Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Second part
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073604/00002
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe mariner, of Hull
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. : front. (port.), plates ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Mouilleron, Adolphe, 1820-1881 ( Illustrator )
Flameng, L\'eopold, 1831-1911 ( Engraver )
Ballantyne, John Alexander, d. 1863 ( Engraver )
J.C. Nimmo and Bain ( Publisher )
Scribner & Welford ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Publisher: J.C. Nimmo and Bain
Scribner & Welford
Place of Publication: London (14 King William Street Strand W.C.)
New York
Manufacturer: Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date: 1882
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with biographical memoir and illustrative notes ; in two volumes, with eight etchings by M. <sic> Mouilleron and portrait by L. Flameng.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Biographical memoir signed John Ballantyne.
General Note: Several ill. have illustrator's mark of overlaid initials: A M <Adolphe Mouilleron>
General Note: "Ballantyne Press, Ballantyne, Hanson and Co., Edinburgh and London."--Verso of half title p., both volumes.
General Note: "One thousand copies of this edition have been printed and the rep.
General Note: A variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 644, which lacks the New York imprint.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073604
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04947125

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Table of Contents
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    List of Illustrations
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Second part
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Chapter II
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 38a
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Chapter III
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
    Chapter IV
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Chapter V
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Chapter VI
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
    Chapter VII
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 184a
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Chapter VIII
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
    Chapter IX
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Chapter X
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
    Chapter XI
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
    Chapter XII
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
    Chapter XIII
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
    Chapter XIV
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
    Chapter XV
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
    Chapter XVI
        Page 360
        Page 360a
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 376a
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
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Full Text





saffantne -?rtef








Wiftb Jfograpblcal Aeomofr anb illustrative tlotes



Witt Cight cEtcings Ibp g. 3ouilleton ant
Portrait b? L. nfametg





THE success the former part of this work has met
with in the world, has yet been no other than is
acknowledged to be due to the surprising variety
of the subject, and to the agreeable manner of the
All the endeavours of envious people to reproach
it with being a romance, to search it for errors in
geography, inconsistency in the relation, and con-
tradictions in the fact, have proved abortive, and as
impotent as malicious.
The just application of every incident, the reli-
gious and useful inferences drawn from every part,
are so many testimonies to the good design of mak-
ing it public, and must legitimate all the part that
may be called invention, or parable in the story.
The second part, if the Editor's opinion may
pass, is (contrary to the usage of second parts)
every way as entertaining as the first; contains as
strange and surprising incidents, and as great a
variety of them: nor is the application less serious,
or suitable; and doubtless will, to the sober, as well
as ingenious reader, be every way as profitable and
diverting; and this makes the abridging this work,
VOL. II. b


as scandalous; as it is knavish and ridiculous, seeing,
while to shorten the book, that they may seem to
reduce the value, they strip it of all those reflections,
as well religious as moral, which are not only the
greatest beauties of the work, but are calculated for
the infinite advantage of the reader.
By this they leave the work naked of its brightest
ornaments; and if they would at the same time
pretend, that the author has supplied the story out
of his invention, they take from it the improvement,
which alone recommends that invention to wise and
good men.
The injury these men do the proprietor of this
work, is a practice all honest men abhor; and he
believes he may challenge them to show the differ-
ence between that and robbing on the highway, or
breaking open a house.
If they cannot show any difference in the crime,
they will find it hard to show why there should be
any difference in the punishment, and, he will answer
for it, that nothing shall be wanting on his part to
do them justice.


Reflections-Unsettled state of mind, and conversation
with my wife thereon-Purchase a farm in the
county of Bedford-Lose my wife-I determine to
revisit my island, and for that purpose settle all
my affairs in England-Description of the cargo I
carried out with me-Save the crew of a vessel
burnt at sea .

Steer for the West Indies-Distressing account of a
Bristol ship, the crew of which we save in a state
of starvation-Arrive at my island-Friday's joy
on discovering it-Affecting interview betwixt him
and his father on landing-Narrative of the occur-
rences on the island during my absence 27

Narrative continued-Insolence of three of the English-
men to the Spaniards-They are disarmed and
brought to order-A great body of savages land
upon the island-They turn out to be two adverse
nations met there by chance-A bloody battle be-
twixt them-Several of the vanquished party secured
by the Spaniards 52


Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the
Spaniards-The English make a voyage to the
mainland, and return in twenty-two days-Parti-
culars of their voyage-Description of the men
and women they brought with them-The colony
discovered by an unlucky accident to the savages,
who invade the island, but are defeated 72


The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages
-A terrible engagement, in which the cannibals
are utterly routed-Thirty-seven wretches, the sur-
vivors, are saved, and employed by my people as
servants-Description of Will Atkins' ingenious
contrivances for his accommodation 105


I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the
history of their situation among the savages from
which I relieved them-I inform the colony for
what purpose I am come, and what I mean to
do for them-Distribution of the stores I brought
with me-The priest I saved at sea solemnises the
marriages of the sailors and female Indians, who
had hitherto lived together as man and wife. .124


Sincere and worthy character of the priest-Dialogue
with Will Atkins and myself-Conversation betwixt
Atkins and his Indian wife on the subject of re-
ligion-Her baptism Settlement of the com-
monwealth 170



I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians-Ami-
able character of the young woman we saved in a
famished state at sea -Her own relation of her
sufferings from hunger-Sail from the island for
the Brazils-Encounter and rout a whole fleet of
savages-Death of Friday-Arrival at Brazil


I despatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity
of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of
it for ever-I determine to go with the ship to the
East Indies--Arrival at Madagascar- dreadful
occurrences there .



Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties
practised at Madagascar-Five men lost on the
Arabian shore, off the Gulf of Persia-The seamen
refuse to sail if I continue on board, in consequence
of which I am left on shore-Make a very advan-
tageous trading voyage in company with an Eng-
lish merchant, and purchase a vessel, which, it
turns out, the crew had mutinied and ran away
with .. 236

Make a trading voyage in this ship-Put into the river
of Cambodia-Am warned of my danger by a
countryman, in consequence of which we set sail,
and are pursued-Great difficulty in making our
escape 255


Obliged to come to anchor on a savage coast to repair
our ship-We are attacked by the natives, whom
our carpenter disperses by a whimsical contrivance
-Serious reflections upon our disagreeable situation 269

We arrive in China in safety-Dispose of the ship-
Description of the inhabitants-Arrive at Perkin,
and find an opportunity of returning to Europe 292

Set out by the caravan-Account of the valuable effects
we took with us-Further description of the inte-
rior of China-Pass the great wall -Attacked by
Tartars, who are dispersed by the resolution of a
Scots merchant-The old pilot saves my life-We
are again attacked, and defeat the Tartars 313

Further account of our journey-Description of an idol,
which we destroy- Great danger we incur thereby
-Account of our travels through Muscovy 332

Conversations with a Russian grandee-Set out on my
journey homewards-Harassed by Kalmucks on the
road-Arrival at Archangel-Sail from thence, and
arrive safely in England 360







. Page 38

S. 184

S 360

S 376


One thousand copies of this Edition have been printed and
the type distributed. No more will be published.






THAT homely proverb used on so many occasions
in England, viz., "That what is bred in the bone
will not go out of the flesh," was never more verified
than in the story of my LIFE. Any one would think
that after thirty-five years' affliction, and a variety of
unhappy circumstances which few men, if any, ever
went through before, and after near seven years of
peace and enjoyment in the fulness of all things;
grown old, and when, if ever, it might be allowed
me to have had experience of every state of middle
life, and to know which was most adapted to make
a man completely happy; I say, after all this, any


one would have thought that the native propensity
to rambling, which I gave an account of in my first
setting out into the world to have been so predomi-
nant in my thoughts, should be worn out, the volatile
part be fully evacuated, or at least condensed, and
I might at sixty-one years of age have been a little
inclined to stay at home, and have done venturing
life and fortune any more.
Nay further, the common motive of foreign adven-
tures was taken away in me; for I had no fortune to
make, I had nothing to seek: if I had gained ten
thousand pounds, I had been no richer; for I had
already sufficient for me and for those I had to
leave it to, and that I had was visibly increasing;
for having no great family, I could not spend
the income of what I had, unless I would set up
for an expensive way of living, such as a great
family, servants, equipage, gaiety, and the like,
which were things I had no notion of, or inclina-
tion to; so that I had nothing indeed to do, but to
sit still and fully enjoy what I had got, and see it
increase daily upon my hands.
Yet all these things had no effect upon me, or
at least not enough to resist the strong inclination
I had to go abroad again, which hung about me
like a chronical distemper; particularly the desire
of seeing my new plantation in the island, and the
colony I left there, run in my head continually. I
dreamed of it all night, and my imagination ran
upon it all day; it was uppermost in all my thoughts,
and my fancy worked so steadily and strongly upon
it, that I talked of it in my sleep; in short, nothing
could remove it out of my mind; it even broke so


violently into all my discourses, that it made my
conversation tiresome; for I could talk of nothing
else, all my discourse ran into it, even to imperti-
nence, and I saw it myself.
I have often heard persons of good judgment
say, that all the stir people make in the world
about ghosts and apparitions, is owing to the
strength of imagination, and the powerful operation
of fancy in their minds; that there is no such thing
as a spirit appearing, or a ghost walking, and the
like; that people's poring affectionately upon the
past conversation of their deceased friends so rea-
lises it to them, that they are capable of fancying,
upon some extraordinary circumstances, that they
see them, talk to them, and are answered by them,
when, in truth, there is nothing but shadow and
vapour in the thing; and they really know nothing
of the matter.
For my part, I know not to this hour whether there
are any such things as real apparitions, spectres, or
walking of people after they are dead, or whether
there is anything in the stories they tell us of that
kind, more than the product of vapours, sick minds,
and wandering fancies. But this I know, that my
imagination worked up to such a height, and brought
me into such excess of vapours, or what else I may
call it, that I actually supposed myself oftentimes
upon the spot at my old castle behind the trees, saw
my old Spaniard, Friday's father, and the reprobate
sailors whom I left upon the island ; nay, I fancied I
talked with them, and looked at them so steadily,
though I was broad awake, as at persons just before
me; and this I did till I often frightened myself with

the images my fancy represented to me: one time in
my sleep I had the villany of the three pirate sailors
so lively related to me by the first Spaniard and
Friday's father, that it was surprising ;-they told me
how they barbarously attempted to murder all the
Spaniards, and that they set fire to the provisions
they had laid up, on purpose to distress and starve
them; things that I had never heard of, and that
were yet all of them true in fact; but it was so warm
in my imagination, and so realized to me, that to the
hour I saw them, I could not be persuaded but that
it was or would be true; also how I resented it when
the Spaniard complained to me, and how I brought
them to justice, tried them before me, and ordered
them all three to be hanged. What there was really
in this, shall be seen in its place; for however I came
to form such things in my dream, and what secret
converse of spirits injected it, yet there was, I say,
very much of it true. I own that this dream had
nothing literally and specifically true ; but the general
part was so true,-the base and villainous behaviour of
these three hardened rogues was such, and had been
so much worse than all I can describe, that the dream
had too much similitude of the fact; and as I would
afterwards have punished them severely, so if I had
hanged them all, I had been much in the right, and
should have been justifiable both by the laws of God
and man.
But to return to my story. In this kind of temper
I had lived some years, I had no enjoyment of my
life, no pleasant hours, no agreeable diversion but
what had something or other of this in it; so that my
wife, who saw my mind so wholly bent upon it, told


me very seriously one night, that she believed there
was some secret powerful impulse of Providence upon
me, which had determined me to go thither again;
and that she found nothing hindered my going, but
my being engaged to a wife and children. She told
me that it was true she could not think of parting
with me; but as she was assured, that if she was
dead it would be the first thing I would do; so, as it
seemed to her that the thing was determined above,
she would not be the only obstruction; for if I
thought fit, and resolved to go-here she found
me very intent upon her words, and that I looked
very earnestly at her; so that it a little disordered
her, and she stopped. I asked her why she did not
go on, and say out what she was going to say ? But
I perceived her heart was too full, and some tears
stood in her eyes : Speak out, my dear," said I;
" are you willing I should go ? No," says she, very
affectionately, I am far from willing: but if you
are resolved to go," says she, "and rather than I will
be the only hindrance, I will go with you; for though
I think it a preposterous thing for one of your years
and in your condition, yet if it must be," said she, again
weeping, I won't leave you ; for if it be of Heaven,
you must do it; there is no resisting it; and if Heaven
makes it your duty to go, He will also make it mine
to go with you, or otherwise dispose of me, that I
may not obstruct it."
This affectionate behaviour of my wife brought me
a little out of the vapours, and I began to consider
what I was doing; I corrected my wandering fancy,
and began to argue with myself sedately what busi-
ness I had, after threescore years, and after such a


life of tedious sufferings and disasters, and closed in
so happy and easy a manner, I say, what business
had I to rush into new hazards, and put myself upon
adventures, fit only for youth and poverty to run
into ?
With those thoughts, I considered my new en-
gagement; that I had a wife, one child born, and my
wife then great with child of another; that I had all
the world could give me, and had no need to seek
hazards for gain ; that I was declining in years, and
ought to think rather of leaving what I had gained,
than of seeking to increase it; that as to what my
wife had said of its being an impulse from Heaven,
and that it should be my duty to go, I had no notion
of that ; so after many of these cogitations, I struggled
with the power of my imagination, reasoned myself
out of it, as I bclicve people may always do in like
cases, if they will; and, in a word, I conquered it;
composed myself with such arguments as occurred
to my thoughts, and which my present condition
furnished me plentifully with; and particularly, as
the most effectual method, I resolved to divert my-
self with other things, and to engage in some business
that might effectually tie me up from any more
excursions of this kind; for I found the thing return
upon me chiefly when I was idle, had nothing to do,
or anything of moment immediately before me.
To this purpose I bought a little farm in the
county of Bedford, and resolved to remove myself
thither. I had a little convenient house upon it, and
the land about it I found was capable of great im-
provement, and that it was many ways suited to my
inclination, which delighted in cultivating, managing,


planting, and improving of land; and particularly
being an inland country, I was removed from con-
versing among ships, sailors, and things relating to
the remote part of the world.
In a word, I went down to my farm, settled my
family, bought me ploughs, harrows, a cart, a waggon,
Shores, cows, sheep; and setting seriously to work,
Became in one half year a mere country gentleman;
my thoughts were entirely taken up in managing my
servants, cultivating the ground, enclosing, planting,
&c.; and I lived, as I thought, the most agreeable
life that nature was capable of directing, or that a
man always bred to misfortunes was capable of being
retreated to.
I farmed upon my own land, I had no rent to pay,
was limited by no articles; I could pull up or cut
down as I pleased; what I planted was for myself,
and what I improved was for my family; and having
thus left off the thoughts of wandering, I had not
the least discomfort in any part of my life, as to this
world. Now I thought indeed, that I enjoyed the
middle state of life which my father so earnestly re-
commended to me, a kind of heavenly life, something
like what is described by the poet upon the subject
of a country life:-

"Free from vices, free from care,
Age has no pains, and youth no snare."

