Citation
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Material Information

Title:
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Uncontrolled:
Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uncontrolled:
Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Gilbert, John, 1817-1897 ( Illustrator )
Jackson, John, 1801-1848 ( Engraver )
Adeney ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
London
Edinburgh
New York
Publisher:
T. Nelson and Sons
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1882
Language:
English
Physical Description:
593 p., 7 leaves of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1882 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; cover title: Life & adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Some ills. signed Gilbert; some engraved by Jackson and Adeney.
General Note:
Front. is included in the pagination.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
written by himself ; with illustrations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
28229603 ( oclc )

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Full Text


—o0f940e——

ROBINSON CRUSOE.
[eAaie ON!
HERE |

CRUSOE NOTCHING HIS CALENDAR.


THE LIFE

And Strange Surprising Adventures

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE

OF YORK, MARINER.

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF.

WITH JLLUSTRATIONS.

Tondo:
T, NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW.
EDINBURGH 5 AND NEW YORK.

1882.
LIFE AND ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



CHAPTER I.

I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called
me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
8 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

brother, I never knew, any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early
with rambling thoughts. My father, who was very
ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house education and a country free-school
generally go, and designed me for the law; but I
would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and
my inclination to this led me strongly against the
will, nay, the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
other friends.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving his house, and my native country,
where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
for men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of aspir-
ing, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the
common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper sta-
WISE WORDS AND SAGE COUNSEL. 9

tion of low life, which he had found, by long experi-
ence, was the best state in the world, the moat suited
to human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and
hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic
part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride,
luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of
mankind: he told me I might judge of the happiness
of this state by one thing—namely, that this was
the state of life which all other people envied; that
kings have frequently lamented the*miserable con-
sequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man
gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have “ neither
poverty nor riches.”

He bid me observe it, and 1 should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower parts of mankind; but that the
middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of
body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living,
luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labour, want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient
diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequence of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated
for all kinds of virtues, and all kinds of enjoyments ;
10 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and com- _
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands, or of the head, not sold to the life of
slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexing
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the
body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy,
nor secret burning lust of ambition for great things ;
but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and
_ learning, by every day’s experience, to know it more
sensibly.

After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the
most affectionate manner, not to play the young man,
not to precipitate myself into miseries, which nature,
and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have
provided against; that I was under no necessity of
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of
life which he had been just recommending to me;
and that, if I was not very easy and happy in the
world, it must be my mere fault that must hinder it;
and that he should have nothing to answer for, hav-
ing-thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt. In
A FATHER’S EXPOSTULATION. 1)

a word, that, as he would do very kind things for
me, if I would stay and settle at home, as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfor-
tunes as to give me any encouragement to go away;
and, to close all, he told me I had my elder brother
for an example, to whom he had used the same ear-
nest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where
he was killed; and though, he said, he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that, if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when
there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though, I suppose, my father
did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed
the tears run down his face very plentifully, especi-
ally when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that
he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as,
indeed, who could be otherwise? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home, according to my father’s desire. But, alas!
a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father’s further importunities, in a few
12 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither, as my
first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little plea-
santer than ordinary, and told her my thoughts were
30 entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that
I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ;
that I was sure if I did I should never serve out my
time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and,
if she would speak to my father to let me make but
one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would pro-
mise, by a double diligence, to recover the time I
had lost.

This made my mother very angry: she told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any such a subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to
anything so much for my hurt; and that she won-
dered how I could think of any such thing, after
such a discourse as I had had from my father, and
such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used to me: and that, in short, if I would
ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that,
CRUSOE GOES TO SEA. 18

for her part, she would not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say
“that my mother was willing, when my father was
not.”

Though my mother refused to move it to my
father, yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported
all the discourse to him; and that my father, after
showing a great concern at it, said to her with a
sigh, “That boy might be happy, if he would stay
at home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born; I can give no
consent to it.”

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose; though, in the meantime, I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But, being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions
then going to London by sea in his father’s ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common
allurement of seafaring men, namely, “that it should
cost me nothing for my passage,” I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it; but left them to hear of it as they
might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s,
without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an il] hour, God knows.
14 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER II.

On the Ist of September 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer’s misfortunes, I believe, began earlier, or con-
tinued longer than mine. The ship had no sooner
got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise, in a most frightful manner;
and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body and terrified in mind: I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father’s house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father’s tears, and my mother’s entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardiness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to
God and my father.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon before, went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but such
as it was, enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. Iexpected every wave would have swallowed
us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough, or hollow of the sea, we
A CAPFUL OF WIND. 15

should never rise more; and in this agony of mind
I made many vows and resolutions, that, if it would
please God to spare my life this voyage, if ever I
got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.

These thoughts continued during the storm, and
indeed some time after; but the next day, as the
wind was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be
a little inured to it. However, I was very grave
that day, being also a little sea-sick still: but to-
wards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the
next morning; and, having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was,
as I thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with won-
der upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and pleasant in a
little time after.

And now, lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, came to me and said, “‘ Well, Bob,” clapping
me on the shoulder, “how do you do after it? 1
warrant you were frightened, wa’n’t you, last night,
when it blew out a capful of wind?’ “ A capful do
you call it?” said I. “’twasa terriblestorm.” “A
16 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

storm, you fool!’ replies he, “do you call that a
storm? Why, it was nothing at all: give us but a
good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of
such a squall of wind as that: you are but a fresh-
water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that. D’ye see what
charming weather ’tis now?” To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of too many
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk
with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the
future. I found afterwards, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off; and roused myself from them, as it were
from a distemper, and, applying myself to drink and
company, soon mastered the returns of those fits—
for so I called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience as any
young fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with
it, could desire.

But I was to have another trial for it still; and
Providence, as in such cases generally it does, re-
solved to leave me entirely without excuse; for, if I
would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such an one, as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy of. The sixth day of our being at sea,
we came into Yarmouth roads; the wind having
A TERRIBLE STORM. 17

been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, namely, at south-west;. for
seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for
a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid
here so long, and should have tided up the river, but
that the wind blew too fresh; and after we had lain
four or five days, blew very hard. However, the
roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong,
our men were unconcerned, and not in the least ap-
prehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth
day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had
all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride
as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very
high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out
the sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors
a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master was
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
18 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hear him softly say to himself several times, ‘ Lord,
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!” and the like During these first hur-
ries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was
in the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill re-assume the first penitence, which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against ; I thought that the bitterness of death had
been past, and that this would be nothing too, like
the first; but when the master himself came by me,
as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I
never‘saw: the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress around
us; two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our men
cried out that a ship, which rid about a mile a-head
of us, was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
Toward evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which he was very loth to do; but the boat-
swain protesting to him that, if he did not, the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had
cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so close,
and shook the ship so much, that they were obliged
to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
ALL HANDS TO THE PUMP. 19

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But it
I can expréss, at this distance, the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in ten-fold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I
had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put
me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged that they had never known
a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by “ founder,” till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men, that
had been down on purpose to see, cried out, ‘we
had sprung a leak;” another said, “there was four
feet water in the hold.” Then all hands were called
to the pump. At that very word, my heart, as I
thought, died within me; and I fell backwards upon
the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin. How-

2
20 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ever, the men roused me, and told me, “ that I,” who
was able to do nothing before, ‘‘ was-as well able to
pump as another:” at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. °

We worked on; but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and, though the storm began to abate a little, yet, as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master fired several guns for help;
and a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship’s side; till, at last, the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours,
our men cast them a rope over the stern with a
buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold
of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and
got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them, or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only pull her in towards shore as much as
we could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon the shore, he would make’ it
good to their master; so, partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, slop-
ing towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness.

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
SAFE ON SHORE. 2)

out of our ship when we saw her sink; and then!
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
‘“‘she was sinking ;’’ for, from that moment, they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be
said to go in. My heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people run-
ning along the strand to assist us when we should
come near; but we made slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the west-
ward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as
unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity,
as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient
to carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back te
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy; and my
father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable,
22 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing
the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads,
it was a great while before he had any assurance that
I was not drowned.

But my wayward disposition pushed me on with
an obstinacy that nothing could resist; and, though
I had several times loud calls from my reason, and
my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I rushed
on with my eyes open.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master’s son, was now less forward
than I; the first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quarters;
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shak-
ing his head, asked me how I did; telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go further abroad. His father,
turning to me, with a grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be aseafaring man.”
“Why, sir,” said I, “will you go to sea no more?”
“That is another case,” said he; “it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps
this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah
in the ship of Tarshish: pray,” continues he, “ what
RELUCTANCE TO GO HOME. 23

are you, and on what account did you go to sea?”
Upon that I told him some of my story, at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
“What had I done,” said he, “ that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship? I would not set
my foot in the same ship with thee again for a thou-
sand pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was further than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very
gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might
see a visible hand of Heaven against me; ‘and, young
man,” said he, ‘‘ depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments, till your father’s words
are fulfilled upon you.”

‘We parted soon after, for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more; which way he went I know
not; as for me, having some money in my pocket, I
travelled to London by land, and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself what course
of life I should take, and whether I should go home,
or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the
best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed -
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else. From whence I have often since observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper
24 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason
which ought to guide them in such cases, namely,
that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of
the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.

CHAPTER ITI.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
ancertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of going home, and looked out for a voyage. That
evil influence which carried me first away from my
father’s house, presented the most unfortunate of all
enterprises to my view, and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune that, in all these ad-
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; but, as 1
always chose for the worse, so I did here, for having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to
fall into pretty good company in London, which does
not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omit-
A SUCCESSFUL VOYAGE. 25

ing to lay some snare for them very early. But it
was not so with me; I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea,
and who, having had very good success there, was
resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my con-
versation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, and hearing me say “I had a mind to see the
world,” told me, that if I would go the voyage with
him, I should be at no expense, I should be his mess-
mate and his companion, and if I could carry any-
thing with me I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit, and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and
entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voy-
age with him, and carried a small adventure with me,
which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably, for I carried
about £40 in such toys and trifles as the captain di-
rected me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together
by the assistance of some of my relations, whom I
corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father,
or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that
to my first adventure. This was the only voyage
which I may say was successful in all my adventures,
and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain, under whom, also, I got a com-
petent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the
ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to
26 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

understand some things that were needful to be un-
derstood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn, and, in a word, this voy-
age made me both a sailor and a merchant, for I
brought home 5 lb. 9 oz. of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London at my return almost
£300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader, and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again; and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made, for though I did not carry quite
£100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200
left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; and the first was this, namely, our
ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands,
or rather between those islands and the African shore,
was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turk-
ish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much can-
vass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns,
and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us, and bringing to by mistake just
CRUSOE AS A SLAVE. 27

athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, aa
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him shear off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from nearly 200
men which he had on board. * However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre-
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but, laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who
immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part.of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged
to yield, and carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country
to the emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were,
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. But, alas! this was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear
in the sequel of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes he would take me with
him when he went to sea again, believing that it would,
some time or other, be his fate to be taken by a Span-
28 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ish or Portuguese man of war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon
taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of the slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it.

After about two years an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the
ship’s pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, inso-
much that he would sometimes send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a
stark calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that, though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost
sight of it, and rowing, we knew not whither, or
which way, we laboured all day and all the next
aight, and when the morning came we found we had
FISHING EXCURSIONS. 29

pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore,
and that we were at least two leagues from the shore;
however, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and, hav-
ing lying by him the long-boat of our English ship
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing
any more without a compass and some provision; so
he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin,
in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge,
with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul home
the main-sheet, and with room before for a hand or
two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with
what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom
gibb’d over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some smal]
lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice,
and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing,
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he
never went without me. It happened that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or
for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extra-
ordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat,
overnight, a larger store of provision than ordinary,
30 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and had ordered me to get ready three fusees, with
powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling, as well as
fishing.

I got all things ready, as he directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ensign and pendants out, and everything to accom-
modate his guests, when, by-and-by, my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered
me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as
soon as I had got some fish, I should bring it home
to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and, my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not ‘for a
fishing business, but for a voyage: though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
should steer; for anywhere, to get out of that place,
was my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
apeak to this Moor to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron’s bread: he said that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles
A PLAN OF ESCAPE. 31

stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of bees’-wax into the boat, which weighed
above half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was
Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley: so I called
to him, ‘“Moley,’’ said I, ‘our patron’s guns are on
board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot?
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our
curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gun-
ner’s stores inthe ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I'll bring
some;’’ and, accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of pow:
der, or rather more, and another with shot, that had
five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat; at the same time I found some powder of
my master’s in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from N.N.E., which was contrary to
32 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been
sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at last
reached to the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was.

After we had fished some time, and catched no-
thing; for, when I had fish on my hook I would not
pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to
the Moor, ‘This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand farther off.’’ He, think-
ing no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm, I run the
boat near a league further, and then brought-to as if
I would fish. Then, giving the boy the helm, I
stepped forward to where the Moor was, and I took
him by surprise, with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to
me, begged to be taken in, and told me he would go
all the world over with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would
do him none: “ But,” said I, “you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best
of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but, if you come near the boat, I will shoot you
through the head; for I am resolved to have my
CRUSOE AND XURY. 33

liberty.” So he turned himself about, and swam for
“the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

CHAPTER IV.

I could have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy ; but there was no venturing to trust
him, and humanity forbade the other. When he
was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faith- .
ful to me, I will make you a great man: but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard), I must
throw you into the sea too.” The boy smiled in my
face and spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust
him; and swore to be faithful to me and go all over
the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait’s mouth (as, indeed, any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have supposed we were sailing
on to the southward, to the truly barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could
never once go on shore, but we should be devoured
34 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair fresh gale of wind and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that I believe by the next day at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop or go on shore, or
come to anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if
any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river; I knew not what nor where, neither what
latitude, what country, what nation, nor what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creck in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the coun-
try; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures. of we knew not what kinds, that
MONSTERS OF THE DEEP. 35

the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. ‘‘ Well, Xury,”
said I, “then I will not; but it may be we may see
men by day who will be as bad to us as those lions.”
“Then-we may give them the shoot-gun,”’ says Xury
laughing; ‘“‘make them run away.’ Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles
to cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good,
and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and
lay still all night: I say still, for we slept none ; for
in two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we
knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come
down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
owing and washing themselves, for the purpose of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and, indeed, so
was I too; but we were both more frightened when
we heard one of these mighty creatures swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him, by his blowing, to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
“No,” says I, “ Xury; we can slip our cable with
the buoy to it, aud go off to sea: they cannot follow
us far.” Ihad no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars’

3
36 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

length, which something surprised me: however, I
immediately stept to the cabin door, and, taking up
my gun, fired at him; upon which he turned round
and swam to the shore again.

In the morning Xury said, if I would let him go
on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affec-
tion, that he made me love him ever after. Says he,
“Tf wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.”
“Well, Xury,’”’ said I, “we will both go; and it
the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us.’ So I gave Xury a piece of rusk
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of
bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled in
the boat as near the shore as we thought was proper,
and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our
arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river; but the boy, seeing a low place, about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and, by-and-by, I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frightened by some wild
beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but
when I came nearer to him, I saw something hang-
ing over his shoulders, which was a creature that he
had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs; however, we were very glad of it, and
A COASTING VOYAGE. 37

it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans. So we filled our jars,
and having a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed ;
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far from the
coast. But, as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in; and
did not exactly know, or at least remember, what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, other-
wise I might now have easily found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this
coast till I came to the part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I
now was must be that country, which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes,
lies wasted and uninhabited, except by wild beasts.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw
the Pike of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain
Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel: so I
38 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once, in par-
ticular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go further off the shore;
for, says he, “look, yonder lies a dreadful monster
on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under a shade of a piece of the hill, that
hung, as it were, over him. “ Xury,” says I, “you
shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked
frightened and said, ‘ Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth: one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musquet bore,
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and a third, for we had three
pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot
him in the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised
a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg
about the knee, and broke the bone; he started up,
growling at first; but finding his leg broke, fell down
ADVENTURE WITH A LION. 39

again, and then got up upon three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a
little surprised that I had not hit him on the head;
however, I took up the second piece immediately,
and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see
him drop, and make but little noise, but lie strug-
gling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. “ Well, go,’’ said I;
so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little
gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand,
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of
the piece to his ear and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. ‘“ For what, Xury?” said I. “Me
cut off his head,” said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I
bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole
day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
40 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectu-
ally dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this, was
to make the river Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to
seek for the islands, or perish among the negroes.

When I pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited; and, in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, ‘ No go, no go.” How-
ever, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk
to them; and I found they run along the shore by
me a good way. I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long, slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I
kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs aa
well as I could, and particularly made signs for some-
thing to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,
CRUSOE AND THE SAVAGES. 41

and they would fetch me some meat: upon this, I
lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them run up into the country; and, in less than half
an hour, came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the pro-
duce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to
accept it. But how to come at it was our next dis-
pute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them,
and they were as much afraid of us; but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore,
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to
us again.

‘We made signs of thanks to them, for we had noth-
ing to make them amends: but an opportunity offered
that very instant to oblige them wonderfully ; for,
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with
great fury from the mountains towards the sea; the
people were terribly frightened, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from
them, but the rest did; however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea and swam about as if they had
come for their diversion; at last one of them began
to come nearer our boat than at first I expected; but
T lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with
all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
42 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach,
I fired and shot him directly in the head; immedi-
ately he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly
and plunged up and down struggling for life, he im-
mediately made to the shore, but died just when he
reached it.

The other creature, frightened with the flash of
fire and the noise of the gun, swam on shore and ran
up directly to the mountains. I found quickly the
negroes were for eating the flesh of the creature I had
killed, so I was willing to have them take it asa
favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and,
though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much
more readily than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made signs
for the skin which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted.
I then made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward
to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have
it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in
the sun; this they set down for me as before, and I
sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all
“a SAIL! A SAIL!” 43

three. The women were as stark naked as the
men,

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither reach
one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when, ona sudden, the boy cried out, ‘‘ Master,
master, a ship with a sail!’’ and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin and immediately saw, not
only the ship, but what she was, namely, that it was
a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced
44 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

they were bound some other way, and did not design
to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving te
speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them ;
but after I had crowded to the utmost and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship
that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron’s ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them
for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which
they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to and lay by for
me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with
them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor who was on board
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman; that I had made my escape
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in and all my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one
will believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed
AN HONEST SEA-CAPTAIN. 45

it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship as a return for my de-
liverance; but he generously told me he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me when I came to the Brazils. ‘“ For,” says
he, “I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one
time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. No, no, Seignior Inglese” (Mr. English-
man), says he, “I will carry you to the Brazils in
charity, and these things will help to buy your sub-
sistence there and your passage home again.”

As he was charitable in this propasal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the
seamen that none should offer to touch anything I
had; then he took everything into his own possession,
and gave me back an exact inventory of them that I-
might have them, even so much as my three earthen
jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship’s use, and asked me what I would have for it?
I told him he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of the
boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he told
me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more he would make
it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more
46 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

for my boy Xury which I was loth to take; not that
[ was not willing to let the captain have him, but I
was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be
just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years if
he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good passage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’
Bay, in about twenty-two days after.

The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing ot
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard’s skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I
was willing to sell he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump
of bees’-wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in
a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces
of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock I went
on shore in the Brazils.
ON SHORE IN THE BRAZILS. 47

CHAPTER V.

[ wap not long been here, before I was recommended
to the house of a good honest man, like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation
and a sugar house). I lived with him some time,
and acquainted myself, by that means, with the man-
ner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle
there, I would turn planter among them; endeavour-
ing in the meantime to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturaliza-
tion, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order; so that the third year we
planted some tobacco and made each of us a large
48 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year
to come; but we both wanted help, and now I found,
more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder. I had no remedy but
to go on; I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I de-
lighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s house,
and broke through all his good advice.

I began to look upon my condition with the ut-
most regret. I had nobody to converse with but,
now and then, this neighbour; no work to be done,
but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself.

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back; for the ship remained there, in providing his
lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: —“ Seignior Inglese,” says he (for
so he always called me), “if you will give me let-
ters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London,
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
WHOLESOME ADVICE. 49

willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you
give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,
which you say is half your stock, and let the hazard
be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you
may have the other half to have recourse to for your
supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account
of allmy adventures; my slavery, escape, and how |
had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the
humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lis-
bon, he found means, by some of the English mer-
chants there, to send over, not the order only, but a
full account of my story, to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own
pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London, vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
wrote for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me at the Brazils; among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to
50 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him as a present for him-
self, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years’ service, and would not accept of
any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods, being all English
manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I might say I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought mea
negro slave, and an European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.

But, as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above 100 lb., were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lis-
CRUSOE’S FELLOW-PLANTERS. 5]

bon; and, now increasing in business and in wealth,
my head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the
ruin of the best heads in business.

You may suppose, that, having now lived almost four
years in Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our
port; and that, in my discourses among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
on the coast, for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass and the like—not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c.,
but negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great
numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying negroes; which was a
trade at that time, not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientos,
or permission of the Kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed from the public; so that few negroes
were bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came

4
52 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOR.

to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and after enjoining me to
secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit
out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all planta-
tions as well as I, and were straightened for nothing
so much as servants; that, as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question
was, whether I would go their supercargo in the
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea? and they offered me that I should have an
equal share of the negroes, without providing any
part of the stock.

I, that was always my own destroyer, would no
more resist the offer, than I would restrain my first
rambling designs, when my father’s good counsel
was lost upon me. Ina word, I told them I would
go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried,
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writ-
ings, or covenants, to do so; and I made a formal
will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in case
of my death; making the captain of the ship that
had saved my life as before, my universal heir; but
AN EVIL DAY. 53

obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.

I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason; and, accord-
ingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur-
nished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board, in an evil
hour again, the first of September 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.

CHAPTER VI.

Tue same day I went on board, we set sail; standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with de-
sign to stretch over for the African coast. When
they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their
course in those days, we had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by
N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the Line in about twelve days’
54 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees
22 minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge. It
began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east ; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for twelve
days together, we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither the
fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship ex-
pect to save their lives.

In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and a boy washed overboard! About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation, as well as he could, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from
Cape St. Augustino; so that he found that he was
got upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the River Amazons, toward that of
the River Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much
disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
A DREADFUL CONDITION. 55

have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the
Caribbee islands, and, therefore, resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the in-draft of the bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days’ sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance,
both to our ship and ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W., in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us out of the very
way of all human commerce.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out land!
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her
in such a manner that we expected we should all
have perished immediately.

We were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before
the storm, but she was first staved, by dashing against
the ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; 80
56 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was @
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to de-
bate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.

In this distress the mate of our vessel laid hold of
the boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her flung over the ship’s side; and getting
all into her, let her go. We committed our souls to
God in the most earnest manner ; and the wind driv-
ing us toward the shore, we hastened our destruction
with our own hands, pulling, as well as we could, to-
wards land.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it
took us with such a fury that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O
God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast
way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back and left me upon the land, almost dry,
but half dead with the water I took in.
CAST UPON THE ROCKS. 57

Another wave that came upon me buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and
I could feel myself carried, with a mighty force and
swiftness, towards the shore a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. I was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and,
though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath, and new courage. I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments to recover breath, and till
the water went from me, and then took to my heels,
and ran, with what strength I had, farther towards
the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves,
and carried forwards as before, the shore being very
flat. At last, to my great comfort, I got to the
mainland, and clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down, upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved, in”
@ case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce
58 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of
the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the grave.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel—when the
beach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off—and considered, how
was it possible I could get on shore!

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of a place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and
that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I
was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything,
either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts;
and that which was particularly afflicting to me was,
that I had no weapon, either to hunt or kill any crea-
ture for my sustenance, or to defend myselt against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for
A LODGING FOR THE NIGHT. 59

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a.
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box.
This was all my provision; and this threw me into
such terrible agonies of mind, that for a while I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I
began with a heavy heart to consider what would
be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time, was to get up in a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny—which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night—and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no pro-
spect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent
hunger, J went to the tree, and getting up into it,
endeavoured to place myself so, as that, if I should
sleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my
lodging; and having been excessively fatigued, I
fell asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition; and felt myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.
60 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER VII.

Wuen I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most
was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up among the rocks about a mile from
the shore where I was, and as she seemed to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
T looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet
of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship. I resolved if possible
to get to it, so I pulled of my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within
A VISIT TO THE SHIP. 61

my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore-chains, so low as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the
water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be
sure my first work was to search, and to see what
was spoiled, and what was free: and, first, I found
that all the ship’s provisions were dry and untouched
by the water; and, being very well disposed to eat, I
went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which
I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat,
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was
not to be had, and this extremity roused my applica-
tion; we had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many overboard as I could manage for their
62 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might
not drive away. When this was done, I went down
the ship’s side, and pulling them to me, I tied four
of them fast together at both ends as well as I could
in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short
pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to
bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so
I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them
to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains.
But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it
that I could get, and, having considered well what
I most wanted, I got three of the seamen’s chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with provi-
sions, namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
brought to sea with us; but the fowls were killed.
There had been some barley and wheat together, but,
to my great disappointinent, I found afterwards that












































































































A CARGO FROM THE WRECK.



Page 63.
THE FIRST CARGO. 63

the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors,
[ found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in
all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them into
the chests, nor any room for them. While I was
doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though
very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore
upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on
board in them and my stockings. However, this
put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more
upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it
was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels
of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but, with much search, I found
them; two of them dry and good, the third had taken
64 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms.
And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least
eapful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

I had three encouragements: Ist, A smooth, calm
sea; 2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore;
3dly, What little wind there was, blew me towards
the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the
tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; and, with this cargo, I put to
sea. Fora mile or thereabouts my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distance from
the place where I had landed before; by which I
perceived that there was some in-draft of the water,
and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.

As TI imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft,
as well as I could, to get into the middle of the
stream, and at length found myself in the mouth of
a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current, or tide, running up. I looked on both sides

for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not will-
' ing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.
A TOUR OF DISCOVERY. 65

At length I spied a little cove, on the right shore
of the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty,
I guided my raft, and at last got my raft and all
my cargo safe on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might
happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhabited,
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts
or not. There was a hill, not above amile from me,
which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed
to over-top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge,
from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-
pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder;
and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill; where, after I had, with great labour
and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my lot, to my
great affliction, namely, that I was in an island, en-
vironed every way with the sea, no land to be seen
except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and
two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.

