Front Matter
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Biographical memoir of Daniel...
 Chapter I
 Chapter II
 Chapter III
 Chapter IV
 Chapter V
 Chapter VI
 Chapter VII
 Chapter VIII
 Chapter IX
 Chapter X
 Chapter XI
 Chapter XII
 Chapter XIII
 Chapter XIV
 Chapter XV
 Chapter XVI
 Chapter XVII
 Chapter XVIII
 Chapter XIX
 Chapter XX

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073604/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe mariner, of Hull
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. : front. (port.), plates ; 20 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Mouilleron, Adolphe, 1820-1881 ( Illustrator )
Flameng, L\'eopold, 1831-1911 ( Engraver )
Ballantyne, John Alexander, d. 1863 ( Engraver )
J.C. Nimmo and Bain ( Publisher )
Scribner & Welford ( Publisher )
Ballantyne, Hanson and Co ( Printer )
Ballantyne Press ( Printer )
Publisher: J.C. Nimmo and Bain
Scribner & Welford
Place of Publication: London (14 King William Street Strand W.C.)
New York
Manufacturer: Ballantyne, Hanson and Co.
Publication Date: 1882
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Scotland -- Edinburgh
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with biographical memoir and illustrative notes ; in two volumes, with eight etchings by M. <sic> Mouilleron and portrait by L. Flameng.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Biographical memoir signed John Ballantyne.
General Note: Several ill. have illustrator's mark of overlaid initials: A M <Adolphe Mouilleron>
General Note: "Ballantyne Press, Ballantyne, Hanson and Co., Edinburgh and London."--Verso of half title p., both volumes.
General Note: "One thousand copies of this edition have been printed and the rep.
General Note: A variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 644, which lacks the New York imprint.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073604
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04947125

Table of Contents
    Front Matter
        Front Matter
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
        Page x
    Biographical memoir of Daniel Defoe
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
        Page xxxii
    Chapter I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Chapter II
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Chapter III
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Chapter IV
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 72a
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
    Chapter V
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Chapter VI
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Chapter VII
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
    Chapter VIII
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 142a
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
    Chapter IX
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
    Chapter X
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
    Chapter XI
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
    Chapter XII
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
    Chapter XIII
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
    Chapter XIV
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 262a
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
    Chapter XV
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
    Chapter XVI
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 296a
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
    Chapter XVII
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
    Chapter XVIII
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
    Chapter XIX
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
    Chapter XX
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
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        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
Full Text





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CWitb tigbt Ttcbingo p 5%9. SlSouillerot anB
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My birth and parentage-At nineteen years of age I
determine to go to sea-Dissuaded by my parents
-Elope with a schoolfellow, and go on board ship
-A storm arises, during which I am dreadfully
frightened-Ship founders-Myself and crew saved
by a boat from another vessel, and landed near
Yarmouth-Meet my companion's father there, who
advises me never to go to sea more, but all in vain

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully-
Death of my captain-Sail another trip with his
mate-The vengeance of Providence for disobedi-
ence to parents now overtakes me-Taken by a
Sallee rover, and all sold as slaves-My master
frequently sends me a-fishing, which suggests an
idea of escape-Make my escape in an open boat,
with a Moresco boy 19
VOL. I. a2



Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some
European vessel-See savages along shore-Shoot
a large leopard-Am taken up by a merchantman
-Arrive at the Brazils, and buy a settlement there
-Cannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adven-
ture to Guinea-Ship strikes on a sand-bank in
unknown land-All lost but myself, who am driven
ashore half dead 35


Appearance of the wreck and country next day-Swim
on board of the ship, and by means of a contrivance
get a quantity of stores on shore-Shoot a bird, but
it turns out perfect carrion-Moralise upon my
situation-The ship blown off land and totally lost
-Set out in search of a proper place for a habita-
tion-See numbers of goats-Melancholy reflec-
tions .60


I begin to keep a journal-Christen my desert island the
Island of Despair-Fall upon various schemes to
make tools, baskets, &c., and begin to build my
house-At a great loss of an evening for candle,
but fall upon an expedient to supply the want-
Strange discovery of corn-A terrible earthquake
and storm. 88

__1_ 111_


Observe the ship driven further aground by the late
storm-Procure a vast quantity of necessaries from
the wreck-Catch a large turtle-I fall ill of a fever
and ague-Terrible dream, and serious reflections
thereupon-Find a Bible in one of the seamen's
chests thrown ashore, the reading whereof gives me
great comfort .. Io6


I begin to take a survey of my island-Discover plenty
of tobacco, grapes, lemons, and sugarcanes, wild,
but no human inhabitants-Resolve to lay up a
store of these articles to furnish me against the wet
season-My cat, which I supposed lost, returns
with kittens-I regulate my diet, and shut myself
up for the wet season-Sow my grain, which comes
to nothing; but I discover, and remedy my error
-Take account of the course of the weather 25

Make a second tour through the island-Catch a young
-parrot, which I afterwards teach to speak-My
mode of sleeping at night-Find the other side of
the island much more pleasant than mine, and
covered with turtle and sea-fowl-Catch a young
kid, which I tame-Return to my old habitation-
Great plague with my harvest 138


I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed-Descrip-
tion of my mode of baking-Begin to make a boat
-After it is finished, am unable to get it down to
the water-Serious reflections-My ink and biscuit
exhausted, and clothes in a bad state-Contrive to
make a dress of skins 154


I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a
voyage in the sixth year of my reign, or captivity-
Blown out to sea-Reach the shore with great diffi-
culty-Fall asleep, and am awakened by a voice
calling my name-Devise various schemes to tame
goats, and at last succeed 76


Description of my figure-Also of my dwelling and en-
closures-Dreadful alarm on seeing the print of a
man's foot on the shore-Reflections-Take every
possible measure of precaution 192


I observe a canoe out at sea-Find on the shore the
remnant of a feast of cannibals-Horror of mind
thereon-Double arm myself-Terribly alarmed
by a goat-Discover a singular cave, or grotto, of
which I form my magazine-My fears on account
of the savages begin to subside .. 210


Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of
my residence-Discover nine naked savages round
a fire on my side of the island-My horror on
beholding the dismal work they were about-I
determine on the destruction of the next party, at
all risks-A ship lost off the island-Go on board
the wreck, which I discern to be Spanish-Pro-
cure a great variety of articles from the vessel 232


Reflections-An extraordinary dream-Discover five
canoes of savages on shore-Observe from my
station two miserable wretches dragged out of their
boats to be devoured- One of them makes his
escape, and runs directly towards me, pursued by
two others-I take measures so as to destroy his
pursuers and save his life-Christen him by the
name of Friday, and he becomes a faithful and
excellent servant 250

I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my
abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the sav-
ages-He is amazed at the effects of the gun, and
considers it an intelligent being-Begins to talk
English tolerably-A dialogue-I instruct him in
the knowledge of religion, and find him very apt-
He describes to me some white men who had
come to his country and still lived there 271