But in the middle of all this felicity, one blow from
unforeseen Providence unhinged me at once; and not
Only made a breach upon me, inevitable and incurable,
but drove me, by its consequence, upon a deep relapse
- into the wandering disposition; which, as I may say,


being born in my very blood, soon recovered its hold
of me, and, like the returns of a violent distemper,
came on with an irresistible force upon me; so that
nothing could make any more impression upon me.
This blow was the loss of my wife.
It is not my business here to write an elegy upon
my wife, to give a character of her particular virtues,
and make my court to the sex by the flattery of a
funeral sermon. She was, in a few words, the stay of
all my affairs, the centre of all my enterprises, the
engine that by her prudence reduced me to that
happy compass I was in, from the most extravagant
and ruinous project that fluttered in my head as
above; and did more to guide my rambling genius
than a mother's tears, a father's instructions, a friend's
counsel, or all my own reasoning powers could do.
I was happy in listening to her tears, and in being
moved by her entreaties, and to the last degree
desolate and dislocated in the world by the loss of
When she was gone the world looked awkwardly
round me; I was as much a stranger in it in my
thoughts as I was in the Brazils when I went first on
shore there; and as much alone, except as to the
assistance of servants, as I was in my island. I knew
neither what to do, or what not to do; I saw the
world busy round me, one part labouring for bread,
and the other part squandering in vile excesses or
empty pleasures, equally miserable, because the end
they proposed still fled from them; for the men of
pleasure every day surfeited of their vice, and heaped
up work for sorrow and repentance, and the men of
labour spent their strength in daily struggling for

__ 1


bread to maintain the vital strength they laboured
with; so living in a daily circulation of sorrow, living
but to work, and working but to live, as if daily bread
were the only end of a wearisome life, and a weari-
some life the only occasion of daily bread.
This put me in mind of the life I lived in my king-
dom-the island, where I suffered no more corn to
grow, because I did not want it; and bred no more
goats, because I had no more use for them; where
the money lay in the drawer till it grew mildewed, and
had scarce the favour to be looked upon in twenty
All these things, had I improved them as I ought
to have done, and as reason and religion had dictated
to me, would have taught me to search further than
human enjoyments for a full felicity, and that there
was something which certainly was the reason and
end of life, superior to all these things, and which was
either to be possessed or at least hoped for on this
side the grave.
But my sage counsellor was gone; I was like a ship
without a pilot, that could only run before the wind;
my thoughts ran all away again into the old affair;
my head was quite turned with the whimsies of foreign
adventures; and all the pleasing innocent amusements
of my farm and my garden, my cattle and my family,
which before entirely possessed me, were nothing to
me, had no relish, and were like music to one that
has no ear, or food to one that has no taste: in a
word, I resolved to leave off housekeeping, let my
farm, and return to London; and in a few months
after I did so.
When I came to London I was still as uneasy as


before; I had no relish to the place, no employment
in it, nothing to do but to saunter about like an idle
person, of whom it may be said, he is perfectly use-
less in God's creation, and it is not one farthing
matter to the rest of his kind whether he be dead
or alive. This also was the thing which of all cir-
cumstances of life was the most my aversion, who
had been all my days used to an active life; and I
would often say to myself, "A state of idleness is
the very dregs of life ;" and indeed I thought I was
much more suitably employed when I was twenty-six
days making me a deal board.
It was now the beginning of the year 1693, when
my nephew, whom, as I have observed before, I
had brought up to the sea and had made him
commander of a ship, was come home from a short
voyage to Bilboa, being the first he had made; he
came to me, and told me that some merchants of
his acquaintance had been proposing to him to go
a voyage for them to the East Indies and to China,
as private traders; "And now, uncle," says he, "if
you will go to sea with me, I'll engage to land you
upon your old habitation in the island, for we are to
touch at the Brazils."
Nothing can be a greater demonstration of a future
state, and of the existence of an invisible world, than
the concurrence of second causes with the ideas of
things which we form in our minds, perfectly reserved,
and not communicated to any in the world.
My nephew knew nothing how far my distemper
of wandering was returned upon me, and I knew
nothing of what he had in his thoughts to say, when,
that very morning, before he came to me, I had, in


a great deal of confusion of thought, and revolving
every part of my circumstances in my mind, come
to this resolution, viz., that I would go to Lisbon
and consult with my old sea-captain; and so, if it
was rational and practicable, I would go and see the
island again, and see what was become of my people
there. I had pleased myself also with the thoughts
of peopling the place, and carrying inhabitants from
hence, getting a patent for the possession, and I
know not what; when, in the middle of all this, in
comes my nephew, as I have said, with his project of
carrying me thither in his way to the East Indies.
I paused awhile at his words, and looking steadily
at him, "What devil," said I, "sent you of this un-
lucky errand?" My nephew stared, as if he had
been frighted at first; but perceiving I was not
much displeased with the proposal, he recovered
himself. "I hope it may not be an unlucky pro-
posal, sir," says he; "I daresay you would be pleased
to see your new colony there, where you once reigned
with more felicity than most of your brother monarchs
in the world."
In a word, the scheme hit so exactly with my
temper, that is to say, with the prepossession I was
under, and of which I have said so much, that I told
him, in a few words, if he agreed with the mer-
chants, I would go with him: but I told him I
would not promise to go any farther than my own
island. "Why, sir," says he, "you don't want to
be left there again, I hope ?"-" Why," said I, "can
you not take me up again in your return?" He told
me, it could not be possible that the merchants
would allow him to come that way with a loaden


ship of such value, it being a month's sail out of his
way, and might be three or four: "Besides, sir, if
I should miscarry," said he, "and not return at all,
then you would be just reduced to the condition you
were in before."
This was very rational; but we both found out a
remedy for it, which was to carry a framed sloop on
board the ship, which, being taken in pieces, and
shipped on board the ship, might, by the help of
some carpenters, whom we agreed to carry with us,
be set up again in the island, and finished, fit to go
to sea in a few days.
I was not long resolving; for indeed the impor-
tunities of my nephew joined in so effectually with
my inclination, that nothing could oppose me; on
the other hand, my wife being dead, I had nobody
concerned themselves so much for me as to persuade
me one way or other, except my ancient good friend
the widow, who earnestly struggled with me to con-
sider my years, my easy circumstances, and the need-
less hazard of a long voyage; and, above all, my
young children ; but it was all to no purpose; I had
an irresistible desire to the voyage; and I told her I
thought there was something so uncommon in the
impressions I had upon my mind for the voyage,
that it would be a kind of resisting Providence, if I
should attempt to stay at home; after which she
ceased her expostulations, and joined with me, not
only in making provision for my voyage, but also in
settling my family affairs in my absence, and provid-
ing for the education of my children.
In order to this I made my will, and settled the
estate I had in such a manner for my children, and


placed in such hands, that I was perfectly easy and
satisfied they would have justice done them, what-
ever might befall me; and for their education, I
left it wholly to my widow, with a sufficient mainten-
ance to herself for her care; all which she richly de-
served; for no mother could have taken more care
in their education or understood it better; and as
she lived till I came home, I also lived to thank her
for it.
My nephew was ready to sail about the beginning
of January 1694-5, and I with my man Friday went
on board in the Downs on the 8th, having, besides
that sloop which I mentioned above, a very consider-
able cargo of all kinds of necessary things for my
colony, which if I did not find in good condition, I
resolved to leave so.
First, I carried with me some servants, whom I
purposed to place there as inhabitants, or at least
to set on work there upon my own account while I
stayed, and either to leave them there, or carry them
forward, as they should appear willing; particularly,
I carried two carpenters, a smith, and a very handy
ingenious fellow who was a cooper by trade, but was
also a general mechanic; for he was dexterous at
making wheels and hand-mills to grind corn, was a
good turner, and a good pot-maker; he also made
anything that was proper to make of earth or of
wood; in a word, we called him our Jack of all
With these I carried a tailor, who had offered
himself to go passenger to the East Indies with my
nephew, but afterwards consented to stay on our new
plantation, and proved a most necessary handy fellow


as could be desired, in many other businesses besides
that of his trade; for, as I observed formerly, necessity
arms us for all employment.
My cargo, as near as I can recollect, for I have
not kept an account of the particulars, consisted of a
sufficient quantity of linen, and some thin English
stuffs for clothing the Spaniards that I expected to
find there, and enough of them as, by my calculation,
might comfortably supply them for seven years: if I
remember right, the materials which I carried for
clothing them, with gloves, hats, shoes, stockings,
and all such things as they could want for wearing,
amounted to above two hundred pounds, including
some beds, bedding, and household-stuff, particularly
kitchen utensils, with pots, kettles, pewter, brass, &c.,
besides near a hundred pounds more in iron work,
nails, tools of every kind, staples, hooks, hinges, and
every necessary thing I could think of.
I carried also a hundred spare arms, muskets, and
fuzees, besides some pistols, a considerable quantity
of shot of all sizes, three or four tons of lead, and
two pieces of brass cannon; and because I knew not
what time and what extremities I was providing for,
I carried a hundred barrels of powder, besides swords,
cutlasses, and the iron part of some pikes and hal-
berts ; so that, in short, we had a large magazine of
all sorts of stores; and I made my nephew carry two
small quarter-deck guns more than he wanted for his
ship, to leave behind if there was occasion; that
when they came there we might build a fort, and
man it against all sorts of enemies : and indeed I at
first thought there would be need enough of it all,
and much more, if we hoped to maintain our pos-


session of the island, as shall be seen in the course of
the story.
I had not such bad luck in this voyage as I had
been used to meet with; and therefore shall have the
less occasion to interrupt the reader, who perhaps
may be impatient to hear how matters went with my
colony; yet some odd accidents, cross winds, and
bad weather, happened on this first setting out, which
made the voyage longer than I expected it at first;
and I, who had never made but one voyage, viz., my
first voyage to Guinea, in which I might be said to
come back again as the voyage was at first designed,
began to think the same ill fate still attended me;
and that I was born to be never contented with*
being on shore, and yet to be always unfortunate at
Contrary winds first put us to the northward, and
we were obliged to put in at Galway, in Ireland,
where we lay wind-bound two-and-thirty days: but
we had this satisfaction with the disaster, that pro-
visions were here exceeding cheap and in the utmost
plenty; so that while we lay here we never touched
the ship's stores, but rather added to them : here also
I took several hogs and two cows with their calves,
which I resolved, if I had a good passage, to put on
shore in my island; but we found occasion to dispose
otherwise of them.
We set out the 5th of February from Ireland, and
had a very fair gale of wind for some days; as I
remember, it might be about the 20th of February in
the evening late, when the mate having the watch
came into the round-house, and told us he saw a flash
of fire and heard a gun fired; and while he was


telling us of it, a boy came in and told us the boat-
swain heard another. This made us all run out upon
the quarter-deck, where for a while we heard nothing;
but in a few minutes we saw a very great light, and
found that there was some very terrible fire at a
distance. Immediately we had recourse to our
reckonings, in which we all agreed that there could
be no land that way in which the fire showed itself,
no, not for five hundred leagues, for it appeared at
W.N.W. Upon this we concluded it must be some
ship on fire at sea; and as by our hearing the noise
of guns just before, we concluded it could not be far
off, we stood directly towards it, and were presently
satisfied we should discover it, because the further
we sailed the greater the light appeared, though the
weather being hazy we could not perceive anything
but the light for a while; in about half an hour's
sailing, the wind being fair for us, though not much
of it, and the weather clearing up a little, we could
plainly discern that it was a great ship on fire in the
middle of the sea.
I was most sensibly touched with this disaster,
though not at all acquainted with the persons en-
gaged in it; I presently recollected my former cir-
cumstances, in what condition I was in when taken
up by the Portugal captain; and how much more
deplorable the circumstances of the poor creatures
belonging to this ship must be if they had no other
ship in company with them: upon this I immediately
ordered that five guns should be fired, one soon after
another, that, if possible, we might give notice to
them that there was help for them at hand, and that
they might endeavour to save themselves in their


boat; for though we could see the flame in the ship,
yet they, it being night, could see nothing of us.
We lay by some time upon this, only driving as
the burning ship drove, waiting for daylight; when
on a sudden, to our great terror, though we had
reason to expect it, the ship blew up in the air, and
immediately sank. This was terrible, and indeed an
afflicting sight, for the sake of the poor men, who, I
concluded, must be either all destroyed in the ship,
or be in the utmost distress in their boats in the
middle of the ocean, which, at present, by reason it
was dark, I could not see: however, to direct them
as well as I could, I caused lights to be hung out in
all the parts of the ship where we could, and which
we had lanterns for, and kept firing guns all the
night long; letting them know by this that there
was a ship not far off.
About eight o'clock in the morning we discovered
the ship's boats by the help of our perspective-
glasses: and found there were two of them, both
thronged with people, and deep in the water; we
perceived they rowed, the wind being against them;
that they saw our ship, and did the utmost to make
us see them.
We immediately spread our ancient, to let them
know we saw them; and hung a waft out, as a signal
for them to come on board; and then made more
sail, standing directly to them. In a little more than
half an hour we came up with them, and in a word
took them all in, being no less than sixty-four men,
women, and children; for there were a great many
Upon the whole, we found it was a French mer-


