to me or mine, upon this island; and,
in the meantime, be governed by my orders. Secondly,
that if the ship is, or may be, recovered, you will carry
me and my man to England passage free.” He gave me
all the assurances that the invention and faith of man
could devise, that he would comply with these most
reasonable demands, and, besides, would owe his life to
me, and acknowledge it, upon all occasions, as long as he
lived.

* Well, then,” said I, “here are three muskets for you, with
powder and ball. Tell me next what you think is proper
to be done.” He showed all the testimony of his grati-
tude that he was able; but offered to be wholly guided by
me. I told him I thought it was hard venturing anything,
but the best method I could think of was to fire upon
them at once, as they lay; and if any were not killed at
the first volley, and offered to submit, we might save
them, and so put it wholly upon God’s providence to
direct the shot.

He said, very modestly, that he was loath to kill them,
if he could help it, but that those two were incorrigible
villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the
ship. If they escaped we should be undone still, for they
would go on board and bring the whole ship’s company,
and destroy us all. ‘“ Well, then,” said I, “necessity
legitimates my advice; for it is the only way to save our
lives.” However, seeing him still cautious of shedding
blood, I told him they should go themselves, and manage
as they found convenient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them
awake, and soon ‘after we saw two of them on their feet.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 237

I asked him if either of them were: the men who, he had
said, were the heads of the mutiny. He said, “No.”
“Well, then,” said I, “you may let them escape; and
Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose to
save themselves. “Now,” said I, “if the rest escape you,
it is your fault.”

Animated with this, he took the musket I had given
him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two com-
rades with him, each man a piece in his hand. The two
men who were with him, going first, made some noise; at
which one of the seamen, who was awake, turned about,
and seeing them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was
too late then, for the moment he cried out, the two men
fired, the captain wisely reserving his own piece. They
had so well aimed their shot at the men they knew, that
one of them was killed on the spot, and the other very
much wounded; but, not being dead, he started up upon
his feet, and called eagerly for help to the other. But
the captain, stepping to him, told him it was too late to
ery for help, he should call upon God to forgive his vil-
lany; and, with that word, knocked him down with the
stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more. There
were three more in the company, and one of. them was
also slightly wounded. By this time I was come; and
when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to
resist, they begged for mercy. The captain told them he
would spare their lives, if they would give him any assur-
ance of their abhorrence of the treachery they had been
guilty of, and would swear to be faithful to him in recover-
ing the ship, and afterwards in carrying her back to
Jamaica, from whence they came. They gave him all the
protestations of their sincerity that could be desired; and
238 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

he was willing to believe them, and spare their lives, which
I was not against. Only I obliged him to keep them
bound, hand and foot, while they were upon the island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday, with the captain’s
mate, to the boat, with orders to secure her, and bring
away the oars and sail, which they did. By the by, three
straggling men, that were parted from the rest, came
back again upon hearing the guns fired; and seeing their
captain, who was before their prisoner, now their con-
queror, they submitted to be bound also.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire
into one another’s circumstances. I began first, and told
him my whole history, which he heard with an attention
even to amazement, and particularly at the wonderful
manuer of my being furnished with provisions and ammu-
nition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection of
wonders, it affected him deeply. But when he reflected
from thence upon himself, and how I seemed to have been
preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears ran
down his face, and he could not speak a word more.

After this communication was at an end, I carried him
and his two men into my apartment, leading them in just
where I came out, namely, at the top of the house, where
I refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and
showed them all the contrivances I had made during my
long inhabiting this place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly
amazing. But, above all, the captain admired my fortifi-
cation, and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat with
a grove of trees; which, having been now planted near
twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in
England, was become a little wood, and so thick, it was
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 239

impassable in any part of it, but at that one side where I
had reserved my little winding passage into it. This I
told him was my castle and my residence; but that I had
a seat in the country as most princes have, whither I could
retreat upon occasion, and I would show him that too
another time; but,at present, our business was to consider
how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to that;
but told me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to
take. There were still six-and-twenty hands on board;
who, having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by which
they had all forfeited their lives to the law, would be
hardened in it now by desperation, and would carry it
on, knowing that, if they were reduced, they should be
brought to the gallows as soon as they came to England,
or to any English colonies. Therefore, there would be no
attacking them with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and
found it was a-very rational conclusion. It occurred to
me that, in a little while, the ship’s crew, wondering what
had become of their comrades, and of the boat, would cer-
tainly come on shore, in their other boat, to seek for them ;
and that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be
too strong for us. This, he allowed, was rational.