I found, also, that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
66 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day: what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beasts might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears.

However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures like hares run out of the wood.

I now began to consider that I might yet get a
-great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And, as i knew that
the first storm that blew must necessarily break her
all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart,
till I got everything out of the ship that I could get.
Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the re“t; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when
the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair
of pumps on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
A SECOND VISIT TO THE WRECK. 67

second raft; and, having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter’s stores, I
found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a
great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several things
belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small
shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was
so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the
ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore top-sail, a ham-,
mock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my great comfort.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being
large casks—I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and
I piled all the empty chests and casks up ina circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt
either from man or beast.

5
68 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of
the tent with some boards within, and an empty
chest set up on end without; and, spreading one of
the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed, for the first time, and slept very quietly all night,
for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day,
as well to fetch all those things from the ship, as to
get them on shore.

After I had made five or six such voyages to the

ship, and thought I had nothing more to expect that
was worth my meddling with; I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large
runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a
barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
‘cause I had given over expecting any more provi-
sions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I
cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore
algo.

The next day I made another voyage; and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables, and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the
iron-work I could get; and, having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with al)
CLEARING OUT THE WRECK. 69

those heavy goods, and came away; but this raft was
so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I was en-
tered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as
I did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my
cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no great
harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was the greater part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the
pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.

CHAPTER VIII.

I wap been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring; though, I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water I
went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
70 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could be found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen
of good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “O
drug!” said I aloud, “what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground;
one of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee; e’en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not
worth saving.” However, upon second thoughts, I
took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of can-
vass, I began to think of making another raft; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast,
and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an
hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It pre-
sently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend
to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it
was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it
was quite high water it blew a storm.
PLANS FOR DEFENCE. 71

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay,
with all my wealth about me, very secure. It blew
very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I
looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out
of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed,
there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about
securing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the
earth; and in short, I resolved upon both: the man-
ner and description of which it may not be improper
to give an account of.

T soon found the place I was in was not for my
settlement, particularly because it was upon a low,
moorish ground near the sea, and I believed it would
not be wholesome, and more particularly, because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me—Ist, Health and fresh
water, I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the
heat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous crea-
72 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tures, whether men or beasts; 4thly, A view to the
sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I
was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search for a proper place for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, on which was arock
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a
house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me
rom the top. On the side of this rock there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance
or door of a cave; but there was not really any cave
or way into the rock at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the
end of it, descended irregularly every way down into
the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the
N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S.
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near
the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-cirele be-
fore the hollow place, which took in about ten yards
in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards
in its diameter from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on
PATIENCE AND PERSEVERANCE. 73

the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one above another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes,
up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside lean-
ing against them, about two feet and a half high, like
a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong that
neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it.
This cost me a great deal of time and labour, espe-
cially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to
the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by
a door, but by a short ladder to get over the top:
which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me;
and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have
done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.

Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among

. the sails,
74 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And now I lay no more for a while in the bed
which I had brought on shore, but in a hammock,
which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to
the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and
everything that would spoil by the wet; and having
thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance,
which, till now, I had left open, and so passed and
repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it
raised the ground within about a foot and a half, and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labour, and many days, before all these things
were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had
laid my schemes for the setting up my tent, and
making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a
thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning as I was with the thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself, ““O, my powder!’”’ My very heart sunk within
me, when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder
might be destroyed, on which not my defence only,
NEEDFUL PRECAUTIONS. 75

but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely de-
pended. I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger, though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that, after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate the powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once;
and to keep it so apart that it should not be possible
to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which
in all was about 240 lb. weight, was divided in not
less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from
that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might
come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out at least once every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out
I presently discovered that there were goats upon the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then
it was attended with this misfortune to me, namely,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world tc
76 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed,
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away, as if in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded that, by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward that they
did not readily see objects that were above them; so,
afterwards, I took this method—I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark. The first shot I made among
these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock-still by her till I came and took her up: and
not only so, but when I carried the old one with me
upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have it bred up tame; but it would not
eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso-
lutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how
CRUSOE’S ACTUAL CONDITION. “47

I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made,
I shall give a full account of it in its proper place;
but I must first give some little account of myself,
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may be
well supposed, were not a few.

T had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of
the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
namely, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary
course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned
without help, so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned. swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly, one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when reason, as it were, ex-
postulated with me the other way, thus:—‘ Well,
you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray
remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you
come, eleven of you, into the boat? Where are the ten?
Why were they not saved, and you lost? Why were
78 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?”
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be
considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.

CHAPTER IX.

Anp now, being to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrible
island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of 9 de
grees 22 minutes north of the Line.

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts that I should lose my reckon-
ing of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath-days from the work-
ing-days; but to prevent this, I cut it, with my knife,
upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed, namely, “I came on shore here on the
30th of September 1659.” Upon the sides of this
square post I cut, every day, a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the
A TRUSTY SERVANT. 79

rest, and every first day of the month as long again
as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time. -
But it happened that, among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages
which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got several
things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I found some time after, in rummaging the
chests; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several
parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gunner’s, and car-
penter’s keeping; three or four compasses, some ma-
thematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and
books of navigation; all which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no: also, I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo
from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion
to say something in its place: for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of
the ship himself, and swam on shore to me, the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years; I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could
make up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, [
found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to
80 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the utmost; and I shall show, that, while my ink
lasted, I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone, I could not; for I could not make any ink, by
any means that I could devise.

And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one; as also a spade, pick-
axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily; and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habita-
tion. The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I
could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day
in driving it into the ground: for which purpose I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows; which, however,
though I found it, yet it made driving these posts, or
piles, very laborious and tedious work.

I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstances I was reduced to; and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me (for I
was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and, as my reason began now to master
* A DEBTOR AND CREDITOR ACCOUNT.

81

my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus :—

Evtu..

I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.

I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world to be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitaire: one banish-
ed from human society.

I have no clothes to cover
me. ,

IT am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.

Goon

But I am alive and not
drowned, as all my ship’s
company were.

But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship’s crew, to
be spared from death; and
He that providentially saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and
perishing in a barren place,
affording no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.

But I am cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts
to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa, and what if
I had been shipwrecked
there?
82 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things
as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative, or some-
thing positive, to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if
I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things, I
began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now
rather call ita wall, for L raised a kind of wall against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and,
after some time (I think it was a year and a half), I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as
CRUSOE AS A CABINET-MAKER. 83

I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at
some time of the year, very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at
first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had
no room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge
my cave, and work farther into the earth, for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour
I bestowed on it; and when I found I was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to
the right hand, into the rock, and then, turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a
door to come out on the outside of my pale or forti-
fication.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it
were, a back way to my tent and to my storehouse,
but gave me room to stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for, without these, I was
not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world;
I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so
much pleasure, without a table; so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe, that, as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so by stat-
ing and squaring everything by reason, and by mak-
ing the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I
84 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in
time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found
at last that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things even without tools, and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which, perhaps, were never made that way before,
and that with infinite labour. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down
a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my
adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board out of a whole tree; but this I had na
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me to make up a plank or board; but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well em-
ployed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place; and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft
from the ship. But, when I wrought out some boards,
as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a
foot and a half, one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate everything at large
in their places, that I might easily come at them. J
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock, to hang my
guns, and all things that would hang up, so that, had
CRUSOR’S NARRATIVE. 85

my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine
of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day’s employment, of which I shall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all those par-
ticulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm,
in the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortu-
nate island, which I called the Istanp oF Despair;
all the rest of the ship’s company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself
at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely,
I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place
to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing
but death before me; that I should either be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to
death for want of food. At the approach of night, I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.
86 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

October 1. In the morning, I saw, to my great
surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and
was driven on shore again much nearer the island; _
which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for seeing
her sit upright and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if
the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief), so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that
they would not have been all drowned, as they were;
and that, had the men been saved, we might, perhaps,
have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost
dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day, also, it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October till the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in making several voyages to
get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every time of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also on these days, though with some intervals
of fair weather; but it seems this was the rainy
season.

Oct. 20. I overset my raft and all the goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.
DAY AFTER DAY. 87

Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with soma
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces (the wind blowing a little harder than before),
and was no more to be seen except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation; greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I
fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and marked
out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved
to strengthen with a work wall or fortification, made
of double piles, lined within with cables and without
with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the
island with my gun to seek for some food, and dis-
cover the country, when I killed a she-goat, and her
kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also
because it would not feed.

November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
upon,

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
88 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

formed a fence round me, a little within the place 1
had marked out for my fortification.

Nov. 3. I went out with my gun and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon I went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion: namely, every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours if it did not
rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o’clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then in the evening to work
again. The working part of this day and the next
was wholly employed in making my table, for I was
yet but a very sorry workman; though time and ne-
cessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon
after, as I believe they would any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild-cat; her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing; of every creature that
I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowl which I did not understand; but was sur-
prised and almost frightened with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at them (not well know-
ing what they were), got into the sea and escaped me
for that time.

Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to
A REFRACTORY CHAIR. 89

my liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend
tn

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for
the 11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning), I
took wholly up to make me a chair, and, with much
ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making, I pulled it in
pieces several times.

Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.

Nov. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frightened me dreadfully for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock
-of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in mak-
ing little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound or two pounds at most of powder; and
80 putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and as remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days, I killed a large bird that
was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveni-
ence.

Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this
90 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
barrow or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply these wants, and
make me some tools. As for a pick-axe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade:
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
Brazils, they call the Iron tree, from its exceeding
hardness; of this, with great labour and almost spoil-
ing my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home too,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy,
The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this
machine; for I worked it effectually by little and
little into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle
exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part, having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it
would not last me so long; however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it
to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after
that fashion, or so long a-making.

I was still deficient, for I wanted a hacks: ora
wheelbarrow. A basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware; at least none yet found
out, and as to the wheelbarrow I fancied I could
NECESSITY THE MOTHER OF INVENTION. 91

make ali but the wheel, but that I had no notion of,
neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make iron gudgeons, for the
spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; soI gave it
over; and for carrying away the earth which I dug
out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod which
the labourers carry the mortar in for the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up no less than four days; I mean always ex-
cepting my morning walk with my gun, which I sel-
dom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still,
because of my making these tools, when they were
finished I went on, and working every day as my
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.

Note. During all this time I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and acellar. As for a lodging, I kept to the tent,
except that sometimes in the wet season of the year
it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees like a thatch.
92 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

December 10. I began now to think my cave or
vault finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
from the top and one side; so much that, in short,
it frightened me, and not without reason too, for if I
had been under it I should never have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to
carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up so that I might be sure no
more would come down.

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of board across over each
post; this I finished the next day, and, setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured; and the posts standing in rows served
me for partitions to part of my house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the 20th I placed
shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang
everything up that could be hung up; and now I
began to be in some order within doors.

Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of
boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another table.

Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stir-
ring out.

Dec. 25. lain all day.
A TAME GOAT. 93

Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.

Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I catched it and led it home in a string;
when I had it home I bound and splintered up its
leg, which was broke.

NV.B. I took such care of it that it lived, and the
leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by nursing
it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green
at my door, and would not go away. This was the
first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up
some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze,
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the
evening, for food; this time I spent in putting all my
things in order within doors.

January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and laie with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy
and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if
T could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats, but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.-

Jan. 3. I began my fence, or wall, which, being
94 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.

NV.B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the Journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than
about 25 yards in length, being a half-cirele, from
one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it.

CHAPTER X.

Aut this time I worked very hard, the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till
this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what
inexpressible labour everything was done with, espe-
cially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, J
INGENIOUS EXPEDIENTS. 95

found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as, indeed,
as to some of them, it was; for instance, I-could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the
heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as
to make them hold water, so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle,
so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally
by seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of bees’-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure, but I had none of
that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I
had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light, like a candle. In the middle of all my labours,
it happened that in rummaging my things I found a
little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn for feeding of poultry; not for this voyage,
but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon, What little remainder of corn had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw no-
thing in the bag but husks and dust; and being will-
ing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks
96 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under
the rock.

It was a little before the great rain, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of anything, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when about a month
after I saw some few stalks of something green shoot-
ing out of the ground, which I fancied might be some
plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our Euro-
pean, nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all; in-
deed, I had very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of anything that had
befallen me otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world. But
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially as I
knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely;
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sus-
tenance on that wild miserable place.

This touched my heart a little. and brought tears
THE WORK OF PROVIDENCE. 97

out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such
a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting that
there was more in the place, I went over all that part
of the island where I had been before, searching in
every corner, and under every rock, for more of it;
but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts that I had shook out a bag of chickens’
meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess my religious thankfulness
to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the dis-
covering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence
as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or
twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when
the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropt from heaven; as also that I should throw it out
in that particular place, where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas,
if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it
would have been burnt up and destroyed.

T carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
98 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sure, in their season, which was about the end of
June, and, laying up every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again; hoping, in time, to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not
till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall show afterwards in its order, for I lost all
that I sowed the first season, by not observing the
proper time; asI sowed just before the dry season,
so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would
have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the
same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or
to the same purpose, namely, to make me bread, or
rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. But
to return to my journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four
months, to get my wall done, and the 14th of April
I closed it up, contriving to get into it, not by a door,
but over the wall by a ladder, that there might be
no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it after me, and
let it down in the inside; this was a complete enclo-
sure to me, for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, 1
UNEASY THOUGHTS. 99

had almost all my labour overthrown at once, and
myself killed, by a fearful earthquake, accompanied
by a dreadful hurricane, which lasted for about three
hours. A violent rain then followed, and continued
all that night, and great part of the next day, so that
I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more
composed, I began to think of what I had best do,
concluding, that if the island were subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
eave; but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men, for if I stayed where I was,
I should certainly one time or other be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it now stood, being just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my
tent. I spent the two next days, being the 19th and
20th of April, in contriving where and how to re-
move my habitation. The fear of being swallowed
alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet, and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any
fence, was almost equal to it; but still when I looked
about and saw how everything was put in order, how
pleasantly I was concealed, and how safe from danger,
it made me very loath to remove. In the meantime
it occurred to me, that it would require a vast deal
of time for me to do this, and that I must be con-
tented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed

7
100 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

a convenient camp and had secured it so as to re-
move to it. With this conclusion I composed myself
for a time, and resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles, and
cables, &c., in a circle as before, and set up my tent
in it when it was finished, but that I would venture
to stay where I was till it was ready and fit to re-
move to. This was the 21st.

April 22. The next morning I began to consider
of means to put this measure into execution, but I
was at a great loss about the tools. I had three
large axes and abundance of hatchets (for we carried
the hatchets for traffic with the Indians), but with
much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they
were all full of notches and dull; and though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools
too. This cost me as much thought as a statesman
would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics,
or ajudge upon the life and death ofa man. Atlength
I contrived a wheel with a string to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.

Note. I had never seen any such thing in England,
or, at least, not to take notice how it was done, though
since I have observed it is very common there, be-
sides that my grindstone was very large and heavy.
This machine cost me a full week’s work to bring it
to perfection.

April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
THE WRECK ASHORE. 101

April 30. Having perceived that my bread had
been low a great while, I now took a survey of it,
and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which
made my heart very heavy.

May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask.
When I came to it I founda small barrel and two or
three pieces of wreck of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water,
and the powder was caked as hard as a stone; how-
ever, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present,
and went on upon the sands as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.

When I came down to the ship I found it strangely
removed. The forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern
(which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummag-
ing of her) was tossed, as it were, up and cast on one
side; and the sand was thrown so high on that side
next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out; whereas there was a great
piece of water before, so that I could not come within
a quarter of a mile of the wreck without swimming.
I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded
102 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly,
so many things came daily on shore which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design
of removing my habitation, and I busied myself
mightily that day especially, in searching whether I
could make any way into the ship, but I found noth-
ing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was chocked up with sand. However, ag
[ had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved
to pull everything to pieces that I could of the ship,
concluding that everything I could get from her
would be of some use or other to me.

May 3. I began with my saw and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the
upper part or quarter-deck together; and when I had
cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I
could from the side which lay highest, but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of till I was weary of my sport; when
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I
had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I
had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough
as much as I cared to eat, all which I dried in the
sun, and ate them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam
asunder and brought three great fir-planks off from
GATHERING THE SPOIL. 103

the decks, which I tied together and made swim on
shore when the tide of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked
very hard, and came home much tired, and had
thoughts of giving it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with
an intent to work; but found the weight of the
wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut—that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie
loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I
could see into it, but almost full of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite
clear of the water and sand. I wrenched up two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up. I felt also a roll of English
lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and
got a great many pieces of timber, and boards or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
104 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the
water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get
pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore at a great distance, two miles off me, but re-
solved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24. Every day to this day, I worked on the
wreck; and, with hard labour, I loosened some things
so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide
several casks floated out, and two of the seamen’s
thests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
eame to land that day but pieces of timber and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued
this work every day to the 15th of June, except the
time necessary to get food, which I always appointed,
during this part of my employment, to be when the
tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber and
plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how: and I also got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.

June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had
seen: which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not
any defect of the place, or scarcity; for, had I hap-
A FIT OF AGUE. 105

pened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for
them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs: and her flesh was to me, at
that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life; having had no flesh but of goats
and fowls since I landed in this horrid place.

June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within.
I thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was
somewhat chilly; which I knew was not usual in that
latitude.

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.

June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.

June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death
with the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be
sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time
since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.

June 22, A little better; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.

June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering,
and then a violent headache.

June 24. Much better.

June 25. An ague, very violent; the fit held me
seven hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats
after it.
106 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak: however,
I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it
home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no
pot.

June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay
a-bed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was
ready to perish for thirst; but so weak, I had not
strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to
drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ;
and, when I was not, I was so ignorant, that I knew
not what to say; only laid and cried, ‘ Lord, look
upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon
me!” I suppose I did nothing else for two or three
hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did
not awake till far in the night. When I awoke, I
found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceed-
ing thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went
to sleep again.

CHAPTER XI.

I wap, alas! no divine knowledge; what I had
received by the good instruction of my father was
then worn out, by an uninterrupted series for eight
years of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were, like myself
THOUGHTLESS OF GOD. 107

wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that
so much as tended either to looking up towards God,
or inward towards a reflection upon my own ways;
but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good
or consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed
me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthink-
ing, wicked creature among our common sailors, can
be supposed to be; not having the least sense either
of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to
him in deliverances.

‘When I was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one
thought of what would become of me; or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep
me from the danger which apparently surrounded me,
as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but
I was quite thoughtless of a God, or a Providence ;
acted, like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense only; and, in-
deed, hardly that. When I was delivered and taken
up at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and
dealt with justly and honourably, as well as chari-
tably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in
danger of drowning, on this island, I was far from
remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only said
to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and
born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found
108 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

all-my ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, [
was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some trans-
ports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted,
might have come up to true thankfulness; but it
ended where it began, in a mere common flight of
joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, with-
out the least reflection upon the distinguishing good-
ness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved, when all the rest
were destroyed; or an inquiry why Providence had
been thus merciful to me; just the same common sort
of joy which seamen generally have after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown
all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as
soon as it is over; and all the rest of my life was
like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due consi-
deration, made sensible of my condition—how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human
kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion, as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve or perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be
very easy, applied myself to the works proper for my
preservation and supply, and was far enough from
being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from
Heaven, or as the hand of God against me. These
were thoughts which very seldom entered into my
head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my
journal, had at first some little influence upon me,
STIRRINGS OF CONSCIENCE. 109

and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as |
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as
soon as that part of the thought was removed, all the
impression which was raised from it wore off also, as
I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more
immediately directing to the invisible Power which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the
fright over, but the impression it had made went off
also. I had no more sense of God, or his judgments,
much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from his hand, than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I be-
gan to be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of
death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper,
and nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever, conscience, that had slept so long, began to
awake, and I reproached myself with my past life,
in which I had so evidently, by uncommon weakness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncom-
mon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a
manner. These reflections oppressed me for the
second or third day of my distemper; and, in the
violence, as well of the fever, as of the dreadful re-
proaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God, though I cannot say it
was a prayer attended either with desires or with
hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fright and
distress. My thoughts were confused, the convie-
110 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tions great upon my mind, and the horror of dying
in such a miserable condition raised vapours in my
head with the mere apprehension; and, in those hur-
ries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might
express; but it was rather exclamation, such as,
“Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I should be
sick, I shall certainly die for want of help; and what
will become of me?’ Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story, namely,
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to re-
flect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery. ‘ Now,”
said I aloud, ‘‘ my dear father’s words are come to
pass; God’s justice has overtaken me, and I have
none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of
Providence, which had mercifully put me in a station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy;
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my
parents to know the blessing of it. I left them to
mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
under the consequences of it. I refused their help
and assistance who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with too great
for even nature itself to support, and no assistance,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “ Lord,
THOUGHTS UPON GOD. 111

be my help, for I am in great distress.” This was
the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made
for many years. But I return to my Journal:—
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, I got up; and yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to re-
fresh and support myself when I should be ill. The
first thing I did was to fill a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table in reach of my
bed, and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of
the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into
it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece
of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about; but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day. At night I made my
supper of three of the turtle’s eggs, which I roasted
in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell; and
this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God’s
blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself
so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I
never went out without that); so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground Jooking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat here some such thoughts as these
occurred to me: What is this earth and sea of which
T have seen so much? Whence is it produced?
112 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

And what am J, and all the other creatures, wild and
tame, human and brutal? Whence are we? Surely
we are all made by some secret Power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on
strangely, if God has made all these things, he guides
and governs them all, and all things that concern
them; for the Power that could make all things,
must certainly have power to guide and direct them;
if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge or appointment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge,
he knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful
condition; and if nothing happens without his ap-
pointment, he has appointed all this to befall on me.
Nothing occurred to my thought to contradict any of
these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me
with the greatest force that it must needs be, that
God hath appointed all this to befall me; that I
was brought to this miserable circumstance by his
direction, he having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happens in the world. Im-
mediately it followed, Why has God done this to me?
What have I done to be thus used? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had
blasphemed, and methoughit it spoke to me like a
voice, ‘‘ Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ?
Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask
thyself what thou hast not done? Ask, why is it
A CURE FOR SOUL AND BODY. 113

that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the
fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-
war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of
Africa; or drowned here, when all the crew perished
but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou hast done?”
I was struck dumb with these reflettions as one
astonished, and had not a word to say, no, not to
answer to myself; and rising up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat and went over my wall,
as if I had been going to bed; but my thoughts
were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep; so I sat down in the chair and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the appre-
hension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought that the
Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco
in one of the chests which was quite cured, and some
also that was green and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaver no doubt; for in this
chest I found a cure both for soul and body. I
opened the chest, and found what I looked for,
namely, the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Brsizs
which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I
had not found leisure or so much as inclination to
look into. I say I took it out, and brought both that
and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to
make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper,
114 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

nor whether it was good for it or not, but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it
should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of
a leaf and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at
first almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being
green and strong, and such as I had not been much
used to. Then I took some and steeped it an hour
or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke
of it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat
as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible and began to read,
but my head was too much disturbed with the tobacco
to bear reading, at least at that time; only having
opened the book casually, the first words that occur-
red to me were these: “Call on me in the day of
trouble and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
me.’ These words were very apt to my case, and
made some impression upon my thoughts at the time
of reading them, though not so much as they did
afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had
no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so re-
mote, so impossible in my apprehension of things,
that, as the children of Israel said when they were
promised flesh to eat, ‘‘Can God spread a table in
the wilderness ?” so I began to say, ‘Can even God
himself deliver me from this place?’’ And as it was
not for many years that any hopes appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, how-
CALLING UPON GOD. 115

ever, the words made a great impression upon me,
and I mused upon them very often. It now grew
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head
so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in
the night, and wentto bed. But before I lay down,
I did what I never had done in all my life, I kneeled
down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me,
“That if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me.” After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down;
immediately upon this I went to bed. I found pre-
sently the rum flew into my head violently; but I
fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more till by the
sun it must necessarily be near three o’clock in the
afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly
of opinion that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after; for otherwise I
know not how I should lose a day out of my reckon-
ing in the days of the week, as it appeared some
years after I had done; for if I had lost it by cross-
ing and re-crossing the Line, I should have lost more
than one day; but certainly I lost a day in my
account, and never knew which way. Be that, how-
ever, one way or the other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively
and cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than I
was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was
116 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went
abroad with my gun, but did not care to travel too
far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a
brand goose, and brought them home; but was not
very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening
I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, namely, the tobacco steeped
in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor
did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over
the smoke; however, I was not so well the next day,
which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not
much.

July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three
ways; and dozed myself with it as at first, and
doubled the quantity which I drank.

July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though
I did not recover my full strength for some weeks
after. While I was thus gathering strength, my
thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, “I
will deliver thee:’”’ and the impossibility of my de-

‘ liverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with
such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored
so much upon my deliverance from the main afflic-
tion, that I disregarded the deliverance I had re-
COMFORT IN THE LORD. — 117

ceived: and I was, as it were, made to ask myself
such questions as these, namely, ‘“ Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness; from
the most distressed condition that could be, and that
was so frightful tome? and what notice have I taken
of it? Have I done my part? God has delivered
me, but I have not glorified him; that is to say, I
have not owned, and been thankful for that, as a
deliverance: and how can I expect a greater de-
liverance?” This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks
aloud for my recovery from my sickness.