chant-ship of three hundred tons, homeward-bound
from Quebec, in the river of Canada. The master
gave us a long account of the distress of his ship,
how the fire began in the steerage by the negligence
of the steersman; but, on his crying out for help,
was, as everybody thought, entirely put out: but
they soon found that some sparks of the first fire
had gotten into some part of the ship so difficult to
come at, that they could not effectually quench it;
and afterwards getting in between the timbers, and
within the ceiling of the ship, it proceeded into the
hold, and mastered all the skill and all the applica-
tion they were able to exert.
They had no more to do then but to get into their
boats, which to their great comfort were pretty large;
being their long-boat, and a great shallop, besides a
small skiff, which was of no great service to them,
other than to get some fresh water and provisions
into her, after they had secured themselves from the
fire. They had indeed small hope of their lives by
getting into these boats, at that distance from any
land; only, as they said well, that they were escaped
from the fire, and had a possibility that some ship
might happen to be at sea, and might take them in.
They had sails, oars, and a compass; and were pre-
paring to make the best of their way to Newfound-
land, the wind blowing pretty fair; for it blew an
easy gale at S.E. by E. They had as much provi-
sions and water, as, with sparing it so as to be next
door to starving, might support them about twelve
days; in which, if they had no bad weather, and no
contrary winds, the captain said he hoped he might
get to the banks of Newfoundland, and might per-


haps take some fish to sustain them till they might
go on shore. But there were so many chances against
them in all these cases; such as storms to overset
and founder them; rains and cold to benumb and
perish their limbs; contrary winds to keep them out
and starve them; that it must have been next to
miraculous if they had escaped.
In the midst of their consultations, every one being
hopeless and ready to despair, the captain, with tears
in his eyes, told me, they were on a sudden surprised
with the joy of hearing a gun fire, and after that four
more; these were the five guns which I caused to be
fired at first seeing the light this revived their hearts,
and gave them the notice which, as above, I designed
it should, viz., that there was a ship at hand. for their
It was upon the hearing these guns that they took
down their masts and sails; and the sound coming
from the windward, they resolved to lie by till morn-
ing. Some time after this, hearing no more guns,
they fired three muskets, one a considerable while
after another; but these, the wind being contrary,
we never heard.
Some time after that again they were still more
agreeably surprised with seeing our lights and hear-
ing the guns, which, as I have said, I caused to be
fired all the rest of the night: this set them to work
with their oars to keep their boats ahead, at least
that we might the sooner come up with them; and
at last, to their inexpressible joy, they found we saw
It is impossible for me to express the several ges-
tures, the strange ecstasies, the variety of postures,


which these poor delivered people ran into, to express
the joy of their souls at so unexpected a deliverance;
grief and fear are easily described; sighs, tears,
groans, and a very few motions of head and hands,
make up the sum of its variety: but an excess of joy,
a surprise of joy, has a thousand extravagances in it;
there were some in tears, some raging and tearing
themselves, as if they had been in the greatest
agonies of sorrow; some stark raving and downright
lunatic; some ran about the ship stamping with
their feet, others wringing their hands; some were
dancing, several singing, some laughing, more cry-
ing: many quite dumb, not able to speak a word;
others sick and vomiting, several swooning, and ready
to faint; and a few were crossing themselves and
giving God thanks.
I would not wrong them neither; there might be
many that were thankful afterward; but the passion
was too strong for them at first, and they were not
able to master it; they were thrown into ecstasies
and a kind of frenzy, and so there were but a very
few who were composed and serious in their joy.
Perhaps also the case may have some addition to
it, from the particular circumstance of the nation
they belonged to; I mean the French, whose temper
is allowed to be more volatile, more passionate and
more sprightly, and their spirits more fluid than of
other nations. I am not philosopher enough to
determine the cause, but nothing I had ever seen
before came up to it: the ecstasies poor Friday, my
trusty savage, was in when he found his father in the
boat came the nearest to it; and the surprise of the
master and his two companions whom I delivered


from the two villains that set them on shore in the
island, came a little way towards it; but nothing was
to compare to this, either that I saw in Friday or any-
where else in my life.
It is further observable, that these extravagances
did not show themselves in that different manner I
have mentioned, in different persons only: but all
the variety would appear in a short succession of
moments in one and the same person. A man that
we saw this minute dumb, and as it were stupid and
confounded, should the next minute be dancing and
hallooing like an antic; and the next moment a-tearing
his hair, or pulling his clothes to pieces, and stamping
them under his feet like a madman; a few minutes
after that we should have him all in tears, then sick,
then swooning; and had not immediate help been
had, would in a few moments more have been dead;
and thus it was, not with one or two, or ten or twenty,
but with the greatest part of them; and, if I remem-
ber right, our surgeon was obliged to let above thirty
of them blood.
There were two priests among them, one an old
man, and the other a young man; and that which
was strangest was, that the oldest man was the worst.
As soon as he set his foot on board our ship, and
saw himself safe, he dropped down stone dead, to all
appearance; not the least sign of life could be per-
ceived in him; our surgeon immediately applied
proper remedies to recover him; and was the only
man in the ship that believed he was not dead: and
at length he opened a vein in his arm, having first
chafed and rubbed the part, so as to warm it as
much as possible: upon this the blood, which only


dropped at first, flowed something freely; in three
minutes after the man opened his eyes; and about
a quarter of an hour after that he spoke, grew better,
and, in a little time, quite well; after the blood was
stopped he walked about, told us he was perfectly
well, took a dram of cordial which the surgeon gave
him, and was, what we called, come to himself; about
a quarter of an hour after this they came running
into the cabin to the surgeon, who was bleeding a
French woman that had fainted, and told him the
priest was gone stark mad. It seems he had begun
to revolve the change of his circumstances in his
mind, and this put him into an ecstasy of joy: his
spirits whirled about faster than the vessels could
convey them; the blood grew hot and feverish; and
the man was as fit for Bedlam as any creature that
ever was in it; the surgeon would not bleed him again
in that condition, but gave him something to dose and
put him to sleep, which, after some time, operated
upon him, and he waked next morning perfectly
composed and well.
The younger priest behaved himself with great
command of his passion, and was really an example
of a serious, well-governed mind; at his first coming
on board the ship, he threw himself flat on his face,
prostrating himself in thankfulness for his deliverance;
in which I unhappily and unseasonably disturbed
him, really thinking he had been in a swoon: but he
spoke calmly; thanked me; told me he was giving
God thanks for his deliverance; begged me to leave
him a few moments, and that next to his Maker he
would give me thanks also.
I was heartily sorry that I disturbed him, and not


only left him, but kept others from interrupting him
also; he continued in that posture about three minutes,
or a little more, after I left him, then came to me as he
lad said he would, and with a great deal of seriousness
and affection, but with tears in his eyes, thanked me
that had, under God, given him and so many miser-
able creatures their lives : I told him I had no room
to move him to thank God for it rather than me;
fcr I had seen that he had done that already; but
I added, that it was nothing but what reason and
humanity dictated to all men, and that we had as
match reason as he to give thanks to God, who had
blesed us so far as to make us the instruments of His
me'cy to many of His creatures.
After this the young priest applied himself to his
comtry-folks; laboured to compose them ; persuaded,
ertreated, argued, reasoned with them, and did his
utnost to keep them within the exercise of their rea-
scn; and with some he had success, though others
wire, for a time, out of all government of themselves.
I cannot help committing this to writing, as perhaps
it may be useful to those into whose hands it may
fa, in the guiding themselves in all the extravagances
of their passions; for if an excess of joy can carry
mqp out to such a length beyond the reach of their rea-
sol, what will not the extravagances of anger, rage, and
a provoked mind, carry us to? And, indeed, here
I sw reason for keeping an exceeding watch over our
passions of every kind, as well those of joy and satis-
faction, as those of sorrow and anger.
We were something disordered by these extrava-
gaices among our new guests for the first day: but
wlen they had been retired, lodgings provided for


them as well as our ship would allow, and they had
slept heartily, as most of them did, being fatigued and
frightened, they were quite another sort of people the
next day.
Nothing of good manners, or civil acknowledge.
ments for the kindness shown them, was wanting; the
French, it is known, are naturally apt enough to ex-
ceed that way. The captain and one of the priest;
came to me the next day; and, desiring to speak witi
me and my nephew, the commander began to consult
with us what should be done with them; and fint
they told us, that as we had saved their lives, so 11
they had was little enough for a return to us br
the kindness received. The captain said they had
saved some money, and some things of value in their
boats, caught hastily out of the flames; and if we
would accept it, they were ordered to make an offer
of it all to us; they only desired to be set on shom
somewhere in our way, where, if possible, they miglt
get a passage to France.
My nephew was for accepting their money at fint
word, and to consider what to do with them after-
wards; but I overruled him in that part; for I know
what it was to be set on shore in a strange country;
and if the Portugal captain that took me up at sea
had served me so, and took all I had for my cd-
liverance, I must have starved, or have been as muth
a slave at the Brazils as I had been at Barbary, tie
being sold to a Mahometan only excepted; and pr-
haps a Portuguese is not a much better master thin
a Turk, if not, in some cases, a much worse.
I therefore told the French captain that we had
taken them up in their distress, it was true ; but thtt


it was our duty to do so, as we were fellow-creatures,
and as we would desire to be so delivered, if we were
in the like or any other extremity ; that we had done
nothing for them but what we believed they would
have done for us if we had been in their case and
they in ours; but that we took them up to serve
them, not to plunder them; and that it would be a
most barbarous thing to take that little from them
which they had saved out of the fire, and then set
them on shore and leave them ; that this would be
first to save them from death, and then kill them
ourselves; save them from drowning, and then
abandon them to starving; and therefore I would
not let the least thing be taken from them: as to
setting them on shore, I told them indeed that it was
an exceeding difficulty to us, for that the ship was
bound to the East Indies; and though we were driven
out of our course to the westward a very great way,
which perhaps was directed by Heaven on purpose
for their deliverance, yet it was impossible for us
wilfully to change our voyage on this particular
account; nor could my nephew, the captain, answer
it to the freighters, with whom he was under charter-
party to pursue his voyage by the way of Brazil : and
all I knew he could do for them was to put ourselves
in the way of meeting with other ships homeward-
bound from the West Indies, and get them passage,
if possible, to England or France.
The first part of the proposal was so generous and
kind, they could not but be very thankful for it; but
they were in a great consternation, especially the
passengers, at the notion of being carried away to
the East Indies: they then entreated me, that seeing


I was driven so far to the westward before I met
with them, I would at least keep on the same course
to the banks of Newfoundland, where it was possible
I might meet with some ship or sloop that they
might hire to carry them back to Canada, from
whence they came.
I thought this was but a reasonable request on
their part, and therefore I inclined to agree to it;
for indeed I considered, that to carry this whole
company to the East Indies would not only be an
intolerable severity to the poor people, but would be
ruining our whole voyage by devouring all our pro-
visions; so I thought it no breach of charter-party,
but what an unforeseen accident made absolutely
necessary to us; and in which no one could say we
were to blame; for the laws of God and nature
would have forbid that we should refuse to take up
two boats' full of people in such a distressed condi-
tion; and the nature of the thing, as well respecting
ourselves, as the poor people, obliged us to see them
on shore somewhere or other, for their deliverance;
so I consented that we would carry them to New-
foundland, if wind and weather would permit; and,
if not, that I would carry them to Martinico in the
West Indies.
The wind continued fresh easterly, but the weather
pretty good; and as it had blowed continually in
the points between N.E. and S.E. a long time, we
missed several opportunities of sending them to
France; for we met several ships bound to Europe,
whereof two were French, from St. Christopher's;
but they had been so long beating up against the
wind, that they durst take in no passengers for fear


of wanting provisions for the voyage, as well for
themselves as for those they should take in; so we
were obliged to go on. It was about a week after
this that we made the banks of Newfoundland,
where, to shorten my story, we put all our French
people on board a bark, which they hired at sea
there, to put them on shore, and afterwards to carry
them to France, if they could get provisions to
victual themselves with: when, I say, all the French
went on shore, I should remember that the young
priest I spoke of, hearing we were bound to the East
Indies, desired to go the voyage with us, and to be
set on shore on the coast of Coromandel: I readily
agreed to that; for I wonderfully liked the man, and
had very good.reason, as will appear afterwards; also
four of the seamen entered themselves in our ship,
and proved very useful fellows.