Upon this, I told him the first thing we had to do was.
to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off; and taking everything out of her,
leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim. Accord-
ingly, we went on board, took the arms which were left
on board out of her, and whatever else we found there,
which was a bottle of brandy, and another of rum, a few
biscuit cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of sugar,
in a piece of canvas. The sugar was five or six pounds.
240 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

All of which was very welcome to me, especially the
brandy and sugar, which I had been without many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore, we
knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they had come
strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry off
the boat.

Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts that we could
be capable to recover the ship. But my view was, that if
they went away without the boat, I did not much ques-
tion to make her fit again to carry us away to the Lee-
ward Islands, and call upon our friends the Spaniards in
my way.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had
first, by main strength, heaved the boat up on the beach,
so high that the tide would not float her off at high-water
mark; and, besides, had broken a hole in her bottom too
big to be quickly stopped, and were sat down musing
what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and saw
her make a waft with her ancient,! as a signal for the
boat to come on board. But no boat stirred, and they
fired several times, making other signals for the boat.

At last, when all their signals and firings proved fruit-
less, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them
(by the help of my glasses) hoist another boat off, and
row towards the shore. We found, as they approached,
that there were no less than ten men in her, and that they
had fire-arms with them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we
had a full view of them as they came. The captain knew
the persons and characters of all the men in the boat, of
whom he said that there were three very honest fellows,

1 The flag of the ship.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 241

who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the
rest, being overpowered and frightened. But that, as for
the boatswain, who, it seems, was the chief officer among
them, and all the rest, they were as outrageous as any of
the ship’s crew, and were, no doubt, made desperate in
their new enterprise. Y »» fe wig pple ok CE,

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s coming
from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners, and
had indeed secured them effectually. Two of them, of
whom the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent
with Friday, and one of the three delivered men, to my
cave, where they were remote enough, and out of danger of
being heard or discovered, or of finding their way out of
the woods. They left them bound, but gave them provis-
ions, and promised them, if they continued there quietly,
to give them their liberty in a day or two; but that, if
they attempted their escape, they should be put to death
without mercy. They promised faithfully to bear their
confinement with patience.

The other prisoners had better usage. Two of them
were kept pinioned indeed, because the captain did not
like to trust them, but the other two were taken into my
service, upon their captain’s recommendation, and upon
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us.

As soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat into the beach, and came all on shore,
hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad to see;
for I was afraid they would rather have left the boat, and
anchor some distance from the shore, with some hands in
her to guard her, and so we should not be able to seize
the boat.

Being on shore, they ran all to the other boat; and it


242 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

was easy to see they were under a great surprise to find
her stripped, and a great hole in the bottom. After this,
they set up a great shout; but it was all to no purpose.
Then they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of
their small arms, which indeed we heard, and the echoes
made the woods ring; but it was all one. Those in the
cave we were sure could not hear, and those in our keep-
ing, though they heard it well enough, yet durst give no
answer to them.

They were so surprised at this, as they told us after-
wards, that they resolved to go all on board again to their
ship, and let them know there that the men were all mur-
dered, and the long boat staved. Accordingly, they imme-
diately launched their boat again, and got, all of them, on
board.

The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded
at this, believing they would go on’ board the ship again,
and set sail, giving their comrades up for lost, and so he
should still lose the ship which he was in hopes we should
have recovered; but he was quickly as much frightened
the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we
perceived them all coming on shore again. They left
three men in the boat, and the rest went up into the coun-
try to look for their fellows. This was a great disappoint-
ment to us, for now we were at a loss what to do; for our
seizing those seven men on shore would be no advantage
to us if we let the boat escape, because they would then
row away to the ship, and then the rest of them would be
sure to weigh, and set sail, and so our hope of recovering
the ship would be lost. However, we had no remedy but
to wait and see what the issue of things might present.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 243

The seven men came on shore, and the three who remained
in the boat put her off to a good distance from the shore,
and came to an anchor, to wait for them, so that it was
impossible for us to come at them in the boat.

Those that came on shore kept close together, marching
towards the top of the little hill, under which my habita-
tion lay; and we could see them plainly, though they could
not perceive us. And when they were come to the brow
of the hill, where they could see a great way into the val-
leys and woods which lay towards the north-east part, and
where the island lay lowest, they shouted till they were
weary, and then they sat down to consider of it. Had
they gone to sleep there, as the other party did, they had
done for us; but they were too full of apprehension of
danger to venture to go to sleep, though they could not
tell what the danger was.

The captain made a very just proposal to me, upon this
consultation of theirs; namely, that perhaps they would
all fire a volley again, to endeavor to make their fellows
hear, and that we should all sally upon them just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they
would certainly yield, and we should have them without
bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it was done
while we were near enough to come up to them before
they could load their pieces again.