July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and,
beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously
to read it ; and imposed upon myself to read a while
every morning and every night; not binding myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts
should engage me. It was not long after I set seri-
ously to this work, that I found my heart more
deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness
of my past life. The impression of my dream
revived; and the words, “ All these things have not
brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my
thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me-repentance, when it happened providentially the
very same day, that, reading the Scripture, I came
to these words, ‘“ He is exalted a Prince and a
Saviour; to give repentance and to give remission.”
I threw down the book; and with my heart as well
as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstacy
118 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of joy, I cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou Son of David!
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me
repentance!’ This was the first time in all my life,
I should say, in the true sense of the words that I
prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of my con-
dition, and with a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the Word of God:
and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned
above, “Call on me, and I will deliver thee,” in a
different sense from what I had ever done before:
for then I had no notion of anything being called
deliverance, but my being delivered from the capti-
vity I was in: for, though I was indeed at large in
the place, yet the island was certainly a prison to me,
and that in the worst sense in the world. But now
Ulearned to take it in another sense: now I looked
back upon my past life with such horror, and my sins
appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing
of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that
bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life,
it is nothing; I did not so much as pray to be de-
livered from it, or think of it; it was all of no con-
sideration in comparison with this, And I add this
part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that,
whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing
than deliverance from afiliction. But, leaving this
part, I return to my Journal.
APPROACHING CONVALESCENCE. 119

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly
employed in walking about with my gun in my hand,
8 little and a little at a time, as a man that was ga-
thering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it
is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what
weakness I was reduced. The application which I
made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps, what
had never cured an ague before; neither can I re-
commend it to any one to practise, by this experi-
ment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weakening me; for I had frequent con-
vulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
learned from it, also, this in particular: that being
abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious
thing to my health that could be, especially in those
rains which came attended with storms and hurricanes
of wind; for, as the rain which came in the dry sea-
son was almost always accompanied with such storms,
so I found that this rain was much more dangerous
than the rain which fell in September and October.

CHAPTER XII.

I nap now been in this unhappy island above ten
months: all possibility of deliverance from this con-
dition seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I
firmly believed that no human shape had ever set
foot upon that place. Having secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire
120 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and
to see what other productions I might find, which I
yet knew nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a
more particular survey of the island itself. J went
up the creek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my
rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two miles
up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that
it was no more than a little brook of running water,
very fresh and good: but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it, at
least not any stream. On the banks of this brook I
found many pleasant savannahs, or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass; and, on the rising
parts of them, next to the higher grounds (where the
water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I
found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a great and very strong stalk; and there were divers
other plants which I had no knowledge of, or under-
standing about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues
of their own which [I could not find out. I searched
for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of; but I could find none.
I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand
them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for

want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself
with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants
which I should discover.
A DELICIOUS VALE. 121

The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way
again; and, after going something farther than I had
gone the day before, I found the brook and the savan-
nahs begin to cease, and the country become more
woody than before. In this part I found different
fruits; and, particularly, I found melons upon the
ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees.
I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was to cure and dry them in the sun, and keep them
as dried grapes or raisins are kept.

I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation; which, by the way, was the first
night, as I might say, I had lain from home. At
night I took my first contrivance, and got up into a
tree, where I slept well; and the next morning pro-
ceeded on my discovery, travelling near four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley; keep-
ing still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south
and north sides of me. At the end of this march I
came to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west; and a little spring of fresh
water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me,
ran the other way, that is, due east: and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything
being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a
little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it
with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all
my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
122 ~ ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and if I
could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as
completely as any lord of a manor in England. I
saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, and orange, lemon,
and citron-trees, but all wild, and very few bearing
any fruit; at least not then. However, the green
limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat,
but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
wards with water, which made it very wholesome,
and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had
business enough to gather and carry home; and I
resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes
and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching.

When I came home from this journey, I contem-
plated with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that
valley, and the pleasantness of the situation; the
security from storms on that side; the water and the
wood ; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place
to fix my abode in, which was by far the worst part
of the country. Upon the whole, I began to con-
sider of removing my habitation, and to look out for
a place equally safe as where I was now situate; if
possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head; and I was ex-
ceeding fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of
‘the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer
view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something
might happen to my advantage; and though it was
BUILDING A BOWER. 123

searce probable that any such thing should ever
happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills and
woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate
my bondage, and to render such an affair not only
improbable, but impossible; and that, therefore, I
ought not by any means to remove. However, I was
so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my
time there for the whole remaining part of the month
of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I re-
solved, as above stated, not to remove, yet'I built
me a little kind of a‘ bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled be-
tween with brush-wood. Here I lay very secure,
sometimes two or three nights together, always going
over it with a ladder, as before; so that I fancied now
I had my country and sea-coast house. This work
took me up till the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to
enjoy my labour, when the rains came on, and made
me stick close to my first habitation; for, though I
had made a tent like the other, with a piece of sail,
and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of
a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when tho rains were extraordi-
nary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The
3d of August I found the grapes I had hung up
were perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good
124 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

raisins of the sun: so I began to take them down from
the trees; and it was very happy that I did so, as the
rains which followed would have spoiled them, and 1
should have lost the best part of my winter food; for
I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain;
and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it
rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October, and sometimes so violently that I could not
stir out of my cave for several days.

In this season I was much surprised with the in-
crease of my family. I had been concerned for the
loss of one of my cats which ran away from me; or, as
I thought, had been dead; and I heard no more of
her, till, to my astonishment, she came home with
three kittens. From these three, I afterwards came
to be so pestered with cats, that I was forced to kill
them like vermin or wild beasts, and to drive them
from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant
rain; so that I could not stir, and was now very
careful not to be much wet. In this confinement I
began to be straitened for food; but venturing out
twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day,
which was the 26th, I found a very large tortoise,

‘which was a treat to me. My food was now regu-
lated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast;
a piece of the goat’s flesh, or of the turtle, broiled for
my dinner (for, to my great misfortune, I had no
“ A MOURNFUL ANNIVERSARY. 125

vessel to boil or stew anything) ; and two or three of
the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover, by the rain,
I worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my
cave; and by degrees worked it on towards one side,
till I came to the outside of the hill; and made a door,
or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall:
and so I came in and out this way.

September 30. I was now come to the anhappy
anniversary of my landing. I cast up the notches
on my post, and found I had been on shore three
hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day asa
solemn fast; setting it apart for religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most
serious humiliation, confessing my sins to God, ac-
knowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and
praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus
Christ; and having not tasted the least refreshment
for twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun,
I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no Sabbath-day; for, as I had at
first no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by mak-
ing a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day,
and so did not really know what any of the days
were: but now, having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there « year: so I divided it into
_weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sab-
bath: though I found at the end of my account, I had
126 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after
this my ink beginning to fail me, I contented myself
to use it more sparingly; and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life, without continuing
a daily memorandum of other things.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of
barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found
sprung up, as I thought, of themselves, I believe
there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time
to sow it after the rains; the sun being in its southern
position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug a piece
of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade;
and, dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain:
but, as I was sowing it, it casually occurred to my
thoughts, that I would not sow it all at first, because
I did not know when was the proper time for it; so
I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about
a handful of each; and it was a great comfort to me
afterwards, that I did so, for not one grain of what I
sowed this time came to anything: for the dry month
following, and the earth having thus had no rain
after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet
season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
_ been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not

grow, which I easily imagined was from the drought,
I sought for a moister piece of ground to make an-
other trial in; and I dug up a piece of ground near my
new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in Feb-
RAPID GROWTH. 127

ruary, a little before the vernal equinox. This hav-
ing the rainy months of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop, but having only part of the seed left, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I got but a small quan-
tity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above
half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I
was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when was the proper time to sow; and that I might
expect two seed-times, and two harvests every year.

While this corn ‘was growing, I made a little dis-
covery, which was of use to me afterwards. As soon
as the rains were over, and the weather began to
settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower; where,
though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just asI left them. The circle or double
hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that
grew thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with
long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually
shoots the first year after lopping its head; but I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes
were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well
pleased, to see the young trees grow; and I pruned
them, and led them to grow as much alike as I could;
and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they
grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge
made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter,
yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
128 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me re-
solve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge
like this in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that
of my first dwelling), which I did; and, placing the
trees or stakes in a double row at about eight yards
distance from my first fence, they grew presently;
and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and
afterwards served for a defence also, as I shall ob-
serve in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer and winter, as
- in Europe; but into the rainy seasons and the dry
seasons, which were generally thus: From the middle
of February to the middle of April, rainy; the sun
being then on, or near, the equinox. From the
middle of April till the middle of August, dry; the
sun being then north of the Line. [rom the middle
of August till the middle of October, rainy; the sun
being then come back tothe Line. From the middle
of October till the middle of February, dry; the sun
being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and some-
times shorter, as the winds happened to blow; but
this was the general observation I made. After I
nad found, by experience, the ill consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish my-
self with provisions beforehand, that I might not be
obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. This time I found
ESSAYS AT BASKET-MAKING. 129

much employment, and very suitable, also, to the
time. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that, when I was a boy, I used to take great delight
in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town where
my father lived, to see them make their wicker-
ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious
to help, and a great observer of the manner how
they worked those things, and sometimes lending a
hand, I had, by these means, full knowledge of the
methods of it. I employed myself in making, as well
‘as I could, several baskets; both to carry earth, or
to carry or lay up anything as I had occasion for.
Though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet
I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose:
and thus afterwards I took care never to be without
them: and, as my wicker-ware decayed, I made
more, especially strong deep baskets, to place my
corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to
have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a
world of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if
possible, how to supply two other wants. I had no
vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two
runlets, which were almost full of rum; and some
glass bottles, some of the common size, and others
(which were case-bottles) square, for the holding of
water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to
boil anything, except a great kettle which I saved
out of the ship, and which was too big for such use
as I desired it, namely, to make broth, and stew a
130 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

bit of meat by itself. The second thing I would
fain have had, was a tobacco-pipe; but it was im-
possible for me to make one; however, I found a
contrivance for that too at last. I employed myself
in planting my second row of stakes or piles, and,
also, in this wicker- working all the summer, or dry
season; when another business took me up more time
than it could be imagined I could spare.

CHAPTER XIII.

I MENTIONED before, that I had a great mind to see
the whole island; and that I had travelled up the
brook, and so on to where I had built my bower,
and where I bad an opening quite to the sea, on the
other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side: so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quan-
uty of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-
cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for
my store, I began my journey. When I had passed
the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west; and it being a
very clear day, I fairly descried land, whether an
island or continent I could not tell; but it lay very
high, extending from W. to W.S.W. at a very great
distance: by my guess, it could not be less than fif-
teen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might
CRUSOE ON A TOUR. 131

be, otherwise than that I knew it must be part of
America ; and, as I concluded by all my observa-
tions, must be near the Spanish dominions; and per-
haps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should
have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I
was now. I therefore acquiesced in the dispositions
of Providence, which I began now to own, and to be-
lieve ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted
my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with
fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after‘some pause upon this affair, I con-
sidered, that if this land was the Spanish coast, I
should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel
pass or repass, one way or other; but if not, then it
was the savage coast between the Spanish country
and Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst
of savages ; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all human beings
that fall into their hands.

With these considerations, walking very leisurely
forward, I found this side of the island, where I now
was, much pleasanter than mine; the open, or savan-
nah fields, sweetly adorned with flowers and grass,
and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of
parrots, and fain would have caught one, if possible,
to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after some pains, catch a young parrot;
for I knocked it down with a stick, and having re-
covered it, I brought it home; but it was some yeara
before I could make him speak; however, at last I

9
132 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

taught him to call me by my name very familiarly.
But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle,
will be very diverting in its place.

I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I
found in the low grounds hares, as I thought them to
be, and foxes; but they differed greatly from all the
other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy my-
self to eat them, though I killed several. But I had
no need to be venturous: for I had no want of food,
and of that which was very good too: especially these
three sorts, namely, goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tor-
toise. With these, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
Market could not have furnished a table better than
I, in proportion to the company; and though my
case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for
thankfulness, as I was not driven to any extremities
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never travelled, on this journey, above two miles
outright in a day, or thereabout ; but I took so many
turns and re-turns, to see what discoveries I could
make, that I came weary enough to the place where
T resolved to sit down for the night ; and then I either
reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with
a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from
one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could
come at me without waking me.

As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised
to see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side
of the island: for here, indeed, the shore was covered
with innumerable turtle ; whereas, on the other side,
CRUSOE ON A TOUR. 133

T had found but three in a year and a half. Here
was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds,
some of which I had seen, and some of which I had
not seen before, and many of them very good meat ;
but such as I knew not the names of, except those
called penguins. :

I confess this side of the country was much plea-
santer than mine: yet I had not the least inclination
to remove; for as I was fixed in my habitation, it
became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I
was here, to be, as it were, upon a journey, and from
home. However, I travelled along the sea-shore
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and
then setting up a great pole upon the shore, for a
mark, I concluded I would go home again; and that
the next journey I took should be on the other side
of the island, east from my dwelling, and so round till
I came to my post again: of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep so much of the island ip
my. view, that I could not miss finding my first dwell-
ing by viewing the country: but I found myself mis-
taken; for, being come about two or three miles, I
found myself descended into a very large valley, but
so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with
wood, that I could not see which was my way, by any
direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless I
knew very well the position of the sun at that time of
the day. And it happened, to my further misfortune,
that the weather proved hazv for three or four days
134 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

while I was in this valley ; and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at
last was obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my
post, and come back the same way I went; and then,
by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition,
hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and running to take hold of it, I caught
it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had agreat
mind to bring it home if I could; for I had often
been musing, whether it might not be possible to get
a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and
with a string which I had made of some rope-yarn,
which I always carried about me, I led him along,
though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower,
and there I enclosed him, and left him; for I was
very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

T cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without a settled
place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my
own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect
settlement to me, compared to that; and it rendered
everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved I
would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.
CRUSOE AND THE KID.


CRUSOE’S SECOND ANNIVERSARY. 135

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale
myself after my long journey: during which, most of
the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making
a cage for my Poll, who began now to be more do-
mestic, and to be mighty well acquainted with me.
Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had
penned within my little circle, and resolved to fetch
it home, or give it some food: accordingly I went,
and found it where 1 left it (for indeed it could not
get out), but was almost starved for want of food. I
went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such
shrubs as I could find, and threw it over, and having
fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame, with being hungry, that I had no
need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog:
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it was, from that
time, one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was
now come, and I kept the 30th of September in the
same solemn manner as before, being the anniversary
of my landing on the island; having now been there
two years, and no more prospect of being delivered
than the first day I came there. I spent the whole
day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition
was attended with, and without which it might have
been infinitely more miserable. I gave humble and
hearty thanks to God for having been pleased to dis-
136 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

cover to me, that it was possible I might be more
happy, even in this solitary conditition, than I should
have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world; that he could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want
of human society, by his presence, and the communica-
tions of his grace to my soul: supporting, comforting,
and encouraging me to depend upon his providence
here, and to hope for his eternal presence hereatfter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much
more happy the life I now led was, with all its miser-
able circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abomi-
nable lifé I led all the past part of my days: and
now I changed both my sorrows and my joys; my
very desires altered, my affections changed their
guests, and my delights were perfectly new, from
what they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the
two years past.

Now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts;
I daily read the Word of God, and applied all the
comforts of it to my present state. One morning,
being very sad, I opened the Bible upon these words,
“J will never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee.”
Immediately it occurred that these words were to me ;
why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when: I was mourning over my
condition, as one forsaken of God andman? “Well
then,” said I, “‘if God does not forsake me, of what ill
consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the
world should forsake me; seeing, on the other hand,
FOR EVERY HOUR ITS WORK. 137

if I had all the world, and should lose the favour and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the
loss ?”

I never afterwards opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing
my friend in England, without any order of mine, to
pack it among my goods; and for assisting me after-
wards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

CHAPTER XIV.

Tuus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my
third year > and though I have not given the reader
the trouble of so particular an account of my works
this year as the first, yet, in general, it may be ob-
served that I was very seldom idle; but having re-
gularly divided my time, according to the several
daily employments that were before me; such as,
first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scrip-
tures, which I constantly set apart some time for,
thrice every day: Secondly, Going abroad with my
gun for food, which generally took me up three hours
every morning when it did not rain: Thirdly, Order-
ing, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had
killed or catched for my supply. These took up
great part of the day. Also, it is to be considered,
that, in the middle of the day, when the sun was in
the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to
138 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

stir out, so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morn-
ing, and abroad with my gun in the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may
be added, the exceeding laboriousness of my work;
the many hours which, for want of tools, want of
help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out
of my time. For example, I was full two-and-forty
days making me a board for a long shelf, which I
wanted in my cave, whereas, two sawyers, with their
tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half-a-day.

My case was this: it was a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad
one. This tree I was three days cutting down, and
two more in cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to
a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hack-
ing and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into
chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board,
from end to end; then, turning that side downward,
cut the other side, till I brought the plank to about
three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any
one may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece
of work; but labour and patience carried me through
that, and many other things.

I was now, in the months of November and De-
cember, expecting my crop of barley and rice. The
ENEMIES OF SEVERAL SORTS. 139

ground [ had manured or dug up for them was not
great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, having lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season, but now my
crop promised very well, when on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of
several sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep
from it; as, first, the goats and wild creatures, which
I called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade,
lay in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and
ate it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.

I saw no remedy for this, but by making an en-
closure about it with a hedge, which I did with a
great deal of toil, and the more because it required
speed. However, ag my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop I got it tolerably well fenced in
about three weeks’ time.

But, as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn
was in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin
me now, when it wasin the ear; for, going along by
the place to see how it throve, I saw my little crop
surrounded with fowls, I know not of how many sorts,
who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone.
I immediately let fly among them (for I always had
my gun with me), and killed three of them. This
was what I wished for; so I took them up, and served
them, as we serve notorious thieves in England,
namely, hanged them in chains, for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such
140 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

an effect as it had; for the fowls not only never came
to the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of
the island, and I could never see a bird near the place
as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was
very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter
end of December, which was our second harvest of
the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle, to cut
it down, and all I could do was to make one as well
as I could out of one of the broadswords, or cutlasses,
which I saved among the arms out of the ship. How-
ever, as my first crop was but small, I had no great
difficulty to cut itdown; in short, I reaped it my way,
for I cut nothing off but the ears, and carried it away
in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbed
it out with my hands; and, atthe end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed, I
had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels
and a half of barley; that is to say, by my guess,
for I had no measure.

However, this was great encouragement to me; and
I foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply
me with bread ; and yet here I was perplexed again ;
for I neither knew how to grind, or make meal of my
corn, or, indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if
made into meal, how to make bread of it ; and, if how
to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it; these
things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve
WORKING FOR ONE'S BREAD. 14]

it all for seed against the next season; and in the
meantime, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said, that now I worked for my
bread. It is a little wonderful, and what I believe
few people have thought much upon, namely, the
strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing, this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found
this to my daily discouragement, and was made more
sensible of it every hour, even after I had got the first
handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up
unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no
spade or shovel to dig it: well, this I conquered, by
making a wooden spade, as I observed before; but
this did my work in but a wooden manner; and
though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet,
for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but
made my work the harder, and performed it much
worse. However, this I bore with, and was content
to work it out with patience, and bear with the bad-
ness of the performance. When the corn was sowed
I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to
scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake, or
harrow it. When it was growing and grown, I have
obscrved already how many things I wanted to fence
142 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home,
thrash, part it from the chaff, and save it; then 1
wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make into bread, and an oven to bake it;
and yet all these things I did without, as shall be ob-
served; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and
advantage to me: all this, as I said, made everything
laborious and tedious to me, but that there was no
help for; neither was my time so much loss to me,
because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was
every day appointed to these works; and, as I re-
solved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a
greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing
all the operations necessary for making corn fit for
my use.

But now I was to prepare more land; for I had
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before
I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make me
a spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry
one indeed, and very heavy, and required double la-
bour to work with it: however, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground,
as near my house as I could find them to my mind,
and fenced them in with a good hedge; the stakes of
which were all cut off that wood which I had set be-
fore, and knew it would grow; so that, in one year’s
time, I knew I should have a quick, or living hedge.
that would want but little repair. This work took me






CRUSOE TEACHING HIS PARROT.



Lge 145+
A NEW PROJECT. 143

up full three months, because a great part of the time
was in the wet season, when I could not go abroad.
Within doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not
go out, I found employment on the following occasions:
always observing, that, while I was at work I diverted
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him
to speak ; and I quickly taught him to know his own
name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud, Pott;
which was the first word I ever heard spoken on the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore,
was not my work, but an assistant to my work; for
now, as I said, I had a great employment upon my
hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some means
or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which
indeed, I wanted much, but knew not where to come
at them ; however, considering the heat of the climate,
I did not doubt, but if I could find out any clay, I
might botch up some such pot as might, being dried
in the sun, be hard and strong enough to bear hand-
ling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required
to be kept so.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh
at me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to
raise this pastil; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I
made ; how many of them fell in, and how many fell
out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own
weight ; how many cracked by the over-violent heat
of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how many
fell in pieces with only removing, as well before as
after they were dried ; and in a word, how. after hav-
144 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ing laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper
it, to bring it home, and work it, I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call
them jars) in about two months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and
hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set them down
again in two great wicker baskets, which I had made
on purpose for them, that they might not break ; and
as, between the pot and the basket there was a little
room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley
straw ; and these two pots being to stand always dry,
I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for
large pots, yet I made several smaller things with
better success ; such as little round pots, flat dishes,
pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them very hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was
to get an earthen pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire,
which none of these could do. It happened, some
time after, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went to put it out, after I had done
with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthen-
ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone,
and red as atile. I was agreeably surprised to see it ;
and said to myself, that certainly they might be made
to burn whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to
make it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln,
CRUSOE AS A POTTER. 145

such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with
lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but I
placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all
round it, with a great heap of embers under them. I
plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside, red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack
at all; when J saw them clear red, I let them stand
in that heat above five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run ; for
the sad which was mixed with the clay melted by
the violence of the heat, and would have run into glass
if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till
the pots began to abate of the red colour ; and watch-
ing them all night, that I might not let the fire abate
too fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will
not say handsome, pipkins, and two other earthen
pots, as hard burnt as could be desired ; and one of
them perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted
no sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs
say, as to the shapes of them, they were very indif-
ferent.

No joy, at a thing of so mean a nature, was ever
equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen
pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly pa-
tience to stay till. they were cold, before I set one on
the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some
meat which it did admirably well; and, with a piece
146 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

of kid, I made some very good broth; though I
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requi-
site to make it so good as I would have had it been.

My next concern was to get a stone mortar, to
stamp or beat some corn in; for, as to the mill, there
was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art
with one pair of hands. To supply this want, I was
at a great loss; I spent many a day to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit
for a mortar ; but could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig
or cut out; so, after a great deal of time lost in
searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to
look out a great block of hard wood, which I found,
indeed, much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the
outside with my axe and hatchet; and then, with
the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their
canoes. After this, I made a great heavy pestle, or
beater, of the wood called iron-wood ; and this I pre-
pared, and laid by, against I had my next crop of
corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound my corn into meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search,
to dress my meal, and to part it from the bran and
. the husk, without which I did not see it possible I
could have any bread. This was a most difficult
thing, even but to think on; for I had nothing like
the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine thin
WHAT NECESSITY DOES. AT

canvass, or stuff, to search the meal through. Here
I was at a full stop for many months ; nor did I really
know what to do; linen I had none left, but what was
mere rags; I had goats’ hair, but neither knew how
to weave it or spin it; and had I known how, here
were no tools to work it with: all the remedy I
found for this was, at last, recollecting I had, among
the seamens’ clothes which were saved out of the
ship, some neckcloths of calico, or muslin ; with some
pieces of these I made three small sieves, proper
enough for the work ; and thus I made shift for some
years; “how I did afterwards, I shall show in its
place.

The baking part was the next thing to be consi-
dered, and how I should make bread when I came to
have corn; for, first, I had no yeast; as to that part,
there was no supplying the want, so I did not con-
cern myself much about it; but for an oven I was
indeed puzzled. At length I found out an expedient
for that also, which was this: I made some earthen
vessels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about
two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep;
these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other,
and laid them by; and when I wanted to bake, I
made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles, of my own making
and burning also; but I should not call them
square.

When the fire-wood was burned into embers, or
live coals, I drew them forward upon the hearth, so

10
148 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

as to cover it all over, and there let them lie till the
hearth was very hot; then, sweeping away all the
embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and covering
them with the earthen pot, drew the embers all round
the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat;
and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I
baked my barley loaves, and became, in a little time,
a good pastry-cook into the bargain; for I made my-
self several cakes and puddings of the same; but
made no pies, as I had nothing to put into them,
except the flesh of fowls and goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took
me up most part of the third year of my abode here;
for, it is to be observed, in the intervals of these
things, I had my new harvest and husbandry to
manage; I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear,
in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it out; for
Thad no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash
it with. :

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I
really wanted to build my barns bigger: I wanted a
place to lay it up in; for the increase of the corn
now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of rice as much, or more,
insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use it

‘freely ; for my bread had been quite gone a great
while. I resolved, also, to see what quantity would
be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but
once a year.
YEARNING AFTER SOCIETY. . 149

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of
barley and rice were much more than I could con-
sume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the same
quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes
that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, &c. i

CHAPTER XV.

At the while these things were doing, you may be
sure my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect
of land which I had seen from the other side of the
island; and I was not without some secret wishes
that I was on shore there; fancying that, seeing the
mainland, and an inhabited country, I might find
some way or other to convey myself farther, and per-
haps, at last, find some means of escape.

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-
boat, with the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I
sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa;
but this was in vain: then I thought I would go and
look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm,
when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where
she did at first, but not quite, having turned, by the
force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom up-
ward, against a high ridge of beachy, rough sand ;
but no water about her, as before. If I had had
hands to have refitted her, and to have launched her
150 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

into the water, the boat would have done very well,
and I might have gone back into the Brazils with
her easily enough; but I might have foreseen that I
could no more turn her, and set her upright upon her
bottom, than I could remove the island. However, I
went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I
could do; suggesting to myself, that, if I could but
turn her down, and repair the damage which she had
received, she would be a very good boat, and I might
venture to sea in her.

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless
toil, and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it.
At last, finding it impossible to heave her up with
my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine her, and so to make her fall down, set-
ting pieces of wood to thrust and guide her right in
the fall.

But when I had done this, I was unable to stir
her up again or to get under her, much less to move
her forwards towards the water; so I was forced to
give it over: and yet, though I gave over the hopes
of the boat, my desire to venture over the main in-
creased, rather than diminished, as the means for it
seemed impossible.

At length I began to think whether it was not

’ possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as
the natives of those climates make, even without
tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the trunk
of agreat tree. This I not only thought possible, but
FRUITLESS TOIL. 151

easy, and pleased myself extremely with the idea of
making it, and with my having much more conveni-
ence for it than any of the negroes or Indians; but
not at all considering the particular inconveniences
which I lay under more than the Indians did, namely,
the want of hands to move it into the water when it
was made—a difficulty much harder for me to sur-
mount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them.