FROM hence we directed our course for the West
Indies, steering away S. and S. by E. for about
twenty days together, sometimes little or no wind
at all, when we met with another subject for our


humanity to work upon, almost as deplorable as that
It was in the latitude of 27 degrees 5 minutes N.
and the 19th day of March 1684-5, when we espied
a sail, our course S.E. and by S. We soon per-
ceived it was a large vessel, and that she bore up to
us; but could not at first know what to make of her,
till, after coming a little nearer, we found she had
lost her maintopmast, foremast, and bowsprit; and
presently she fires a gun as a signal of distress. The
weather was pretty good, wind at N.N.W. a fresh
gale, and we soon came to speak with her.
We found her a ship of Bristol bound home from
Barbadoes, but had been blown out of the road at
Barbadoes, a few days before she was ready to sail,
by a terrible hurricane, while the captain and chief
mate were both gone on shore; so that, beside the
terror of the storm, they were but in an indifferent
case for good artists to bring the ship home; they
had been already nine weeks at sea, and had met
with another terrible storm after the hurricane was
over, which had blown them quite out of their know-
ledge to the westward, and in which they had lost
their masts, as above; they told us, they expected
to have seen the Bahama Islands, but were then
driven away again to the south-east by a strong gale
of wind at N.N.W. the same that blew now, and
having no sails to work the ship with, but a main-
course and a kind of square sail upon a jury-fore-
mast, which they had set up, they could not lie near
the wind, but were endeavouring to stand away for
the Canaries.
But that which was worst of all, was, that they


were almost starved for want of provisions, besides
the fatigues they had undergone: their bread and
flesh was quite gone, they had not an ounce left in
the ship, and had had none for eleven days; the only
relief they had was, their water was not all spent,
and they had about half a barrel of flour left; they
had sugar enough; some succades or sweetmeats
they had at first, but they were devoured; and they
had seven casks of rum.
There was a youth and his mother, and a maid-
servant, on board who were going passengers, and
thinking the ship was ready to sail, unhappily came
on board the evening before the hurricane began;
and, having no provisions of their own left, they
were in a more deplorable condition than the rest;
for the seamen, being reduced to such an extreme
necessity themselves, had no compassion, we may
be sure, for the poor passengers; and they were
indeed in a condition that their misery is very hard
to describe.
I had perhaps not known this part, if my curiosity
had not led me, the weather being fair, and the wind
abated, to go on board the ship: the second mate,
who upon this occasion commanded the ship, had
been on board our ship; and he told me indeed, that
they had three passengers in the great cabin, that
they were in a deplorable condition; "Nay," says he,
" I believe they are dead, for I have heard nothing of
them for above two days; and I was afraid to inquire
after them," said he, "for I had nothing to relieve
them with."
We immediately applied ourselves to give them
what relief we could spare; and indeed I had so far


overruled things with my nephew, that I would
have victualled them, though we had gone away to
Virginia, or any part of the coast of America, to have
supplied ourselves; but there was no necessity for
But now they were in a new danger, for they were
afraid of eating too much, even of that little we gave
them. The mate or commander brought six men
with him in his boat, but these poor wretches looked
like skeletons, and were so weak, they could hardly
sit to their oars; the mate himself was very ill, and
half starved, for he declared he had reserved nothing
from the men, and went share and share alike with
them in every bit they ate.
I cautioned him to eat sparingly, but set meat
before him immediately, and he had not eaten three
mouthfuls before he began to be sick and out of
order; so he stopped awhile, and our surgeon mixed
him up something with some broth, which he said
would be to him both food and physic; and after he
had taken it, he grew better: in the meantime I
forgot not the men; I ordered victuals to be given
them, and the poor creatures rather devoured than
ate it; they were so exceeding hungry, that they
were in a manner ravenous, and had no command
of themselves; and two of them ate with so much
greediness, that they were in danger of their lives the
next morning.
The sight of these people's distress was very
moving to me, and brought to mind what I had a
terrible prospect of at my first coming on shore in
my island, where I had not the least mouthful of
food, or any hopes of procuring it; besides the hourly


apprehension I had of being made the food of other
creatures. But all the while the mate was thus re-
lating to me the miserable condition of the ship's
company, I could not put out of my thought the
story he had told me of the three poor creatures in
the great cabin; viz., the mother, her son, and the
maid-servant, whom he had heard nothing of for two
or three days; and whom he seemed to confess they
had wholly neglected, their own extremities being so
great; by which I understood, that they had really
given them no food at all; and that therefore they
must be perished, and be all lying dead perhaps on
the floor or deck of the cabin.
As I therefore kept the mate, whom we then called
captain, on board with his men, to refresh them, so
I also forgot not the starving crew that were left on
board, but ordered my own boat to go on board the
ship, and with my mate and twelve men to carry
them a sack of bread, and four or five pieces of beef
to boil. Our surgeon charged the men to cause the
meat to be boiled while they stayed, and to keep
guard in the cook-room, to prevent the men's taking
it to eat raw, or taking it out of the pot before it
was well boiled, and then to give every man but a
little at a time; and by this caution he preserved the
men, who would otherwise have killed themselves
with that very food that was given them on purpose
to save their lives.
At the same time I ordered the mate to go into
the great cabin, and see what condition the poor
passengers were in, and, if they were alive, to comfort
them and give them what refreshment was proper;
and the surgeon gave him a large pitcher with some


of the prepared broth which he had given the mate
that was on board, and which he did not question
would restore them gradually.
I was not satisfied with this; but, as I said above,
having a great mind to see the scene of misery,
which I knew the ship itself would present me with,
in a more lively manner than I could have it by
report, I took the captain of the ship, as we now
called him, with me, and went myself a little after in
their boat.
I found the poor men on board almost in a tumult
to get the victuals out of the boiler before it was
ready; but my mate observed his order, and kept a
good guard at the cook-room door; and the man he
placed there, after using all possible persuasion to
have patience, kept them off by force: however, he
caused some biscuit cakes to be dipped in the pot,
and softened them with the liquor of the meat, which
they call brewis, and gave every one one, to stay
their stomachs, and told them it was for their own
safety that he was obliged to give them but little at
a time. But it was all in vain, and had I not come
on board, and their own commander and officers with
me, and with good words, and some threats also of
giving them no more, I believe they would have
broke into the cook-room by force, and torn the
meat out of the furnace; for words indeed are of a
very small force to a hungry belly: however, we
pacified them, and fed them gradually and cautiously
for the first time, and the next time gave them more,
and at last filled their bellies, and the men did well
But the misery of the poor passengers in the cabin


was of another nature, and far beyond the rest; for
as, first, the ship's company had so little for them-
selves, it was but too true, that they had at first kept
them very low, and at last totally neglected them;
so that for six or seven days it might be said they
had really had no food at all, and for several days
before very little.
The poor mother, who, as the first mate reported,
was a woman of good sense and good breeding, had
spared all she could get so affectionately for her son,
that at last she entirely sunk under it; and when the
mate of our ship went in, she sat upon the floor or
deck, with her back up against the sides, between two
chairs, which were lashed fast, and her head sunk in
between her shoulders, like a corpse, though not
quite dead. My mate said all he could to revive and
encourage her, and with a spoon put some broth into
her mouth; she opened her lips, and lifted up one
hand, but could not speak: yet she understood what
he said, and made signs to him, intimating that it
was too late for her; but pointed to her child, as if
she would have said they should take care of him.
However, the mate, who was exceedingly moved
with the sight, endeavoured to get some of the broth
into her mouth; and, as he said, got two or three
,poonfuls down, though I question whether he could
be sure of it or not; but it was too late, and she died
the same night.
The youth, who was preserved at the price of his
most affectionate mother's life, was not so far gone;
yet he lay in a cabin-bed as one stretched out, with
hardly any life left in him; he had a piece of an old
glove in his mouth, having eaten up the rest of it;


however, being young, and having more strength
than his mother, the mate got something down his
throat, and he began sensibly to revive, though, by
giving him some time after but two or three spoon-
fuls extraordinary, he was very sick, and brought it
up again.
But the next care was the poor maid; she lay all
along upon the deck hard by her mistress, and just
like one that had fallen down with an apoplexy, and
struggled for life; her limbs were distorted; one of
her hands was clasped round the frame of one chair,
and she griped it so hard, that we could not easily
make her let it go; her other arm lay over her head,
and her feet lay both together, set fast against the
frame of the cabin-table; in short, she lay just like
one in the last agonies of death; and yet she was
alive too.
The poor creature was not only starved with hunger
and terrified with the thoughts of death, but, as the
men told us afterwards, was broken-hearted for her
mistress, whom she saw dying two or three days
before, and whom she loved most tenderly.
We knew not what to do with this poor girl; for
when our surgeon, who was a man of very great
knowledge and experience, and with great applica-
tion recovered her as to life, he had her upon his
hand as to her senses; for she was little less than
distracted for a considerable time after, as shall appear
Whoever shall read these memorandums, must be
desired to consider, that visits at sea are not like a
journey into the country, where sometimes people
stay a week or a fortnight at a place. Our business


was to relieve this distressed ship's crew, but not lie
by for them; and though they were willing to steer
the same course with us for some days, yet we could
carry no sail to keep pace with a ship that had no
masts: however, as their captain begged of us to
help him to set up a maintopmast, and a kind of
topmast to his jury-foremast, we did, as it were, lie
by him for three or four days, and then having given
him five barrels of beef and pork, two hogsheads of
biscuit, and a proportion of peas, flour, and what
other things we could spare; and taking three casks
of sugar and some rum, and some pieces of eight of
them for satisfaction, we left them, taking on board
with us, at their own earnest request, the youth and
the maid, and all their goods.
The young lad was about seventeen years of age,
a pretty, well-bred, modest, and sensible youth;
greatly dejected with the loss of his mother, and, as
it seems, had lost his father but a few months before
at Barbadoes. He begged of the surgeon to speak
to me, to take him out of the ship; for he said the
cruel fellows had murdered his mother; and indeed
so they had, that is to say, passively; for they might
have spared a small sustenance to the poor helpless
widow, that might have preserved her life, though it
had been just to keep her alive. But hunger knows
no friend, no relation, no justice, no right; and
therefore is remorseless and capable of no com-
The surgeon told him how far we were going, and
how it would carry him away from all his friends,
and put him perhaps in as bad circumstances
almost as we found them in; that is to say, starving


in the world. He said it mattered not whither he
went, if he was but delivered from the terrible crew
that he was among; that the captain (by which he
meant me, for he could know nothing of my nephew)
had saved his life, and he was sure would not hurt
him; and as for the maid, he was sure if she came
to herself, she would be very thankful for it, let us
carry them whither we would. The surgeon repre-
sented the case so affectionately to me, that I
yielded, and we took them both on board with all
their goods, except eleven hogsheads of sugar, which
could not be removed, or come at; and as the youth
had a bill of lading for them, I made his commander
sign a writing, obliging him to go, as soon as he
came to Bristol, to one Mr. Rogers, a merchant there,
to whom the youth said he was related, and to deliver
a letter which I wrote to him, and all the goods he
had belonging to the deceased widow; which I sup-
pose was not done; for I could never learn that the
ship came to Bristol; but was, as is most probable,
lost at sea, being in so disabled a condition, and so
far from any land, that I am of opinion, the first storm
she met with afterwards she might founder in the sea;
for she was leaky, and had damage in her hold when
I met with her.
I was now in the latitude of 19 deg. 32 min., and
had hitherto had a tolerable voyage as to weather,
though at first the winds had been contrary. I shall
trouble nobody with the little incidents of wind,
weather, currents, &c., on the rest of our voyage;
but, shortening my story for the sake of what is to
follow, shall observe that I came to my old habita-
tion, the island, on the Ioth of April 1695. It was


with no small difficulty that I found the place; for as
I came to it, and went from it before, on the south
and east side of the island, as coming from the
Brazils; so now coming in between the main and the
island, and having no chart for the coast, nor any
landmark, I did not know it when I saw it, or know
whether I saw it or no.
We beat about a great while, and went on shore
on several islands in the mouth of the great river
Oroonoque, but none for my purpose: only this I
learnt by my coasting the shore, that I was under
one great mistake before, viz., that the continent
which I thought I saw from the island I lived in, was
really no continent, but a long island, or rather a
ridge of islands reaching from one to the other side
of the extended mouth of that great river; and that
the savages who came to my island, were not
properly those which we call Caribbees, but is-
landers, and other barbarians of the same kind, who
inhabited something nearer to our side than the
In short, I visited several of the islands to no
purpose; some I found were inhabited, and some
were not. On one of them I found some Spaniards,
and thought they had lived there; but speaking with
them, found they had a sloop lay in a small creek
hard by, and that they came thither to make salt,
and catch some pearl-mussels, if they could; but
they belonged to the Isle de Trinidad, which lay
farther north, in the latitude of Io and i degrees.
Thus coasting from one island to another, some-
times with the ship, sometimes with the Frenchman's
shallop (which we had found a convenient boat, and


therefore kept her with their very good will), at length
I came fair on the south side of my island, and I
presently knew the very countenance of the place;
so I brought the ship safe to an anchor broadside
with the little creek where was my old habitation.
As soon as I saw the place I called for Friday,
and asked him if he knew where he was? He looked
about a little, and presently clapping his hands, cried,
"Oh yes, oh there, oh yes, oh there!" pointing to our
old habitation, and fell a dancing and capering like
a mad fellow; and-I had much ado to keep him
from jumping into the sea, to swim ashore to the
"Well, Friday," said I, "do you think we shall
find anybody here, or no ? and what do you think,
shall we see your father ?" The fellow stood mute as
a stock a good while; but when I named his father,
the poor affectionate creature looked dejected; and
I could see the tears run down his face very plenti-
fully. "What is the matter, Friday?" said I; "are
you troubled because you may see your father ?"-
"No, no," says he, shaking his head, "no see him
more, no ever more see again."-" Why so?" said I,
" Friday, how do you know that ? "-" Oh no, oh no,"
says Friday, "he long ago die; long ago, he much
old man."-" Well, well," said I, Friday, you don't
know: but shall we see any one else then?" The
fellow, it seems, had better eyes than I, and he points
just to the hill above my old house; and though we
lay half a league off, he cries out, Me see! me see!
yes, yes, me see much man there, and there, and
there." I looked, but I could see nobody, no, not
with a perspective-glass; which was, I suppose,