But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long
time, very irresolute what course to take. At length I told
them there would be nothing to be done, in my opinion,
till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat,
perhaps we might use some stratagem with them in the
boat to get them on shore.

We waited a great while, and were very uneasy ; when
244 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

we saw them all start up, and march towards the sea. It
seems they had such dreadful apprehensions upon them of
the danger of the place, that they resolved to go on board
the ship again, give their companions over for lost, and so
go on their intended voyage with the ship.

As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
imagined they had given over their search, and were for
going back again; and the captain was ready to sink
when I told him my thoughts. But I presently thought
of a stratagem to fetch them back again, and which
answered my end to a tittle.

I ordered Friday and the captain’s mate to go over the
little creek westward, towards the place where Friday was
rescued. At about half a mile distance, I bade them halloo
as loud as they could; and, as soon as they heard the sea-
men answer them, they should return it again, and then,
keeping out of sight, take a round, and then wheel about
again to me, by such ways as I directed.

They were just going into the boat, when Friday and
the mate hallooed. They presently heard them, and an-
swering, run along the shore westward, towards the voice
they heard, when they were stopped by the creek, — the
water being up, they could not get over,—and called
for the boat to come and set them over, as, indeed, I
expected.

When they had set themselves over, I observed that they
took one of the three men out of her, and left only two in
the boat, having fastened her to a stump of a little tree
on the shore.

This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain’s mate to their business, I took the
rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight, we
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 245

surprised the two men before they were aware. One of
them lying on the shore between sleeping and waking,
and, going to start up, the captain, who was foremost, ran
in upon him and knocked him down, and then called to
him in the boat to yield or he was a dead man.

There needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his
comrade knocked down. Besides, this was, it seems, one
of the three men who were not so hearty in the mutiny
as the rest of the crew, and, therefore, was easily per-
suaded, not only to yield, but afterwards to join very
sincerely with us.

In the meantime, Friday and the captain’s mate so well
managed their business with the rest, that they-drew them,
by hallooing and answering, from one wood to another,
till they not only heartily tired them, but left them where
they were sure they could not reach back before it was
dark. Indeed, they were heartily tired themselves also by
the time they came back to us.

It was several hours after Friday came back to me before
they came back to their boat. We could hear the foremost
of them long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along, and could hear them answer, and
complain how lame and tired they were, and not able to
come any faster, which was very welcome news to us.

At length they came up to the boat. But it is impos-
sible to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek, and their two men gone. We
could hear them telling one another they were gotten into
an enchanted island; that either there were inhabitants
in it, and they should all be murdered, or else there were
devils or spirits in it, and they should be carried away

“and devoured, —
246 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by
their names, but got no answer. After some time, we
could see them, by the little light there was, run about like
men in despair; and that sometimes they would go and
sit down in the boat to rest themselves, then come on
shore again, and walk about, and so the same thing over
again. .

My men would have fallen upon them in the dark, but
I was willing to spare them, and kill as few of them as I
could, being unwilling to hazard the killing any of our
men, knowing the others were well armed. I resolved to
wait and make sure of them. I drew my ambuscade
nearer, and ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon
their hands and knees, and get as near them as they pos-
sibly could before they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boat-
swain, who was the principal ringleader, and had now
shown himself the most dispirited of all the rest, walked
towards them with two more of their crew. The captain —
was so eager at having the principal rogue so much in his
power, that he could hardly have patience to let him come
so near as to be sure of him, for he only heard his tongue
before. But when they came nearer, the captain and Fri-
day, starting up on their feet, let fly at them.

The boatswain was killed on the spot. The next was
shot through the body, and fell just by him, though he did
not die till an hour or two after; and the third ran for it.

At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with
my whole army, which was now eight men, namely, my-
self, generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the
captain and his two men; and the three prisoners of war,
whom we had trusted with arms.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 247

We came upon them indeed in the dark, so that they
could not see our number; and I made the man they had left
in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by name, to
try if he could bring them to parley, which fell out just as
we desired. So he calls out as loud as he could to one of
them, “Tom Smith! Tom Smith!” Tom Smith answered
immediately, “ Who’s that, Robinson?” for it seems he
knew his voice. The other answered, “ Ay, ay; for God’s
sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you
are all dead men this moment!”

“Who must we yield to? — where are they?” says Tom
Smith again. “Here they are,” says he. “Here is our
captain, and fifty men with him, have been hunting you
this two hours. The boatswain is killed, Will Frye is
wounded, and I am a prisoner; if you do not yield, you
are all lost.”

“Will they give us quarter, then,” says Tom Smith,
“and we will yield.” “I'll go and ask, if you promise to
yield,” says Robinson. So he asked the captain; and the
captain himself then called out, “ You, Smith, you know
my voice; if you laydown your arms immediately, and
submit, you shall all have your lives, all but Will Atkins.”