One would imagine, if I had had the least reflec-
tion upon my mind of my circumstances, while I was
making this boat, I should have immediately thought
how I was to get it into the sea; but my thoughts
were so intent upon my voyage in it, that I never
once considered how I should get it off the land; and
it was really in its own nature more easy for me to
guide it over forty-five miles of sea than the forty-
five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in
the water.

The eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and to work
I went. I felled a cedar tree, and I question much
whether Solomon ever had such a one for the build-
ing of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten
inches diameter at the lower part next the stump,
and four feet eleven inches diameter, at the end of
twenty-two feet, where it lessened, and then parted
into branches. It was not without infinite labour that
I felled this tree. I was twenty days hacking and
hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more getting the
branches and limbs and the vast spreading head of
152 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it cut off. After this it cost me a month to shape it
and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it
ought to do. It cost me near three months more to
clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an
exact boat of it. This I did indeed without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome
periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-
twenty men, and, consequently, big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was ex-
tremely delighted with it. The boat was really much
bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua that was
made of one tree in my life. Many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure; and there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; which, had I
accomplished, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to
be performed, that was ever undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed
me; though they cost me inexpressible labour too.
It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and
not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up
hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this dis-

couragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the
‘ earth, and so make a declivity; this I begun, and it
cost me a prodigious deal of pains; but who grudge
pains that have their deliverance in view? When this
was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it
CRUSOE’S FOLLY. 153

was still much the same, for I could no more stir the
canoe than I could the other boat. Then I measured
the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing 1
could not bring the canoe down to the water. Well,
I began this work; and when I began to enter upon
it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how
broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found
by the number of hands I had, having none but my
own, that it must have been ten or twelve years be-
fore I could have gone through with it; for the shore
lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been
at least twenty feet deep; this attempt, though with
great reluctancy, I was at length obliged to give over
also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though
too late, the folly of beginning a work before we
count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our
own strength to go through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth
year in this place, and kept my anniversary with the
same devotion, and with as much comfort, as before ;
for by a constant study and serious application to the
Word of God, and by the assistance of his grace, I
gained a different knowledge from what I had before;
Tentertained different notions of things; I looked now
upon the world as a thing remote, which I had no-
thing to do with, no expectation from, and indeed no
desires about; in a word, ‘I had nothing to do with
it, nor was ever likely to have. I thought it looked.
154 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter, namely,
as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it;
and well might I say, as father Abraham to Dives,
‘‘ Between me and thee there is a great gulf fixed.”

In the first place, I was here removed from all the
wickedness of the world; I had neither “ the lust of
the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life.’
I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was now
capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole manor,
or, if I pleased, I might call myself king, or emperor,
over the whole country which I had possession of ;
there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to
dispute sovereignty or command with me; I might
have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had no use
for it; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for
my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle enough, but
now and then, one was as much as I could put to any
use. J had timber enough to have built a fleet of
ships, and I had grapes enough to have made wine,
or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that
fleet when it had been built.

In a word, the nature and experience of things
dictated to me, upon just reflection, that all the good
things of this world are of no farther good to us
than for our use; and that whatever we may heap up
to give others, we enjoy only as much as we can use,
-and no more. The most covetous griping miser in
the world would have been cured of the vice of covet-
ousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed
infinitely more than I knew what to do with. I had
AN ARGUMENT FOR CONTENTMENT. 155

no room for desire, except it was for things which I
had not, and they were comparatively but trifles,
though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I
hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as
silver, about thirty-six pounds sterling! Alas!
there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay: I had no
manner of business for it; and I often thought within
myself, that I would have given a handful of it for
a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind
my corn; nay, I would have given it all for six
penny-worth of turnip and carrot seed from England,
or for a handful of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink.

I had now brought my state of life to be much
more comfortable in itself than it was: at first, and
much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and
admired the hand of God’s providence, which had
thus ‘spread my table in the wilderness.”

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in
representing to myself, in the most lively colours.
how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of
the ship. Icould not have so much as got any food.
except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long be-
fore I found any of them, I must have perished;
that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like
a mere savage.

These reflections made me very sensible of the
goodness of Providence to me, and very thankful for
my present condition, with all its hardships and
misfortunes.
156 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I had another reflection which assisted me also te
comfort my mind with hopes; and this was, compar-
ing my present condition with what I had deserved,
and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of
Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of
the least sense of what I was, or was to be, that, in
the greatest deliverances I enjoyed (such as my
escape from Sallee, my being taken up by the
Portuguese master of a ship, my being planted so
well in the Brazils, my receiving the cargo from
England, and the like), I never had once the words,
“thank God,” so much as on my mind, or in my
mouth; nor in the greatest distress had I so much
as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to say,
“Lord, have mercy upon me!’’ no, nor to mention
the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many
months as I have already observed, on account of my
wicked and hardened life past; and when I looked
about me, and considered what particular providences
had attended me since my coming into this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had
not only punished me less than my iniquity had de-
served, but had so plentifully provided for me—this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was ac-
cepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up, not
MORE ARGUMENTS FOR CONTENTMENT. 157

only to a resignation to the will of God in the pre-
sent disposition of my circumstances, but even to a
sincere thankfulness for my condition; and that I,
who was yet a living man, ought not to complain,
seeing I had not the due punishment of my sins;
that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no
reason to have expected in that place, that I ought
never more to repine at my condition; but to rejoice
and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which
nothing but a crowd of wonders could have brought.
In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way,
so it was a life of mercy another; and I wanted
nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to make
myself sensible of God’s goodness to me, and care
over me in this condition; and after I did make a
just improvement of these things, I went away, and
was no more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things
which I brought on shore for my help were either
quite gone, or very much wasted, and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some
time, all but a very little, which I eked out with
water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce
left any appearance of black upon the paper. As
long as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down
the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that
of my bread; I mean the biscuit which I brought out
of theship. This Thad lusbanded to the last degree,
158 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for
above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for
near a year before I got any corn of my own; and
great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at
all, the getting it being, as has been already ob-
served, next to miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to
linen, I had had none for a great while, except some
chequered shirts, which I found in the chests of the
other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, be-
cause many times I could bear no clothes on but a
shirt; and it was a very great help to me, that I had,
among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three
dozen of shirts. There were also, indeed, several
thick watch-coats of the seamen which were left, but
they were too hot to wear; and, though it is true
that the weather was so violently hot that there was
no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked,
as the heat frequently blistered my skin. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of
the sun without a cap or hat.

Upon these views, I began to consider about
putting the few rags I had, which I called clothes,
into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats
[ had, and my business was now to try if I could not
inake jackets out of the great watch-coats that I had
by me, and with such other materials as I had; so ]
set to work a tailoring, or rather, indeed, a botching,
for I made most piteous work of it. However, I
made shift to make two or three new waistcoats,
A WONDERFUL INVENTION. 159

which I hoped would serve me a great while; as for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very ny shift
indeed, till afterwards.

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the
creatures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones; and
I had hung them up, stretched out with sticks, in the
sun, by which means some of them were so dry and
hard that they were fit for little, but others I found
very useful. The first thing I made of these was a
great cap for my head, with the hair on the outside,
to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well,
that, after this, I made me a suit of clothes wholly
of the skins, that is to say, a waistcoat and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose; for they were
rather wanting to keep me cool than warm. I must
not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly
made; for, if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were such as I made very
good shift with; and, when I was abroad, if it hap-
pened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being
uppermost, I was kept very dry.

After this I spent a great deal of time and pains
to make me an umbrella. “However, at last, I made
one to answer, and covered it with skins, the hair
upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house,
and kept off the sun so effectually that I could walk
out in the hottest of the weather, with greater ad-
vantage than I could before in the coolest ; and when
I had no need of it, could close it and carry it under
my arm. ;
160 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER XVI.

Tuus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being
entirely composed by resigning to the will of God,
and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of his
providence.

I cannot say, that after this, for five years, any
extraordinary thing happened to me; but I lived on
in the same course, in-the same posture and place,
just as before; the chief things I was employed in,
besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and
rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always
kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of one
year’s provision beforehand; I say, besides this
yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going out
with my gun, I had one labour to make me a canoe,
which at last I finished; so that by digging a canal
to it of six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought
it into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the
first, which was so vastly big, I was obliged to let
it lie where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to
be wiser the next time; irideed, the next time, though
I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a
place where I could not get the water to it at any
less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile,
yet, as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave
it over: and, though I was near two years about it,
yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having
a boat to go off to sea at last.
CRUSOE’S SMALL BOAT. 161

However, though my little periagua was finished,
yet the size of it was not at all answerable to the
design which I had in view when I made the first;
I mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where
it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that
design, and now I thought no more of it. As I had
a boat, my next design was to make a cruise round
the island; for as I had been on the other side in one
place, crossing, as I have already described it, over
the land, so the discoveries I made in that journey
made me very eager to see other parts of the coast.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything
with discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little
mast to my boat, and made a sail to it out of some
of the pieces of the ship’s sails, which lay in store,
and of which I had a great stock by me.

Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat,
I found she would sail very well. Then I made little
lockers or boxes at either end, to put provisions, ne-
cessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea, and a hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay
my gun, making a flap to hang down over to keepitdry.

I fixed my umbrella also in astep of the stern, like
a mast, to’stand over my head, and keep the heat of
the sun off me, like an awning; and thus I every
now and then took a little voyage upon the sea, but
never went far out, or far from the little creek; but
at last, being eager to view the eircumference of mv
162 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

little kingdom, I resolved upon my tour, and accord.
ingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in
two dozen of my loaves of barley bread, an earthen
pot full of parched rice, a food I eat a great deal of,
a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot
for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those
which, as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the
seamen’s chests. These I took, one to lie upon, and
the other to cover me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of
my reign or my captivity, that I set out on this voy-
age, and I found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet when
I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of
rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
above water, some under it, and beyond that a shoal
of sand, lying dry, half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double
that point. When I first discovered them, I was
going to give over my enterprise, and come back—
not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to
sea, and, above all, doubting how I should get back
again; so I came to anchor, for 1 had made mea
kind of anchor with a piece of grappling which I got
out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went
on shore, climbing upon a hill which scemed to over-
look that point, where I saw the full extent of it, and
resolved to venture. In viewing the sea from that
hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and furious
CRUSOE SAILING ROUND THE ISLAND. [|



Pege 161,
CRUSOE’S DISCOVERIES. 163

current which ran to the east, and even came close
to the point, and I took the more notice of it because
I saw there might be some danger that when I came
into it I might be carried out to sea by the strength
of it, and not be able to make the island again. And
indeed, had I not gotten first upon this hill, I believe
it would have been £0, for there was the same current
upon the other side of the island, only that it set off
at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong
eddy under the shore, so that I had nothing to do
but to get in out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind,
blowing pretty fresh (at E.S.E., and that being just
contrary to the said current), made a breach of the
sea upon the point, so that it was not safe for me to
keep too close to the shore, for the breach, nor to go
too far off because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having
abated over night, the sea was calm, and I ventured;
but no sooner was I come to the point—when even |
was not my boat’s length from the shore—but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like
the sluice of a mill. It carried my boat along with
it with such violence that all I could do could not
keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found
it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy,
which was on my left hand. There was no wind
stirring to help me, and all I could do with my
paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give

11
164 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

myself over for lost; for, as the current was on both
sides of the island, I knew, in a few leagues’ distance,
they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably
gone. Nor could I see any possibility of avoiding
it; so that I had no prospect before me but of perish-
ing, not by the sea, for that was calm enough, but of
starving for hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise
on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had
tossed it into the boat, and I had a great jar of fresh
water—that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but
what was all this to being driven in the vast ocean,
where, to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland,
or island, for a thousand leagues at least!

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence
of God to make even the most miserable condition of
mankind worse. Now I looked back upon my deso-
late solitary island as the most pleasant place in the
world, and all the happiness my heart could wish for
was to be put there again. Then I reproached myself
with my unthankful temper, and how I had repined
at my solitary condition; and now, what would I give
to be on shore there again? It is scarce possible to
imagine the consternation I was now in, being driven
from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and
in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again.
However, I worked hard, till, indeed, my strength
was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to
the northward—that is, towards the side of the cur-
vent which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could;
ADRIFT. 165

when, about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, 1
thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from the S.S.E. This cheered my heart
a little, and especially when, in about half an hour
more, it blew a pretty gentle gale. By this time I
was got at a frightful distance from the island, and
had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I
had been undone another way too; for I had no com-
pass on board, and should never have known how to
have steered towards the island if I had but once lost
sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I ap-
plied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my
sail, standing away to the north as much as possible,
to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat
began to stretch away, I saw, even by the clearness
of the water, some alteration of the current was near;
for, where the current was so strong, the water was
foul, but perceiving the water clear, I found the cur-
rent abate, and presently I found, to the east, at about
half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks;
these rocks, I found, caused the current to part again,
and as the main stress of it ran away more southerly,
leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other re-
turned by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong
eddy, which ran back again to the north-west, with a
very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a ene brought
to them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves
just going to murder them, or have been in such like
166 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

extremities, may guess what my present surprise of
joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the
stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening,
how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheerfully
before the wind, with a strong tide or eddy under
foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way
back again directly towards the island, but about two
leagues more to the northward than the current which
carried me away at first: so that, when I came near
the island, I found myself open to the northern shore
of it—that is to say, the other end of the island, op-
posite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league
of way by the help of this current or eddy, I found it
was spent, and served me no farther. However, ]
found that being between two great currents, namely,
that on the south side, which had hurried me away,
and that on the north, which lay about a league on
the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake
of the island, I found the water at least still, and
running no way; and having still a breeze of wind
fair for me, I kept on, steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then
within a league of the island, I found the point of
the rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching
out, as is described before, to the southward, and
casting off the current more southerly, had of course
made another eddy to the north; and this I found
LAND AT LAST. 167

very strong, but not directly setting the way my
course lay, which was due west, but almost full north.
However, having a fresh gale, I stretched across this
eddy, slanting north-west ; and in about an hour,
came within about a mile of the shore, where, it
being smooth water, I soon got to land.

‘When I was on shore I fell on my knees and gave
God thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside
all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and re-
freshing myself with such things as I had, I brought
my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had
spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep,
being- quite spent with the labour and fatigue of the
voyage.

I was now at a great loss which way to get home
with my boat: I had run so much hazard, and knew
too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the
way I went out; and what might be at the other side
(I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I any
mind to run any more ventures. SoI only resolved,
in the morning, to make my way westward along the
shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might
lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again
if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabout,
coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or
bay, about a mile over, which narrowed till it came
to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a
very convenient harbour for my boat, and where she
lay as if she had Leen in a little dock made on pur-
pose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my
168 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

boat very safe, I went on shore to look about me and
sce where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place
where I had been before, when I travelled on foot to
that shore ; so taking nothing out of my boat but my
gun and umbrella, for it was exceeding hot, I began
my march. The way was comfortable enough after
such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my
old bower in the evening, where I found everything
standing as I left it; for I always kept itin good order,
being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade,
to rest my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep:
but judge you, if you can, that read my story, what
a surprise I must be in, when I was awaked out of
my sleep by a voice calling me by my name several
times, “ Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe; poor Robin
Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you? Where have you been ?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with
rowing, or paddling, as it is called, the first part of
the day, and with walking the latter part, that I did
not wake thoroughly ; but, dozing between sleeping
and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke
to me: but, as the voice continued to repeat Robin
Crusoe ! Robin Crusoe! at last I began to wake more
perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and
started up in the utmost consternation ; but no sooner
were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the
top of the hedge; and immediately knew it was he
AN OLD FRIEND. 169

that spoke to me; for just in such bemoaning lan-
guage I had used to talk to him and teach him; and
he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon
my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry,
“ Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where
have you been? How came you here?” and such
things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot,
and that indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good
while before I could compose myself. First, I was
amazed how the creature got thither, and then, how
he should just keep about the place, and nowhere else:
but as I was well satisfied it could be nobody but
honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, “ Poll,’’ the sociable
creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he
used to do, and continued talking to me, Poor Robin
Crusoe! and how did I come here? and where had I
been? just as if he had been overjoyed to see me
again; and so I carried him home along with me.

I now had had enough of rambling to sea for some
time, and had enough to do for many days, to sit
still and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I
remained near a year, living a very sedate, retired
life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts
being very much composed as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions
of Providence, I thought I lived really very happily
in all things, except that of society.

T improved myself in this time in all the mechanic
170 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

exercises which my necessities put me upon applying
myself to; and I believed I could, upon occasion,
have made a very good carpenter, especially con-
sidering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected jeceeta
in my earthenware, and contrived well enough to
make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely
easier and better; because I made things round and
shapeable, which before were filthy things indeed to
look on. But I think I was never more vain of my
own performance, or more joyful for anything I found
out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ;
and though it was a very ugly clumsy thing when it
was done, and only burnt red like other earthenware,
yet, as it was hard and firm, and would draw the
smoke, I was exceedingly comforted with it, for I
had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes
in the ship, but I forget them at first, not thinking
that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards,
when I searched the ship again, I could not come at
any pipes at all.

In my wicker-ware also I improved much, and
made abundance of necessary baskets, as well as my
invention showed me; though not very handsome,
yet they were such as were very handy and conveni-
ent for my laying things up in, or fetching things
bome.
A NEW WAY TO CATCH GOATS. 171

CHAPTER XVII.

I BEGAN now to perceive my powder abated consider:
ably: this was a want which it was impossible for
me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what
I must do when I should have no more powder ; that
is to say, how I should do to kill any goats. I had,
as is observed, in the third year of my being here,
kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was
in hopes of getting a he-goat; but I could not by
any_means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old
goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill
her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my resi-
dence, and, as I have said, my ammunition growing
low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare
the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of
them alive ; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat
great with young. For this purpose, I made snares
to hamper them; and I do believe they were more
than once taken in them; but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found them
broken, and my bait devoured. At length I resolved
to try a pitfall; so I dug several large pits in the
earth, in places where I had observed the goats used
to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my
own making too, with a great weight upon them;
and several times I put ears of barley and dry rice
without setting the trap, and I eould easily perceive
172 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for
I could see the marks of their feet. At length I set
three traps in one night, and going the next morning,
I found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and
gone; this was very discouraging. However, I al-
tered my traps; and not to trouble you with particu-
lars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in
one of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the
others three kids, a male and two females.

As to the old one, I knew not what todo with
him; he was so fierce I durst not go into the pit to
him; that is to say, to go about to bring him away
alive, which was what I wanted. I could have killed
him, but that was not my business, nor would it an-
swer my end; soI even let him out, and he ran away
as if he had been frightened out of his wits. But I
had forgot then what [had learnt afterwards, that hun-
ger willtamea lion. IfI had let him stay there three
or four days without food, and then have carried him
some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would
have been as tame as one of the kids; for they are
mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are
well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing
no better at that time: then I went to the three kids,
and taking them one by one, I tied them with strings
together, and with some difficulty brought them all
home.

It was a good while before they would feed ; but
throwing them some sweet corn. it tempted them, and
CRUSOE AS A GOAT-HERD. 173

they began to be tame. And now I found, that if I
expected to supply myself with goats’ flesh. when I
had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame
was my only way ; when perhaps I might have them
about my house like a flock of sheep. But then it
occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the
wild, or else they would always run wild when they
grew up; and the only way for this was to have some
enclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with
hedge or pale, to keep them in so effectually, that
those within might not break out, nor those without
break in.

I resolved to enclose a piece of ground about 150
yards in length, and 100 yards in breadth; which,
as it would maintain as many as I should have in any
reasonable time, so, as my stock increased, I could
add more ground to my enclosure.

I was about three months hedging in the first
piece ; and till I had done it I tethered the three kids
in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near
me as possible, to make them familiar; and very
often I would go and carry them some ears of barley,
or a handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand;
so that after my enclosure was finished, and I let
them loose, they would follow me up and down,
bleating after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end; and in about a year and
a half, I had a flock of about twelve goats, kids and
all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty,
besides several that I took and killed for my food
174 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

After that I enclosed five several pieces of ground to
feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to
take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of
ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had got
goats’ flesh to feed on when I pleased, but milk too;
a thing which indeed in the beginning I did not so
much as think of, and which, when it came into my
thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise: for now
I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or
two of milk in a day.

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me
and my little family sit down to dinner: there was
my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island;
I had the lives of all my subjects at my absolute
command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and
take it away ; and no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a king I dined too, all alone,
attended by my servants: Poll, as if he had been my
favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to
me. My dog, who was now grown very old and
crazy, and had found no species to multiply his kind
upon, sat always at my right hand; and two cats,
one on one side of the table, and one on the other,
expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a
anark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought
on shore at first, for they were both of them dead ;
but_one of them having multiplied by I know not
what kind of a creature, these were two which I had
A SINGULAR FIGURE. 175

preserved tame, whereas the rest ran wild in the
woods, and became troublesome to me; for they would
often come into my house and plunder me, till at last
I was obliged to shoot them, and kill a great many.
And in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could
I be said to want anything but society, and of that,
in some time after this, I was like to have too
much.

I was impatient, as I before observed, to have
the use of my boat, though loath to run any more
hazards, and therefore sometimes I sat contriving
ways to get her about the island, and at other times
I sat myself down contented enough without her.
But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go
down to the point of the island, where, as I have
said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see
how the shore lay, and how the current sat. This
inclination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land; and
following the edge of the shore, I did so; but had
any one in England met such a man as I was, he
must either have frighted him or raised a great deal
of laughter, and as I frequently stood still to look at
myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my tra-
velling through Yorkshire with such an equipage,
and in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of
my figure as follows: I had a great high shapeless
cap, made of a goat’s skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me, as to shoot
the rain off from running into my neck: nothing
176 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon
the flesh under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goats’ skin, the skirts hang-
ing down to about the middle of my thighs; anda
pair of open-kneed breeches: the breeches were made
of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down
such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it
reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and
shoes I had none; but I had made me a pair of some-
thing, I scarce know what to call them, like buskins,
to flap over my legs.

I had ona broad belt of goats’ skin dried, which I
drew together with two thongs of the same, instead
of buckles: and, in a kind of frog, on each side of
this, hung a saw and a hatchet. I had another belt
not so broad, fastened in the same manner, which
hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it hung
two pouches, in which I kept my powder and shot.
At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder my
gun, and over my head a great clumsy goats’-skin
umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary
thing I had about me, next tomy gun. As for my
face, the colour of it was really not so mulatto-like
as one might expect from a man not at all careful
of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the
equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow
till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I
had scissors and razors, I had cut it pretty short, ex-
cept what grew on my upper lip, which I had trim-
med into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such
A NEW JOURNEY. 177

as I had seen wore by some Turks whom I saw at
Sallee. Of these mustachios or whiskers, I must
say they were monstrous, and would in England be
thought frightful.

In this kind of figure I went my new journey, and
was out five or six days. I travelled first along the
sea-shore, directly to the place where I first brought
my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; and,
having no boat now to take care of, I went over the
land, a nearer way, to the same height that I was
upon before; when, looking forward to the point of
the rocks which lay out, and which I was obliged to
double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised
to see the sea all smooth and quiet; no rippling, no
motion, no current, any more there than in any other
places. I was at a strange loss to understand this,
and resolved to spend some time in the observing it,
to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occa-
sioned it; but I was presently convinced how it was,
namely, that the tide of ebb setting from the west,
and joining with the current of waters from some
great river on the shore, must be the occasion of this
current; and that, according as the wind blew more
forcibly from the west, or from the north, this current
came nearer, or went farther from the shore; for,
waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the
rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I
plainly saw the current again as before, only that it
ran farther off, being near half a league from the
shore: whereas, in my case, it set close upon the
178 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shore, and hurried me and my canoe along with it;
which at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me, that I had nothing
to do but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the
tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about
the island again; but, when I began to think of put-
ting it in practice, I had such a terror upon my spirits
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that
I could not think of it again with any patience: but,
on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which
was more safe, though more laborious; and this
was, that I would build, or rather make me another
periagua, or canoe; and so have one for one side of
the island, and one for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as 1 may
call it, two plantations in the island; one, my little
fortification, or tent, with the wall about it, under the
rock, with the cave behind me, which, by this time,
I had enlarged into several apartments or caves, one
within another. One of these, which was the driest
and largest, and had a door out behind my wall, or
fortification, that is to say, beyond where my wall
joined to the rock, was all filled up with the large
earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and
with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my

" stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the
ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed
out with my hands.

As for my wall, made as before, with long stakes
VARIOUS RESOURCES. 179

or piles, those piles grew all like trees, and were, by
this time, grown so big, and spread so very much,
that there was not the least appearance, to any one’s
view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther
within the land, and upon lower ground, lay my two
pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated and
sowed, and which duly yielded me their harvest in its
season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn,
I had more land adjoining as fit as that. Besides
this, I had my country-seat; and I had now a toler-
able plantation there also.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my
cattle, that is to say, my goats; and as I had taken
an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose
this ground, I was so anxious to see it kept entire,
lest the goats should break through, that I never left
off, till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to
one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge,
and there was scarce room to put a hand through be-
tween them; which afterwards, when those stakes
grew, as they all did in the next rainy season, made
the enclosure strong like a wall—indeed, stronger
than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and
that I spared no pains to bring to pass whatever
appeared necessary for my comfortable support ; for I
considered the keeping up a breed ot tame creatures
thus, at my hand, would bea living magazine of flesh,

12
180 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in
the place, if it were to be forty years; and that keep-
ing them in my reach depended entirely upon my
perfecting my enclosures to such a degree that I
might be sure of keeping them together; which, by
this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that,
when these little stakes began to grow, I had planted
them so very thick, that I was forced to pull some of
them up again.

In this place also, I had my grapes growing,
which I principally depended on for my winter store
of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very
carefully, as the best and most agreeable dainty of
my whole diet: and, indeed, they were not only
agreeable, but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other
habitation and the place where I had laid up my
boat, I generally stayed, and lay here, in my way
thither; for I used frequently to visit my boat; and
I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very
good order: sometimes I went out in her to divert
myself, but no more hazardous voyages would I go,
nor scarce ever above a stone’s-cast or two from the
shore, I was so apprehensive of being hurried out of
my knowledge again by the currents or winds, or
any other accident. But now I come toa new scene
of my life.
A FEARFUL SURPRISE. 181

CHAPTER XVIII.