---- --- -I -~



because I could not hit the place; for the fellow was
right, as I found upon inquiry the next day, and
there were five or six men all together stood to look
at the ship, not knowing what to think of us.
As soon as Friday had told me he saw people, I
caused the English ancient to be spread, and fired
three guns, to give them notice we were friends; and
about half a quarter of an hour after we perceived a
smoke rise from the side of the creek; so I imme-
diately ordered a boat out, taking Friday with me;
and hanging out a white flag, or a flag of truce, I
went directly on shore, taking with me the young
friar I mentioned, to whom I had told the whole
story of my living there, and the manner of it, and
every particular both of myself and those that I left
there, and who was on that account extremely desirous
to go with me. We had besides about sixteen men
very well armed, if we had found any new guest there
which we did not know of; but we had no need of
As we went on shore upon the tide of flood near
high water, we rowed directly into the creek; and
the first man I fixed my eye upon was the Spaniard
whose life I had saved, and whom I knew by his
face perfectly well; as to his habit, I shall describe
it afterwards. I ordered nobody to go on shore at
first but myself; but there was no keeping Friday in
the boat; for the affectionate creature had spied his
father at a distance, a good way off of the Spaniards,
where indeed I saw nothing of him; and if they had
not let him go on shore he would have jumped into
the sea. He was no sooner on shore, but he flew
away to his father like an arrow out of a bow. It


would have made any man shed tears in spite of the
firmest resolution, to have seen the first transports of
this poor fellow's joy, when he came to his father;
how he embraced him, kissed him, stroked his face,
took him up in his arms, set him down upon a tree, and
lay down by him; then stood and looked at him as
any one would look at a strange picture, for a quarter
of an hour together; then lay down upon the ground,
and stroked his legs, and kissed them, and then got
up again and stared at him; one would have thought
the fellow bewitched: but it would have made a dog
laugh to see how the next day his passion ran out
another way: in the morning he walked along the
shore, to and again, with his father, several hours,
always leading him by the hand as if he had been a
lady; and every now and then would come to fetch
something or other for him from the boat, either a
lump of sugar, or a dram, a biscuit, or something or
other that was good. In the afternoon his frolics ran
another way; for then he would set the old man
down upon the ground, and dance about him, and
make a thousand antic postures and gestures; and
all the while he did this he would be talking to him,
and telling him one story or another of his travels,
and of what had happened to him abroad, to divert
him. In short, if the same filial affection was to be
found in Christians to their parents in our parts of
.the world, one would be tempted to say there hardly
would have been any need of the fifth command-
But this is a digression: I return to my landing.
It would be endless to take notice of all the cere-
monies and civilities that the Spaniards received me


with. The first Spaniard whom, as I said, I knew
very well, was he whose life I saved: he came to-
wards the boat attended by one more, carrying a flag
of truce also; and he did! not only not know me at
first, but he had no thoughts, no notion, of its being
me that was come till I spoke to him. "Seignior,"
said I, in Portuguese, "do you not know me?" at
which he spoke not a word; but giving his musket
to the man that was with him, threw his arms abroad,
and saying something in Spanish that I did not
perfectly hear, came forward and embraced me,
telling me he was inexcusable not to know that face
again that he had once seen as of an angel from
Heaven sent to save his life: he said abundance of
very handsome things, as a well-bred Spaniard always
knows how; and then beckoning to the person that
attended him, bade him go and call out his comrades.
He then asked me if I would walk to my old habita-
tion, where he would give me possession of my own
house again, and where I should see there had been
but mean improvements; so I walked along with
him; but, alas! I could no more find the place again
than if I had never been there; for they had planted
so many trees, and placed them in such a posture, so
thick and close to one another, in ten years time they
were grown so big, that, in short, the place was in-
accessible, except by such windings and blind ways
as they themselves only who made them could find.
I asked them, what put them upon all these forti-
fications ? He told me, I would say there was need
enough of it, when they had given an account how
they had passed their time since their arriving in the
island, especially after they had the misfortune to


find that I was gone; he told me he could not but
have some satisfaction in my good fortune when he
heard that I was gone in a good ship, and to my
satisfaction; and that he had oftentimes a strong
persuasion that one time or other he should see me
again: but nothing that ever befell him in his life,
he said, was so surprising and afflicting to him at
first, as the disappointment he was under when he
came back to the island and found I was not there.
As to the three barbarians (so he called them)
that were left behind, and of whom he said he had
*a long story to tell me; the Spaniards all thought
themselves much better among the savages, only
that their number was so small. "And," says he,
"had they been strong enough, we had been all
long ago in purgatory;" and with that he crossed
himself upon the breast. "But, sir," says he, "I
hope you will not be displeased when I shall tell
you how, forced by necessity, we were obliged, for
our own preservation, to disarm them, and making
them our subjects, who would not be content with
being moderately our masters, but would be our
murderers." I answered, I was heartily afraid of
it when I left them there; and nothing troubled
me at my parting from the island, but that they
were not come back, that I might have put them in
possession of everything first, and left the other in
a state of subjection, as they deserved; but if they
had reduced them to it, I was very glad, and
should be very far from finding any fault with'it;
for I knew they were a parcel of refractory, ungo-
vernable villains, and were fit for any manner of


While I was saying this, came the man whom he
had sent back, and with him eleven men more: in
the dress they were in it was impossible to guess
what nation they were of; but he made all clear
both to them and to me. First he turned to me,
and pointing to them, said, "These, sir, are some
of the gentlemen who owe their lives to you;" and
then turning to them, and pointing to me, he let
them know who I was; upon which they all came
up one by one, not as if they had been sailors and
ordinary fellows, and I the like, but really as if they
had been ambassadors or noblemen, and I a monarch
or a great conqueror: their behaviour was to the
last degree obliging and courteous, and yet mixed
with a manly majestic gravity, which very well be-
came them: and in short they had so much more
manners than I, that I scarce knew how to receive
their civilities, much less how to return them in
The history of their coming to, and conduct in,
the island after my going away is so remarkable,
and has so many incidents, which the former part
of my relation will help to understand, and which
will, in most of the particulars, refer to that account
I have already given, that I cannot but commit them
with great delight to the reading of those that come
after me.
I shall no longer trouble the story with a relation
in the first person, which will put me to the expense
of ten thousand Said I's, and Said he's, and He told
me's, and I told him's, and the like; but I shall col-
lect the facts historically as near as I can gather
them out of my memory from what they related to


me, and from what I met with in my conversing with
them, and with the place.
In order to do this succinctly, and as intelligibly
as I can, I must go back to the circumstance in
which I left the island, and which the persons were
in of whom I am to speak. At first it is necessary
to repeat, that I had sent away Friday's father and
the Spaniard, the two whose lives I had rescued
from the savages; I say, I had sent them away in
a large canoe to the main, as I then thought it, to
fetch over the Spaniard's companions whom he had
left behind him, in order to save them from the like
calamity that he had been in, and in order to succour
them for the present, and that if possible, we might
together find some way for our deliverance afterward.
When I sent them away, I had no visible appear-
ance of, or the least room to hope for, my own de-
liverance, any more than I had twenty years before;
much less had I any foreknowledge of what after
happened, I mean of an English ship coming on shore
there to fetch them off; and it could not but be a
very great surprise to them when they came back,
not only to find that I was gone, but to find three
strangers left on the spot, possessed of all that I had
left behind me, which would otherwise have been
their own.
The first thing, however, which I inquired into,
that I might begin where I left off, was of their own
part; and I desired he would give me a particular
account of his voyage back to his countrymen with
the boat, when I sent him to fetch them -over. He
told me there was little variety in that part; for no-
thing remarkable happened to them on the way, they


having very calm weather and a smooth sea; for his
countrymen it could not be doubted, he said, but that
they were overjoyed to see him (it seems he was the
principal man among them, the captain of the vessel
they had been shipwrecked in having been dead some
time); they were, he said, the more surprised to see
him, because they knew that he was fallen into the
hands of savages, who, they were satisfied, would
devour him, as they did all the rest of their prisoners;
that when he told them the story of the deliverance,
and in what manner he was furnished for carrying
them away, it was like a dream to them: and their
astonishment, they said, was something like that of
Joseph's brethren, when he told them who he was,
and told them the story of his exaltation in Pharaoh's
court: but when he showed them the arms, the
powder, the ball, and the provisions that he brought
them for their journey or voyage, they were restored
to themselves, took a just share of the joy of their
deliverance, and immediately prepared to come away
with him.
The first business was to get canoes: and in this
they were obliged not to stick so much upon the
honest part of it, but to trespass upon their friendly
savages, and to borrow two large canoes or periaguas,
on pretence of going out a-fishing or for pleasure.
In these they came away the next morning; it
seems they wanted no time to get themselves ready,
for they had no baggage, neither clothes, nor provi-
sions, nor any other thing in the world but what they
had on them, and a few roots to eat, of which they
used to make their bread.
They were in all three weeks absent, and in that


time, unluckily for them, I had the occasion offered
for my escape, as I mentioned in my other part, and
to get off from the island; leaving three of the most
impudent, hardened, ungoverned, disagreeable villains
behind me that any man could desire to meet with,
to the poor Spaniards' great grief and disappointment,
you may be sure.
The only just thing the rogues did was, that when
the Spaniards came on shore, they gave my letter to
them, and gave them provisions and other relief, as I
had ordered them to do; also they gave them the
long paper of directions, which I had left with them,
containing the particular methods which I took for
managing every part of my life there; the way how
I baked my bread, bred up my tame goats, and
planted my corn; how I cured my grapes, made my
pots, and, in a word, everything I did; all this being
written down, they gave to the Spaniards, two of
whom understood English well enough; nor did they
refuse to accommodate the Spaniards with anything
else, for they agreed very well for some time: they
gave them an equal admission into the house, or cave,
and they began to live very sociably ; and the head
Spaniard, whohad seen pretty much of my method, and
Friday's father together, managed all their affairs; for
as for the Englishmen, they did nothing but ramble
about the island, shoot parrots, and catch tortoises, and
when they came home at night, the Spaniards pro-
vided their suppers for them.
The Spaniards would have been satisfied with this,
would the other but have left them alone; which,
however, they could not find in their hearts to do
ong: but, like the dog in the manger, they would


not eat themselves, and would not let others eat
neither: the differences, nevertheless, were at first
but trivial, and such as are not worth relating; but
at last it broke out into open war, and it began with
all the rudeness and insolence that can be ima-
gined, without reason, without provocation, contrary
to nature, and indeed to common sense; and though,
it is true, the first relation of it came from the
Spaniards themselves, whom I may call the accusers,
yet when I came to examine the fellows, they could
not deny a word of it.
But before I come to the particulars of this part,
I must supply a defect in my former relation; and
this was, that I forgot to set down among the rest,
that just as we were weighing the anchor to set sail,
there happened a little quarrel on board our ship,
which I was afraid once would turn to a second
mutiny; nor was it appeased till the captain, rousing
up his courage, and taking us all to his assistance,
parted them by force, and making two of the most
refractory fellows prisoners, he laid them in irons;
and as they had been active in the former disorders,
and let fall some ugly dangerous words the second
time, he threatened to carry them in irons to England,
and have them hanged there for mutiny, and running
away with the ship.
This, it seems, though the captain did not intend
to do it, frighted some other men in the ship; and
some of them had put it in the heads of the rest, that
the captain only gave them good words for the pre-
sent till they should come to some English port, and
that then they should be all put into a gaol, and
tried for their lives.


The mate got intelligence of this, and acquainted
us with it; upon which it was desired that I, who still
passed for a great man among them, should go down
with the mate and satisfy the men, and tell them,
that they might be assured, if they behaved well the
rest of the voyage, all they had done for the time
past should be pardoned. So I went, and after pass-
ing my honour's word to them, they appeared easy,
and the more so, when I caused the two men who
were in irons to be released and forgiven.
But this mutiny had brought us to an anchor for
that night, the wind also falling calm. Next morn-
ing we found that our two men, who had been laid
in irons, had stole each of them a musket and some
other weapons; what powder or ;hot they had we
knew not; and had taken the ship's pinnace, which
was not yet hauled up, and run aw,'y with her to
their companions in roguery on shore.
As soon as we found this, I ordered tl. long-boat
on shore, with twelve men and the mate, and away
they went to seek the rogues; but they could neither
find them, nor any of the rest; for they all fled into
the woods when they saw the boat coming on shore.
The mate was once resolved, in justice to their
roguery, to have destroyed their plantations, burnt
all their household stuff and furniture, and left them
to shift without it; but having no order, he let all
alone, left everything as they found it, and bringing
the pinnace away, came on board without them.
These two men made their number five; but the
other three villains were so much wickeder than
these, that after they had been two or three days
together, they turned their two new-comers out of


doors to shift for themselves, and would have nothing
to do with them; nor could they, for a good while,
be persuaded to give them any food; as for the
Spaniards, they were not yet come.
When the Spaniards came first on shore, the busi-
ness began to go forward ; the Spaniards would have
persuaded the three English brutes to have taken in
their two countrymen again, that, as they said, they
might be all one family; but they would not hear of
it: so the two poor fellows lived by themselves, and
finding nothing but industry and application would
make them live comfortable, they pitched their tents
on the north shore of the island, but a little more to
the west, to be out of the danger of the savages, who
always landed on the east parts of the island.
Here they built two huts, one to lodge in, and the
other to lay up their magazines and stores in; and
the Spaniards having given them some corn for seed,
and especially some of the peas which I had left
them, they dug and planted, and enclosed, after the
pattern I had set for them all, and began to live
pretty well: their first crop of corn was on the
ground, and though it was but a little bit of land
which they had dug up at first, having had but a
little time, yet it was enough to relieve them, and
find them with bread or other eatables; and one of
the fellows, being the cook's mate of the ship, was
very ready at making soup, puddings, and such other
preparations, as the rice and the milk and such little
flesh as they got, furnished him to do.
They were going on in a little thriving posture,
when the three unnatural rogues, their own country-
men too, in mere humour, and to insult them, came