I determine to go over to the continent-Friday and
I construct a boat equal to carry twenty men-His
dexterity in managing her-Friday brings intel-
ligence of three canoes of savages on shore-
Resolve to go down upon them-Friday and I
fire upon the wretches, and save the life of a poor
Spaniard-List of the killed and wounded-Dis-
cover a poor Indian bound in one of the canoes,
who turns out to be Friday's father 290


I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more
of his countrymen among the savages The
Spaniard and Friday's father, well armed, sail on a
mission to the continent-I discover an English
ship lying at anchor off the island-Her boat
comes on shore with three prisoners-The crew
straggle into the woods, their boat being a-ground
-Discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to
be the captain and mate of the vessel, and a pas-
senger-Secure the mutineers 312


The ship makes signals for her boat-On receiving no
answer, she sends another boat on shore-Methods
by which we secure this boat's crew, and recover
the ship 333


I take leave of the island, and after a long voyage arrive
in England-Go down into Yorkshire, and find the
greater part of my family dead-Resolve to go to
Lisbon for information respecting my plantation at
the Brazils-Meet an old friend there, by whose
means I become rich-Set out for England over-
land-Much annoyed by wolves on the road 356

Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear -Terrible en-
gagement with a whole army of wolves-Arrive in
England safely, and settle my affairs there I
marry, and have a family 375

I ___ ~









S age 73

S 262



One thousand cowf of this Edition have been printed and
the type distributed. No more will be published.


ft ri r ^ .. ., ** ....;-. ..^ ~.. _. ..., _^ r


PERHAPS there exists no work, either of instruction
or entertainment, in the English language, which
has been more generally read and more universally
admired than the Life and Adventures of Robinson
Crusoe." It is difficult to say in what the charm
consists by which persons of all classes and deno-
minations are thus fascinated; yet the majority of
readers will recollect it as amongst the first works
which awakened and interested their youthful atten-
tion; and feel, even in advanced life, and in the
maturity of their understanding, that there are still
associated with Robinson Crusoe the sentiments
peculiar to that period, when all is new, all glitter-
ing in prospect, and when those visions are most
bright, which the experience of after-life tends only
to darken and destroy.
This work was first published in April 1719; its
reception, as may be supposed, was universal. It
is a singular circumstance that the Author (the
subject of our present Memoir), after a life spent in
political turmoil, danger, and imprisonment, should
have occupied himself, in its decline, in the produc-
tion of a work like the present; unless it may be


supposed that his wearied heart turned with disgust
from society and its institutions, and found solace in
picturing the happiness of a state such as he has
assigned to his hero. Be this as it may, society is
for ever indebted to the memory of De Foe for his
production of a work, in which the ways of Provi-
dence are simply and pleasingly vindicated, and a
lasting and useful moral is conveyed through the
channel of an interesting and delightful story.
DANIEL DE FOE was born in London in the year
1663. His father was James Foe, of the parish of
St. Giles', butcher. Much curious speculation, with
which we shall not trouble our readers, has arisen
from the circumstance of Daniel's having, in his
own instance, prefixed the De to the family name.
We are inclined to adopt the opinion of that critical
inquirer, who supposes that Daniel did so, being
ashamed of the lowness of his origin. His family,
as well as himself, were Dissenters; but it does not
appear that his tenets were so strict as his sect re-
quired; for he complains, in the Preface to his More
Reformation, "that some Dissenters had reproached
him as if he had said, that the gallows and the gal-
leys ought to be the penalty of going to the conven-
ticle; forgetting that I must design to have my father,
my wife, six innocent children, and myself, put into
the same condition."
De Foe's education was rather circumscribed, which
is the more to be lamented, as, in so many instances,
he has exhibited proofs of rare natural genius. He
was sent by his father, at twelve years old, to the
Newington Green Dissenting Academy, then kept by
Mr. Morton, where he remained about four years;


and this appears to have been all the education he
ever received. When he was remanded from school,
it would seem that his genius not lying towards the
marrow-bone and cleaver, his father had put him to
some other trade; of what nature we are unable to
learn, De Foe himself being very reserved on the sub-
ject. When charged by Tutchin* with having his
breeding as an apprentice to a hosier, he asserts (May
1705), "that he never was a hosier,t or an apprentice,
but admits that he had been a trader."
This, however, had occupied but a short period of
his youth; for in 1685, when he was in his twenty-
second year, he took up arms in the cause of the
Duke of Monmouth. On the destruction of Mon-
mouth's party Daniel had the good fortune to escape
unpuni-hed amidst the herd of greater delinquents;
but, in his latter years, when the avowal was no
longer dangerous, he boasts himself much of his
exploits, in His Appeal to Honour and Justice, being
a true Account of his Conduct in Public Affairs.
Two years afterwards (1688) De Foe was admitted
a liveryman of London. As he had been through-
out a steady advocate for the Revolution, he had
now the satisfaction of witnessing that great event.
Oldmixon says (Works, vol. ii. p. 276), that at a
feast, given by the Lord Mayor of London to King
William on the 29th October 1689, De Foe appeared
gallantly mounted and richly accoutred amongst
the troopers commanded by Lord Peterborough,
Tutchin, the publisher of the Obsenator, and a steady opponent
of De Foe's both in politics and literature.
+ Perhaps the salvo he laid to his conscience for this apparently
false assertion was, that though he dealt in hose, he did not make


who attended the king and queen from Whitehall
to the Mansion House. All Daniel's horsemanship,
however, united to the steady devotion of his pen to
the cause of William, were unable to procure him
the notice of that cold-charactered monarch; and
our author was fain to content himself (as his adver-
sary Tutchin asserts) with the humble occupation
of a hosier in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill;-wisely
considering that if the court could do without
political tracts, the people could not do without
With the ill fortune, however, attendant upon those
men of genius, who cultivate their superior powers to
the neglect of that common sense which is requisite
to carry a man creditably through this everyday
world, De Foe's affairs declined from bad to worse;
he spent those hours, which he ought to have de-
voted to his shop, in a society for the cultivation of
polite learning, and he was under the necessity of
absconding from his creditors in 1692. One of those
creditors, who had less consideration for polite learn-
ing, and more irritability than the rest, took out a
commission of bankruptcy against him; but, fortu-
nately for our author, this was superseded on the
petition of those to whom he was most indebted, and
a composition was accepted. This composition he
punctually paid by efforts of unwearied diligence;
and some of the creditors, whose claims had been
thus satisfied, falling into distress themselves, he
waited upon them and paid their debts in full. He
was next engaged in carrying on tile-works on the
banks of the Thames, near Tilbury; but with little
success; for it was sarcastically said of him, that he