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, “ For God’s sake, cap-
tain, give me quarter! What have I done? They have all
been as bad as I!” which was not true, for it seems this
Will Atkins was the first man that laid hold of the captain
when they first mutinied. However, the captain told him
he must lay down his arms at discretion, and trust to the
governor’s mercy; by which he meant me, for they called
me governor.

In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged
: thes lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with
248 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

them, and two more, who bound them all. Then my great
army of fifty men, which, particularly with those three,
were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them all,
and upon their boat, only that I kept myself and one more
out of sight, for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and to think of
seizing the ship. As for the captain, now he had leisure to
parley with them, he expostulated with them upon the
villany of their practices with him, and how certainly it
must bring them to misery and distress in the end, and
perhaps to the gallows.

They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for
their lives. As for that, he told them that the governor
was an Englishman, and that he might hang them all there
if he pleased; but, as he had given them quarter, he sup-
posed he would send them to England, except Atkins,
whom he was commanded by the.governor to advise to
prepare for death, for that he would be hanged in the
morning. Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it
had the desired effect. Atkins fell upon his knees to beg
the captain to intercede with the governor for his life; and
all the rest begged of him, for God’s sake, not to be sent to
England.
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 249

CHAPTER XXII.

T now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance
was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to
bring these fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of
the ship. So I retired in the dark from them, that they
might not see what kind of a governor they had, and called
the captain to me. When I called, as at a good distance,
one of the men was ordered to speak again, and to say to
the captain, “ Captain, the commander calls for you;” and
presently the captain replied, “Tell his excellency I am
just a-coming.” So they all believed the commander was
just by with his fifty men.

Upon the captain’s coming to me, I told him my project
for seizing the ship, which pleased him, and resolved to
put it in execution the next morning.

But in order to execute it with more art, and to be sure
of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners, and
that he should go and take Atkins, and two more of the
worst of them, and send them bound to the cave where
the others lay. So Friday, and the two men who came on
shore with the captain, conveyed them to the cave as to a
prison. The others I ordered to my bower, where they
were pinioned, and left secure enough.

To these, in the morning, I sent the captain, who was to
enter into a parley with them; in a word, to try them and
tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or no,

°
250 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

to go on board and surprise the ship. He talked to
them of the injury done him, of the condition they were
brought to, and that though the governor had given them
- quarter for their lives, as to the present action, yet that if
they were sent to England, they would all be hanged in
chains; but that if they would join in so just an attempt
as to recover the ship, he would have the governor’s en-
gagement for their pardon.

Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would
be accepted by men in their condition. They fell down on
their knees to the captain, and promised, with deep im-
precations, that they would be faithful to him to the last
drop, and that they should owe their lives to him, and
would go with him all over the world; that they would
own him for a father to them as long as they lived.
“Well,” says the captain, “I must go and tell the gov-
ernor what you say, and see what I can do to bring him to
consent to it.” So he brought me an account of the tem-
per be found them in, and that he verily believed they
would be faithful. However, that we might be very se-
cure, I told him he should go back again, and choose out
five of them, and tell them that they should see he did not
want men, but that he would take out those five to be his
assistants, and that the governor would keep the other
two, and the three that were sent prisoners to the castle
(my cave), as hostages for the fidelity of those five; and
if they proved unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages
should be hanged in chains alive upon the shore.

This looked severe, and convinced them that the gov-
ernor was in earnest. However, they had no way left
them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the
prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 251

five to do their duty. Our strength was now thus ordered
for the expedition. First, the captain, his mate, and pas-
senger. Second, then the two prisoners of the first gang,
to whom, having their characters from the captain, I had
given their liberty, and trusted them with arms. Third,
the other two, whom I had kept in my bower, pinioned,
these were now released. Fourth, these five, released at
last; so that there were twelve in all, besides five we kept
in the cave, as hostages for the fidelity of the others. ~_

I asked the captain if he was willing to venture with
those hands on board the ship. As for me and my man
Friday, I did not think it proper for us to stir, having
seven men left behind. It was employment enough for us
to keep them asunder, and supply them with victuals.

As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them fast.
But Friday went twice a day to them, to supply them
with necessaries; and I made the other two carry provi-
sions to a certain distance, where Friday was to take it.

When I showed myself to the two hostages, it was with
the captain, who told them I was the person the governor
had ordered to look after them, and that it was the gov-
ernor’s pleasure they should not stir anywhere, but by my
direction; that if they did, they should be fetched to the
castle, and be laid in irons. So that we never suffered
them to see me as governor; so now I appeared as another
person, and spoke of the governor, the garrison, the castle,
and the like, upon all occasions.