and bullied them, and told them the island was
theirs; that the governor, meaning me, had given
them possession of it, and nobody else had any right
to it; and, damn them, they should build no houses
upon their ground, unless they would pay them rent
for them.
The two men thought they had jested at first, and
asked them to come and sit down, and see what fine
houses they were that they had built, and tell them
what rent they demanded; and one of them merrily
Told them, if they were ground-landlords, he hoped
if they built tenements upon the land, and made
improvements, they would, according to the custom
of all landlords, grant them a long lease; and bid
them go fetch a scrivener to draw the writings. One
of the three, damning and raging, told them they
should see they were not in jest; and going to a
little place at a distance, where the honest men had
made a fire to dress their victuals, he takes a fire-
brand and claps it to the outside of their hut, and
very fairly set it on fire; and it would have been all
burnt down in a few minutes, if one of the two had
not run to the fellow, thrust him away, and trod the
fire out with his feet, and that not without some
difficulty too.
The fellow was in such a rage at the honest man's
thrusting him away, that he turned upon him with a
pole he had in his hand; and had not the man
avoided the blow very nimbly, and run into the hut,
he had ended his days at once. His comrade, seeing
the danger they were both in, ran in after him, and
immediately they came both out with their muskets;
and the man that was first struck at with the pole


knocked the fellow down, who began the quarrel,
with the stock of his musket, and that before the
other two could come to help him; and then seeing
the rest come at them, they stood together, and pre-
senting the other ends of their pieces to them, bade
them stand off.
The others had firearms with them too; but one
of the two honest men, bolder than his comrade, and
made desperate by his danger, told them if they
offered to move hand or foot they were all dead men,
and boldly commanded them to lay down their arms.
They did not indeed lay down their arms; but
seeing him resolute, it brought them to a parley,
and they consented to take their wounded man with
them, and be gone; and, indeed, it seems the fellow
was wounded sufficiently with the blow: however,
they were much in the wrong, since they had the
advantage, that they did not disarm them effectually,
as they might have done, and have gone immediately
to the Spaniards, and given them an account how
the rogues had treated them; for the three villains
studied nothing but revenge, and every day gave
them some intimation that they did so.
But not to crowd this part with an account of the
lesser part of their rogueries, such as treading down
their corn, shooting three young kids and a she-goat,
which the poor men had got to breed up tame for
their store; and in a word, plaguing them night and
day in this manner, it forced the two men to such a
desperation, that they resolved to fight them all three
the first time they had a fair opportunity. In order
to this they resolved to go to the castle, as they
called it, that was my old dwelling, where the three


rogues and the Spaniards all lived together at that
time, intending to have a fair battle, and the Spa-
niards should stand by to see fair play. So they got
up in the morning before day, and came to the place,
and called the Englishmen by their names, telling a
Spaniard that answered that they wanted to speak
with them.



IT happened that the day before two of the Spaniards,
having been in the woods, had seen one of the two
Englishmen, whom, for distinction, I call the honest
men; and he had made a sad complaint to the
Spaniards of the barbarous usage they had met with
from their three countrymen, and how they had
ruined their plantation and destroyed their corn that
they had laboured so hard to bring forward, and
killed the milch-goat and their three kids, which was
all they had provided for their sustenance; and that
if he and his friends, meaning the Spaniards, did not
assist them again, they should be starved. When the
Spaniards came home at night, and they were all at
supper, he took the freedom to reprove the three
Englishmen, though in gentle and mannerly terms,


and asked them how they could be so cruel, they
being harmless inoffensive fellows, and'that they were
putting themselves in a way to subsist by their
labour, and that it had cost them a great deal of pains
to bring things to such perfection as they had ?
One of the Englishmen returned very briskly,
"What had they to do there? That they came on
shore without leave, and that they should not plant
or build upon the island; it was none of their
ground."-" Why," says the Spaniard, very calmly,
" Seignior Inglese, they must not starve." The Eng-
lishman replied, like a true rough-hewn tarpaulin,
"they might starve and be d- d, they should not
plant nor build in that place."-" But what must they
do then, Seignior ?" says the Spaniard. Another of
the brutes returned, "Do! d-n them, they should
be servants, and work for them."-" But how can you
expect that of them ? they are not bought with your
money; you have no right to make them servants."
The Englishman answered, "The island was theirs,
the governor had given it to them, and no man had
anything to do there but themselves ;" and with that
he swore by his Maker, that he would go and burn
all their new huts; they should build none upon
their land.
Why, Seignior," says the Spaniard, "by the same
rule, we must be your servants too." Ay," says the
bold dog, and so you shall too, before we have done
with you;" mixing two or three G-d d-mme's in
the proper intervals of his speech. The Spaniard
only smiled at that, and made him no answer. How-
ever, this little discourse had heated them: and start-
ing up, one says to the other (I think it was he they

called Will Atkins), Come, Jack, let us go and have
the other brush with them; we will demolish their
castle, I will warrant you; they shall plant no colony
in our dominions."
Upon this they were all trooping away, with every
man a gun, a pistol, and a sword, and muttered some
insolent things among themselves, of what they would
do to the Spaniards too, when opportunity offered;
but the Spaniards, it seems, did not so perfectly
understand them as to know all the particulars; only
that, in general, they threatened them hard for taking
the two Englishmen's part.
Whither they went, or how they bestowed their
time that evening, the Spaniards said they did not
know; but it seems they wandered about the country
part of the night; and then lying down in the place
which I used to call my bower, they were weary, and
overslept themselves. The case was this : they had
resolved to stay till midnight, and so to take the poor
men when they were asleep; and they acknowledged
it afterwards, intending to set fire to their huts while
they were in them, and either burn them in them, or
murder them as they came out: and, as malice
seldom sleeps very sound, it was very strange they
should not have been kept waking.
However, as the two men had also a design upon
them, as I have said, though a much fairer one than
that of burning and murdering, it happened, and very
luckily for them all, that they were up and gope
abroad before the bloody-minded rogues came to
their huts.
When they came thither, and found the men gone,
Atkins, who it seems was the forwardest man, called


out to his comrades, "Ha I Jack, here's the nest; but
d-n them, the birds are flown." They mused awhile
to think what should be the occasion of their being
gone abroad so soon, and suggested presently, that
the Spaniards had given them notice of it; and with
that they shook hands, and swore to one another that
they would be revenged of the Spaniards. As soon
as they had made this bloody bargain, they fell to
work with the poor men's habitation; they did not
set fire indeed to anything, but they pulled down
both their houses, and pulled them so limb from
limb, that they left not the least stick standing, or
scarce any sign on the ground where they stood;
they tore all their little collected household-stuff in
pieces, and threw everything about in such a manner,
that the poor men found, afterwards, some of their
things a mile off from their habitation.
When they had done this, they pulled up all the
young trees which the poor men had planted; pulled
up the enclosure they had made to secure their cattle
and their corn; and, in a word, sacked and plundered
everything as completely as a herd of Tartars would
have done.
The two men were at this juncture gone to find
them out, and had resolved to fight them wherever
they had been, though they were but two to three:
so that, had they met, there certainly would have
been bloodshed among them; for they were all very
stqut, resolute fellows, to give them their due.
But Providence took more care to keep them
asunder, than they themselves could do to meet: for,
as they had dodged one another, when the three were
gone thither, the two were here; and afterwards when


the two went back to find them, the three were come
to the old habitation again: we shall see their differ-
ing conduct presently. When the three came back,
like furious creatures, flushed with the rage which
the work they had been about put them into, they
came up to the Spaniards, and told them what they
had done, by way of scoff and bravado; and one of
them stepping up to one of the Spaniards, as if they
had been a couple of boys at play, takes hold of his
hat, as it was upon his head, and giving it a twirl
about, fleering in his face, says he to him, "And you,
Seignior Jack Spaniard, shall have the same sauce,
if you do not mend your manners." The Spaniard,
who though quite a civil man was as brave as a man
could desire to be, and withal a strong well-made
man, looked steadily at him for a good while; and
then, having no weapon in his hand, stepped gravely
up to him, and with one blow of his fist knocked
him down, as an ox is felled with a pole-axe; at
which one of the rogues, insolent as the first, fired his
pistol at the Spaniard immediately: he missed his
body indeed, for the bullets went through his hair,
but one of them touched the tip of his ear, and he
bled pretty much. The blood made the Spaniard
believe he was more hurt than he really was, and
that put him into some heat, for before he acted all
in a perfect calm; but now resolving to go through
with his work, he stooped and took the fellow's musket
whom he had knocked down, and was just going to
shoot the man who had fired at him, when the rest
of the Spaniards, being in the cave, came'out, and
calling to him not to shoot, they stepped in, secured
the other two, and took their arms from them.


When they were thus disarmed, and found they
had made all the Spaniards their enemies, as well
as their own countrymen, they began to cool;'and
giving the Spaniards better words, would have had
their arms again; but the Spaniards, considering the
feud that was' between them and the other two
Englishmen, and that it would be the best method
they could take to keep them from one another, told
them they would do them no harm: and if they
would live peaceably they would be very willing to
assist and associate with them, as they did before;
but that they could not think of giving them their
arms again, while they appeared so resolved to do
mischief with them to their own countrymen, and
had even threatened them all to make them their
The rogues were now more capable to hear reason
than to act reason; but being refused their arms,
they went raving away, and raging like madmen,
threatening what they would do, though they had
no firearms; but the Spaniards, despising their
threatening, told them they should take care how
they offered any injury to their plantation or cattle;
for if they did, they would shoot them, as they
would do ravenous beasts, wherever they found
them; and if they fell into their hands alive, they
would certainly be hanged. However, this was far
from cooling them; but away they went, swearing
and raging like furies of hell. As soon as they
were gone, came back the two men in passion and
rage enough also, though of another kind; for,
having been at their plantation, and finding it all
demolished and destroyed, as above, it will easily


be supposed they had provocation enough; they
could scarce have room to tell their tale, the
Spaniards were so eager to tell them theirs; and it
was strange enough to find that three men should
thus bully nineteen and receive no punishment at
The Spaniards, indeed, despised them, and espe-
cially having thus disarmed them, made light of their
threatening; but the two Englishmen resolved to
have their remedy against them, what pains soever it
cost to find them out.
.But the Spaniards interposed here too, and told
them, that they were already disarmed: they could
not consent that they (the two) should pursue them
with fire-arms, and perhaps kill them: But," said
the grave Spaniard, who was their governor, "we
will endeavour to make them do you justice, if you
will leave it to us; for, as there is no doubt but
they will come to us again when their passion is
over, being not able to subsist without our assist-
ance, we promise you to make no peace with them,
without having a full satisfaction for you ; and upon
this condition we hope you will promise to use no
violence with them, other than in your defence."
The two Englishmen yielded to this very awk-
wardly and with great reluctance ; but the Spaniards
protested they did it only to keep them from blood-
shed, and to make all easy at last: For," said they,
" we are not so many of us; here is room enough for
us all, and it is a great pity we should not be all good
friends." At length they did consent, and'waited for
the issue of the thing, living for some days with the
Spaniards; for their own habitation was destroyed.


In about five days' time the three vagrants, tired
with wandering, and almost starved with hunger,
having chiefly lived on turtles' eggs all that while,
came back to the grove; and finding my Spaniard,
who, as I have said, was the governor, and two more
with him, walking by the side of the creek; they
came up in a very submissive humble manner, and
begged to be received again into the family. The
Spaniards used them civilly, but told them they had
acted so unnaturally by their countrymen, and so
very grossly by them (the Spaniards), that they could
not come to any conclusion without consulting the
two Englishmen and the rest; but however they
would go to them, and discourse about it, and they
should know in half an hour. It may be guessed
that they were very hard put to it; for it seems, as
they were to wait this half-hour for an answer, they
begged he would send them out some bread in the
meantime; which he did, and sent them at the same
time a large piece of goat's flesh, and a broiled parrot,
which they ate very heartily, for they were hungry
After half an hour's consultation they were called
in, and a long debate had about them, their two
countrymen charging them with the ruin of all their
labour, and a design to murder them; all which they
owned before, and therefore could not deny now;
upon the whole, the Spaniards acted the moderators
between them; and as they had obliged the two
Englishmen not to hurt the three, while they were
naked and unarmed, so they now obliged the three
to go and rebuild their fellows' two huts, one to be
of the same dimensions, and the other larger than


they were before; also to fence their ground again,
where they had pulled up the fences, plant trees in
the room of those pulled up, dig up the land again
for planting corn, where they had spoiled it; and, in
a word, to restore everything in the same state as
they found it, as near as they could; for entirely it
could not be, the season for the corn, and the growth
of the trees and hedges, not being possible to be
Well, they submitted to all this: and as they had
plenty of provisions given them all the while, they
grew very orderly, and the whole society began to
live pleasantly and agreeably together again; only
that these three fellows could never be persuaded to
work; I mean, not for themselves except now and
then a little, just as they pleased; however, the
Spaniards told them plainly, that if they would but
live sociably and friendly together, and study in the
whole the good of the plantation, they would be con-
tent to work for them, and let them walk about and
be as idle as they pleased; and thus having lived
pretty well together for a month or two, the Spaniards
gave them their arms again, and gave them liberty to
go abroad with them as before.
It was not above a week after they had these arms,
and went abroad, but the ungrateful creatures began
to be as insolent and troublesome as before; but
however, an accident happened presently upon this
which endangered the safety of them all; they were
obliged to lay by all private resentments, and look
to the preservation of their lives.
It happened one night that the Spaniard governor,
as I call him, that is to say, the Spaniard whose life