did not, "like the Egyptians, require bricks without
straw, but, like the Jews, required bricks without
paying his labourers." United to his tile-making,
our author, stimulated by an active mind and em-
barrassed circumstances, devised many other schemes,
or, as he called them, projects. He wrote many
sheets about the English coin; he projected banks
for every county, and factories for goods; he ex-
hibited a proposal (very feelingly no doubt) for a
commission of inquiry into bankrupts' estates; he
contrived a pension-office for the relief of the poor,
and finished by publishing a long essay upon pro-
jects themselves.
About this period (1695), our author's indefa-
igable endeavours procured him some notice from
he Court, and he was appointed accountant to the
commissioners for managing the duties on glass.
Here also his usual ill luck attended him; he was
thrown out of his situation by the suppression of the
tax in 1699.
But the time at length arrived when the sun of
royal favour was to shine out upon our author's pro-
spects. About the end of 1699 there was published
what De Foe calls, "a horrid pamphlet, in very ill
verse, written by one Tutchin, and called The Fo-
reigners : in which the author fell personally upon
the king, then upon the Dutch nation, and after
having reproached His Majesty with crimes that his
worst enemies could not think of without horror,
he sums up all in the odious name of Foreigner.
This filled me with rage against the book, and gave
birth to a trifle, which I never could hope should
have met with so general an acceptation."


The trifle which De Foe here alludes to, was his
True Born Englishman ; a poetical satire on the
Foreigners, and a defence of King William and the
Dutch; of which the sale was great without example,
and our author's reward proportionate. He was even
admitted to the honour of a personal interview with
the king, and became with more ardour than ever
a professed partizan of the Court.
His first publication afterwards was, The Origi-
nal Power of the Collective Body of the People of
England Examined and Asserted; next, An Argu-
ment to prove that a Standing Army, with Consent
of Parliament, was not Inconsistent with a free Go-
vernment; but as we do not mean to follow De Foe
through the career of his politics, and intend only
to notice such as, in their consequences, materially
affected his personal situation and affairs, we shall
pass to the death of his sovereign and patron, which
took place 8th March 1702.*
The accession of Anne having restored the line of
Stuart, to whom the politics and conduct of De Foe
had been peculiarly obnoxious, our author was shortly
reduced, as before, to live on the produce of his wits;
and it is perhaps lucky for the world that there is so
much truth in the universal outcry against the neglect
of living authors; for there seems a certain laziness
concomitant with genius, which can only be incited
to action by the pressure of necessity. Had William
Feb. 26. William, riding from Kensington towards Hampton,
was thrown from his horse and broke his collar-bone. He lingered
till the morning of March 8th, when he died about eight o'clock, in
the fifty-second year of his age.


lived, probably the world would never have been
delighted with the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Whether De Foe found politics the most vendible
produce of the press, or, like Macbeth, felt himself
Stept in so far, that should I wade no more,
Returning were as tedious as go o'er,-
we are yet to learn; but he ventured to reprint
his Shortest Way with the Dissenters; and to pub-
lish several other treatises, which were considered
libellous by the Commons: and on the 25th of
February 1702-3, a complaint being made in the
House of a book entitled, The Shortest Way with
the Dissenters; and the folios II-18 and 26 being
read, Resolved, that this book, being full of false
and scandalous reflections on this Parliament, and
tending to promote sedition, be burnt by the hands
of the common hangman, in New Palace Yard."
Our unfortunate author's political sins were now
all mustered in array against him, and a tremendous
catalogue they made. He had been the favourite
and panegyrist of William; he had fought for Mon-
mouth, and opposed James; he had vindicated the
Revolution, and defended the rights of the people;
he had bantered, insulted, and offended the whole
Tory leaders of the Commons; and, after all, he
could not be quiet, but must republish his most
offensive productions.
Thus overpowered, De Foe was obliged to secrete
himself; and we are indebted to a very disagreeable
circumstance for the following accurate description,
of his person. A proclamation was issued by the
Secretaries of State, in January 1703, in the following


"ST. JAMES S, 7an. 10, 1702-3.
"Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with
writing a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled, The
Shortest Way with the Dissenters:' he is a middle-sized,
spare man, about forty years old, of a brown complexion,
and dark-brown coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hooked
nose, a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his
mouth; was born in London, and for many years was a
hose-factor in Freeman's Yard in Cornhill, and now is
owner of the brick and pantile works near Tilbury Fort, in
Essex: whoever shall discover the said Daniel De Foe to
one of her Majesty's principal secretaries of state, or any of
her Majesty's justices of peace, so as he may be apprehended,
shall have a reward of 650, which her Majesty has ordered
immediately to be paid upon such discovery."
He was shortly after caught, fined, pilloried, and
imprisoned. "Thus," says he, "was I a second
time ruined; for by this affair I lost above 3500
While he was confined in Newgate, he occupied
his time in correcting for the press a collection of
his own writings, which was published in the course
of the year; and he even amused himself by writ-
ing an Ode to the Pillory; of which he had so
lately been made the unwilling acquaintance. But
the chief object to which he directed his mind, was
the projection of The Review. The publication of
this periodical work commenced in 4to, on the 19th
February 1704, and continued at the rate of two
numbers a week, till March 1705, when an additional
weekly number was published, and it was continued
every Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, till May
1713, forming in the whole nine thick volumes. De
Foe was the sole writer. This work treats of foreign
and domestic intelligence, politics, and trade; but as


our author foresaw that it was not likely to become
popular unless amusing, he discusses various other
topics, under the head of a Scandal Club; Love,
Marriage, Poetry, Language, and the prevailing
tastes and habits of the times. Neither did these
occupations find sufficient employment for his active
mind. While he was still in Newgate (1704), he
published The Storm; or a collection of the most
remarkable casualties which happened in the tem-
pest, 26th November 1703. Nor was this work a
dry detail of disasters only, De Foe having taken
the occasion, with his usual felicity, to inculcate
the truths of religion, and the superintendency of
About the end of 1704, when, as our author tells
us, he lay ruined and friendless in Newgate, without

The following account of this tremendous visitation is extracted
from the records of the period :-
November 26.-About midnight began the most terrible storm
that had been known in England, the wind W.S.W. attended with
flashes of lightning. It uncovered the roofs of many houses and
churches, blew down the spires of several steeples and chimneys, tore
whole groves of trees up by the roots. The leads of some churches
were rolled up like scrolls of parchment, and several vessels, boats and
barges, were sunk in the river Thames; but the royal navy sustained
the greatest damage, being just returned from the Straits : four third-
rates, one second-rate, four fourth-rates, and many others of less force
were cast away upon the coast of England, and above fifteen hundred
seamen lost, besides those that were cast away in merchant ships. The
loss that London alone sustained was computed at one million sterling,
and the city of Bristol lost to the amount of two hundred thousand
pounds. Among the persons who were drowned was Rear-Admiral
Upon this calamity the Commons addressed her Majesty, that she
would give directions for rebuilding and repairing the royal navy; and
that she would make some provision for the families of those seamen
that perished in the storm; with which her Majesty complied."