Ir happened, one day, about noon, going towards my
boat, I was exceedingly surprised with the print of
a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very
plain to be seen in the sand. I stood like one
thunder-struck ; I listened, I looked around me,
but I could hear nothing, nor see anything; I went
up to a rising ground to look farther; I went up the
shore, and down the shore, but it was all one; I
could see no other impression but that one. I went
to it again, to see if there was any more, and to ob-
serve if it might not be my fancy; but there was no
room for that, for there was exactly the print of a
foot, toes, heel, and every part of a foot: how it came
thither I knew not, nor could I in the least imagine;
but after innumerable fluttering thoughts, like aman
perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home
to my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground
I went on, but terrified to the last degree; looking
behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking
every bush and tree, and fancying every stump at a
distance to be aman. Nor is it possible to describe
how many various shapes my affrighted imagina-
tion represented things to me in, how many wild
ideas were found every moment in my fancy, and
what strange unaccountable whimsies came into mr
thoughts by the way.

At last I concluded that it must be some of the
182 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

savages of the mainland over against me, who had
wandered out to sea in their canoes, and, either driven
by the currents or by contrary winds, had made the
island, and had been on shore, but were gone away
again to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed
in this desolate island as I would have been to have
had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind,
[ was very thankful in my thoughts, that I was so
happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that
they did not see my boat, by which they would have
concluded that some inhabitants had been in the
place, and perhaps have searched farther for me:
then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about
their having found my boat, and that there were
people here: and that, if so, I should certainly have
them come again in greater numbers, and devour me:
that if it should happen so that they should not find
me, yet they would find my enclosure, destroy all
my corn, carry away all my flock of tame goats, and
I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all
that former confidence in God, which was founded
upon such wonderful experience as I had had of his
goodness, as if he that had fed me hitherto could not
preserve, by his power, the provision which he had
’ made for me by his goodness. I reproached myself
with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn
one year than would just serve me till the next season,
as if no accident would intervene to prevent my en-
“ UNSTABLE AS WATER.” 183

joying the crop that was upon the ground: and this
I thought so just a reproof, that I resolved for the
fature to have two or three years’ corn beforehand;
so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for
want of bread.

How strange a chequer work of Providence is the
life of man! and by what secret different springs are
the affections hurried about, as different circumstances
present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate;
to-day we seek what to-morrow we shun; to-day we
desire what to-morrow we fear; nay, even tremble at
the apprehensions of: this was exemplified in me, at
this time, in the most lively manner imaginable; for
I, whose only affliction was that I seemed banished
from human society, that I was alone, circumscribed
by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and
condemned to what I called silent life: that I was as
one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be num-
bered among the living, or to appear among the rest
of his creatures; that to have seen one of my own
species would have seemed to me a raising me from
death to life, and the greatest blessing that Heaven
itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation, could
bestow; I say, that I should now tremble at the very
apprehensions of seeing a man, and was ready to sink
into the ground at but the shadow, or silent appear-
ance, of a man’s having set his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it
afforded me a great many curious speculations after-
wards, when I had a little recovered my first surprise.
184 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I considered that this was the station of life the in-
finitely wise and good providence of God had deter-
mined for me; that, as I could not foresee what the
ends of divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was
not to dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was his
creature, had an undoubted right, by creation, to
govern and dispose of me absolutely, as he thought
iit; and who, as I was a creature that had offended
him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me to
what punishment he thought fit; and that it was my
part to submit to bear his indignation, because I had
sinned against him. I then reflected that as God,
who was not only righteous, but omnipotent, had
thought fit thus to punish and afflict me, so he was
able to deliver me; that, if he did not think fit to do
so, it was my unquestioned duty to resign myself
absolutely and entirely to his will; and, on the other
hand, it was my duty also to hope in him, pray to
him, and quietly to attend the dictates and directions
of his daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay,
I may say, weeks and months; and one particular
effect of my cogitations on this occasion I cannot
omit. One morning early, lying in bed, and filled
with thoughts about my danger from the appearances
of savages, I found it discomposed me very much;
upon which these words of the Scripture came into
my thoughts, “Call upon me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.”
Upon this, rising cheerfully out of my bed, my heart
CRUSOE FINDS COMFORT. 185

was not only comforted, but I was guided and ex-
couraged to pray earnestly to God for deliverance:
when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and
opening it to read, the first words that presented to
me were, “ Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer,
and he shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the
Lord.” It is impossible to express the comfort this
gaveme. In answer, I thankfully laid down the book,
and was no more sad, at least on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions,
and reflections, it came into my thoughts one day,
that all this might be a mere chimera of my own,
and that this foot might be the print of my own foot,
when I came on shore from my boat; this cheered
me up a little too, and I began to persuade myself it
was all a delusion; that it was nothing else but
my own foot; and why might I not come that way
from the boat, as well as I was going that way to the
boat! Again, I considered, also, that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where
I had not; and that, if at last this was only the print
of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools
who try to make stories of spectres and apparitions,
and then are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad
again, for I had not stirred out of my castle for three
days and nights, so that I began to starve for pro-
visions; for I had little or nothing within doors but
some barley-cakes and water; then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was
186 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

my evening diversion; and the poor creatures were
in great pain and inconvenience for want of it; and,
indeed, it almost spoiled some of them, and almost
dried up their milk. Encouraging myself, therefore,
with the belief that this was nothing but the print of
one of my own feet, and that I might be truly said
to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad
again, and went to my country-house to milk my
flock: but to see with what fear I went forward, how
often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every
now and then, to lay down my basket, and run for
my life, it would have made any one think I was
haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been
lately most terribly frightened; and so, indeed, I had.
However, as I went down thus two or three days,
and having seen nothing, I began to bea little bolder,
and to think there was really nothing in it but my
own imagination; but I could not persuade myself
fully of this till I should go down to the shore again,
and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness,
that I might be assured it was my own foot. But
when I came to the place first, it appeared evidently
to me, that, when I laid up my boat, I could not pos-
sibly be on shore anywhere thereabout: Secondly,
when I came to measure the mark with my own foot,
I found my foot not so large by a great deal. Both
these things filled my head with new imaginations,
and gave me the vapours again to the highest de-
gree, so that I shook with cold like one in an ague;
RIDICULOUS RESOLUTIONS. 187

and I went home again, filled with the belief that
some man or men had been on shore there; or, in
short, that the island was inhabited, and I might be
surprised before I was aware; and what course to
take for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when
possessed with fear! It deprives them of the use of
those means which reason offers for their relief. The
first thing I proposed to myself was to throw down
my enclosures and turn all my tame cattle wild into
the woods, lest the enemy should find them, and then
frequent the island in prospect of the same, or the
like booty; then to the simple thing of digging up
my two corn-fields, lest they should find such a grain
there, and still be prompted to frequent the island;
then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might
not see any vestiges of habitation, and be prompted
to look farther, in order to find out the persons in-
habiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogita-
tions, after I was come home again, while the appre-
hensions, which had so overrun my mind, were fresh
upon me, and my head was full of vapours, as above.
Thus fear of danger is ten thousand times more terri-
fying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes;
and we find the burthen of anxiety greater by much
than the evil which we are anxious about; and, which
was worse than all this, I had not that relief in this
trouble from the resignation I used to practise, that I
hoped to have. I looked, I thought, like Saul, who
188 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

complained, not only that the Philistines were upon
him, but that God had forsaken him; for I did not
now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying
to God in my distress and resting upon his provi-
dence, as I had done before, for my defence and de-
liverance; which, if I had done, I had at least been
more cheerfully supported under this new surprise,
and perhaps carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all
night ; but in the morning I fell asleep; and having,
by the amusement of my mind, been, as it were, tired,
and my spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and
waked much better composed than I had ever been
before.

I began to repent that I had dug my cave so large
as to bring a door through again, which door, as I
said, came out beyond where my fortification joined
to the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore,
I resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the
same manner of a semicircle at a distance from my
wall, just where I had planted a double row of trees
about twelve years before, of which I made mention:
these trees having been planted so thick before, they
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that
they might be thicker and stronger, and my wall
would be soon finished: so that I had now a double
wall; and my outer wall was thickened with pieces
of timber, old cables, and everything I could think
of, to make it strong; having in it seven little holes,
about as big as I might put my arm out at. In the
FOREWARNED, FOREARMED. 189

inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet
thick, with continually bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking
upon it; and through the seven holes I contrived to
plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I had
got seven on shore out of the ship; these I planted
like my cannon, and fitted them into frames that held
them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven
guns in two minutes’ time. This wall I was many
a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.

When this was done, I stuck all the ground with-
out my wall, for a great length every way, as full
with stakes, or sticks, of the osier-like wood, which
I found so apt to grow, as they could well stand;
insomuch, that I believe I might set in near twenty
thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space be-
tween them and my wall, that I might have room to
see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from
the young trees, if they attempted to approach my
outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove;
and, in five or six years’ time, I had a wood before
my dwelling, growing so monstrous thick and strong,
that it was indeed perfectly impassable; and no men,
of what kind soever, would ever imagine that thera
was anything beyond it, much less a habitation.
As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in
and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two
ladders, one to a part of the rock which was low, and
190 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

then broke in, and left room to place another ladder
upon that; so, when the two ladders were taken
down, no man living could come down to me without
doing himself some mischief; and if they had come
down, they were still on the outside of my outer
wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence
could suggest for my own preservation; and it will
be seen, at length, that they were not altogether
without just reason; though I foresaw nothing at that
time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether care-
less of my other affairs; for I had great concern
upon me for my little herd of goats; they were not
only a ready supply to me on every occasion, and
began to be sufficient for me, without the expense of
powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of
hunting after the wild ones; and I was loath to lose
the advantage of them, and to have them all to
nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could
think of but two ways to preserve them; one was, to
find another convenient place to dig a cave under
ground, and to drive them into it every night; and
the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
land remote from one another, and as much concealed
as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen
young goats in each place; so that if any disaster
happened to the flock in general, I might be able to
raise them again with little trouble and time: and
A REMOVAL. 191

this, though it would require a great deal of time and
labour, I thought was the most rational design.

Accordingly I spent some time to find out the
most retired parts of the island; and I pitched upon
one, which was as private, indeed, as my heart could
wish for : it was a little damp piece of ground, in the
middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is
observed, I almost lost myself once before, endea-
vouring to come back that way from the eastern part
of the island. Here I found a clear piece of land,
near three acres, so surrounded with woods, that it
was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labour to make it so as the
other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of
ground, and in less than a month’s time, I had so
fenced it round, that my flock or herd, call it what
you please, who were not so wild now as at first they
might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any farther delay, I removed ten
young she-goats and two he-goats to this piece; and.
when they were there, I continued to perfect the
fence, till I had made it as secure as the other;
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took
me up more time by a great deal.

After I had thus secured one part of my little
living stock, I went about the whole island, search-
ing for another private place to make such another
deposit; when, wandering more to the west point of
the island than I had ever done yet, and looking out
192 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea at a great
distance. I had found a perspective glass or two, in
one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so
remote, that I could not tell what to make of it,
though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to
hold to look any longer. Whether it was a boat or
not I do not know. but, as I descended from the hill,
I could see no more of it; so I gave it over: only I
resolved to go no more out without a perspective
glass in my pocket. When I was come down the
hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had
never been before, I was presently convinced that
the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not such a
strange thing in the island as I imagined; and (but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the savages never came),
I should easily have known, that nothing was more
frequent than for the canoes from the main, when
they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to
shoot over to that side of the island for harbour; like
wise, as they often met and fought in their canoes,
the victors having taken any prisoners, would bring
them over to this shore, where, according to their
dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would
kill and eat them; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I
said above, being the 8. W. point of the island, I was
perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible
for me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing
THE SCENE OF AN ORGIE. 193

the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other
bones of human bodies; and particularly, I observed
a place where there had been a fire inade, and a
circle dug in the earth like a cock-pit, where I sup-
posed the savage wretches had sat down to their
inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-
creatures.

When I came a little out of that part of the
island, I stood still awhile, as amazed, and then,
recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost af-
fection of my soul, and with a flood of tears in my
eyes gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in
a part of the world where I was distinguished from
such dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I
had esteemed my present condition very miserable,
had yet given me so many comforts in it, that I had
still more to give thanks for than to complain of:
and this, above all, that I had, even in this miser-
able condition, been comforted with the knowledge
of himself, and the hope of his blessing; which was
a felicity more than sufficiently equivalent to all the
misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my
castle, and began to be much easier now, as to the
safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before;
for I observed that these wretches never came to this
island in search of what they could get, perhaps not
seeking, nor wanting, or not expecting anything
here; and having often, no doubt, been up in the
covered woody part of it, without finding anything
194 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to their purpose. I knew I had been here now
almost eighteen years, and never saw the least foot-
steps of human creature there before; and I might
be eighteen years more as entirely concealed as I
was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which
I had no manner of oceasion to do; it being only my
business to keep myself entirely concealed where I
was, unless I found a better sort of creatures than
cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I enter-
tained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches I
have been speaking of, and of the wretched inhuman
custom of their devouring and eating one another up,
that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close
_ within my own circle for almost two years after this,
When I say my own circle, I mean by it my three
plantations, namely, my castle, my country seat,
which I called my bower, and my enclosure in the
woods; nor did I look after this for any other use
than as an enclosure for my goats; for the aversion
which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was
such, that I was as fearful of seeing them as of seeing
the devil himself. I did not so much as go to look
after my boat all this time, but began rather to think
of making me another; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat
round the island to me, lest I should meet with some
of these creatures at sea; in which, if I had hap-
pened to have fallen into their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the setisfaction I had that I
A FORMIDABLE FELLOW. 195

was in no danger of being discovered by these people,
began to wear off my uneasiness about them; and I
began to live just in the same composed manner as
before; only with this difference, that I used more
caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did
before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
them; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing
my gun, lest any of them being on the island should
happen to hear it. It was, therefore, a very good
providence to me that I had furnished myself with a
tame breed of goats, and that I had no need to hunt
any more about the woods, or shoot at them; and, if
I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps
and snares, as I had done before: so that, for two
years after this, I believe I never fired my gun once
off, though I never went out without it; and, which
was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the
ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt.
I also furbished up one of the great cutlasses that
I had out of the ship, and made me a belt to hang it
on also: so that I was now a most formidable fellow
to look at, when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself the particular of two
pistols, and a great broad-sword hanging at my side,
in a belt, but without a scabbard.

13
196 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

CHAPTER XIX.

TuInes going on thus, as I have said, for some time,
I seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to
my former calm, sedate way of living. All these
things tended to show me, more and more, how far
my condition was from being miserable, compared to
some others; nay, to many other particulars of life,
which it might have pleased God to have made my
lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining
there would be among mankind at any condition of
life, if people would rather compare their condition
with those that were worse, in order to be thankful,
than be always comparing them with those which are
better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

As, in my present condition, there were not really
many things which I wanted, so, indeed, I thought
that the frights I had been in about these savage
wretches, and the concern I had been in for my own
preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences; and I had dropped a good
design, which I had once bent my thoughts too much
upon, and that was, to try if I could not make some
of my barley into malt, and then try to brew myself
some beer. This was really a whimsical thought,
and I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it;
for I presently saw there would be the want of several
things necessary to the making my beer that it would
be impossible for me to supply: as, first, casks to
A BROODING FANCY. 197

preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have
observed already, I could never compass: no, though
I spent not only many days, but weeks, nay, months,
in attempting it, but to no purpose. In the next
place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to
make it work, no copper or kettle to make it boil;
and yet, with all these things wanting, I verily
believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in
about the savages intervened, I had undertaken it,
and perhaps brought it to pass too; for I seldom
gave anything over without accomplishing it, when
once I had it in my head to begin it: But my in-
vention now ran quite another way; for night and
day I could think of nothing but how I might de-
stroy some of these monsters in their cruel bloody
entertainment, and, if possible, save the victim they
should bring hither to destroy. It would take up a
larger volume than this whole work is intended to be,
to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather
brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying
these creatures, or at least frightening them, so as to
prevent their coming hither any more: but all this
was abortive. Nothing could be possible to take effect,
unless I was to be there to do it myself; and what
could one man do among them, when, perhaps, there
might be twenty or thirty of them together, with their
darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my
gun?

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the
198 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

place where they made their fire, and put in five or
six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled
their fire, would consequently take fire, and blow up
all that was near it; but, as in the first place, I
should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon
them, my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at
any certain time, when it might surprise them; and,
at best, that it would do little more than just blow
the fire about their ears and fright them, but not suf-
ficient to make them forsake the place; so I laid it
aside, and then proposed that I would place myself
in ambush in some convenient place, with my three
guns all double-loaded, and in the middle of their
bloody ceremony let fly at them, when I should be
sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at every
shot; and then falling in upon them with my three
pistols and my sword, I made no doubt, but that,
if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks; and I
was so full of it, that I often dreamed of it, and some-
times that I was just going to let fly at them in my
sleep. I went so far with it in my imagination, that
I employed myself several days to find out proper
places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch
for them; and I went frequently to the place itself,
which was now grown more familiar to me; but,
while my mind was thus filled with thoughts of re-
venge, and a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them
to the sword, as I may call it, the horror I had at
PREPARING FOR AN ATTACK. ~ 199

the place, and at the signals of the barbarous
wretches devouring one another, abetted my malice.
Well, at length I found a place in the side of the
hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till
I saw any of their boats coming; and might then,
even before they would be ready to come on shore,
convey myself unseen into some thickets of trees, in
one of which there was a hollow large enough to con-
ceal me entirely; and there I might sit and observe
all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their
heads when they were so close together, as that it
would be next to impossible that I should miss my
shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four of
them atthe first shot. In this place, then, I resolved
to fix my design; and, accordingly, I prepared two
muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece. The two
muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and four
or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-bullets ;
and the fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful
of swan-shot, of the largest size. I also loaded my
pistols with about four bullets each; and in this pos-
ture, well provided with ammunition for a second
and third charge, I prepared myself for my expe-
dition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and,
in my imagination, put it in practice, I continually
made my tour every morning up to the top of the
hill, which was from my castle, as I called it, about
three miles or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, coming uear the island, or stand-
200 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ing over towards it; but I began to tire of this hard
duty, after I had for two or three months constantly
kept my~ watch, but came always back without any
discovery; there having not, in all that time, been
the least appearance, not only on or near the shore,
but on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or glasses
could reach every way.

Moreover, I began, by little and little, to be off my
design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures
in my resolution to attack the savages; and that it
was not my business to meddle with them unless they
first attacked me; and this it was my business, if
possible, to prevent; but that if [ were discovered
and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On the
other hand, I argued with myself, that this really
was the way not to deliver myself, but entirely to
ruin and destroy myself; for unless I was sure to
kill every one that not only should be on shore at
that time, but that should ever come on shore after-
wards, if but one of them escaped to tell their country
people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their
fellows, and I should only bring upon myself a
certain destruction, which, at present, I had no man-
ner of occasion for. Upon the whole, I concluded,
that, neither in principle nor in policy, I ought, one
way or other, to concern myself in this affair; that
my business was, by all possible means to conceal
myself from them, and not to leave the least signal
to them to guess by that there were any living crea-
SECOND THOUGHTS BEST. 201

tures upon the island—I mean of human shape.
Religion joined in with this prudential resolution;
and I was convinced now, many ways, that I was
perfectly out of my duty when I was laying all my
bloody schemes for the destruction of innocent crea-
tures—I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes
they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing
to do with them; they were national, and I ought to
leave them to the justice of God, who is the Gover-
nor of nations, and knows how, by national punish-
ments, to make a just retribution for national offences,
and to bring public judgments upon those who offend
in a public manner, by such ways as best please
him.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after
this; and so far was I from desiring an occasion for
falling upon these wretches, that, in all that time, I
never once went up the hill to see whetier there were
any of them in sight, or to know whether any of them
had been on shore there or not, that I might not be
tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked by any advantage which might
present itself to fall upon them; only this I did, I
went and removed my boat, which I had on the other
side of the island, and carried it down to the éast end-
of the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove,
which I found under some high rocks, and where I
knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats upon
any account whatever. With my boat I carried
202 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

away everything that I had left there belonging tc
her, though not necessary for the bare going thither,
namely a mast and sail which I had made for her,
and a thing like an anchor, but which, indeed, could
not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it
was the best I could make of its kind. All these I
removed, that there might not be the least shadow of
any discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of
any human habitation upon the island. Besides this,
I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever.

CHAPTER XX.

I sevieve the reader of this will not think it strange
if I confess, that the anxieties, the constant dangers
I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me,
put an end to all invention, and to all the con-
trivances that I had laid for my future accommoda-
tions and conveniences. I had the care of my safety
more now upon my hands than that of my food. I
cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood
now, for fear the noise I might make should be heard ;
“much less would I fire a gun, for the same reason ;
and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making
any fire, lest the smoke, which is visible at a great
distance in the day, should betray me. For this
reason, I. removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c.,
CRUSOE AND FRIDAY IN AMBUSH,



Lage 2u2.
NECESSARY PRECAUTIONS. 203

into my new apartment in the woods; where, after
I had been some time, I found to my unspeakable
consolation, a mere natural cave in the earth, which
went in a vast way, and where, I dare say, no savage,
had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy
as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else,
but one who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a
safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a
great rock, where, by mere accident (I would say, if
I did not see abundant reason to ascribe all such
things now to Providence), I was cutting down some
thick branches of trees to make charcoal, and before I
go on, I must observe the reason of my making this
charcoal, which was this: I was afraid of making a
smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and
yet I could not live there without baking my bread,
cooking my meat, &c.; so I contrived to burn some
wood here, as I had seen done in England, under
turf, till it became chark, or dry coal; and then put-
ting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home,
and perform the other services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by-
the-by :—While I was cutting down some wood here,
I perceived that behind a very thick branch of low
brush-wood, or underwood, there was a kind of hol-
low place; I was curious to look in it, and getting
with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was
pretty large; that is to say, sufficient for me to stand
upright in it, and perhaps another with me; but, I
204 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

must confess to you, that I made more haste out than
I did in, when, looking farther into the place, and
which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining
eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew
not, which twinkled like two stars; the dim light
from the cave’s mouth shining directly in, and
making the reflection. However, after some pause,
I recovered myself, and plucking up my courage, I
took up a firebrand, and in I rushed again, with the
stick flaming in my hand. I had not got three steps
in, but 1 was almost as much frightened as I was
before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a
man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken
noise, as of words half expressed, and then a deep
sigh again. I stepped back, and was, indeed, struck
with such a surprise, that it put me into a cold sweat ;
and if I had,had a hat on my head, I will not answer
for it, that my hair might not have lifted it off. But
still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and
encouraging myself a little with considering that
the power and presence of God were everywhere,
and were able to protect me, upon this I stepped for-
ward again, and, by the light of the firebrand, hold-
ing it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the
ground a most monstrous frightful old he-goat, just
making his will, as we say, and gasping for life;
and dying, indeed, of mere-old age. I stirred him a
little to see if I could get him out, and he essayed to
get up, but was not able to raise himself; and I
thought with myself he might even lie there, for if
ANOTHER DISCOVERY. 205

he had frightened me so, he would certainly fright
any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy
as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began
to look round me, when I found the cave was but very
small; that is to say, it might be about twelve feet
over, but in no manner of shape, neither round nor
square, no hand ever having been employed in
making it but those of mere nature. I observed,
also, that there was a place at the farther side of it
that went in further, but was so low that it required
me to creep upon my hands and knees to go into it,
and whither it went I knew not; so, having no candle,
I gave it over for that time, but resolved to come
again the next day, provided with candles and a
tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of
the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came, provided with
six large candles of my own making; (for I had
made very good candles now of goats’ tallow, but
was hard set for candle-wick, using sometimes rags
or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed
like nettles); and going into this low place, I was
obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost
ten yards; which, by the way, I thought was a ven-
ture bold enough, considering that I knew not how
far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I
had got through the strait, I found the roof rose
higher up, I believe near twenty feet; but never
was such a glorious sight seen in the island, ] dare
206 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

say, as it was, to look round the sides and roof of
this vault or cave: the walls reflected an hundred
thousand lights to me from my two candles. What
it was in the rock, whether diamonds, or any other
precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it
to be, I knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity or grotto of its kind, as could be
expected, though perfectly dark; the floor was dry
and level, and had a sort of a small loose gravel upon
it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous crea-
ture to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet
on the sides or roof; the only difficulty in it was the
éntrance; which, however, as it was a place of security,
and such a retreat as I wanted, I thought that was a
convenience; so that I was really rejoiced at the
discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring
some of those things which I was most anxious about
to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring
hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare
arms, namely, two fowling-pieces, for I had three in
all, and three muskets, for of them I had eight in
all; so I kept at my castle only five, which stood
ready mounted, like pieces of cannon on my outmost
fence; and were ready also to take out upon any ex-
pedition. Upon this occasion of removing my am-
munition, I happened to open the barrel of powder
which I took up out of the sea, and which had been
wet; and I found that the water had penetrated about
two or three inches into the powder on every side
which, caking and growing hard, had preserved the
TWENTY-THREE YEARS OF SOLITUDE. 207

inside like a kernel in the shell; so that I had near
sixty pounds of very good powder in the centre of
the cask. This was a very agreeable discovery to me
at this time; so I carried all away thither, never
keeping above two or three pounds of powder with
me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind;
I also carried thither all the lead I had left for bul-
lets.

The old goat whom I found expiring died in the
mouth of the cave the next day after I had made
this discovery : and I found it much easier to dig a
great hole there, and throw him in and cover him
with earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him
there to prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of my residence
in this island; and was so naturalized to the place,
and the manner of living, that, could I but have en-
joyed the certainty that no savages would come to
the place to disturb me, I could have been content to
have capitulated for spending the rest of my time
there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me
down and died, like the old goat in the cave.