I had saved, who was now the captain, or leader, or
governor of the rest, found himself very uneasy in
the night, and could by no means get any sleep ; he
was perfectly well in body, as he told me the story,
only found his thoughts tumultuous; his mind ran
upon men fighting, and killing one another, but was
broad awake, and could not by any means get any
sleep; in short, he lay a great while; but growing
more and more uneasy, he resolved to rise: as they
lay, being so many of them, upon goatskins laid
thick upon such couches and pads as they made for
themselves, and not in hammocks and ship-beds, as
I did, who was but one, so they had little to do,
when they were willing to rise, but to get up upon
their feet, and perhaps put on a coat, such as it was,
and their pumps, and they were ready for going any
way that their thoughts guided them.
Being thus gotten up, he looked out; but, being
dark, he could see little or nothing; and besides, the
trees which I had planted, as in my former account
is described, and which were now grown tall, inter-
cepted his sight, so that he could only look up, and
see that it was a clear starlight night; and, hearing
no noise, he returned and laid him down again; but
it was all one, he could not sleep, nor could he com-
pose himself to anything like rest, but his thoughts
were to the last degree uneasy, and yet he knew not
for what.
Having made some noise with rising and walking
about, going out and coming in, another of them
waked, and, calling, asked who it was that was up ?
The governor told him how it had been with him.
"Say you so?" says the other Spaniard; "such


things are not to be slighted, I assure you; there
is certainly some mischief working," says he, "near
us;" and presently he asked him, "Where are the
Englishmen?"-"They are all in their huts," says
he, "safe enough." It seems the Spaniards had
kept possession of the main apartment, and had
made a place, where the three Englishmen, since
their last mutiny, always quartered by themselves,
and could not come at the rest. "Well," says the
Spaniard, "there is something in it, I am persuaded
from my own experience; I am satisfied our spirits
embodied have converse with, and receive intelli-
gence from, the spirits unembodied, and inhabiting
the invisible world; and this friendly notice is given
for our advantage, if we know how to make use of it.
Come," says he, "let us go out and look abroad;
and if we find nothing at all in it to justify our
trouble, I'll tell you a story to the purpose, that shall
convince you of the justice of my proposing it."
In a word, they went out to go to the top of the
hill where I used to go; but they, being strong, and
in good company, nor alone, as I was, used none of
my cautions to go up by the ladder, and then pulling
it up after them, to go up a second stage to the top,
but were going round through the grove unconcerned
and unwary, when they were surprised with seeing a
light as of fire, a very little way off from them, and
hearing the voices of men, not of one, or two, but of
a great number.
In all the discoveries I had made of the savages
landing on the island, it was my constant care to
prevent them making the least discovery of there
being any inhabitant upon the place; and when by


any necessity they came to know it, they felt it so
effectually, that they that got away were scarce able
to give any account of it, for we disappeared as soon
as possible, nor did ever any that had seen me escape
to tell any one else, except it were the three savages
in our last encounter, who jumped into the boat, of
whom I mentioned that I was afraid they should
go home and bring more help.
Whether it was the consequence of the escape of
those men, that so great a number came now to-
gether ; or whether they came ignorantly, and by
accident, on their usual bloody errand, the Spaniards
could not, it seems, understand : but whatever it
was, it had been their business, either to have con-
cealed themselves, and not have seen them at all;
much less to have let the savages have seen that
there were any inhabitants in the place; but to have
fallen upon them so effectually, as that not a man of
them should have escaped, which could only have
been by getting in between them and their boats:
but this presence of mind was wanting to them;
which was the ruin of their tranquillity for a great
We need not doubt but that the governor, and the
man with him, surprised with this sight, ran back
immediately, and raised their fellows, giving them an
account of the imminent danger they were all in;
and they again as readily took the alarm; but it was
impossible to persuade them to stay close within
where they were, but that they must all run out to
see how things stood.
While it was dark indeed, they were well enough,
and they had opportunity enough, for some hours, to


view them by the light of three fires they had made
at some distance from one another; what they were
doing they knew not, and what to do themselves they
knew not; for, first, the enemy were too many; and,
secondly, they did not keep together, but were divided
into several parties, and were on shore in several
The Spaniards were in no small consternation at
this sight: and as they found that the fellows ran
straggling all over the shore, they made no doubt
but, first or last, some of them would chop in upon
their habitation, or upon some other place where
they would see the tokens of inhabitants; and they
were in great perplexity also for fear of their flock
of goats, which would have been little less than
starving them, if they should have been destroyed;
so the first thing they resolved upon was to de-
spatch three men away before it was light, viz., two
Spaniards and one Englishman, to drive all the
goats away to the great valley where the cave was,
and, if need were, to drive them into the very cave
Could they have seen the savages all together in
one body, and at a distance from their canoes, they
resolved, if there had been a hundred of them, to
have attacked them; but that could not be obtained,
for there were some of them two miles off from the
other, and, as it appeared afterwards, were of two
different nations.
After having mused a great while on the course
they should take, and beaten their brains in con-
sidering their present circumstances, they resolved
at last, while it was dark, to send the old savage


(Friday's father) out as a spy, to learn if possible
something concerning them, as what they came for,
and what they intended to do, and the like. The
old man readily undertook it, and stripping himself
quite naked, as most of the savages were, away he
went. After he had been gone an hour or two, he
brings word that he had been among them undis-
covered, that he found they were two parties, and of
two several nations, who had war with one another,
and had had a great battle in their own country, and
that both sides having had several prisoners taken
in the fight, they were by mere chance landed in
the same island for the devouring their prisoners,
and making merry; but their coming so by chance
S to the same place had spoiled all their mirth; that
they were in a great rage at one another, and were
so near, that he believed they would fight again as
soon as daylight began to appear; but he did not
perceive that they had any notion of anybody's
being on the island but themselves. He had hardly
made an end of telling the story, when they could
perceive, by the unusual noise they made, that
the two little armies were engaged in a bloody
Friday's father used all the arguments he could to
persuade our people to lie close, and not be seen: he
told them their safety consisted in it, and that they had
nothing to do but to lie still, and the savages would
kill one another to their hands, and the rest would go
away; and it was so to a tittle. But it was impossible
to prevail, especially upon the Englishmen, their
curiosity was so importunate upon their prudentials,
that they must run out and see the battle; however,


they used some caution, viz., they did not go openly
just by their own dwelling, but went further into the
woods, and placed themselves to advantage, where
they might securely see them manage the fight, and,
as they thought, not to be seen by them; but it
seems the savages did see them, as we shall find here-
The battle was very fierce, and if I might believe
the Englishmen, one of them said he could perceive
that some of them were men of great bravery, of
invincible spirits, and of great policy in guiding the
fight. The battle, they said, held two hours before
they could guess which party would be beaten ; but
then that party which was nearest our people's habita-
tion began to appear weakest, and after some time
more, some of them began to fly; and this put our
men again into a great consternation, lest any of
those that fled should run into the grove before their
dwelling for shelter, and thereby involuntarily dis-
cover the place, and that by consequence the pursuers
should do the like in search for them. Upon this
they resolved, that they would stand armed within
the wall, and whoever came into the grove they should
sally out over the wall, and kill them, so that if pos-
sible not one should return to give an account of it;
they ordered also that it should be done with their
swords, or by knocking them down with the stock of
the musket, not by shooting them, for fear of raising
an alarm by the noise.
As they expected it fell out: three of the routed
army fled for life: and crossing the creek ran directly
into the place, not in the least knowing whither they
went, but running as into a thick wood for shelter.


The scout they kept to look abroad gave notice of
this within, with this addition to our men's great
satisfaction, viz., that the conquerors had not pursued
them, or seen which way they were gone. Upon this
the Spaniard governor, a man of humanity, would
not suffer them to kill the three fugitives; but send-
ing three men out by the top of the hill, ordered them
to go round and come in behind them, surprise and
take them prisoners; which was done : the residue of
the conquered people fled to their canoes, and got off
to sea; the victors retired, and made no pursuit, or
very little, but drawing themselves into a body
together, gave two great screaming shouts, which they
supposed were by way of triumph, and so the fight
ended; and the same day, about three o'clock in the
afternoon, they also marched to their canoes. And
thus the Spaniards had their island again free to them-
selves, their fright was over, and they saw no savages
for several years after.
After they were all gone, the Spaniards came out
of their den, and viewing the field of battle, they
found about two-and-thirty dead men upon the spot;
some were killed with great long arrows, several of
which were found sticking in their bodies, but most
of them were killed with their great wooden swords,
sixteen or seventeen of which they found in the field
of battle, and as many bows, with a great many
arrows. These swords were great unwieldy things,
and they must be very strong men that used them;
most of those men that were killed with them had
their heads mashed to pieces, as we may say, or, as
we call it in English, their brains knocked out, and
several of their arms and legs broken; so that it is


evident they fight with inexpressible rage and fury.
They found not one wounded man that was not stone
dead; for either they stay by their enemy till they
have quite killed him, or they carry all the wounded
men, that are not quite dead, away with them.
This deliverance tamed our Englishmen for a great
while; the sight had filled them with horror, and
the consequence appeared terrible to the last degree,
especially upon supposing that some time or other
they should fall into the hands of those creatures,
who would not only kill them as enemies, but kill
them for food as we kill our cattle. And they pro-
fessed to me, that the thoughts of being eaten up
like beef or mutton, though it was supposed it was
not to be till they were dead, had something in it
so horrible, that it nauseated their very stomachs,
made them sick when they thought of it, and filled
their minds with unusual terror, that they were not
themselves for some weeks after.
This, as I said, tamed even the three English
brutes I have been speaking of, and for a great while
after they were very tractable, and went about the
common business of the whole society well enough;
planted, sowed, reaped, and began to be all natural-
ised to the country; but some time after this they
fell all into such simple measures again as brought
them into a great deal of trouble.
They had taken three prisoners, as I had observed;
and these three being lusty stout young fellows, they
made them servants and taught them to work for
them; and as slaves they did well enough; but they
did not take their measures with them as I did by
my man Friday, viz., to begin with them upon the


principle of having saved their lives, and then in-
structed them in the rational principles of life, much
less of religion, civilising and reducing them by kind
usage and affectionate arguing ; but as they gave
them their food every day, so they gave them their
work too, and kept them fully employed in drudgery
enough; but they failed in this by it, that they never
had them to assist them and fight for them as I had
my man Friday, who was as true to me as the very
flesh upon my bones.
But to come to the family part: being all now
good friends (for common danger, as I said above,
had effectually reconciled them), they began to con-
sider their general circumstances; and the first thing
that came under their consideration was, whether,
seeing the savages particularly haunted that side of
the island, and that there were more remote and
retired parts of it equally adapted to their way of
living, and manifestly to their advantage, they should
not rather remove their habitation, and plant in some
more proper place for their safety, and especially for
the security of their cattle and corn.
Upon this, after long debate, it was conceived that
they should not remove their habitation, because
that some time or other they thought they might
hear from their governor again, meaning me; and
if I should send any one to seek them, I would be
sure to direct them on that side, where if they should
find the place demolished, they would conclude the
savages had killed us all, and we were gone, and so
our supply would go away too.
But as to their corn and cattle, they agreed to
remove them into the valley where my cave was,


where the land was as proper to both, and where
indeed there was land enough; however, upon second
thoughts, they altered one part of that resolution too,
and resolved only to remove part of their cattle
thither, and plant part of their corn there ; and so, if
one part was destroyed, the other might be saved;
and one piece of prudence they used, which it was
very well they did; viz., that they never trusted
these three savages, which they had taken prisoners,
with knowing anything of the plantation they had
made in that valley, or of any cattle they had there;
much less of the cave there, which they kept in case
of necessity as a safe retreat; and thither they carried
also the two barrels of powder which I had left them
at my coming away.
But however they resolved not to change their
habitation; yet they agreed, that as I had carefully
covered it first with a wall and fortification, and
then with a grove of trees; so seeing their safety
consisted entirely in their being concealed, of which
they were now fully convinced, they set to work, to
cover and conceal the place yet more effectually
than before; to this purpose, as I had planted trees
(or rather thrust in stakes which in time all grew
to be trees) for some good distance before the en-
trance into my apartment, they went on in the same
manner, and filled up the rest of that whole space
of ground, from the trees I had set quite down to
the side of the creek, where, as I said, I landed my
floats, and even into the very ooze where the tide
flowed, not so much as leaving any place to land,
or any sign that there had been any landing there-
about. These stakes also being of a wood very

forward to grow, as I had noted formerly, they took
care to have generally very much larger and taller
than those which I had planted, and placed them
so very thick and close, that when they had been
three or four years grown, there was no piercing
with the eye any considerable way into the planta-
tion. As for that part which I had planted, the
trees were grown as thick as a man's thigh; and
among them they placed so many other short ones,
and so thick, that, in a word, it stood like a palisado a
quarter of a mile thick, and it was next to impossible
to penetrate it but with a little army to cut it all
down; for a little dog could hardly get between the
trees, they stood so close.
But this was not all; for they did the same by
all the ground to the right hand, and to the left,
and round even to the top of the hill, leaving no
way, not so much as for themselves to come out,
but by the ladder placed up to the side of the hill,
and then lifted up and placed again from the first
stage up to the top; which ladder, when it was taken
down, nothing but what had wings or witchcraft to
assist it, could come at them.
This was excellently well contrived, nor was it
less than what they afterwards found occasion for;
which served to convince me, that as human pru-
dence has authority of Providence to justify it, so
it has, doubtless, the direction of Providence to set
it to work, and, would we listen carefully to the
voice of it, I am fully persuaded we might prevent
many of the disasters which our lives are now by our
own negligence subjected to: but this by the way.
I return to the story: they lived two years after


this in perfect retirement, and had no more visits
from the savages; they had indeed an alarm given
them one morning, which put them in a great con-
sternation: for some of the Spaniards being out
early one morning on the west side, or rather end of
the island, which, by the way, was that end where
I never went for fear of being discovered, they were
surprised with seeing above twenty canoes of Indians
just coming on shore.
They made the best of their way home in hurry
enough, and giving the alarm to their comrades, they
kept close all that day and the next, going out only
at night to make observation ; but they had the good
luck to be mistaken, for wherever the savages went,
they did not land at that time on the island, but
pursued some other design.