hopes of deliverance, Sir Robert Harley, then Se-
cretary of State, of whom De Foe had no previous
personal knowledge, sent a verbal message to him,
desiring to know "what he could do for him." Our
author, no doubt, made a suitable reply; in conse-
quence of which, Sir Robert took an opportunity to
represent to the queen his present misery and un-
merited sufferings. Anne, however, did not imme-
diately consent to his liberation, but she inquired
into the circumstances of his family, and sent, by
Lord Godolphin, a considerable sum to his wife.
She afterwards, through the same medium, conveyed
a sum to himself, equal to the payment of his fine
and discharge, and thus bound him eternally to her
interest. He was liberated from Newgate the end
of 1704, and retired immediately to his family at
St. Edmund's-Bury. He was not allowed, however,
to enjoy the quiet he courted. Booksellers, news-
writers, and wits, circulated everywhere reports that
he had fled from justice, and deserted his security.
He despised their spite, and resumed his labours;
the first fruits of which were a Hymn to Victory, and
a Double Welcome to the Duke of Marlborough; the
subjects for both of which were furnished by the
glorious achievements of that general.
Our author now continued his Review, and his
political pamphleteering, for several years; in the
course of which he was subjected to much disquiet,
and frequently to danger; but the consciousness of
his situation as an English freeholder, and a livery-
man of London, united to a considerable degree of
resolution and personal courage, enabled him to en-
counter and overcome the machinations of his ene-


mies. It will scarcely be believed at this time of
day, that, on a journey which his affairs led him to
take to the western parts of England, a project was
formed to kidnap and send him as a soldier to the
army; that the western justices, in the ardour of
their party zeal, determined to apprehend him as a
vagabond; and that suits were commenced against
him in his absence for fictitious debts: yet all these
circumstances De Foe has asserted in his Review;
and we have not learnt that any attempt was ever
made to controvert the truth of his statements.
About this time (1706) a situation occurred, for
which our author's abilities were peculiarly fitted.
The cabinet of Queen Anne was in want of a person
of general commercial knowledge, ready talents, and
insinuating manners, to go to Scotland for the pur-
pose of promoting the great measure of the Union.
Lord Godolphin determined to employ De Foe: he
accordingly carried him to the queen, by whom our
author was graciously received, and in a few days
he was sent to Edinburgh. The particular nature
of his instructions has never been made public; but
on his arrival at Edinburgh, in October 1706, De
Foe was recognized as a character almost diplomatic.
We must refer our readers to his History of the
Union for the various and interesting particulars of
this mission; the detail of which, here, would occupy
an extent beyond the limits of our biography,
De Foe appears to have been no great favourite
in Scotland, although, while there he published Cale-
donia, a poem in honour of the nation. He mentions
many hairbreadth escapes which, by his own pru-
dence, and God's providence," he effected; and it is


not wonderful that where almost the whole nation
was decidedly averse to the Union, a character like
De Foe, sent thither to promote it by all means,
direct or indirect, should be regarded with dislike,
and even exposed to danger. The Act for the Union
was passed by the Scotch Parliament in January, and
De Foe returned to London in February 1707. It
is believed that his services were rewarded by a
pension from Queen Anne.
During the troublous period at the conclusion of
the war by the treaty of Utrecht, De Foe, wiser by
experience, lived quietly at Newington, publishing
his Review. He encountered, however, in the ful-
filment of this task, much contentious opposition and
obloquy, which he manfully resisted and retorted:
but, after the political changes, by which his first
patron Sir Robert Harley, and next Lord Godolphin,
were turned out of power, his pecuniary allowance
from the Treasury seems to have ceased, and he
was compelled, as before, to launch out as a general
writer for the supply of his necessities. The political
agitation of the times dictated his subjects; but,
unfortunately for De Foe, both Tories and Jacobites
in those days were such plain matter-of-fact men,
that his raillery was misunderstood, and he was
arrested, and committed to his old habitation, for
several squibs, which were obviously ironical.
The writings on which he was indicted, were two;
What if the Pretender should come? and, What if
the Queen should die? Nothing," says De Foe,
"could be more plain than that the titles of these
are amusements, in order to get the books into the
hands of those who had been deluded by the Jaco-


bites." His explanation would not suffice; he was
tried and found guilty, fined in 8oo, and committed to
Newgate. He was now compelled to drop the publi-
cation of his Review ; and it is singular, that he did
so while confined in Newgate, the very place in which
its idea had first entered his head nine years before.
After lying in jail a few months, he was liberated
by the queen's order in November 1713.
Although thus released, and the innocence of his
intentions admitted, if not established, nothing was
done for him: and the queen's death, which took
place shortly after (in July 1714), left him defence-
less to the attacks of his rancorous enemies. "No
sooner," says he, "was the queen dead, and the king,
as right required, proclaimed, but the rage of men
increased upon me to that degree that their threats
were such as I am unable to express; and though I
have written nothing since the queen's death, yet a
great many things are called by my name, and I
bear the answerer's insults." This was the darkest
period of our author's life. He had lost his appoint-
ment, whatever it was; he had been obliged to give
up his Review; everything he ventured to publish,
besides, was received with suspicion, and he was on
all hands overborne by faction, injury, and insult.
His health declined fast under these unmerited suf-
ferings, but the vigour of his mind remained; and he
determined to assert the innocence of his conduct
and to clear his blemished fame. He accordingly
published, in 1715, "An Appeal to Honour and Jus-
tice, though it be of his worst Enemies, being a True
Account of his Conduct in Public Affairs." This
work contains a long account and defence of his


political conduct from the outset, and a most affect-
ing detail of his sufferings; but the subject had been
too much for him. When he reviewed what he had
done, and how he had been rewarded; how much he
had deserved, and how heavily he had suffered; the
ardent spirit of De Foe sunk before the picture, and
he was struck with apoplexy before he could finish
his work. It was published nevertheless by his
friends, and the profits of its sale seem to have been
the only source of his support. This was the ter-
minating period of our author's political career. He
recovered his health, but his mind had changed its
tone; and it was now that the history of Selkirk first
suggested to him the idea of Robinson Crusoe. It
has been thought by some to detract from the merit
of De Foe, that the idea was not originally his own:
but really the story of Selkirk, which had been pub-
lished a few years before, in Woodes Rogers'* "Voyage
Round the World," appears to have furnished our
author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man
living upon an uninhabited island, that it appears
quite immaterial whether he took his hint from that,
or from any other similar story, of which many were
then current. In order to enable our readers to
judge how very little De Foe has been assisted by
Selkirk's narrative, we have extracted the whole
from Woodes Rogers' Voyage.
SWoodes Rogers, who relieved Selkirk from his solitude, was at
that time commodore'of a commercial expedition round the world,
which sailed February 1709, and returned to Britain, 1711. A pro-
ject for the re-settlement of the Bahama Islands having been submitted
to Mr. Addison (then Secretary of State) in 1717, the measure was
determined on, and Rogers was appointed to head the expedition.
He died, governor of those islands, in 1732.