I had also arrived to some little diversions and
amusements, which made the time pass a great deal
more pleasantly with me than it did before: as, first,
I had taught my Poll, as I noted before, to speak;
and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately
and plain, that it was very pleasant to me; for I
believe no bird ever spoke plainer : and he lived with
me no less than six-and-twenty years: how long he
208 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

might have lived afterwards I know not, though I
know they have a notion in the Brazils that they live
an hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant and
loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years
of my time, and then died of mere old age. As for
my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed, to that
degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at
first, to keep them from devouring me and all I had;
but at length, when the two old ones I brought with
me were gone, and after some time continually driv-
ing them from me, and letting them have no provi-
sion with me, they all ran wild into the woods, ex-
sept two or three favourites, which I kept tame, and
whose young, when they had any, I always drowned ;
and these were part of my family. Besides these, I
always kept two or three household kids about me,
whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had
two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would
all call “ Robin Crusoe,” but none like my first; nor
indeed did I take the pains with any of them that I
had done with him. I had also several tame sea-
fowls, whose names I knew not, that I caught upon
the shore, and cut their wings; and the little stakes
which I had planted before my castle wall being now
grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived
among these low trees, and bred there, which was
very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I
began to be very well contented with the lite I led,
if I could but have been secured from the dread of
the savages. But it was otherwise directed.
A TERRIBLE SURPRISE. 209

It was now in the month of December, as I said
above, in my twenty-third year; and this being the
southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was
the particular time of my harvest, and required my
being pretty much abroad in the fields: when going
out pretty early in the morning, even before it was
thoroughly day-light, I was surprised with seeing a
light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from
me of about two miles, towards the end of the island,
where I had observed some savages had been, as
before, and not on the other side; but to my great
affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and
went back directly to my castle, and pulled up my
ladder after me. Then I prepared myself witnin,
putting myself in a posture of defence; I loaded all
my cannon, as I called them, that is to say, my mus-
kets, which were mounted upon my new fortification,
and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to
the last gasp; not forgetting seriously to commend
myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to
pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the
barbarians. I continued in this posture about two
hours; and began to be mighty impatient for intelli-
gence abroad, for I had no spies to send out. After
sitting a while longer, and musing what I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in
ignorance any longer; 80, setting up my ladder to
the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as
I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up
210 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of
the hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which
J] had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my
belly, on the ground, and began to look for the place.
I presently found there were no less than nine naked
savages, sitting round a small fire they had made,
not to warm them, for they had no need of that, the
weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to
dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh,
which they had brought with them, whether alive or
dead I could not tell.

They had two canoes with them, which they had
hauled up upon the shore; and as it was then tide of
ebb, they seemed to me to wait for the return of the
flood to go away again. It is not easy to imagine what
confusion this sight put me into, especially, seeing
them come on my side of the island, and so near me
too; but when I considered their coming must be al-
ways with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards
to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I
might go abroad with safety all the time of the tide
of flood, if they were not on shore before ; and hav-
ing made this observation, I went abroad about my
harvest-work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the
tide made to the westward, I saw them all take boat,
and row (or paddle as we call it) away. I should
have observed, that for an hour or more before they
went off, they went a dancing; and I could easily
discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I
A DREADFUL SIGHT. 211

could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but
that they were naked, and had not the least covering
upon them.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took
two guns upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my
girdle, and my great sword by my side, without a
scabbard; and with all the speed I was able to make,
went away to the hill, where I had discovered the
first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither,
which was not in less than two hours (for I could
not go apace, being so laden with arms as I was), I
perceived there had been three canoes more of savages
at that place; and looking out farther, I saw they
were all at sea together, making over the main.
This was a dreadful sight io me, especially as going
down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror,
which the dismal work they had been about had left
behind it, namely, the blood, the bones, and part of
the flesh of human bodies, eaten and devoured by
those wretches with merriment and sport. I was so
filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to
premeditate the destruction of the next that I sawthere,
let them be whom or how many soever. It seemed
evident to me that the visits which they made thus to
this island were not very frequent, for it was above
fifteen months before any more of them came on shore
there again; that is to say, I neither saw them, nor
any footsteps nor signals of them, in all that time.

During all this time I was in the murdering hu-

mour, and took up most of my hours, which should
14
212 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

have been better employed, in contriving how to cir-
cumvent and fall upon them the very next time I
should see them, especially if they should be divided,
as they were the last time, into two parties; nor did
I consider at all, that if I killed one party, suppose
ten or a dozen, I was still the next day, or week, or
month, to kill another, and so another, even ad in-
&nitum, till I should be at length no less a murderer
than they were in being man-eaters, and perhaps
much more so. 1 spent my days now in great per-
plexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should
one day or other fall into the hands of these merci-
less creatures; and if I did at any time venture abroad,
it was not without looking round me with the great-
est care and caution imaginable. And now I found
to my great comfort, how happy it was that I pro-
vided for a tame flock or herd of goats; for I durst
nct upon any account fire my gun, especially near
that side of the island where they usually came, lest
I should alarm the savages; and if they fled from
me now, I was sure to have them come again, with
perhaps two or three hundred canoes with them, in
a few days, and then I knew what toexpect. How-
ever, I wore out a year and three months more be-
fore I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I
found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is
true, they might have been there once or twice, but
either they made no stay, or at least I did not see
them; but in the month of May, as near as I could
calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had
THE SIGNAL GUN. 213

@ very strange encounter with them: of which in its
place.

The perturbation of my mind during this fifteen
or sixteen months’ interval was very great. I slept
unquiet, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often
started out of my sleep in the night; in the day
great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in the
night I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of
the reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But,
to waive all this for a while. It was in the middle
of May, on the sixteenth day I think, as well as my
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked
all upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth
of May that it blew a very great storm of wind all
day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a
very foul night it was after it. I knew not what was
the particular occasion of it, but, as I was reading
in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts
about my present condition, I was surprised with the
noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. I started
up in the greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice,
clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock,
and pulled it after me; and mounting it the second
time, got to the top of the hill the very moment that
a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which
accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard; and,
by the sound, knew that it was from that part of the
sea where I was driven down the current in my boat.
I immediately considered that this must be some
ship in distress, and that they had some comrade, or
214 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

some other ship in company, and fired these guns
for signals of distress, and to obtain help. I had
the presence of mind, at that minute, to think that,
though I could not help them, it might be they might
help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I
could get at hand, and making a good handsome
pile, I set it on fire upon the hill. The wood was
dry, and blazed freely; and, though the wind blew
very hard, yet it burnt fairly out; so that I was
certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they
must needs see it—and no doubt they did—for as
soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard another gun,
and after that several others, all from the same
quarter. I plied my fire all night long, till day-
break; and, when it was broad day, and the air
cleared up, I saw something at a great distance, at
sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull
I could not distinguish, no, nut with my glass; the
distance was so great, and the weather still some-
thing hazy also—at least it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon
perceived that it did not move; so I presently con-
cluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager,
you may be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in
my hand, and ran towards the south side of the
island, to the rocks where I had formerly been carried
away with the current; and getting up there, the
weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could
plainly see, to my great sorrow, the wreck of a ship,
cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks
CRUSOE’S CONJECTURES. 215

which I found when I was out in my boat; and
which rocks, as they checked the violence of the
stream, and made a kind of counter-stream or eddy,
were the occasion of my recovering from the most
desperate, hopeless condition, that ever I had been
in all my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is
another man’s destruction; for it seems these men,
whoever they were, being out of their knowledge,
and the rocks being wholly under water, had been
driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing
hard at E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I
must necessarily suppose they did not, they must, as
I thought, have endeavoured to have saved them-
selves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as
I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts.
First, I imagined that, upon seeing my light, they
might have put themselves into their boat, and en-
deavoured to make the shore; but that the sea going
very high, they might have been cast away: other
times I imagined that they might have lost their
boat before, as might be the case, many ways; as,
particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their
ship, which many times obliges men to stave, or take
in pieces their boat, and sometimes to throw it over-
board with their own hands: other times I imagined
they had some other ship or ships in company, who,
upon the signals of distress they had made, had taken
them up, and carried them off: other times I fancied
they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and, being
216 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

hurried away by the current that I had been formerly
in, were carried out into the great ocean, where there
was nothing but misery and perishing; and that,
perhaps, they might by this time think of starving,
and of being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in
the condition I was in, I could do no more than look
on upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them ;
which had still this good effect on my side, that it
gave me more and more cause to give thanks to God,
who had so happily and comfortably provided for me
in my desolate condition; and that of two ships’
companies, who were now cast away upon this part
of the world, not one life should be spared but mine.

CHAPTER XXi.

Ir was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture
out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I
might find something on board that might be useful
to me; but that did not altogether press me so much
as the possibility that there might be yet some living
creature on board whose life I might not only save,
but might, by saving that life, comfort my own to
the last degree; and this thought clung so to my
heart, that I could not be quiet night or day, but I
must venture out in my boat on board this wreck ;
and, committing the rest to God’s providence, I
THOUGHT LEADS TO ACTION. 217

thought the impression was so strong upon my mind
that it could not be resisted, that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting
to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened
back to my castle, and prepared everything for my
voyage. Remembering the hazard I had been in
before, it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe,
if I could, how the sets of the tide, or currents,
lay when the floods came in, that I might judge
whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not
expect to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidness of the currents. This thought was
no sooner in my head, than I cast my eye upon a
little hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both
ways, and from whence I had a clear view of the
currents, or sets of the tide, and which way I was te
guide myself in my return. Here I found that, as
the current of the ebb set out close by the south point
of the island, so the current of the flood set in close
by the shore of the north side; and that I had no-
thing to do but to keep to the north side of the island
in my return, and I should do well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the
next morning, to set out with the first of the tide;
and reposing myself for the night in my canoe, under
the great watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out.
I first made a little out to sea, full north, till I began
to fecl the benefit of the current, which set eastward,
218 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and which carried me at a great rate; and yet did
not so hurry me as the current on the south side had
done before, so as to take from ime all government
of the boat; but, having a strong steerage with my
paddle, I went at a great rate directly for the wreck,
and in less than two hours I came up toit. It was a
dismal sight to look at; the ship which, by its build-
ing, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks: all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to
pieces with the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck
in the rocks, had run on with great violence, her
main-mast and foremast were brought by the board,
that is to say, broken short off; but her bowsprit
was sound, and the head and béw appeared firm.
When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her,
who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried; and as
soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come to
me; I took him into the boat, but found him almost
dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him a cake of
my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf
that had been starving a fortnight in the snow. I
then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst
himself. After this, I went on board; but the first
sight I met with was two men drowned in the cock

room or forecastle of the ship, with their arms fast
about one another. I concluded, as is indeed pro-
bable, that, when the ship struck, it being in a storm,
the sea broke so high, and so continually over her,
that the men were not able to bear it, and were
A VISIT TO THE WRECK. 219

strangled with the constant rushing in of the water,
as much as if they had been under water. Besides
the dog, there was nothing left in the ship that had
life, nor any goods, that I could see, but what were
spoiled by the water. There were some casks of
liquor, whether wine or brandy I knew not, which
lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being
ebbed out, I could see; but they were too big to
meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believed
belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of
them into the boat, without examining what was in
them. Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and
the fore part broken off, I am persuaded I might
have made a good voyage; for, by what I found in
these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship had
a great deal of wealth on board; and, if I may guess
from the course she steered, she must have been
bound for Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in
the south part of America, beyond the Brazils, to the
Havanna, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so, perhaps, to
Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her,
but of no use at that time to any body; and what
became of her crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of
liquor, of about twenty gallons, which I got into my
boat with much difficulty. There were several mus-
kets in the cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about
four pounds of powder in it; as for the muskets, I
had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the
powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs, which
220 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I wanted extremely; as also, two little brass kettles,
a copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron; and
with this cargo and the dog I came away, the tide
beginning to make home again; and the same even-
ing, about an hour within night, I reached the island
again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I re-
posed that night in the boat; and in the morning I
resolved to harbour what I had got into my new
eave, and not carry it home to my castle. After re-
freshing myself, I got all my cargo on shore, and
began to examine the particulars. The cask of
liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but not such as we
had at the Brazils, and, in a word, not at all good;
but when I came to open the chests, I found several
things of great use to me; for example, I found in
one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind,
and filled with cordial waters, fine and very good;
the bottles held about three pints each, and were
tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top
that the salt water had not hurt them, and two more
of the same, which the water had spoiled. I found
some very good shirts, which were very welcome to
me; and about a dozen and a half of white linen
handkerchiefs and coloured neckcloths; the former
were also very welcome, being exceeding refreshing
to wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I
came to the till in the chest, I found there three
great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven
hundred pieces in all; and in one of them, wrapped
SPOILS FROM THE WRECK. 221

up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some small
bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all
weigh near a pound. In the other chest were some
clothes, but of little value; but, by the circumstances,
it must have belonged to the gunner’s mate, though
there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine
glazed powder, in three small flasks, kept, I suppose,
for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion. Upon
the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was
of any use to me; for, as to the money, I had no
manner of occasion for it; it was to me as the dirt
under my feet; and I would have given it all for
three or four pairs of English shoes and stockings,
which were things I greatly wanted, but had none
on my feet for many years. I had, indeed, got two
pairs of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the
two drowned men whom I saw in the wreck, and I
found two pair more in one of the chests, which were
very welcome to me; but they were not like our
English shoes, neither for ease nor service, being
rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in
this seaman’s chest about fifty pieces ‘of eight in rials,
but no gold. I suppose this belonged to a poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to some
officer. Well, however, I lugged this money home
to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that be-
fore which I brought from our own ship; but it was
a great pity, as I said, that the other part of this
ship had not come to my share; for I am satisfied I
might have loaded my canoe several times over with
222 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

money; and, thought I, if ever I escape to England,
it might lie here safe enough till I may come again
and fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and
secured them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or
paddled her along the shore to her old harbour,
where I laid her up, and made the best of my way
to my old habitation, where I found everything safe
and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after
my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs ;
and, for a while, I lived easy enough, only that I
was more vigilant than I used to be, looked out
oftener, and did not go abroad so much; and if at
any time I did stir with any freedom, it was always
to the east part of the island, where I was pretty
well satisfied the savages never came, and where I
could go without so many precautions, and such a
load of arms and ammunition as I always carried
with me if I went the other way. I lived in this
condition near two years more; but my head was all
these two years filled with projects and designs, how,
if it were possible, I might get away from this
island; for sometimes I was for making another
voyage to the wreck, though my reason told me
that there was nothing left there worth the hazard
of my voyage: sometimes for a ramble one way,
sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I
had had the boat that I went from Sallee ‘in, I
should have ventured to sea, bound anywhere, I
knew not whither. I have been, in all my cir.
AN EXTRAORDINARY DREAM. 223

cumstances, 2 memento to those who are touched
with the general plague of mankind, whence, from
aught I know, one half of their miseries flow. I
mean that of not being satisfied with the station
wherein God hath placed them.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid
up and secured under water as usual, and my con-
dition restored to what it was before. I had more
wealth indeed than I had before; but was not at all
the richer, for I had no more use for it than the In-
dians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

One night I dreamed that, as I was going out in
the morning, as usual, from my castle, I saw upon
the shore two canoes and eleven savages coming to
land, and that they brought with them another savage
whom they were going to kill, in order to eat him;
when, on a-sudden, the savage that they were going
to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and I
thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my
little thick grove before my fortification, to hide him-
self; and that I, seeing him alone, and not perceiv-
ing that the others sought him that way, showed my-
self to him, and, smiling upon him, encouraged him:
that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray to ma
to assist him; upon which I showed him my ladder,
made him go up, and carried him into my cave, and
he became my servant; and that, as soon as I had
got this man, I said to myself, ncw I may certainly
venture to the mainland; for this fellow will serve
224 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and
whither to go for provisions, and whither not to go
for fear of being devoured; what places to venture
into, and what to shun. I waked with this thought;
and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy
at the prospect of my escape in my dream, that the

_ disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself,
and finding that it was no more than a dream, were
equally extravagant the other way, and threw me
into a very great dejection of spirits.

With this dream in my mind, I set myself upon
the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often,
that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a
year and a half that I waited, and for great part of
that time went out to the west end, and to the south-
west corner of the island, almost every day, to look
for canoes, but none appeared. This was very dis-
couraging, and began to trouble me much; though I
cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done
some time before) wear off the edge of my desire to
the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed,
the more eager I was for it. In a word, I was not
at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages,
and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager
to be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to
manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had
them, so as to make them entirely slaves to me, to
do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent
their being able at any time to do me any hurt. It
was a great while that I pleased myself with this
WAITING AND WATCHING. 225

affair; but nothing still presented. All my fancies
and schemes came to nothing, for no savages came
near me for a great while.

CHAPTER XXII.

Asout a year and a half after I entertained these
notions (and, by long musing, had, as it were, re-
solved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion
to put them into execution), I was surprised one
morning early with seeing no less than five canoes
all on shore together, on my side the island, and the
people who belonged to them all landed, and out of
my sight. The number of them broke all my mea-
sures; for, seeing so many, and knowing that they
always came four, or six, or sometimes more, in a
boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to
take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men
single-handed; so lay still in my castle, perplexed
and discomforted. However, I put myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly
provided, and was just ready for action, if anything
had presented. Having waited a good while, listen-
ing to hear if they made any noise, at length, being
very impatient, I set my guns at the foot of my
ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by
my two stages, as usual; standing so, however, that
my head did not appear above the hill, so that they
226 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

could not perceive me by any means. Here I ob-
served, by the help of my perspective glass, that
they were no less than thirty in number; that they
had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed.
How they had cooked it I knew not, or what it was;
but they were all dancing, in I know not how many
barbarous gestures and figures, their own way, round
the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived,
by my perspective, two miserable wretches dragged
from the boats, where it seems they were laid by, and
were now brought out for the slaughter. I perceived
one of them immediately fall, being knocked down,
I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that
was their wry, and two or three others were at work
immediately, cutting him open for their cookery,
while the other victim was left standing by himself,
till they should be ready for him. In that very
moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at
liberty, and unbound, nature inspired him with hopes
of life, and he started away from them, and ran with
incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards
me, I mean towards that part of the coast where my
habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, I must
acknowledge, when I perceived him run my way,
and especially when, as I thought, I saw him pur-
sued by the whole body. And now I expected that
part of my dream was coming to pass, and he would
certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not
depend, by any means, upon my dream for the rest
A RACE FOR LIFE. 227

of it, namely, that the other savages would not pur-
sue him thither, and find him there. However, I
kept my station, and my spirits began to recover,
when I found that there was not above three men
that followed him; and still more was I encouraged
when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly
in running, and gained ground of them; so that, if
he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he
would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle the creek,
which I mentioned often in the first part of my story,
where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this
I saw plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the
poor wretch would be taken there; but when the
savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it,
though the tide was then up, but plunging in, swam
through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed,
and ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness.
When the three persons came to the creek, I found
that two of them could swim, but the third could not,
and that, standing on the other side, he looked at the
others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly
back again; which, as it happened, was very well for
him in the end. I observed that the two who swam
were yet more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came
now very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irre-
sistibly, that now was the time to get me a servant,
and perhaps a companion or assistant, and that J was
called plainly by Providence to save this poor crea-

15
228 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

ture’s life. I immediately ran down the ladders with
all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for they
were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed
above, and getting up again, with the same haste, to
the top of the hill, I crossed toward the sea, and hav-
ing a very short cut, and all down hill, placed myself
in the way between the pursuers and the pursued,
hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back,
was at first, perhaps, as much frightened at me, as at
them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come
back, and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced to-
wards the two that followed; then rushing at once
upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock
of my piece. I was loath to fire, because I would
not have the rest hear, though, at that distance, it
would not have been easily heard, and being out of
sight of the smoke too, they would not have easily
known what to make of it. Having knocked this
fellow down, the other who pursued him stopped, as
if he had been frightened, and I advanced apace to-
wards him; but as I came nearer, I perceived pre-
sently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to
shoot at me; so I was then necessitated to shoot at
him first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot.
The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though
he saw both his enemies fallen and killed, as he
thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and
noise of my piece that he stood stock-still, and nei-
ther came forward nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on.
A FRIENDLY RECEPTION. 229

[ hallooed again to him, and made signs to come for-
ward, which he easily understood, and came a little
way; then stopped again, and then a little farther, .
and stopped again; and I could then perceive that
he stood trembling, as if he had been taken prisoner,
and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies
were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and
gave him all the signs of encouragement that I could
think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling
down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknow-
ledgment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and
looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still
nearer. At length he came close to me, and then he
kneeled down again, kissed the ground, and laid his
head upon the ground, and, taking me by the foot,
set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in
token of swearing to be my slave for ever. I took
him up, and made much of him, and encouraged him
all I could. But there was more work to do yet;
for I perceived the savage whom I knocked down
was not killed, but stunned with the blow, and began
to come to himself; so I pointed to him, and showed
him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this he
spoke some words to me, and though I could not
understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant tc
hear, for they were the first sound of a man’s voice I
had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-five
years. But there was no time for such reflections
now. The savage who was knocked down recovered
himeelf so far as to sit up upon the ground, and J
230 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

perceived that my savage began to be afraid; but
when I saw that, I presented my other piece at
the man, as if I would shoot him. Upon this, my
savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to me
to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt
by my side, which I did. He no sooner had it but
he runs to his enemy, and, at one blow, cut off his
head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany could
have done it sooner or better, which I thought very
strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never
saw a sword in his life before, except their own
wooden swords. However, it seems, as I learned
afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp,
so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they will
cut off heads even with them, ay, and arms, and that
at one blow too. When he had done this, he comes
laughing to me, in sign of triumph, and brought me
the sword again, and with abundance of gestures
which I did not understand, laid it down with the
head of the savage that he had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most was to know how
I killed the other Indian so far off. So pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; so
I bade him go, as well as I could. When he came
to him he stood like one amazed, looking at him,
turning him first on one side, then on the other,
looked at the wound the bullet had made, which, it
seems, was just in his breast, where it had made a
hole, and no great quantity of blood had followed ;
but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead.
A HASTY BURIAL. 23)

He took up his bow and arrows and came back. So
I turned to go away, and beckoned him to follow me,
making signs to him that more might come after
them. Upon this he made signs to me that he should
bury them with sand, that they might not be seen
by the rest, if they followed, and so I made signs to
him again to do so. He fell to work, and in an in-
stant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his
hands, big enough to bury the first in, and then
dragged him into it, and covered him, and did so by
the other also. I believe he had buried them both
in a quarter of an hour. Then calling him away, I
carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my
cave on the farther part of the island, so that I did
not let my dream come to pass in that part, namely,
that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I
gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a
draught of water, which I found he was indeed in
great distress for, by his running; and having re-
freshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie
down to sleep, showing him a place where I had laid
some rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used
to sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature
lay down and went to sleep.

He was a comely handsome fellow, perfectly well
made, with straight strong limbs, not too large, tall,
and well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-six
years of age. Je had a very good countenance, not
a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have some-
thing very manly in his face; and yet he had all the
232 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

sweetness and softness of an European in his coun-
tenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair
was long and black, not curled like wool—his fore-
head very high and large; and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his
skin was not quite black, but very tawny, and yet
not of an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Bra-
zilians and Virginians, and other natives of America
are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive colour, that
had in it something very agreeable, though not very
easy to describe. His face was round and plump,
his nose small, not flat like negroes; a very good
mouth, thin lips, and his fine teeth well set, and as
white as ivory.

After he had slumbered rather than slept, about
half an hour, he awoke again, and came out of the
cave to me, for J had been milking my goats, which
I had in the enclosure close by. When he espied me,
he came running to me, laying himself down again
upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition, making a great many
antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head
flat upon the ground, close to my foot, and sets my
other foot upon his head, as he had done before, and,
after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, ser-
vitude, and submission imaginable, to let me know
how he would serve me so long as he lived. I under-
stood him in many things, and let him know I was
very well pleased with him. Ina little time I began
to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me; and
NAMING THE STRANGER. 233

first, L let him know his name should be Fripay,
which was the day I saved his life: I called him so
for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him
to say Master, and then let him know that was to be
myname. I likewise taught him to say yes and no,
and to know the meaning of them. I gave him some
milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it, and gave him a
cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly com-
plied with, and made signs that it was very good for
him. I kept there with him all that night; but as
soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with
me, and let him know I would give him some clothes,
at which he seemed very glad, for he was stark
naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place,
and showed me the marks that he had made to find
them again, making signs to me that we should dig
them up again, and eat them. At this I appeared
very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it—made as
if I would vomit at the thoughts of it—and beckoned
with my hands to him to come away; which he did
immediately, with great submission. I then led him
up to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were
gone; and pulling out my glass, I looked and saw
plainly the place where they had been, but no ap-
pearance of them or their canoes, so that it was plain
they were gone, and had left their two comrades be-
hind them, without any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery; but
234 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

having now more courage, and, consequently, more
curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving
him the sword in his hand, with the bow and arrows
at his back, which I found he could use very dexter-
ously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two
for myself; and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been; for I had a mind now to
get some fuller intelligence of them. When I came
to the place, my very blood ran chill in my veins,
and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the
spectacle; indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least it
was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it.
The place was covered with human bones, the ground
dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh lying
here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched;
and, in short, all the tokens of the triumphant feast
they had been making there, after a victory over
their enemies. I saw three skulls, five hands, and
the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abun-
dance of the other parts of the bodies; and Friday,
by his signs, made me understand that they brought
over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of them
were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was
the fourth: that there had “been a great battle be-
tween them and their next king, whose subjects, it
seems, he had been one of, and that they had taken
a great number of prisoners; all which were carried
to several places by those who had taken them in the
fight, in order to feast upon them, as was done here
by these wretches, upon those they brought hither.
CLOTHES FOR FRIDAY. 235

I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones,
flesh, and whatever remained, and lay them together
in a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn
them all to ashes. I found Friday had still a han-
kering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still
acannibal in his nature; but I discovered so much
abhorrence at the very thoughts of it, and at the
least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it:
for I had, by some means, let him know, that I
would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our
eastle; and there I fell to work for my man Friday;
and, first of all, I gave him a pair of linen drawers,
which I had out of the poor gunner’s chest I men-
tioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with
a little alteration, fitted him very well; and then I
made him a jerkin of goats’ skin, as well as my skill
would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good
tailor); and I gave him a cap, which I had made of
hares’ skin, very convenient and fashionable enough:
and thus he was clothed for the present tolerably
well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself
almost as well clothed as his master. It is true he
went awkwardly in these clothes at first; wearing
the drawers was very awkward to him, and the
sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoulders, and
the inside of his arms; but a little easing them where
he complained they hurt him, and using himself to
them, he took to them at length very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with
236 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

him, I began to consider where I should lodge him;
and that I might do well for him, and yet be per-
fectly easy myself, I made a little tent for him in
the vacant place between my two fortifications, in
the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first.
As there was a door, or entrance there into my cave,
I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to it
of boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within
the entrance; and causing the door to open in the
inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
ladders too; so that Friday could noway come at me
in the inside of my innermost wall, without making
so much noise in getting over, that it must needs
waken me; for my first wall had now a complete
roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and
leaning up to the side of the hill; which was again
laid across with smaller sticks, instead of laths, and
then thatched over a great thickness with the rice
straw, which was strong like reeds: and, at the hole,
or place, which was left to go in or out by the ladder,
I had placed a kind of trap-door, which, if it had
been attempted on the outside, would not have
opened at all, but would have fallen down, and made
a great noise. As to weapons, I took them all into
my side every night. But I needed none of all this
precaution; for never man had amore faithful, loving,
sincere servant, than Friday was to me; without pas-
sions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and
engaged; his very affections were tied to me, like
those of a child to a father: and I daresay he would
TEACHING THE YOUNG IDEA. 237

have sacrificed his life for the saving mine, upon any
occasion whatsoever; the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me
that I needed to use no precautions, as to my safety,
on his account.