AND now they had another broil with the three
Englishmen, one of which, a most turbulent fellow,


being in a rage at one of the three slaves which I
mentioned they had taken, because the fellow had
not done something right which he bid him do, and
seemed a little untractable in his showing him, drew
a hatchet out of a frog-belt, in which he bore it by
his side, and fell upon him, the poor savage, not to
correct him but to kill him. One of the Spaniards
who was by, seeing him give the fellow a barbarous
cut with the hatchet, which he aimed at his head,
but struck into his shoulder, so that he thought he
had cut the poor creature's arm off, ran to him, and
entreating him not to murder the poor man, clapped
in between him and the savage to prevent the mis-
The fellow being enraged the more at this, struck
at the Spaniard with his hatchet, and swore he would
serve him as he intended to serve the savage; which
the Spaniard perceiving, avoided the blow, and with
a shovel which he had in his hand (for they were
working in the field about the corn-land), knocked
the brute down; another of the Englishmen running
at the same time to help his comrade, knocked the
Spaniard down, and then two Spaniards more came
to help their man, and a third Englishman fell upon
them. They had none of them any firearms, or
any other weapons but hatchets and other tools, ex-
cept the third Englishman; he had one of my old
rusty cutlasses, with which he made at the last
Spaniards, and wounded them both. This fray set
the whole family in an uproar, and more help com-
ing in, they took the three Englishmen prisoners
The next question was, what should be done with
them? they had been so often mutinous, and were

so furious, so desperate, and so idle withal, that they
knew not what course to take with them, for they
were mischievous to the highest degree, and valued
not what hurt they did any man; so that, in short, it
was not safe to live with them.
The Spaniard, who was governor, told them in so
many words, that if they had been his own country-
men he would have hanged them all; for all laws
and all governors were to preserve society, and those
who were dangerous to the society ought to be ex-
pelled out of it; but as they were Englishmen, and
that it was to the generous kindness of an Englishman
that they all owed their preservation and deliverance,
he would use them with all possible lenity, and would
leave them to the judgment of the other two English-
men, who were their countrymen.
One of the two honest Englishmen stood up, and
said they desired it might not be left to them; "For,"
says he, I am sure we ought to sentence them to
the gallows ;" and with that gives an account how
Will Atkins, one of the three, had proposed to have
all the five Englishmen join together, and murder all
the Spaniards when they were in their sleep.
When the Spanish governor heard this, he calls
to Will Atkins: How, Seignior Atkins," says he,
"will you murder us all? What have you to say to
that ?" That hardened villain was so far from deny-
ing it, that he said it was true, and G-d d-mn
him, they would do it still before they had done
with them. "Well, but Seignior Atkins," said the
Spaniard, "what have we done to you that you will
kill us? And what would you get by killing us?
And what must we do to prevent your killing us ?


Must we kill you, or will you kill us? Why will you
put us to the necessity of this, Seignior Atkins ?"
says the Spaniard, very calmly and smiling.
Seignior Atkins was in such a rage at the Spaniard's
making a jest of it, that had he not been held by
three men, and withal had no weapons with him, it
was thought he would have attempted to have killed
the Spaniard in the middle of all the company.
This harebrained carriage obliged them to con-
sider seriously what was to be done. The two
Englishmen and the Spaniard who saved the poor
savage were of the opinion that they should hang
one of the three for an example to the rest; and
that particularly it should be he that had twice
attempted to commit murder with his hatchet; and
indeed there was some reason to believe he had done
it, for the poor savage was in such a miserable con-
dition with the wound he had received, that it was
thought he could not live.
But the governor Spaniard still said, no, it was an
Englishman that had saved all their lives, and he
would never consent to put an Englishman to death,
though he had murdered half of them: nay, he said,
if he had been killed himself by an Englishman, and
had time left to speak, it should be that they should
pardon him.
This was so positively insisted on by the governor
Spaniard that there was no gainsaying it; and as
merciful counsels are most apt to prevail, where they
are so earnestly pressed, so they all came into it; but
then it was to be considered what should be done to
keep them from the mischief they designed; for all
agreed, governor and all, that means were to be used


for preserving the society from danger. After a long
debate it was agreed, first, that they should be dis-
armed, and not permitted to have either gun, or
powder, or shot, or sword, or any weapon, and should
be turned out of the society, and left to live where
they would and how they could by themselves ; but
that none of the rest, either Spaniards or English,
should converse with them, speak with them, or have
anything to do with them; that they should be for-
bid to come within a certain distance of the place
where the rest dwelt; and that if they offered to
commit any disorder, so as to spoil, burn, kill, or
destroy any of the corn, plantings, buildings, fences,
or cattle belonging to the society, that they should
die without mercy, and they would shoot them wher-
ever they could find them.
The governor, a man of great humanity, musing
upon the sentence, considered a little upon it, and
turning to the two honest Englishmen, said, Hold,
you must reflect, that it will be long ere they can raise
corn and cattle of their own, and they must not
starve : we must therefore allow them provisions."
So he caused to be added, that they should have a
proportion of corn given them to last them eight
months, and for seed to sow, by which time they
might be supposed to raise some of their own; that
they should have six milch-goats, four he-goats, and
six kids given them, as well for present subsistence
as for a store; and that they should have tools given
them for their work in the field; such as six hatchets,
an axe, a saw, and the like; but they should have
none of these tools or provisions unless they would
swear solemnly that they would not hurt or injure


any of the Spaniards with them or of their fellow-
Thus they dismissed them the society, and turned
them out to shift for themselves. They went away
sullen and refractory, as neither contented to go
away nor to stay; but as there was no remedy they
went, pretending to go and choose a place where
they should settle themselves, to plant and live by
themselves; and some provisions were given them,
but no weapons.
About four or five days after they came again for
some victuals, and gave the governor an account
where they had pitched their tents, and marked
themselves out a habitation or plantation; it was a
very convenient place indeed, on the remotest part
of the island, N.E., much about the place where I
providentially landed in my first voyage when I was
driven out to sea, the Lord alone knows whither, in
my foolish attempt to surround the island.
Here they built themselves two handsome huts,
and contrived them in a manner like my first habi-
tation, being close under the side of a hill, having
some trees growing already to the three sides of it;
so that by planting others it would be very easily
covered from the sight, unless narrowly searched for.
They desired some dry goat-skins for beds and cover-
ing, which were given them; and upon their giving
their words that they would not disturb the rest, or
injure any of their plantations, they gave them
hatchets, and what other tools they could spare;
some peas, barley, and rice, for sowing, and in a
word, anything they wanted but arms and ammuni-


They lived in this separate condition about six
months, and had got in their first harvest, though
the quantity was but small, the parcel of land they
had planted being but little; for indeed having all
their plantation to form, they had a great deal of
work upon their hands; and when they came to
make boards, and pots, and such things, they were
quite out of their element, and could make nothing
of it; and when the rainy season came on, for want
of a cave in the earth, they could not keep their
grain dry, and it was in great danger of spoiling:
and this humbled them much; so they came and
begged the Spaniards to help them, which they very
readily did; and in four days worked a great hole
in the side of the hill for them, big enough to secure
their corn and other things from the rain; but it
was but a poor place at best compared to mine;
and especially as mine was then; for the Spaniards
had greatly enlarged it, and made several new
apartments in it.
About three-quarters of a year after this separa-
tion, a new frolic took these rogues, which, together
with the former villany they had committed, brought
mischief enough upon them, and had very near been
the ruin of the whole colony. The three new asso-
ciates began, it seems, to be weary of the laborious
life they led, and that without hope of bettering their
circumstances; and a whim took them, that they
would make a voyage to the continent from whence
the savages came, and would try if they could not
seize upon some prisoners among the natives there,
and bring them home, so as to make them do the
laborious part of the work for them.


The project was not so preposterous if they had
gone no further; but they did nothing and proposed
nothing, but had either mischief in the design, or
mischief in the event; and if I may give my opinion,
they seemed to be under a blast from Heaven; for
if we will not allow a visible curse to pursue visible
crimes, how shall we reconcile the events of things
with divine justice? It was certainly an apparent
vengeance on their crime of mutiny and piracy that
brought them to the state they were in; and as they
showed not the least remorse for the crime, but
added new villanies to it, such as particularly that
piece of monstrous cruelty of wounding a poor slave
because he did not, or perhaps could not, understand
to do what he was directed, and to wound him in
such a manner as, no question, made him a cripple
all his life, and in a place where no surgeon or
medicine could be had for his cure; and what was
still worse, the murderous intent, or, to do justice
to the crime, the intentional murder, for such to be
sure it was, as was afterwards the formed design
they all laid to murder the Spaniards in cold blood,
and in their sleep.
But I leave observing, and return to the story:
the three fellows came down to the Spaniards one
morning, and in very humble terms desired to be
admitted to speak with them: the Spaniards very
readily heard what they had to say, which was this,
that they were tired of living in the manner they
did, that they were not handy enough to make the
necessaries they wanted, and that having no help,
they found they should be starved; but if the Spa-
niards would give them leave to take one of the


canoes which they came over in, and give them arms
and ammunition proportioned for their defence, they
would go over to the main, and seek their fortune,
and so deliver them from the trouble of supplying
them with any other provisions.
The Spaniards were glad enough to be rid of
them; but yet very honestly represented to them
the certain destruction they were running into; told
them they had suffered such hardships upon that
very spot, that they could, without any spirit of
prophecy, tell them, that they would be starved or
murdered, and bade them consider of it.
The men replied audaciously, they should be
starved if they stayed here, for they could not work,
and would not work : and they could but be starved
abroad; and if they were murdered, there was an end
of them; they had no wives or children to cry after
them, and, in short, insisted importunately upon their
demand, declaring that they would go, whether they
would give them any arms or no.
The Spaniards told them, with great kindness, that
if they were resolved to go, they should not go like
naked men, and be in no condition to defend them-
selves, and that though they could ill spare their fire-
arms, having not enough for themselves, yet they
would let them have two muskets, a pistol, and a cut-
lass, and each man a hatchet, which they thought
sufficient for them.
In a word, they accepted the offer; and having
baked them bread enough to serve them a month
and given them as much goat's flesh as they could
eat while it was sweet, and a great basketful of
dried grapes, a pot full of fresh water, and a young


kid alive to kill, they boldly set out in a canoe for a
voyage over the sea, where it was at least forty miles
The boat was indeed a large one, and would have
very well carried fifteen or twenty men, and there-
fore was rather too big for them to manage; but as
they had a fair breeze and the flood-tide with them,
they did well enough; they had made a mast of a
long pole, and a sail of four large goat-skins dried,
which they had sewed or laced together; and away
they went merrily enough. The Spaniards called
after them,"Bon veaj6!" and no man ever thought
of seeing them any more.
The Spaniards would often say to one another and
the two honest Englishmen who remained behind,
how quietly and comfortably they lived now those
three turbulent fellows were gone; as for their ever
coming again, that was the remotest thing from their
thoughts that could be imagined; when, behold, after
twenty-two days' absence, one of the Englishmen
being abroad upon his planting work, sees three
strange men coming towards him at a distance, two
of them with guns upon their shoulders.
Away runs the Englishman as if he were be-
witched, and came frighted and amazed to the gover-
nor Spaniard, and tells him they were all undone,
for there were strangers landed upon the island, he
could not tell who. The Spaniard, pausing a while,
says to him, How do you mean, you cannot tell
who ? They are savages, to be sure." No, no," says
the Englishman, "they are men in clothes, with
arms."-" Nay, then," says the Spaniard, "why are
you concerned ? If they are not savages, they must


be friends ; for there is no Christian nation upon earth
but will do us good rather than harm."
While they were debating thus, came the three
Englishmen, and standing without the wood which
was new-planted, hallooed to them; they presently
knew their voices, and so all the wonder of that kind
ceased. But now the admiration was turned upon
another question, viz., What could be the matter,
and what made them come back again ?
It was not long before they brought the men in;
and inquiring where they had been, and what they
had been doing? they gave them a full account of
their voyage in a few words, viz., that they reached
the land in two days, or something less, but finding
the people alarmed at their coming, and preparing
with bows and arrows to fight them, they durst not
go on shore, but sailed on to the northward six or
seven hours, till they came to a great opening, by
which they perceived that the land they saw from our
island was not the main, but an island: that entering
that opening of the sea, they saw another island on
the right hand north, and several more west; and
being resolved to land somewhere, they put over to
one of the islands which lay west, and went boldly on
shore; that they found the people were courteous and
friendly to them, and they gave them several roots,
and some dried fish, and appeared very sociable: and
the women, as well as the men, were very forward to
supply them with anything they could get for them
to eat, and brought it to them a great way upon their
They continued here four days, and inquired, as
well as they could of them by signs, what nations


were this way, and that way; and were told of several
fierce and terrible people that lived almost every
way; who, as they made known by signs to them,
used to eat men; but as for themselves, they said,
that they never ate men or women, except only such
as they took in the wars; and then they owned that
they made a great feast, and ate their prisoners.
The Englishmen inquired when they had a feast of
that kind, and they told them two moons ago, point-
ing to the moon, and then to two fingers; and that
their great king had two hundred prisoners now,
which he had taken in his war, and they were feed-
ing them to make them fat for the next feast. The
Englishmen seemed mighty desirous to see those
prisoners; but the others mistaking them, thought
they were desirous to have some of them to carry
away for their own eating. So they beckoned to
them, pointing to the setting of the sun, and then to
the rising, which was to signify that the next morning
at sunrising they would bring some for them; and
accordingly the next morning they brought down
five women and eleven men, and gave them to the
Englishmen to carry with them on their voyage, just
as we would bring so many cows and oxen down to
a seaport town to victual a ship.
As brutish and barbarous as these fellows were at
home, their stomachs turned at this sight, and they
did not know what to do; to refuse the prisoners
would have been the highest affront to the savage
gentry that offered them; and what to do with them
they knew not; however, upon some debate, they
resolved to accept of them; and in return they gave
the savages that brought them one of their hatchets,

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