"On February Ist, 1709, we came before the island of
Juan Fernandez, having had a good observation the day
before, and found our latitude to be 34 degrees zo minutes
south. In the afternoon we hoisted out our pinnace; and
Captain Dover, with the boat's crew, went in her to go
ashore, though we could not be less than four leagues off.
As soon as the pinnace was gone I went on board the
'Duchess,' who admired our boat attempting going ashore
at that distance from land. It was against my inclination:
but, to oblige Captain Dover, I let her go. As soon as it
was dark, we saw a light ashore. Our boat was then about
a league off the island, and bore away for the ships as soon
as she saw the lights. We put our lights aboard for the
boat, though some were of opinion, the lights we saw were
our boat's lights; but as night came on, it appeared too
large for that. We fired our quarter-deck gun and several
muskets, showing lights in our mizen and fore-shrouds, that
our boat might find us whilst we were in the lee of the
island: about two in the morning our boat came on board,
having been two hours on board the 'Duchess,' that took
them up astern of us; we were glad they got well off, be-
cause it began to blow. We were all convinced the light
was on the shore, and designed to make our ships ready to
engage, believing them to be French ships at anchor, and
we must either fight them, or want water. All this stir
and apprehension arose, as we afterwards found, from one
poor naked man, who passed in our imagination, at present,
for a Spanish garrison, a body of Frenchmen, or a crew of
pirates. While we were under these apprehensions, we
stood on the back side of the island, in order to fall in with
the southerly wind, till we were past the island; and then
we came back to it again, and ran close aboard the land
that begins to make the north-east side.
"We still continued to reason upon this matter; and it
is in a manner incredible, what strange notions many of
our people entertained from the sight of the fire upon the
island. It served, however, to show people's tempers and
spirits; and we were able to give a tolerable guess how


our men would behave, in case there really were any
enemies upon the island. The flaws came heavy off the
shore, and we were forced to reef our topsails when we
opened the middle bay, where we expected to have found
our enemy; but saw all clear, and no ships, nor in the
other bay next the north-east end. These two bays are
all that ships ride in, which recruit on this island; but
the middle bay is by much the best. We guessed there
had been ships there, but that they were gone on sight of
us. We sent our yawl ashore about noon, with Captain
Dover, Mr. Fry, and six men, all armed: meanwhile we
and the 'Duchess' kept turning to get in, and such heavy
flaws came off the land, that we were forced to let go our
topsail sheet, keeping all hands to stand by our sails, for
fear of the winds carrying them away: but when the flaws
were gone, we had little or no wind. These flaws proceeded
from the land, which is very high in the middle of the
island. Our boat did not return; we sent our pinnace
with the men armed, to see what was the occasion of the
yawl's stay; for we were afraid that the Spaniards had a
garrison there, and might have seized them. We put out
a signal for our boat, and the 'Duchess' showed a French
ensign. Immediately our pinnace returned from the shore,
and brought abundance of cray-fish, with a man clothed in
goats' skins, who looked wilder than the first owners of
them. He had been on the island four years and four
months, being left thereby Captain Stradling in the 'Cinque
Ports;' his name was ALEXANDER SELKIRK, a Scotchman,
who had been master of the Cinque Ports,' a ship that came
here last with Captain Dampier, who told me that this was
the best man in her. I immediately agreed with him to be
a mate on board our ship : it was he that made the fire last
night when he saw our ships, which he judged to be English.
During his stay here he saw several ships pass by, but only
two came to anchor. As he went to view them, he found
them to be Spaniards, and retired from them, upon which
they shot at him: had they been French he would have
submitted; but chose to risk his dying alone on the island,
rather than fall into the hands of Spaniards in these parts;
because he apprehended they would murder him, or make


a slave of him in the mines; for he feared they would spare
no stranger that might be capable of discovering the South
The Spaniards had landed before he knew what they
were; and they came so near him, that he had much ado
to escape; for they not only shot at him, but pursued him
to the woods, where he climbed to the top of a tree, at the
foot of which they made water, and killed several goats just
by, butwent off again without discovering him. He told
us that he was born in Scotland, and was bred a sailor from
his youth. The reason of his being left here was a differ-
ence between him and his captain; which, together with
the ship's being leaky, made him willing rather to stay here,
than go along with him at first; but when he was at last
willing to go, the captain would not receive him. He had
been at the island before, to wood and water, when two of
the ship's company were left upon it for six months, till the
ship returned, being chased thence by two French South
Sea ships. He had with him his clothes and bedding, with
a firelock, some powder, bullets, and tobacco, a hatchet, a
knife, a kettle, a Bible, some practical pieces, and his mathe-
matical instruments and books. He diverted and pro-
vided for himself as well as he could; but for the first eight
months had much ado to bear up against melancholy, and
the terror of being left alone in such a desolate place. He
built two huts with pimento trees, covered them with long
grass, and lined them with the skins of goats, which he killed
with his gun as he wanted, so long as his powder lasted,
which was but a pound; and that being almost spent, he
got fire by rubbing two sticks of pimento wood together
upon his knee. In the lesser hut, at some distance from
the other, he dressed his victuals; and in the larger he
slept, and employed himself in reading, singing psalms, and
praying: so that he said, he was a better Christian while in
his solitude than ever he was before, or than, he was afraid,
he should ever be again.
"At first he never ate anything till hunger constrained him,
partly for grief, and partly for want of bread and salt: nor
did he go to bed till he could watch no longer; the pimento
wood, which burnt very clear, served him both for fire and



candle, and refreshed him with its fragrant smell. He
might have had fish enough, but would not eat them for
want of salt, because they occasioned a looseness, except
cray-fish, which are as large as our lobsters, and very good :
these he sometimes boiled, and at other times broiled, as
he did his goat's flesh, of which he made very good broth,
for they are not so rank as ours. He kept an account
of 500 that he killed while there, and caught as many
more, which he marked on the ear and let go. When his
powder failed, he took them by speed of foot; for his way
of living, continual exercise of walking and running, cleared
him of all gross humours; so that he ran with wonderful
swiftness through the woods, and up the rocks and hills,
as we perceived when we employed him to catch goats for
us: we had a bull-dog, which we sent with several of our
nimblest runners, to help him in catching goats; but he
distanced and tired both the dog and the men, caught the
goats, and brought them to us on his back.
He told us that his agility in pursuing a goat had once
like to have cost him his life; he pursued it with so much
eagerness, that he catched hold of it on the brink of a
precipice, of which he was not aware, the bushes hiding
it from him; so that he fell with the goat down the pre-
cipice, a great height, and was so stunned and bruised with
the fall, that he narrowly escaped with his life; and when
he came to his senses, found the goat dead under him; he
lay there about twenty-four hours, and was scarce able to
crawl to his hut, which was about a mile distant, or to stir
abroad again in ten days.
He came at last to relish his meat well enough without
salt or bread; and in the season had plenty of good tur-
nips, which had been sown there by Captain Dampier's
men, and have now overspread some acres of ground. He
had enough of good cabbage from the cabbage-trees, and
seasoned his meat with the fruit of the pimento-trees, which
is the same as Jamaica pepper, and smells deliciously. He
found also a black pepper, called Malageta, which was very
good to expel wind, and against griping la the guts.
He soon wore out all his shoes and clothes by running
in the woods; and, at last, being forced to shift without