The captain now had no difficulty before him but to fur-
nish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man them.
He made his passenger captain of one, with four other
men. He himself, with his mate and five more, went in
the other. And they contrived their business very well,
252 LIFE AND ADVENTURBS

for they came up to the ship about midnight. As soon as
they came within call of the ship, he made Robinson hail
them, and tell them he had brought off the men and the
boat, but that it was a long time before they had found
them, and the like, holding them in chat till they came to
the ship’s side. The captain and the mate, entering first
with their arms, immediately knocked down the second
mate and the carpenter with the butt-end of their mus-
kets, being very faithfully seconded by their men. They
secured all the rest that were upon the main and quarter-
decks, and began to fasten the hatches to keep them down
who were below, when the other boat, and their men
entering the forechains, secured the forecastle of the ship,
and the scuttle which went down into the cook-room,
making three men they found there prisoners. When this
was done, and all safe upon the deck, the captain ordered
the mate with three men to break into the round-house,
where the new rebel captain lay. He, having taken the
alarm and gotten up, now stood with two men and a boy,
having fire-arms in their hands. When the mate, with a
crow, split open the door, the new captain and his men
fired boldly among them, and wounded the mate with a
musket ball, which broke his arm, and wounded two more
of the men, but killed nobody.

The mate, calling for help, rushed, however, into the
round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol, shot
the new captain through the head. Upon this, the rest
yielded, and the ship was taken effectually, without any
more lives lost. As soon as the ship was thus secured,
the captain ordered seven guns to be fired, which was the
signal agreed upon with me, to give me notice of his suc-
cess; which, you may he sure, I was glad to hear, having
OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 253

sat watching upon the shore for it till two o’clock in the
morning.

Having heard the signal plainly, I laid me down, and
being very much fatigued, I fell sound asleep, when shortly
I was awakened by the noise of a gun. Starting up, I heard
a man call me by the name of “Governor,” and presently
I knew the captain’s voice. Climbing up to the top of the
hill, there he stood, and pointing to the ship, he embraced
me in his arms. “ My dear friend and deliverer,” says he,
“there’s your ship; for she is all yours, and so are we, and
all that belongs to her.” I cast my eyes to the ship, and
there she rode, about half a mile off the shore, for they had
weighed her anchor as soon as they were masters of her,
and the weather being fair, had brought her to an anchor
just against the mouth of a little creek; and the tide being
up, they had brought the pinnace! in near the place where
I had first landed my rafts, and so landed just at my door.

I was, at first, ready to sink down with surprise, for I
saw my deliverance indeed visibly put into my hands, all
things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry me away
whither I pleased to go. He perceived my situation, and
immediately pulls a bottle out of his pocket, and gave me
a dram of cordial, which he had brought on purpose for
me. After I drank it, I sat down upon the ground, and it
was a good while before I could speak to him.

After some time, I came to myself, and then I embraced
him in my turn, as my deliverer, and we rejoiced together.
I told him, I looked upon him as a man sent from heaven
to deliver me, and that the whole transaction seemed to
be a chain of wonders. And such things as these were the
testimonies we had of a secret hand of Providence govern-

1 A ship’s boat, generally fitted for eight pers.
254 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

ing the world, and an evidence that the eyes of an infinite
power could search into the remotest corner of the world,
and send help to the miserable whenever he pleased. Nor
did I forget to return thanks to God for all his mercies.
When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship af-
forded, and such as the wretches, who had been so long
his masters, had not plundered him of. Upon this he
called aloud to his men, and told them to bring the things
ashore that were for the governor; and it was a splendid
present. First, he had brought me a case of bottles full
of cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine, two
pounds of excellent tobacco, twelve good pieces of f
ship’s beef, and six pieces of pork, with a bag of pe a8 :
about a hundred weight of biscuit. He brought
a box of sugar, a box of flour, a bili
two bottles of lime-juice, and abugil
But, besides these, and what was‘
useful to me, he brought me six clean new shirts, six very
good neckcloths, two pair of gloves, one pair of shoes, a
hat, and one pair of stockings, and a very good suit of
clothes of his own, which had been worn very little; but
the clothes felt very awkward and uneasy upon me at first.
After all these things were brought into myjlittle apart-
ment, we began to consult what was to be done with the
prisoners we had, and whether we might venture to take
them away with us or no, especially two of them, whom
we knew to be incorrigible and refractory to the last
degree ; and the captain said he knew that they were such
rogues, that there was no obliging them. If he did carry
them away, it must be in irons, as malefactors, to be
delivered over to justice, at the first England colony he





OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 255

could come at. Upon this, I told him I durst undertake
to bring the two men he spoke of to make it their own
request that he should leave them upon the island, of
which the captain said he should be very glad. I accord-
ingly sent for them, and entered seriously into discourse
with them upon their circumstances. One of them an-
swered in the name of the rest, that they had nothing to say
but this: that when they were taken, the captain promised
them their lives, and they humbly implored my mercy.
But I told them I knew not what mercy to show them; .
for, as for myself, I had resolved to quit the island with
all my men, and had taken passage with the captain to go |
togingland. As for the captain, he would not carry them
and, but as prisoners in irons, to be tried for
nd runni way with the ship; the consequence
they eds know, would be the gallows.
ell which was best for them
to take their fate in the island.
If they desired that, I did not care, as I had liberty to
leave it. I had some inclination to give them their lives,
if they could shift on shore. They seemed very thankful
for it; apd said they would rather venture to stay there,
than carried to England to be hanged.
ie them I would let them into the story of my
g thereand put them into the way of making it easy
to them. Accordingly, I gave them the whole history of
the place, and of my coming to it; showed them my forti-
fications, the way I made my bread, planted my corn,
cured my grapes, and, in a word, all that was necessary to
make them easy. I told them the story of the Spaniards
that were to be expected, for whom I left a letter, and
made them promise to treat them in common with them-
“selves.




256 LIFE AND ADVENTURES

I left them five muskets, three fowling-pieces, and three
swords. I had about a barrel and a half of powder, which
I left them. I gave them a description of the way I man-
aged the goats, and directions to milk and fatten them, to
make both butter and cheese. In a word, I gave them
every part of my own story; and I told them I would pre-
vail with the captain to leave them two barrels of gun-
powder more, and some garden seeds, which I told them I
would have been very glad of. Also I gave them the bag
of peas which the captain had brought me, and bade
them to be sure to sow and increase them.

Having done this, I left them the next day, and went
on board the ship. The next morning, two of th
men came swimming to the ship’s side; and
most lamentable complaint of the three,
be taken into the ship, for God’s they
murdered.

The captain pretended to hav <
but, after some difficulty, and aftertheir solejin promises
of amendment, they were taken on board, and were shortly
after soundly whipped, after which they provéd very hon-
est and quiet feliows.

Some time after this, I went with the boat
tide being up, with the things promised to
which the captain, at my intercession, sen
and clothes, which they took, and were very t ul for.
I also encouraged them, by telling them that if Tt lay
my way to send any vessel to take them in, I would not
forget them.

When I quitted this island, I carried on board, for rel-
ics, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my umbrella, and
one of my parrots; also I forgot not to take the money I
had had laid by me so long, useless. ;












OF ROBINSON CRUSOE. 257

And thus I left the island, the 19th of December, by the
ship’s account, in the year 1686, after I had been upon it
twenty-eight years, two months, and nineteen days; being
delivered from the second captivity the same day of the
month that I made my escape from among the Moors at
Sallee.

In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England,
the 11th of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-five
years absent.



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M. YoncE, of England. 312 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 50 cents;
for introduction, 40 cents. Cloth: 60 and 50 cents.

Iruing’s Sketch Book.

With full Notes, Questions, etc., for Home and School Use. By Homer
B. SpraGue, Ph.D., and M. E. Scarxs, formerly of the Girls’ High
School, Boston. 126 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 30 cents; for intro-
duction, 25 cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 40 cents; for introduction, 35

cents.
Shakespeare’s Merchant of Venice.

Hupson and Lams. 115 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 30 ce
introduction, 25 cents. Cloth: 45 and 40 cents.

The Arabian Nights.

Selections, edited by Rev. Epwarp E
376 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 50
Cloth: 60 and 50 cents.

The Vicar of Wakefield.

Edited with Notes, for use in Schools. 238 pages rds: Mailing
Price, 35 cents; for introduction, 30 cents. Cloth: = 60 cents.

‘
3

; for




Scott’s Guy Mannering. 3

Edited with Notes, and a Historical Introduction by Miss Chartorre
M. YoncE. 525 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 70 cents; for introduc-
tion, 60 cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 85 cents; for introduction, 75 cents.

Scott’s Ivanhoe.

Edited with Notes, and a Historical Introduction by Miss CHARLOTTE
M. Yonex. 554 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 70 cents; for introduc-
tion, 60 cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 85 cents; for introduction, 75
cents.

Scott’s Rob Roy.

Edited with Notes, and a Historical Introduction by Miss CHARLOTTE
M. YoncE. viii+507 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 70 cents ; for in-
troduction, 60 cents. Cloth: 85 and 75 cents.
ELEMENTARY ENGLISH. 7

Tom Brown at Rugby.