I was greatly delighted with him, and made it my
business to teach him everything that was proper to
make him useful, handy, and helpful; but especially
to make him speak, and understand, me when I spoke:
and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and
particularly, was so merry, so constantly diligent,
and so pleased when he could but understand me, or
make me understand him, that it was very pleasant
to me to talk to him. Now my life began to be so
easy, that I began to say to myself, that could I but
have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I
never was to remove from the place where I lived.

CHAPTER XXIII.

ArrerR | had been two or three days returned to my
castle, I thought that, in order to bring Friday off
from his horrid way-of feeding, and from the relish
of a cannibal’s stomach, I ought to let him taste
other flesh. So I took him out with me one morning
to the woods: I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid
out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it;
but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in
238 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. I
eatched hold of Friday;—Hold, says I, stand still;
and made signs to him not to stir. Immediately 1
presented my piece, shot, and killed one of the kids.
The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know,
nor could imagine, how it was done, was sensibly
surprised, trembled, and shook, and looked so
amazed, that I thought he would have sunk down.
Ile did not see the kid I shot at, or perceived I had
killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat, to feel whether
he was not wounded; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him: for he came and
kneeled down to me, and embracing my knees, said
a great many things I did not understand; but I
could easily see the meaning was, to pray me not to
kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would
do him no harm; and taking him up by the hand,
laughed at him, and pointing tothe kid which I had
killed, beckoned to him to run and fetch it, which
he did; and while he was wondering and looking to
see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun
again. By-and-by I saw a great fowl, like a hawk,
sitting upon a tree within shot; ‘so, to let Friday un-
derstand a little what I could do, I called him to me
again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a
parrot, though J thought it had been a hawk; I say,
pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to the
ground under the parrot, to let him see I would
FRIDAY’S ASTONISHMENT. 239

make it fall, I made him understand that I would
shoot and kill that bird; accordingly, I fired, and
bade him look, and immediately he saw the parrot
fall. He stood like one frightened again, notwith-
standing all I had said to him; and I found he was
the more amazed, because he did not see me put any-
thing into the gun, but thought that there must be
some wonderful fund of death and destruction in that
thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or anything near
or far off; and the astonishment this created in him
was such as could not wear off for a long time; and
I believe, if I would have let him, he would have
worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself,
he would not so much as touch it for several days
after; but he would speak to it, and talk to it, as if
it had answered him, when he was by himself; which,
as I afterwards learned of him, was to desire it not
to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch
the bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some
time; for the parrot not being quite dead, had flut-
tered away a good distance from the place where she
fell: however, he found her, took her up, and brought
her to me; and, as I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge
the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that
I might be ready for any other mark that might
present ; but nothing more offered at that time: so
I brought home the kid, and the same evening I
took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could;
240 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or
stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good
broth. After I had begun to eat some, I gave some
to my man, who seemed very glad of it, and liked
it very well; but that which was strangest to him
was to see me eat salt with it. He made a sign to
me that the salt was not good to eat; and putting a
little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it,
and would spit and sputter at it, washing his mouth
with fresh water after it. On the other hand, I took
some meat into my mouth without salt, and I pre-
tended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as fast as
he had done at the salt; but it would not do: he
would never care for salt with his meat, or in his
broth; at least not for a great while, and then but
a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth,
I was resolved to feast him the next day with roast-
ing a piece of the kid. This I did, by hanging it
before the fire on a string, as I had seen many
people do in England, setting two poles up, one on
each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross stick, letting the meat
turn continually. This Friday admired very much;
but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so many
ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not
but understand him; and at last he told me, as well
as he could, he would never eat man’s flesh any more,
which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some
NEEDFUL LESSONS. 24]

corn out, and sifting it in the manner | used to do,
as I observed before; and he soon understood how to
do it as well as I, especially after he had seen what
the meaning of it was, and that it was to make bread
of it; for after that, I let him see me make my bread,
and bake it too; and, in a little time, Friday was able
to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it my-
self.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths
to feed instead of one, I must provide more ground
for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn
than I used to do. SoI marked out a larger piece of
land, and began the fence in the same manner as
before, in which Friday worked not only very will-
ingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully; and
I told him what it was for; that it was for corn to
make more bread, because he was now with me, and
that I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me
know that he thought I had much more labour upon
me on his account than I had for myself; and that
he would work the harder for me if I would tell him
what to do.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering
inclination to his own country again; and having
taught him English so well that he could answer me
almost any question, I asked him whether the nation
that he belonged to never conquered in battle? At
which he smiled, and said, “Yes, yés, we always
fight the better :” that is, he meant, always get the
242 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

better in fight; and so we began the following dis-
course :—

Master.—You always fight the better; how came
you to be taken prisoner then, Friday ?

Friday.—My nation beat much, for all that.

Master.—How beat ? if your nation beat them,
how came you to be taken?

Friday.—They more many than my nation in the
place where me was; they take one, two, three, and
me; my nation over beat them in the yonder place,
where me no was: there my nation take one, two,
great thousand.

Master.—But why did not your side recover you
from the hands of your enemies then?

Friday.—They run one, two, three, and me, and
make go in the canoe; my nation have no canoe
that time.

Master.—Well, Friday, and what does your nation
do with the men they take ? Do they carry them
away and eat them, as these did?

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too; eatall up.

Master.—Where do they carry them ?

Friday.—Go to other place, where they think.

Master.—Do they come hither ?

Friday.—Yes, yes, they come hither: come other
else place.

Master.—Have you been here with. them ?

Friday.—Yes, I have been here: (points to the
N.W. side of the island, which, it seems, was their
side.)
Goren,

(HN Tee

ees
pee

na,
f

b

F CALCULATING.

FRIDAY’S MODE O



Page 243.
FRIDAY’S INFORMATION. 243

By this I understood that my man Friday had
formerly been among the savages who used to come
on shore on the farther part of the island, on the same
man-eating occasions he was now brought for; and
some time after, when I took the courage to carry
him to that side, being the same I formerly mentioned,
he presently knew the place, and told me he was
there once when they eat up twenty men, two women,
and one child: he could not tell twenty in English,
but he numbered them by laying so many stones in
a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.

I have told this passage because it introduces what
follows; that after I had this discourse with him, I
asked him how far it was from our island to the
shore, and whether the canoes were not often lost?
He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost;
but that, after a little way out to sea, there was a
current and wind, always one way in the morning,
the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be
no more than the sets of the tide, as going out, or
coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occa-
sioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty
river Oronooko, in the mouth or gulf of which river
as I found afterwards, our island lay; and that this
land which I perceived to the W. and N.W. was the
great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions
about the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast,
and what nations were near: he told meall he knew,

with the greatest openness imaginable. I asked him
16
244 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

the names of the several nations of his sort of people,
but could get no other name than Caribs ; from
whence I easily understood that these were the Carib-
bees, which our maps place on the part of America
which reaches from the mouth of the river Oronooko
to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha. He told me
that up a great way beyond the moon, that was, be-
yond the setting of the moon, which must be west
from their country, there dwelt white bearded men,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I
mentioned before; and that “they had killed much
mans,” that was his word: by all which I understood
he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America
have been spread over the whole country, and were
remembered by all the nations, from father to son.

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from
this island, and get among those white men: he told
me, “ Yes, yes; you may go in two canoe.” I could
not understand what he meant, or make him describe
to me what he meant by two canoe; till at last, with
great difficulty, I found he meant it must be in a large
boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday’s
discourse began to relish with me very well; and
from this time I entertained some hopes, that one
time or other, I might find an opportunity to make
my escape from this place, and that this poor savage
might be a means to help me.

During the long time that Friday had now been
with me, and that he began to speak to me and un-
derstand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation
RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION. 245

of religious knowledge in his mind: particularly 1
asked him one time, who made him? The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I
had asked him who was his father; but I took it up
by another handle, and asked him who made the gea,
the ground we walked on, and the hills and woods ?
He told me it was one Benamuckee, that lived be-
yond all; he could describe nothing of this great per-
son, but that he was very old, much older, he said,
than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.
I asked him then, if this old person had made all
things, why did not all things worship him? He
looked very grave, and with a perfect look of inno-
cence, said, ‘ All things say O to him.’”’ I asked
him if the people who die in this country went away
anywhere? He said, yes; they all went to Bena-
muckee: then I asked him, whether these they eat
up went thither too? He said, yes.

From these things I began to instruct him in the
knowledge of the true God: I told him that the -
great Maker of all things lived up there, pointing up
towards heaven; that he governed the world by the
same power and providence by which he made it;
that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for
us, give everything to us, take everything from us;
and thus by degrees I opened his eyes. He listened
with great attention, and received with pleasure the
notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem us, and
of the manner of making our prayers to God, and
his being able to hear us, even in heaven. He told
246 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me one day, that if our God could hear us up beyond
the sun, he must needs be a greater God than their
Benamuckec.

I prayed to God that he would enable me to in-
atruct savingly this poor savage ; assisting, by his
Spirit, the heart of the poor ignorant creature, to re-
ceive the light of the knowledge of God in Christ,
reconciling him to himself, and would guide me to
speak so to him from the Word of God, as his con-
science might be convinced, his eyes opened, and his
soul saved. I entered into a long discourse with him
upon the subject of the redemption of man by the
Saviour of the world, and of the doctrine of the gos-
pel preached from heaven, namely, of repentance to-
wards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I
then explained to him, as well as I could, why our
blessed Redeemer took not on him the nature of
angels, but the seed of Abraham; and how, for that
reason, the fallen angels had no share in the redemp-
tion; that he came only to the lost sheep of the house
of Israel, and the like.

I had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge
in all the methods I took for this poor creature’s
instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all
that act upon the same principle will find, that in
laying things open to him, I really informed and in-
structed myself in many things, that either I did not
know, or had not fully considered before, but which
occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into
them, for the information of this poor savage; and J
REASONS FOR THANKFULNESS. 247

had more affection in my inquiry after things upon
this occasion than ever I felt before: so that whe-
ther this poor wild wretch was the better for me or
no, I had great reason to be thankful that ever he
came to me; my grief sat lighter upon me; my
habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure ;
and when I reflected, that in this solitary life which
I had been confined to, I had not only been moved to
look up to Heaven myself, and to seek to the hand
that brought me here, but was now to be made an
instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and
for aught I knew, the soul of a poor savage, and to
bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of
the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ
Jesus, in whom is life eternal ; I say, when I reflected
upon all these things, a secret joy ran through every
part of my soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever I
was brought to this place, which I had so often thought
the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly
have befallen me.

I continued in this thankful frame all the re-
mainder of my time; and the conversation which
employed the hours between Friday and me was
such as made the three years which we lived there
together perfectly and completely happy, if any such
thing as complete happiness can be formed in a sub-
lunary state. This savage was now a good Christian,
a much better than I; though I have reason to hope,
and bless God for it, that we were equally penitent,
and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
248 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Word of God to read, and no farther off from his
Spirit to instruct, than if we had been in England.
I always applied myself, in reading the Scriptures,
to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of
what I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries
and questionings, made me, as I said before, a much
better scholar in the Scripture knowledge than I
should ever have been by my own mere private
reading. But I must go on with the historical part
of things, and take every part in its order.

CHAPTER XXIV.

Arter Friday and I became more intimately ac-
quainted, and that he could understand almost all I
said to him, and speak pretty fluently, though in
broken English, to me, I acquainted him with my
own history, or at least so much of it as related to
my coming to this place; how I had lived here, and
how long. I let him into the mystery, for such it
was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught
him how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he
was wonderfully delighted with; and I made him a
belt, with a frog hanging to it, such as in England
we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a
hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only
as good a weapon, in some cases, but much more
useful upon other occasions.
WHAT DID IT MEAN 3? 249

I described to him the country of Europe, parti-
cularly England, which I came from; how we lived,
how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one
another, and how we traded in ships to all parts of
the world. I gave him an account of the wreck
which I had been on board of, and showed him, as >
near as I could, the place where she lay; but she
was all beaten in pieces before and gone. I showed
him the ruins of our boat, which we lost when we
escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole
strength then; but was now fallen almost all to
pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing
a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what
it was he studied upon? At last, says he, “ Me see
such boat like come to place at my nation.” JI did
not understand him a good while; but at last, when
I had examined farther into it, I understood, by him,
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore
upon the country where he lived; that is, as he ex-
plained it, was driven thither by stress of weather.
I presently imagined that some European ship must
have been cast away upon their coast, and the boat
might get loose and drive ashore; but was so dull,
that I never once thought of men making their escape
from a wreck thither, much less whence they might
come: so I only inquired after a description of the
boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough; but
brought me better to understand him when he added,
with some warmth, “ We save the white mans from
250 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

drown.’ Then I presently asked him if there were
any white mans, as he called them, in the boat?
“ Yes,” he said, “the boat full of white mans.” 1
asked him how many? He told upon his fingers
seventeen. I asked him then, what became of them ?
Ile told me, “ They live, they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head; for I pre-
sently imagined, that these might be the men be-
longing to the ship that was cast away in the sight
of my island, as I now called it; and who, after the
ship was struck on the rock, and they saw her in-
evitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat,
and were landed upon that wild shore among the
savages. Upon this, I inquired of him more criti-
cally what was become of them: he assured me they
lived still there; that they had been there about four
years; that the savages let them alone, and gave
them victuals to live on. I asked him how it came
to pass they did not kill them, and eat them? He
said, ‘‘ No, they make brother with them ;’’ that is,
as I understood him, a truce; and then he added,
‘They no eat mans, but when make the war fight;”’
that is to say, they never eat any men but such as
come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that,
being upon the top of the hill, at the east side of the
island, from whence, as I have said, I had, in a clear
day, discovered the main, or continent, of America,
Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
earnestly towards the mainland, and, in a kind of
A PLEASANT PROSPECT. 251

surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out
to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked
what was the matter? “QO joy!” says he; “O glad!
there see my country, there my nation!” I observed
an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his
face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance dis-
covered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to
be in his own country again. This observation of
mine put a great many thoughts into me, which made
me at first not so easy about my new man Friday as
[ was before; and I made no doubt but, that if Friday
could get back to his own nation again, he would not
only forget all his religion, but all his obligation to
me, and would be forward enough to give his coun-
trymen an account of me, and come back perhaps
with an hundred or two of them, and make a feast
upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used
to be with those of his enemies, when they were
taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest crea-
ture very much, for which I was very sorry after-
wards. However, as my jealousy increased, and
held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect,
and not so familiar and kind to him as before: in
which I was ceriainly in the wrong too; the honest,
grateful creature, having no thought about it, but
what consisted with the best principles, both as a
religious Christian, and as a grateful friend; as
appeared afterwards, to my full satisfaction.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather
being hazy at sea, so that we could not see the con-
252 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

tinent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday, do not
you wish yourself in your own country, your own
nation ?”—‘‘ Yes,” he said, “ I be much O glad to be
at my own nation.””—‘ What would you do there?”
said I; ‘would you turn wild again, eat men’s flesh
again, and be a savage, as you were before?’ He
looked full of concern, and shaking his head, said,
‘No, no; Friday tell them to live good, tell them
to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk ; no eat man again.”’—" Why, then,” said I to
him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at
that, and then said, ‘‘No, no; they no kill me, they
willing love learn.”’ He meant by this, they would
be willing to learn. He added, they learned much
of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I
asked him if he would go back tothem? He smiled
at that, and told me that he could not swim so far.
I told him I would make a canoe for him. He told
me he would go, if I would go withhim. “TI go?”
says 1; ‘why, they will eat me, if I come there.”
“No, no,” says he, ‘‘me make they no eat you; me
make they much love you.” He meant, he would
tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved
his life, and so he would make them love me. Then
he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were
to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called
them, who came on shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess I had a mind to venture
over, and see if I could possibly join with those
bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards
AN EXPERT BOATMAN. 253

and Portuguese: not doubting, but if I could, we
might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together,
better than I could from an island forty miles off the
shore, and, alone, without help. So, after some days,
I took Friday to work again, by way of discourse:
and told him I would give him a boat to go back to
his own nation; and accordingly, I carried him to
my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island,
and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it
sunk in water), I brought it out, showed it him, and
we both went into it. I found he was a most dex-
terous fellow at managing it, and would make it go
almost as swift again as I could: so when he was in,
I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to
your nation?’ He looked very dull at my saying
so; which, it seems, was because he thought the
boat too small to go so far. I then told him I had a
bigger; so the next day I went to the place where
the first boat lay which I had made, but which I
could not get into the water. He said that was big
enough; but, then, as I had taken no care of it, and
it had lain two or three-and-twenty years there, the
sun had split and dried it, that it was in a manner
rotten. Friday told me such a boat would do very
well, and would carry much enough vittle, drink,
bread; that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon
my design of going over with him to the continent,
that I told him we would go and make one as big a8
254 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

that, and he should go home in it. He answered not
one word, but looked very grave and sad. I asked
him what was the matter with him. He asked me
again, “ Why you angry mad with Friday? what me
done?’”’ I asked him what he meant; I told him I
was not angry with him at all. ‘No angry!’ says
he, repeating the words several times; ‘‘ why send
Friday home away to my nation?””—“ Why,” says
I, “ Friday, did not you say you wished you were
there?’—“ Yes, yes,” says he, “‘ wish we both there;
no wish Friday there, no master there.” In a word,
he would not think of going there without me. “I
go there, Friday!” says I; “ what shall I do there?”
He returned very quick upon me at this: “ You do
great deal much good,” says he; “you teach wild
mans be good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know
God, pray God, and live new life.”—“ Alas, Friday!’
’ says I, “thou knowest not what thou sayest; I am
but an ignorant man myself.”—“ Yes, yes,” says he,
“you teachee me good—you teachee them good.”
“No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me.
Leave me here to live by myself, as I did before.”
He looked confused again at that word; and running
to one of the hatchets which he used to wear, he takes
it up hastily, and gives it tome. ‘“ What must I do
with this?” says I to him. “ You take kill Friday,”
says he. “What must I kill you for?” said I again.
He returns very quick, “‘ What you send Friday
away for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.”
This he spoke so earnestly that I saw tears stand in
FRIDAY’S AFFECTION FOR HIS MASTER. 255

his eyes; in a word, I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in
him, that I told him then, and often after, that I
would never send him away from me, if he was will-
ing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse, a
settled affection to me, and that nothing should part
him from me, soI found all the foundation of his
desire to go to his own country was laid in his ardent
affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing
them good—a thing which, as I had no notion of
myself, so I had not the least thought, or intention, or
desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong
inclination to my attempting an escape, as above,
founded on the supposition gathered from the dis-
course, namely, that there were seventeen bearded
men there; and therefore, without any more delay, I
went to work with Friday, to find out a great tree,
proper to fell and make a large periagua or canoe, to
undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in
the island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas
or canoes, but even of good large vessels; but the
main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the
water that we might launch it when it was made, to
avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last
Friday pitched upon a tree, for I found he knew
much better than I what kind of wood is fittest for
it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the
tree we cut down, except that it was very like the
tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua
256 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

wood, for it was much of the same colour and smell.
'riday was for burning the hollow or cavity of this
tree out, to make it for a boat, but I showed him how
to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed him
how to use, he did very handily, and in about a
month’s hard labour we finished it, and made it very
handsome—especially when, with our axes, which I
showed him how to handle, we cut and hewed the out-
side into the true shape of a boat. After this, how-
ever, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along,
as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers, into the
water; but when she was in, she would have carried
twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so
big, it amazed me to see with what dexterity, and
how swift, my man Friday would manage her, turn
her, and paddle her along; so I asked him if he
would, and if we might venture over inher. “ Yes,”
he said; “we venture over in her very well, though
great blow wind.” However, I had a farther design
that he knew nothing of, and that was to make a
mast and a sail, and to fit her with anchor and cable.
As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I
found near the place, and which there were great
plenty of in the island; and I set Friday to work to
cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape
and order it. But as to the sail, that was my parti-
cular care. I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces
of old sails, enough; but as I had them six-and-twenty
A BUNGLING SHIPWRIGHT. 257

years by me, and had not been very careful to pre-
serve them, not imagining that I should ever have this
kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they were
all rotten; and, indeed, most of them were so. How-
ever, I found two pieces which appeared pretty good,
and with these I went to work, and, with a great deal
of pains and awkward stitching you may be sure, for
want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered
ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-
of-mutton sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a
little short sprit at the top, such as usually our ships’
long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to
manage, as it was such a one I had to the boat in
which I made my escape from Barbary, as related in
the first part of my story.

T was near two months performing this last work,
namely, rigging and fitting my mast-sails; for I
finished them very complete, making a small stay
and sail, or fore-sail, to it, to assist, if we should turn
to windward; and, which was more than all, I fixed
a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. I was but
a bungling shipwright; yet, as I knew the usefulness
and even necessity of such a thing, I applied myself
with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it
to pass; though, considering the many dull contriv-
ances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me
almost as much labour as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to
teach as to what belonged to the navigation of my
boat; for though he knew very well how to paddle a
258 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

canoe, he knew nothing what belonged to a sail or a
rudder, and was the most amazed when he saw me
work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder,
and how the sail gibbed and filled, this way or that
way, as the course we sailed changed—I say, when
he saw this, he stood like one astonished and amazed.
However, with a little use, I made all these things
familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor, ex-
cept that, as to the compass, I could make him under-
stand very little of that. On the other hand, as there
was very little cloudy weather, and seldom or never
any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion
for a compass, seeing the stars were always to be
seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the
rainy seasons; and then nobody cared to stir abroad,
either by land or sea.

CHAPTER XXV.

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year
of my captivity in this place; though the three last
years that I had this creature with me ought rather
to be left out of the account, my habitation being
quite of another kind than in all the rest of the time.

After the rainy season, when the settled season
began to come in, the thought of my design to leave
the island returned, and I was preparing daily for the
voyage, and the first thing I did was to lay by a
ARRIVAL OF THE SAVAGES. 259

certain quantity of provisions, being the stores for our
voyage, and intended, in a week or a fortnight’s time,
to open the dock, and launch out our boat. I was
busy one morning upon something of this kind, when
I called to Friday, and bid him go to the sea-shore,
and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise, a thing
which we generally got once a week, for the sake of
the eggs as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
long gone when he came running back, and flew over
my outer wall or fence like one that felt not the
ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I
had time to speak to him, he cries out to me—‘‘O
master! QO master! O sorrow! O bad!” ‘ What's
the matter, Friday?” says I. ‘“O yonder there,”
says he, “one, two, three canoe; one, two, three.”
By this way of speaking, I concluded there were six;
but, on inquiry, I found it was but three. ‘“ Well,
Friday,” says I, “do not be frightened—we must
resolve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday?” “Me
shoot,’’ says he, “but there come many great num-
ber.” “No matter for that,” said I again; “ our
guns will fright them that we do not kill.” So I
asked him whether, if I resolved to defend him, he
would defend me, and stand by me, and do just as I
bid him. He said, ‘‘ Me die when you bid die, mas-
ter.” So I went and fetched a good dram of rum,
and gave him; for I had ‘been so good a husband of
my rum that I had a great deal left. When he drank
it, I made him take the two fowling-pieces which we

always carried, and loaded them with large swan-
17
260 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

shot, as big as small pistol-bullets; then I took four
muskets, and loaded them with two slugs and five
small bullets each, and my two pistols I loaded with
a brace of bullets each. I hung my great sword,
as usual, naked by my side, and gave Friday his
hatchet. When I had thus prepared myself, I took
my perspective glass, and went up to the side of the
hill, to see what I could discover; and I found quickly,
by my glass, that there were one-and-twenty savages,
three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their
whole business seemed to be the triumphant banquet
upon these three human bodies. I observed also
that they were landed, not where they had done when
Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek,
where the shore was low, and where a thick wood
came almost close down to the sea.

I gave Friday one pistol to stick in his girdle, and
three guns upon his shoulder; and I took one pistol
and the other three guns myself; and in this posture
we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in my
pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more pow-
der and bullets; and as to orders, I charged him to
keep close behind me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do
anything, till I bid him; and in the meantime, not to
speak a word. In this posture I fetched a compass
to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get over
the creek as to get into the wood, so that I might
come within shot of them before I should be discovered,
which I had seen, by my glass, it was easy to do.

With all possible weariness and silence, Friday
LYING IN AMBUSH 261

following close at my heels, I marched till I came
to the skirt of the wood, on the side which was next
to them, only that one corner of the wood lay between
me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and
showing him a great tree, which was just at the
corner of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and
bring me word if he could see there plainly what they
were doing. He did so, and came immediately back
to me, and told me they might be plainly viewed there;
that they were all about their fire, eating the flesh of
their prisoners, and that another lay bound upon the
sand, a little from them, which, he said, they would
kill next, and which fired all the very soul within
me. He told me it was not one of their nation, but
one of the bearded men he had told me of, that came
to their country in the boat. I was filled with horror
at the very naming the white bearded man; and
going to the tree, I saw plainly, by my glass, a white
man who lay upon the beach of the sea, with his
hands and his feet tied with flags, or things like
rushes, and that he was an European, and had clothes
on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond
it, about fifty yards nearer to them than the place
where I was, which, by going a little way about, I
saw I might come at undiscovered, and that then I
should be within half a shot of them. So I withheld
my passion, though I was indeed enraged to the
highest degree; and going back about twenty paces,
I got behind some bushes, which held all the way
262 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOF.

till I came to the other tree; and then came to a little
rising ground, which gave me a full view of them,
at the distance of about eighty yards.