them, his feet became so hard, that he ran everywhere
without difficulty; and it was some time before he could
wear shoes after we found him; for, not being used to any
so long, his feet swelled when he came first to wear them
"After he had conquered his melancholy, he diverted
himself sometimes with cutting his name on the trees, and
the time of his being left, and continuance there. He was
at first much pestered with cats and rats, that bred in great
numbers, from some of each species which had got ashore
from ships that put in there to wood and water. The rats
gnawed his feet and clothes whilst asleep, which obliged
him to cherish the cats with his goats' flesh, by which many
of them became so tame, that they would lie about him in
hundreds, and soon delivered him from the rats. He like-
wise tamed some kids; and, to divert himself, would, now
and then, sing and dance with them, and his cats: so that,
by the favour of Providence, and vigour of his youth, being
now but thirty years old, he came, at last, to conquer all
the inconveniences of his solitude, and to be very easy.
"When his clothes were worn out, he made himself a
coat and a cap of goat skins, which he stitched together with
little thongs of the same, that he cut with his knife. He
had no other needle but a nail; and when his knife was
worn to the back, he made others, as well as he could, of
some iron hoops that were left ashore, which he beat thin,
and ground upon stones. Having some linen-cloth by
him, he sewed him some shirts with a nail, and stitched
them with the worsted of his old stockings, which he pulled
out on purpose. He had his last shirt on when we found
him in the island.
"At his first coming on board us, he had so much forgot
his language, for want of use, that we could scarce under-
stand him; for he seemed to speak his words by halves.
We offered him a dram; but he would not touch it, having
drank nothing but water since his being there; and it was
some time before he could relish our victuals. He could
give us an account of no other product of the island than
what we have mentioned, except some black plums, which
are very good, but hard to come at; the trees which bear


them growing on high mountains and rocks. Pimento
trees are plenty here; and we saw some sixty feet high,
and about two yards thick; and cotton trees higher, and
iear four fathoms round in the stock. The climate is so
good that the trees and grass are verdant all the year
round. The winter lasts no longer than June and July,
and is not then severe, there being only a small frost and
a little hail; but sometimes great rains. The heat of the
summer is equally moderate; and there is not much thunder,
or tempestuous weather of any sort. He saw no venomous
or savage creature on the island; nor any sort of beasts but
goats, the first of which had been put ashore here, on
purpose for a breed, by Juan Fernandez, a Spaniard, who
settled there with some families, till this continent of Chili
began to submit to the Spaniards; which, being more
profitable, tempted them to quit the island, capable, how-
ever, of maintaining a good number of people, and being
made so strong that they could not be easily dislodged from
We are indebted for the following additional par-
ticulars, respecting the life and fate of this singular
character, to the research of A. Gibson Hunter, Esq.
of Balskelly, in Scotland ; who, we believe, is yet in
possession of his will, and some other curious relics.
Through this gentleman we learn that Selkirk was
born at Largo in Fife, in the year 1676, where he
possessed some trifling landed property. He went
mate with Captain Stradling, in the Cinque Ports,"
on a trading voyage round the world in 1704. In the
course of which, a difference arising betwixt him and
his captain, the causes of which must now remain for
ever unexplained, Selkirk, with all the hardihood of
the seaman's character, desired to be landed on the
island of Fernandez. Here he remained in perfect
solitude, existing as he has described himself, until
discovered by Captain Rogers. Selkirk died on



board a king's ship, the Weymouth," of which he was
mate, in 1723; leaving his effects, by will, to sundry
"loving female friends," with whom he had contracted
intimacies in the course of his peregrinations. His
chest, his gun, and his drinking cup, the last made of
a cocoanut shell, are, or were till lately, the property
of his descendants at Largo.

The sale of "Robinson Crusoe" was, as we have
already stated, rapid and extensive, and De Foe's
profits were commensurate. The work was attacked
on all sides by his ancient opponents, whose labours
have long since quietly descended with their authors
,to merited oblivion; but our author, having the
public on his side, set them all at defiance; and the
same year he published a second volume with equal
success. Thus far
"With steady bark and flowing sail
He ran before the wind,"
but incited by the hope of further profit, and con-
ceiving the theme of Crusoe inexhaustible, he shortly
after published Serious Reflections during the Life of
Robinson Crusoe,with his Vision of the AngelicWorld."
These Visions and Reflections were well received at
he time, although by no means so much in requisi-
ion now.
With the return of his good fortune, our author's
health was re-established, and the vigour of his mind
restored. He published, in 1720, "The Life and
Piracies of Captain Singleton;" and finding it safer, it
would seem, as well as more profitable, to amuse the


public than to reform them, he continued this course,
with little variation, for the remainder of his life.

His subsequent publications, to all of which a con-
siderable degree of popularity was attached, though
none of them equalled the reputation of "Robinson
Crusoe," were the "Dumb Philosopher," "History of
Duncan Campbell," "Remarkable Life of Colonel
Jack," Fortunate Mistress," and New Voyage round
the World."
We are now to take leave of our author, who died
in 1731, at the age of sixty-eight, in Cripplegate,
London, leaving a widow and large family in tolerable
It does not fall within our plan either to attempt a
critical analysis of Robinson Crusoe," or a detailed
view of the character of Daniel De Foe; the one is
before our readers, and the other may be estimated
from his life. That De Foe was a man of powerful
intellect and lively imagination is obvious from his
works; that he was possessed of an ardent temper, a
resolute courage, and an unwearied spirit of enterprise,
is ascertained by the events of his changeful career:
and whatever may be thought of that rashness and
improvidence by which his progress in life was so
frequently impeded, there seems no reason to with-
hold from him the praise of integrity, sincerity, and
unvaried consistency. As the author of "Robinson
Crusoe," his fame promises to endure as long as the
language in which he wrote.