By THomas HucuHes. Edited by CLARA WEAVER ROBINSON, With a
Sketch of the Author’s Life by D. H. Monrcommry. xiii+387 pages.
Boards: Mailing Price, 60 cents; for introduction, 50 cents. bicth:
Mailing Price, 70 cents; for introduction, 60 cents.

Benjamin Franklin.

His Autobiography, with Notes, and a continuation of his Life compiled
chiefly from his own writings. By D. H. Montracomery. Illustrated.
viii+311 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 50 cents; for introduction, 40
cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 60 cents; for introduction, 50 cents.

Gulliver’s Travels.

The Voyage to Lilliput and the Voyage to Brobdingnag. By DEAN
Swirr. ix+162 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 35 cents; for introduc-
tion, 30 cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 45 cents; for introduction, 40 cents.

Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia.

EL JOHNSON, with a Sketch of the Author. viii+ 157 peees.
jling Price, 35 cents; for introduction, 30 cents. Cloth:
e, 45 cents; for introduction, 40 cents.












+148 pages. Boards: Mailing Price, 35 cents;
jon, 30 cents. Cloth: Mailing Price, 45 cents; for introduc-

OTHER BOOKS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY READING
Which may berentioned in connection with the Classics for Chil-

dren are: —

Washington and His Country.
Irving’s Life of Washington, abridged by Prof. JonNn Fiske, with an
Introduction and a Continuation, making the work a complete classic
history of the United States. See description under History.

Pilgrims and Puritans.
True Stories of the Early History of New England. See description
under History.

English History Reader.
See description under History.

Footprints of Travel; or, Journeyings in Many Lands.
See description under Geography.

The Our World Series of Geographies.
See description under Geography. See also Announcements.

u
8 ELEMENTARY ENGLISH.

THE SERIES OF CLASSICS FOR CHILDREN

H4Ss been most cordially approved by the press and the critics,
and endorsed by teachers, superintendents, and school boards.
The books are in wide use (1) as regular readers, (2) as supple-

mentary readers, and (3) in school and home libraries.

Out of

hundreds of testimonials we can present but a very few :—

The Critic, New York: A capital
series.

Education, Boston: These books
are remarkably cheap, well printed,
well edited, and should have an ex-
tended use.

William H. Payne, Pres. of Pea-
body Normal College, Nashville,
Tenn.: 1 think too much cannot be
éaid in favor of this list of publica-
tions, destined, I believe, to create a
correct taste for reading, and to dis-
place much that is now working in-
jury to the mental and moral habits
of the young.

J. H. Vincent, Supt. of Instruction,
Chautauqua Assembly - I desire to
express my great satisfaction with
the taste, skill, and wisdom of the
work. I wish it abundant success.

Mellen Chamberlain, Librarian,
Boston Public Library - These pub-
lications seem to me to be of great
value, whether regarded as home
reading or for use in public school.

H. 0. Wheeler, Supt. of Schools,

Burlington, Vt.: These books form
an admirable series for reading in
the home as well as in the school.

F. Louis Soldan, Prin. of Normal
School, St. Louis, Mo.: The idea un-
derlying these books is meritorious
in itself, and its execution admirable.

W. M. Crow, Supt. of Schools, Gal-
veston, Tex.: Permit me to say that I
regard your series of Classics for Chil-
dren as the best literature in best
form that has ever been
the young people of our.








burn, : As to resul
to say, ¥gom our experi
one whi dertakes th

dispensiig with regul Teaders ”)
will willingly abandon f& Our read-
ing exercise is the most interesting
exercise of the day. The pupils look
forward to it eagerly, the interest is
absorbing, and the/pxercise is reluc-
tantly discontinued. I may add that
the teachers are as much interested
as the pupils.

Hazen’s Complete Speller.

Epitions AND Prices. — Part I., Primary: 12mo.

Boards. 54 pages.

Introduction, 10 cents; allowed for old book, 3 cents. Parts II. and IJI.,
Intermediate and Grammar, and Test Speller: 12mo. Boards. 148
ages. Introduction, 20 cents; allowed for old book, 6 cents. Complete
Parts I., IL, and III.): 12mo0. Boards. 1% pages. Introduction, 25
cents; allowed for old book, 8 cents.

N this book spelling is taught on a rational plan, by the aid
of ‘intelligence as well as memory. It has many features of

special merit that practical teachers have been prompt to recognize.

W.T. Harris, formerly Supt. of Schools, St. Louis: It gives evidence of
long experience on the part of the author in the matter of teaching spelling.
ELEMENTARY ENGLISH. 9

Elementary Lessons in English.

By Mrs. N. L. Knox-HEatu.