I had now not a moment to lose, for nineteen of
the dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close
huddled together, and had just sent the other two to
butcher the poor Christian, and bring him, perhaps
limb by limb, to their fire; and they were stooping
down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned to
Friday—“ Now, Friday,” said I, “do as I bid thee.”
Friday said he would. “Then, Friday,” said I, “do
exactly as you see me do: fail in nothing.” So I
set down one of the muskets and the fowling-piece
upon the ground, and Friday did the like by his;
and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him to do the like; then, asking him
if he was ready, he said yes. ‘Then fire at them,”
said I; and the same moment I fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that
on the side that he shot he killed two of them, and
wounded three more; and on my side I killed one,
and wounded two. They were, you may be sure, in
a dreadful consternation; and all of them who were
not hurt jumped upon their feet, but did not imme-
diately know which way to run, or which way to
look, for they knew not from whence their destruction
came. Friday kept his eyes close upon me, that, as
I bid him, he might observe what I did; so, as soon
as the first shot was made, I threw down the piece,
and took up the fowling-piece, and Friday did the
A TERRIBLE FRIGHT. 263

like: he saw me cock and present, he did the same
again. ‘Are you ready, Friday?” saidI. “ Yes,”
says he. “Let fly then,” says I, and with that I
fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did
Friday ; and as our pieces were now loaden with what
I called swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we found
only two drop, but so many were wounded, that they
ran about yelling and screaming like mad creatures,
all bloody, and most of them miserably wounded,
whereof three more fell quickly after, though not
quite dead.

“Now, Friday,” says I, laying down the discharged
pieces, and taking up the musket which was yet
loaden, “ follow me;’’ which he did with a great deal
of courage: upon which I rushed out of the wood,
and showed myself, and Friday close at my foot. As
soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud
as I could, and bade Friday do so too; and running
as fast as I could, which, by the way, was not very
fast, being loaded with arms as I was, I made directly
towards the poor victim, who was, as I said, lying
upon the beach, or shore, between the place where
they sat and the sea. The two butchers, who were
just going to work with him, had left him at the sur-
prise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible fright to
the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and three
more of the rest made the same way. I turned to
Friday, and bade him step forwards, and fire at them ;
he understood me immediately, and running about
forty yards, to be nearer them, he shot at them, and
264 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I thought he had killed them all, for I saw them all
fall of a heap in the boat, though I saw two of them
up again quickly. However, he killed two of them,
and wounded the third, so that he lay down in the
bottom of the boat as if he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out
my knife, and cut the flags that bound the poor victim;
and loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and
asked him, in the Portuguese tongue, what he was.
He answered in Latin, Christianus ; but was so weak
and faint, that he could scarce stand or speak. I
took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him,
making signs that he should drink, which he did;
and I gave him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then
I asked him what countryman he was : and he said
Espagniole; and being a little recovered, let me
know, by all the signs he could possibly make, how
much he was in my debt for his deliverance.
“ Seigneur,” said I, with as much Spanish as I could
make up, “we will talk afterwards, but we must
fight now: if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you.” He took them
very thankfully ; and no sooner had he the arms in
his hands, but, as if they had put new vigour into
him, he flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had
cut two of them in pieces in an instant.

I kept my piece in my hand, still without firing,
being willing to keep my charge ready, because I had
given the Spaniard my pistol and sword ; so J called
to Friday, and bade him run up to the tree from
A FIERCE ENGAGEMENT. 265

whence we first fired, and fetch the arms which lay
there, that had been discharged, which he did with
great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, I
sat down myself to load all the rest again, and bade
them come to me when they wanted. While I was
loading these pieces, there happened a fierce engage-
ment between the Spaniard and one of the savages,
who made at him with one of their great wooden
swords, the same-like weapon that was to have killed
him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard,
who was as bold and brave as could be imagined,
though weak, had fought this Indian a good while,
and had cut him two great wounds on his head; but
the savage being a stout lusty fellow, closing with him,
had thrown him down, being faint, and was wring-
ing my sword out of his hand; when the Spaniard,
though undermost, wisely quitting the sword, drew
the pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through
the body, and killed him upon the spot, before I, who
was running to help him, could come near him.
Friday, being now left to his liberty, pursued the
flying wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his
hatchet; and with that he despatched those three,
who, as I said before, were wounded at first, and
fallen, and all the rest he could come up with: and
the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him one
of the fowling-pieces, with which he pursued two of
the savages, and wounded them both; but as he was
not able to run, they both got from him into the
wood, where Friday pursued them, and killed one of
266 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

them, but the other was too nimble for him; and
though he was wounded, yet had plunged himself
into the sca, and swam, with all his might, off to
those two who were left in the canoe; which three
in the canoe, with one wounded, that we knew not
whether he dicd or no, were all that escaped our
hands of one-and-twenty. The account of the whole
is as follows: 3 killed at our first shot from the tree;
2 killed at the next shot; 2 killed by Friday in the
boat; 2 killed by Friday of those at first wounded ;
1 killed by Friday in the wood; 3 killed by the
Spaniard; 4 killed, being found dropped here and
there of their wounds, or killed by Friday in his
chase of them; 4 escaped in the boat, whereof one
was wounded, if not dead.—Twenty-one in all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get
out of gun-shot; and though Friday made two or
three shots at them, I did not find that he hit any of
them. Friday would fain have had me take one of
their canoes and pursue them; and indeed I was very
anxious about their escape, lest, carrying the news
home to their people, they should come back, perhaps
with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour
us by mere multitude. So I consented to pursue them
by sea, and running to one of their canoes, I jumped
in and bade Friday follow me; but when I was in
the canoe, I was surprised to find another poor crea-
ture lie there bound hand and foot, as the Spaniard
was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear,
not knowing what was the matter: for he had not
DELIVERING A FATHER. 267

been able to look up over the side of the boat, he was
tied so hard neck and heels, and had been tied so
long, that he had really but little life in him.

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes
which they had bound him with, and would have
helped him up; but he could not stand or speak, but
groaned most piteously, believing, it seems, still, that
he was only unbound in order to be killed. When
Friday came to him I bade him speak to him, and
tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my
bottle, made him give the poor wretch a dram ; which,
with the news of his being delivered, revived him,
and he sat up in the boat. But when Friday came
to hear him speak, and to look in his face, it would
have moved any one to tears to have seen how Friday
kissed him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, hallooed,
jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung
his hands, beat his own face and head; and then
sung and jumped about again, like a distracted crea-
ture. It was a good while before I could make him
speak to me, or tell me what was the matter; but
when he came a little to himself, he told me that it
was his father. ,

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me
to see what ecstacy and filial affection had worked in
this poor savage at the sight of his father, and of his
being delivered from death.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe
with the other savages, who were now got almost out
of sight; and it was happy for us that we did not, for
268 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it blew so hard within two hours after, and before
they could be got a quarter of their way, and con-
tinued blowing so hard all night, and that from the
north-west, which was against them, that I could not
suppose their boat could live, or that they ever
reached their own coast.

But to return to Friday: he was so busy about his
father, that I could not find in my heart to take him
off for some time; but after I thought he could leave
him a little, I called him to me, and he came jump-
ing and laughing, and pleased to the highest extreme;
then I asked him if he had given his father any
bread. He shook his head, and said, ‘‘ None; ugly
dog eat all up self’ I then gave him a cake of
bread, out of a little pouch I carried on purpose. I.
also gave him a dram for himself, but he would not
taste it, but carried it to his father. I had in my
pocket two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave him
a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner
given his father these raisins, but I saw him come
out of the boat, and run away at such a rate that he
was out of sight, as it were, in an instant; for he
was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever I saw;
and though I called and hallooed out too, after him,
it was all one, away he went; and in a quarter of an
hour I saw him come back again, though not so fast
as he went; and as he came nearer, I found his pace
was slacker, because he had something in his hand.
‘When he came up to me, I found he had been quite
home for an earthen jug, or pot, to bring his father
THE RESCUED SPANIARD. 269

some fresh water, and that he had got two more
cakes, or loaves of bread; the bread he gave me, but
the water he carried to his father. However, as I was
very thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. The water
revived his father more than all the rum or spirits I
had given him, for he was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drank, I called to him to
know if there was any water left; he said, yes; and
I bade him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in
as much want of it as his father; and I sent one of
the cakes that Friday brought to the Spaniard too,
who was indeed very weak, and was reposing him-
self upon a green place, under the shade of a tree.
When I saw that, upon Friday’s coming to him with
the water, he sat up and drank, and took the bread,
and began to eat, I went to him, and gave hima
handful of raisins; he looked up in my face with all
the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could
appear in any countenance; but he was so weak, not-
withstanding he had so exerted himself in the fight,
that he could not stand up upon his feet.

I spoke to him to let Friday help him up, if he
could, and lead him to the boat, and then he should
carry him to our dwelling, where I would take care
of him; but Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took the
Spaniard quite up upon his back, and carried him
away to the boat, and set. him down softly upon the
side or gunnel of the canoe, with his feet in the inside
of it, and then, lifting him quite in, he set him close
to his father; and presently stepping out again,
270 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

launched the boat off, and paddled it along the shore
faster than I could walk, though the wind blew
pretty hard too. So he brought them safe into our
creek, and leaving them in the boat, ran away to —
fetch the other canoe. As he passed me, I spoke to
him, and asked him whither he went. He told me,
“Go fetch more boat.” So away he went like the
wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and
he had the other canoe in the creek almost as soon
as I got to it by land: so he wafted me over, and
then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them able to
walk, so that poor Friday knew not what to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thought,
and calling to Friday to bid them sit down on the
bank while he came to me, I soon made a kind of
hand-barrow to lay them on, and Friday and I carried
them both up together upon it between us. But
when we got them to the outside of our wall or forti-
fication, we were at a worse loss than before, for it
was impossible to get them over, and I was resolved
not to break it down. So I set to work again; and
Friday and I, in about two hours’ time, made a very
handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above that
with boughs of trees, being in the space without our
outward fence, and between that and the grove of
young wood which I had planted. And here we
made them two beds of such things as I had, namely,
of good rice-straw, with blankets laid upon it, to lie
on, and another to cover them, on each bed.
KING OF THE ISLAND. 271

CHAPTER XXVI.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself
very rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection,
which I frequently made, how like a king I looked.
First of all, the whole country was my own mere
property, so that I had an undoubted right of do-
minion. Secondly, my people were perfectly sub-
jected; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver; they all
owed their lives to me, and were ready to lay down
their lives, if there had been occasion for it, for me.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued
prisoners, and given them shelter, and a place to rest
them upon, I began to think of making some provi-
sion for them; and the first thing I did, I ordered
Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt a kid and a
goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed; when
I cut off the hinder-quarter, and chopping it into
small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and
stewing, aud made them a very good dish, I assure
you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley, and
rice also, into the broth.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered
Friday to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch
our muskets and other fire-arms, which, for want of
time, we had left upon the field of battle. And the
next day I ordered him to go and bury the dead
bodies of the savages, which lay open to the sun, and
would presently be offensive.
272 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

I then began to enter into a little conversation
with my two new subjects: and first, I set Friday
to inquire of his father what he thought of the escape
of the savages in that canoe, and whether we might
expect a return of them, with a power too great for
us to resist? His first opinion was, that the savages
in the boat never could live out the storm which
blew that night they went off, but must of necessity
be drowned, or driven south to those other shores,
where they were as sure to be devoured, as they
were to be drowned if they were cast away: but as
to what they would do if they came safe on shore,
he said he knew not; but it was his opinion, that
they were so dreadfully frightened with the manner
of their being attacked, the noise, and the fire, that
he believed they would tell the people they were all
killed by thunder and lightning, not by the hand of
man; and that the two which appeared, namely,
Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies,
come down to destroy them, and not men with wea-
pons. This, he said, he knew; because he heard
them all cry out so in their language, one to another;
for it was impossible for them to conceive that a man
could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at a dis-
tance, without lifting up the hand, as was done now:
and this old savage was in the right; for, as I under-
stood since, by other hands, the savages never at-
tempted to go over _ the island afterwards, they
were so terrified with the accounts given by those
four men (for it seems they did escape the sea), that
A SUBJECT OF ANXIETY. 273

they believed whoever went to that enchanted island
would be destroyed with fire from the gods. This,
however, I knew not; and therefore was under con-
tinual apprehensions for a good while, and kept al-
ways upon my guard with all my army : for, as there
were now four of us, I would have ventured upon a
hundred of them, fairly in the open field, at any
time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appear-
ing, the fear of their coming wore off; and I began
to take my former thoughts of a voyage to the main
into consideration; being likewise assured by Friday’s
father, that I might depend upon good usage from
their nation on his account, if I would go. But my
thoughts were a little suspended, when I had a seri-
ous discourse with the Spaniard, and when I under-
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
and Portuguese, who, having been cast away, and
made their escape to that side, lived there at peace
indeed with the savages, but were very sore put to it
for necessaries, and indeed for life. I asked him all
the particulars of their voyage, and found they were
a Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata to
the Havanna, being directed to leave their loading
there, which was chiefly hides and silver, and to
bring back what European goods they could meet
with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen on
board, whom they took out of another wreck; that
five of their own men were drowned, when first the
ship was lost, and that these escaped through infinite
ee

374 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dangers and hazards, and arrived, almost starved,
on the cannibal coast, where they expected to have
been devoured every moment.

I asked him what he thought would become of
them there, and if they had formed no design of
making any escape? He said they had made many
consultations about it; but that, having neither ves-
sel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any kind,
their counsels always ended in tears and despair. I
asked him how he thought they would receive a pre-
posal from me, which might tend towards an escape;
and whether, if they were all here, it might not be
done? I told him, with freedom, I feared mostly
their treachery and ill usage of me, if I put my life
in their hands; for that gratitude was no inherent
virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always
square their dealings by the obligations they had
received, so much as they did by the advantages
they expected. I told him it would be very hard
that I should be the instrument of their deliverance,
and that they should afterwards make me their pri-
soner in New Spain, where an Englishman was
certain to be made a sacrifice, what necessity or
what accident soever brought him thither; and that
I had rather be delivered up to the savages, and be
devoured alive, than fall into the merciless claws of
the priests, and be carried into the Inquisition.

He answered, with a great deal of candour and
ingenuousness, that their condition was so miserable,
and that they were sensible of it, that he believed
PROPOSALS OF ASSISTANCE. 275

they would abhor the thought of using any man un-
kindly that should contribute to their deliverance;
and that, if I pleased, he would go to them with
the old man, and discourse with them about it, and
return again, and bring me their answer; that he
would make conditions with them, upon their solemn
oath, that they should be absolutely under my lead-
ing, as their commander and captain.

Upon these assurances I resolved to venture to re-
lieve them, if possible, and to send the old savage
and this Spaniard over to them to treat. But when
we had got all things in readiness to go, the Span-
iard himself started an objection, which had so much
prudence in it, on one hand, and so much sincerity,
on.the other hand, that I could not but be very well
satisfied in it; and, by his advice, put off the deli-
verance of his comrades for at least half ayear. The
case was thus: he had been with us now about a
month, during which time I had let him see in what
manner I had provided, with the assistance of Pro-
vidence, for my support; and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though
it was more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not
sufficient, without good husbandry, for my family,
now it was increased to four; but much less would it
be sufficient if his countrymen, who were, as he said,
sixteen still alive, should come over; and, least of
all, would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if we
should build one, for a voyage to any of the Chris-
tian colonies of America. : = he told me he thought
276 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it would be more advisable to let him and the other
two dig and cultivate some more land, as much as I
could spare seed to sow, and that we should wait an-
other harvest, that we might have a supply of corn
for his countrymen when they should come; for want
might be a temptation to them to disagree, or not to
think themselves delivered, otherwise than out of one
difficulty into another. ‘“ You know,” says he, “ the
children of Israel, though they rejoiced at first for
their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled even
against God himself, that delivered them, when they
came to want bread in the wilderness.”

Tis caution was so seasonable, and his advice so
good, that I could not but be very well pleased with
his proposal, as well as I was satisfied with his fide-
lity: so we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as
the wooden tools we were furnished with permitted ;
and, in about a month’s time, by the end of which it
was seed-time, we had got as much land cured and
trimmed up as we sowed two-and-twenty bushels of
barley on, and sixteen jars of rice; which was, in
short, all the seed we had to spare: nor, indeed, did
we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own food,
for the six months that we had to expect our crop;
that is to say, reckoning from the time we set our
seed aside for sowing; for it is not to be supposed it
is six months in the ground in that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they
had come, unless their number had been very great,
THE HARVEST SEASON. 277

we went freely all over the island whenever we found
occasion; and as here we had our escape, or deli-
verance, upon our thoughts, it was impossible, at
least for me, to have the means of it out of mind.
For this purpose, I marked out several trees which
I thought fit for our work, and I set Friday and his
father to cutting them down; and then I caused the
Spaniard, to whom I imparted my thought on that
affair, to oversee and direct their work. I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a
large tree into a single plank, and I caused them to
do the like, till they had made about a dozen large
planks of good oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five
feet long, and from two inches to four inches thick :
what prodigious labour it took up any one may ima-
gine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little
flock of tame goats as much as I could; and, for this
purpose, I made Friday and the Spaniard go out one
day, and myself with Friday the next day (for we
took our turns), and by this means we got about
twenty young kids to breed up with the rest; for
whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and
added them to our flock. But, above all, the season
for curing the grapes coming on, I caused such a
prodigious quantity to be hung up in the sun, that I
believe, had we been at Alicant, where the raisins of
the sun are cured, we could have filled sixty or eighty
barrels.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order:
278 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

it was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in
the island, but, however, it was enough to answer
our end; for, from twenty-two bushels of barley, we
brought in and threshed out above two hundred and
twenty bushels, and the like, in proportion, of the
rice, which was store enough for our food to the next
harvest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been
on shore with me.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the
guests I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go
over to the main, to see what he could do with those
he had left behind him there. I gave him a strict
charge not to bring any man with him who would
not first swear, in the presence of himself and the
old savage, that he would no way injure, fight with,
or attack the person he should find in the island,
who was so kind as to send for them in order to their
deliverance; but that they would stand by him, and
defend lim against all such attempts, and wherever
they went would be entirely under and subjected
to his command; and that this should be put in
writing, and signed with their hands. How they
were to have done this, when I knew they had
neither pen nor ink, was a question which we never
asked. Under these instructions, the Spaniard
and the old savage, the father of Friday, went
away in one of the canoes which they might be
said to come in, or rather were brought in, when
they came as prisoners to be devoured by the
savages. I gave each of them a musket, with a
“MASTER, THEY ARE COME !” 279

firelock on it, and about eight charges of powder and
ball.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures
used by me in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-
seven years and some days. I gave them provisions
of bread and of dried grapes sufficient for themselves
for many days, and sufficient for all the Spaniards
for about eight days’ time; and, wishing them a good
voyage, I saw them go; agreeing with them about a
signal they should hang out at their return, by which
I should know them again, when they came back, at
e distance, before they came on shore.

CHAPTER XXVII.

Ir was no less than eight days I had waited for them,
when a strange and unforeseen accident intervened,
of which the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in
history. I was fast asleep in my hutch one morn-
ing, when my man Friday came running in to me,
and called aloud, ‘Master, master, they are come,
they are come!” I jumped up, and, regardless of
danger, I went out as soon as I could get my clothes
on, through my little grove, which, by the way, was
by this time grown to be a very thick wood; I say,
regardless of danger, I went without my arms, which
was not my custom to do: but I was surprised when,
turning my eyes to the sea, I presently saw a boat,
280 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

at about a league and a half distance, standing in for
the shore, with a shoulder-of-mutton sail, as they
call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair to bring
them in: also I observed presently, that they did
not come from that side which the shore lay on, but
from the southernmost end of the island. Upon
this I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for
these were not the people we looked for, and that we
might not know yet whether they were friends or
enemies. In the next place, I went in to fetch my
perspective glass, to see what I could make of them ;
and having taken the ladder out, I climbed up to
the top of the hill, as I used to do when I was ap-
prehensive of anything, and to take my view the
plainer, without being discovered. I had scarce
set my foot upon the hill, when my eye plainly
discovered a ship lying at anchor, at about two
leagues and a half distance from me, 8.8.E., but not
above a league and a half from the shore. By my
observation, it appeared plainly to be an English ship,
and the boat appeared to be an English long-boat.

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though
the joy of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason
to believe was manned by my own countrymen, and
consequently friends, was such as I cannot describe ;
but yet I had some secret doubts hung about me, I
cannot tell from whence they came, bidding me keep
upon my guard.

I soon saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they
looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience
AN EXTRAORDINARY SCENE. 281

of landing; however. as they did not come quite far
enough, they did not see the little inlet where I for-
merly landed my rafts, but run their boat on shore
upon the beach, at about half a mile from me, which
was very happy for me; for otherwise they would
have landed just at my door, as I may say, and would
soon have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps
have plundered me of all I had. When they were
on shore I was fully satisfied they were Englishmen,
at least most of them; one or two I thought were
Dutch, but it did not prove so; there were in all
eleven men, whereof three of them I found were un-
armed, and, as I thought, bound; and when the first
four or five of them were jumped on shore, they took
those three out of the boat as prisoners: one of the
three I could perceive using the most passionate
gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even to
a kind of extravagance; the other two, I could per-
ceive, lifted up their hands sometimes, and appeared
concerned, indeed, but not to such a degree as the
first. I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and
knew not what the meaning of it should be. Friday
called out to me in English as well as he could, “O
master! you see English mans eat prisoner as well
as savage mans.” ‘ Why, Friday,” says I, “do
you think they are going to eat them, then?”
“Yes,” says Friday, “they will eat them.” “No,
no,” says I, “ Friday, I am afraid they will murder
them, indeed, but you may be sure they will not eat
them.”
282 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

All this while I had no thought of what the mat-
ter really was, but stood trembling with the horror
of the sight, expecting every moment when the three
prisoners should be killed; nay, once I saw one of
the villains lift up his arm with a great cutlass, as
the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the poor
men; and | expected to see him fall every moment;
at which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill
in my veins. I wished heartily now for my Span-
iard, and the savage that was gone with him, or that
I had any way to have come undiscovered within
shot of them, that I might have rescued the three
men, for I saw no fire-arms they had among them;
but it fell out to my mind another way. After I
had observed the outrageous usage of the three men
by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows run
scattering about the island, as if they wanted to see
the country. I observed that the three other men
had liberty to go also where they pleased ; but they
sat down all three upon the ground, very pensive,
and looked like men in despair.

It was just at the top of high water when these
people came on shore; and, partly while they rambled
about to see what kind of a place they were in, they
had carelessly stayed till the tide was spent, and the
water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their boat
aground. They had left two men in the boat, who,
as I found afterwards, having drank a little too much
brandy, fell asleep. However, one of them waking a
little sooner than the other, and finding the boat toc
NEEDFUL PRECAUTIONS. 283

fast aground for him to stir it, hallooed out for the
rest, who were straggling about; upon which they
all soon came to the boat; but it was past all their
strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy,
and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand,
almost like a quicksand. In this condition, like true
seamen, who are, perhaps, the least of all mankind
given to forethought, they gave it over, and away
they strolled about the country again; and | heard
one of them say aloud to another, calling them off
from the boat, ‘‘ Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you?
she’ll float next tide:”” by which I was fully con-
firmed in the main inquiry of what countrymen they
were. All this while I kept myself very close, not
once daring to stir out of my castle, any further than
to my place of observation, near the top of the hill;
and very glad I was to think how well it was forti-
fied. I knew it was no less than ten hours before
the boat could float again, and by that time it would
be dark, and I might be at more liberty to see their
motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had any.
In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as
before, though with more caution, knowing I had te
do with another kind of enemy than I had at first.
[ ordered Friday also, whom I had made an excellent
marksman with his gun, to load himself with arms.
I took myself two fowling-pieces, and I gave him
three muskets,

It was my design, as I said above, not to have
made any attempt till it was dark; but about two
284 ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

o’clock, being the heat of the day, I found that, in
short, they were all gone straggling into the woods,
and, as I thought, laid down to sleep. The three
poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition
to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under the
shelter of a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile
from me, and, as I thought, out of sight of any of the
rest. Upon this I resolved to discover myself to
them, and learn something of their condition : imme-
diately I marched to them, my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I,
but not making quite so staring a figure as I did. I
came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them
in Spanish, ‘“‘ What are ye, gentlemen?” They
started up at the noise, but were ten times more con-
founded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure
that I made. They made no answer at all, but I
thought I perceived them just going to fly from me,
when I spoke to them in English: ‘ Gentlemen,”
said J, ‘‘ do not be surprised at me; perhaps you may
have a friend near, when you did not expect it.”
“He must be sent directly from Heaven,” said one
of them very gravely to me, and pulling off his hat
at the same time to me; “ for our condition is past
the help of man.” “All help is from Heaven, sir,”
said I; ‘but can you put a stranger in the way how
to help you? for you seem to be in some great dis-
tress. I saw you when you landed; and when you
seemed to make application to the brutes that came
MAN OR ANGEL ? 285

with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to kill
you.”

The poor man, with tears running down his face,
and trembling, looking like one astonished, returned,
“ Am I talking to a real man, or an angel?” “Be
in no fear about that, sir,” said I; “if God had sent
an angel to relieve you, he would have come better
clothed, and armed after another manner, than you
see me; pray lay aside your fears; I am a man, an
Englishman, and disposed to assist you: you see I
have one servant only; we have arms and ammuni-
tion; tell us freely, can we serve you? What ia your
case?”’ “Qur case,” said he, “sir, is too long to
tell you, while our murderers are so near us: but, in
short, sir, I was commander of that ship; my men
have mutinied against me; they have been hardly
prevailed on not to murder me; and at Jast have set
me on shore in this desolate place, with these two
men with me, one my mate, the other a passenger,
where we expected to perish, believing the place to
be uninhabited, and know not yet what to think of
it.” “ Where are these brutes, your enemies?” said
I; ‘do you know where they are gone?” ‘There
they lie, sir,” said he, pointing to a thicket of trees;
“my heart trembles for fear they have seen us, and
heard you speak; if they have, they will certainly
murder us all.” ‘Have they any fire-arms?