I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my father
being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull:
he got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,


by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our
name, Crusoe; and so my companions always called
I had two elder brothers, one of which was a lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards: what became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled'very early with
rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far
as house education and a country free-school gene-
rally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was
my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
ing inclination, I had for leaving my father's house
and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune


by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure: he told me it was men of desperate for-
tunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes
on the other, and who went abroad upon adventures,
to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous in
undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me, or
too far below me; that mine was the middle state,
or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the
best state in the world, the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury,
ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind.
He told me I might judge of the happiness of this
state, by this one thing, viz., that this was the state
of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of
bcin.; born to great things, and wished they had
be.'n placed in the middle of the two extremes,
bet.. cen the mean and the great; that the wise man
ga\c his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle
stati...n had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed
to so: many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part
of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers, and uneasinesses, either of body or
mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury,

and extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet
on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calcu-
lated for all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoy-
ments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids
of a middle fortune ; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attend-
ing the middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of
the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circum-
stances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or
the secret burning lust of ambition for great things;
but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without
the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning
by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or
to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and
the station of life I was born in, seemed to have
provided against; that I was under no necessity of
seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and
endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world,
it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder
it; and that he should have nothing to answer for,


having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my
hurt; in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home as
he directed, so he would not have so much hand in
my misfortunes as to give me any encouragement
to go away; and, to close all, he told me I had my
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail,
his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure here-
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and
that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full
he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely afflicted with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise ? and I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But, alas! a
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any
of my father's farther importunities, in a few weeks
after, I resolved to run quite away from him. How-


ever, I did not act so hastily neither, as the first heat
of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at
a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than
ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go
apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ; that
I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time,
but I should certainly run away from my master
before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I
would go no more, and I would promise, by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told
me she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to
my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
such thing so much for my hurt; and that she won-
dered how I could think of any such thing after the
discourse I had had with my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had
used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself,
there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it: that, for her
part, she would not have so much hand in my de-
struction; and I should never have it to say, that
my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the


discourse to him; and that my father, after showing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the meantime I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,
and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement that time ; but, I say, being there, and
one of my companions being going by sea to London
in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with
them, with the common allurement of a seafaring
man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor
so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's
blessing or my father's, without any consideration of
circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour,
God knows, on the Ist of September 1651, I went
on board a ship bound for London. Never any
young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began
sooner, or continued longer, than mine: the ship
was no sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind
began to blow, and the sea to rise in a most frightful
manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon what I


had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the
judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the
good counsel of my parents, my father's tears, and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind;
and my conscience, which was not yet come to the
pitch of hardness to which it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and the
breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea
went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who
was but a young sailor, and had never known any-
thing of the matter. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship
fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow
of the sea, we should never rise more. In this agony
of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it
would please God to spare my life in this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I
would go directly home to my father, and never set
it into a ship again while I lived; that I would' take
his advice, and never run myself into such miseries
as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness
of his observations about the middle station of life,
how easy, how comfortable he had lived all his days,
and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
trouble on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I
would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time


after; but the next day the wind was abated, and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to
it. However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no
more sea-sick, but very cheerful; looking with won-
der upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible the
day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after: and now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had in-
deed enticed me away, comes to me. "Well, Bob,"
says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do
you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, weren't
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?"
"A capful d'ye call it ?" said I'; "'twas a terrible
storm. "A storm, you fool you! replies he; "do
you call that a storm ? why, it was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're
but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short
this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, all my resolutions for the future.


In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness
of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my
former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
and promises that I made in my distress. I found,
indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again
sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused myself
from them, as it were from a distemper; and applying
myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits (for so I called them) ; and I had,
in five or six days, got a complete victory over my
conscience, as any young fellow that resolved not to
be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have
another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such an one as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would
confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days;
during which time a great many ships from New-
castle came into the same roads, as the common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for
the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we


should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger; but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea: but the eighth day, in the
morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-masts, and make everything
snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several seas,
and we thought once or twice our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and
the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the
faces even of the seamen themselves. The master,
though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
hear him, softly to himself, say several times, "Lord,
be merciful to us! we shall be all lost, we shall be all
undone," and the like. During these first hurries I
was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I could
ill resume the first penitence which I had so appa-
rently trampled upon, and hardened myself against:
I thought the bitterness of death had been past; and
that this would be nothing too, like the first. But
when the master himself came by me, as I said just
now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully


frighted: I got up out of my cabin, and looked out;
but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or
four minutes: when I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress round us. Two ships that rid
near us, we found had cut their masts by the board,
being deep loaden; and our men cried out, that a ship,
which rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered.
Two more ships, being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures,
and that with not a mast standing. The light ships
fared the best, as not so much labouring in the sea;
but two or three of them drove, and came close by
us, running away with only their sprit-sail out, before
the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut away
the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do:
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented; and when
they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were
obliged to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be
in at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who
had been in such a fright before at but a little. But
if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror
of mind upon account of my former convictions, and
the having returned from them to the resolutions I
had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death
itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm,
put me into such a condition, that I can by no words


describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep loaden,
and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now
and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect that I did not know what
they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others
more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had
been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very word, my heart, as I thought, died within
me; and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused
me, and told me, that I, that was able to do nothing
before, was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and
would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke,
or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was
so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think
of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;

but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrust-
ing me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead; and it was a great while before I came to
We worked on, but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with
the utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to
it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into
their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after
we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull
her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master:
so partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat went
away to the northward, sloping towards the shore,
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We 'were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me


she was sinking; for, from that moment they rather
put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go
in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the
thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet
labouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people
running along the shore to assist us when we should
come near; but we made but slow way towards the
shore, nor were we able to reach the shore till, being
past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off
to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we
got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got
all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by par-
ticular merchants and owners of ships, and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's para-
ble, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had
any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more com-


posed judgment to go home, yet I had no power to
do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge
that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
though it be before us, and that we push upon it with
our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it
was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed
me forward against the calm reasoning and per-
suasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
two such visible instructions as I had met with in
my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his
tone was altered; and looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did: and telling
his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad;
his father, turning to me with a grave and concerned
tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought never to
go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a
plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man." "Why, sir," said I, "will you go to
sea no more?" "That is another case," said he;
"it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to ex-
pect if you persist; perhaps allthis has befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.


Pray," continues he, "what are you? and on what
account did you go to sea? Upon that I told him
some of my story; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion: "What had I done,"
says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same
ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This
indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and
was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me,
exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me; "And, young man,"
said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little an-
swer, and I saw him no more: which way he went,
I know not. As for me, having some money in my
pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there,
as well as on the road, had many struggles with
myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best
motions that offered to my thoughts; and it imme-
diately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to
see, not my father and mother only, but even every-
body else; from whence I have since often observed,
how incongruous and irrational the common temper
of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason


which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed
to repent; nor ashamed of the action for which they
ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of
the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some
time, uncertain what measures to take, and what
course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance con-
tinued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite
laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the
wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune;
and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties and even the command of my father;
I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of
Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage
to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these ad-
ventures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learnt
the duty and office of a foremastman; and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant,
if not for a master. But as it was always my fate


to choose for the worst, so I did here; for, having
money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my
back, I would always go on board in the habit pf a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, or learnt to do any.