PART FIRST: “ How to Speak and Write Correctly.”

12mo. Cloth. 192 pages.

Mailing Price, 45 cents; Introduction, 40

cents ; allowance in exchange, 15 cents.

rpuls part contains no technical grammar.

It is designed to

give children such knowledge of the English language as will
enable them to speak and write it with accuracy and force.

PART FIRST: Teachers’ Edition.

12mo. Cloth. 323 pages. Mailing

Price, 70 cents; Introduction and Teachers’ Price, 60 cents.

The teachers’ edition contains the entire text of the pupils’ book,
and in addition full directions and suggestions for conducting the

work to the best advantage.






the high schog¥ grade.

PART SECOND: “The Parts of Speech and How to Use Them.” ix + 396
Mailing price, 70 cents ; for introduction, 60 cents ; allowance

book in exchange, 20 cents.

ook contains all the technical grammar that is required

Like Part First, it has a practical

aim, — jhe knowledgg of our language and the ability to use it.

The
adopted.

8. T. Dutton, Supt. of Schools,
New Haven, Conn.: The Knox-Heath
Language Series has been in use in
New Haven, the first book for five
years, the second book for one year.
From my observation of the results
attained by their use, and from the
testimonies of teachers and princi-
pals, I have no doubt of their being
the best text-books for language-
teaching now in the market.

They are better suited to develop
power in the correct use of English,
and at the same time furnish teach-
ers with a better method, than any
other books I have seen.

(Oct. 23, 1887.)

Jos. M. Dill, Pres. of State Nor-
mal School, Troy, Ala.: When an



i means to this end have been ingeniously devised and

author and publisher combine and
give us an excellent book, I believe
it the duty of teachers to tell them
so, even if we are not requested to
do it.

I introduced ‘“‘ Elementary Lessons
in English,’ Parts I. and IL, into the
Model Department of this school in
September. More than two hundred
copies have been sold to our pupils,
—and teachers, pupils, and parents
are delighted with them.

Since the introduction of these
books into this school, at least eight
country schools near us have adopted
them, and not a week passes without
some teacher’s asking me about them.
They will soon oust all the elemen-
tary Grammars from this section of
country. (Dec. 16, 1887.)
10

ELEMENTARY ENGLISH.

Whitney’s Essentials of English Grammar.

For the Use of ae Schools, Academies, and the Upper Grades of
1

Grammar Schools

book, 25 cents.

ith a Supplement of Extracts for practice in pars-
ing. By Prof. W. D. WHrrnEy, of Yale College.
Pages. Mailing Price, 85 cents; ‘Introduction, 7
0.

12mo. Cloth, 260
cents: Allowance for

set is an English grammar of the English language, prepared
by the best philologist in’ the country. It is clear, practical,
and complete. It proceeds from facts to principles, and from these

to classifications and definitions.

Mechanical forms, unnecessary

classifications, and abstract definitions are avoided.
The exercises, selected from the best English writers, leave none
of the usual and regular forms of English structure untouched.
The facts of English grammar are presented in such a way as to
lay the best foundation for the further and higher study of lan-

guage in all its departments.

OPINIONS OF EMINENT SCHOLARS AND TEAC

Charles W. Eliot, Pres. of Har-
vard University: I find it admirably
adapted for the uses to which he pro-
poses that it shall be put.

F. J. Child, Prof. of English, Har-
vard University : I do not Know that
T ever before saw an English gram-
mar which I would permit my chil-
dren to look into, so great the chance
has been that they would learn noth-
ing or be taught something false. I
regarded Prof. W.’s undertaking and
book as a service to humanity as
well as to education.

Cyrus_Northrop, Prof. of English
Literature, Yale College: Its sim-
plicity, conciseness, clearness, and
completeness seem to me to make
the work all that could be desired.
It is certainly the best English gram-
mar I] have ever seen. I was espe-



cially pleased with the chap’
verbs and on predicate no
adjectives. . s

B. J. Hawthorne, Prof. of English
Literature, University of Oregon,
Eugene City: I find that in my
higher classes the student trained in
Whitney holds the students of other
grammars at a surprising disadvan-
tage. (Jan. 31, 1887.)

E. 8. Joynes, Prof. of English,
South Carolina College: Prof. Whit-
ney has done his subject justice, and
has fully sustained his reputation.

T. W. Higginson: It seems to me
incomparably superior to any school
grammar known to me, being, in-
deed, the only one which makes the
English language a simple, intelligi-
ble, and even attractive, study.

‘and

Bigsby’s Elements of English Composition.

By ‘BERNARD Brossy, Lecturer on the English language. Tee 155

pages.

Mailing Price, 40 cents; Introduction, 35 cents.