IT was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who hav-
ing had very good success there, was resolved to go
again; and who taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hear-
ing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me,
if I would go the voyage with him I should be at no
expense; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and if I could carry anything with me, I
should have all the advantage of it that the trade


would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the
disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably ; for I carried about -40
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me
to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by the
assistance of some of my relations, whom I corres-
ponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at
least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain;
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of
the mathematics, and the rules of navigation; learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both
a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost
390 ; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes
too; particularly that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat
of the climate; our principal trading being upon


the coast, from the lat. of 15 degrees N. even to the
Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again; and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite Ioo of my new-gained wealth, so that I had
200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's
widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first
was this : viz., our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning, by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvas as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer-
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the rover
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he
intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot, from near two
hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to


defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next
time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like,
and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to
cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield; and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to
the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the coun-
try, to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover, as
his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surpris-
ing change of my circumstances, from a merchant to
a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and
now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable, and have
none to relieve me; which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me,
and I was undone without redemption. But, alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through,
as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would be some time or other his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope


of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea,
he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and
do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and
what method I might take to effect it; but found no
way that had the least probability in it. Nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for
I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman there, but myself; so that
for two years, though I often pleased myself with
the imagination, yet I never had the least encourag-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head: my
patron lying at home longer than usual, without
fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want
of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take
the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco with
him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch,
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one
of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing with
him in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that
though we were not half a league from the shore, we
lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or


which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore;
and that we were at least two leagues from the land :
however, we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour, and some danger; for the wind began
to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but, particularly,
we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future; and
having lying by him the long-boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who also was an English slave, to build a little state-
room, or cabin, in the middle of the longboat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to
steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room be-
fore for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton
sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for
him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of
such liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly
his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing;
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened one day,
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily; and had therefore sent on board the


boat over night a larger store of provisions than
usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship;
for that they designed some sport of fowling, as well
as fishing.
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and
waited the next morning with the boat washed clean,
her ancient and pendants out, and everything to
accommodate his guests ; when by and by my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had put
off going, upon some business that fell out; and
ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go
out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; he commanded
me too, that as soon as I had got some fish, I should
bring it home to his house; all which I prepared to
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts: for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for
fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I
would steer; for anywhere to get out of that place
was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our sub-
sistence on board; for I told him we must not pre-
sume to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was
true: so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit
of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which, it was evident by the make, were taken


out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master: I conveyed also
a great lump of bees'-wax into the boat, which
weighed above half a hundred weight, with a parcel
of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all which were of great use to us afterwards, espe-
cially the wax to make candles. Another trick I
tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also; his name was Ismael, whom they call Muly
or Moley; so I called to him: "Moley," said I, "our
patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot ? it may be we may kill
some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
-"Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;" and accord-
ingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds,
with some bullets, and put all into the boat; at
the same time I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one
of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus
furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice
of us : and we were not above a mile out of the port
before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from the north-north-east, which was
contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my


resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus
served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set
the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out
near.a league farther, and then brought her to as if I
would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by
surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him
clear overboard into the sea; he rose immediately, for
he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at
him, and told him, I had done him no hurt, and if he
would be quiet I would do him none: "But," said I,
" you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the
sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore and
I will do you no harm; but if you come near the boat,
I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to
have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he
reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was


no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll make
you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face
to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard, "I must throw you into the sea too."
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that
I could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Straits' mouth, as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do; for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could
never once go on shore, but we should be devoured
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I
changed my course, and steered directly south and
by east, bending my course a little toward the east,
that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the
land, I could not be less than 150 miles south of
Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts,
for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,


and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and come to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river: I
neither saw, nor desired to see, any people ; the prin-
cipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, "then
I won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we give
them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, make
them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I
say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to
call them) of many sorts, come down to the zea-shore,
and run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and

.~--.i;...r~. i. -------r l~j,,~l~;Jiu-nliri:I41*;urY


they made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I
never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was
I too: but we were both more frighted when we
heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing, to be a monstrous,
huge, and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know. Poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away.
"No," says I, Xury, we can slip our cable with a
buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far."
I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam to the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible
noises and hideous cries and howlings, that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore, as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a
gun; a thing I have some reason to believe those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore
in the day, was another question too; for to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers ; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on
shore somewhere or other for water, for we had not


a pint left in the boat; when or where to get to it
was the point: Xury said, if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go ? why I should not go, and he stay
in the boat? The boy answered with so much affec-
tion, that made me love him ever after. Says he,
"If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey."
"Well, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the
wild mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat
neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-
bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of
bottles, which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fear-
ing the coming of canoes with savages down the
river: but the boy, seeing a low piece about a mile
up the country, rambled to it; and by and by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I run forward towards him to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs; however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with,.was to tell me he had found
good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the


tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we
filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least not remember, what
latitude they were in, and knew not where to look
for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the
English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve
and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was must be that country, which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Ne-
groes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild
beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south for fear of the Moors ; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and indeed both forsaking it because of
the prodigious number of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there; so that
the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they
go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time; and indeed for near a hundred miles together
upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste unin-


habited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime I thought I saw
the Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the
mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great
mind to venture out in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds, the sea also going too high for my little
vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and
keep along the shore..
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor
under a little point of land which was pretty high;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells
me that we had best go farther off the shore; "For,"
says he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the
side of that hillock fast asleep." I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it
was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that
hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," says I,
"you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth;" one mouthful he meant: however, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third, for we had
three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I

took the best aim I could with the first piece to have
shot him into the head, but he lay so with his leg
raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his
leg about the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell
down again, and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I
was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head; however, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately, and though' he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and
would have me let him go on shore; "Well, go,"
said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking
a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other
hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him into
the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. "For what, Xury ?" said I. Me
cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could
not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and
brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might one way or other be of some value to
us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was


much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole
day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and,
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effec-
tually dried it in two days time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.



AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on
our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged
to for fresh water: my design in this was, to make
the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I
knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed


either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and,
in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this
single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten
days longer, as I have said, I began to see that the
land was inhabited; and in two or three places, as
we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to have
gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better
counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." How-
ever, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk
to them, and I found they run along the shore by me
a good way: I observed they had no weapons in
their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at
a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to
eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh
and some corn, such as is the produce of their country;
but we neither knew what the one nor the other was;
however, we were willing to accept it, but how to
come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for
venturing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us : but they took a safe way for us all, for
they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and


went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportunity
offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully;
for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not
tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual
or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we
found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did
not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the
two creatures ran directly into the water, they did
not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about as
if they had come for their diversion. At last one of
them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others: as soon as he came fairly with-
in my reach I fired, and shot him directly into the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water, but
rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if he was
struggling for life; and so indeed he was: he imme-
diately made to the shore; but between the wound,
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of

_I__ _______(__~ Ir^LI


these poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my
gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear,
and fell down as dead with the very terror. But
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart, and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by
his blood staining the water, and by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes
to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted and fine to an
admirable degree, and the negroes held up their
hands with admiration to think what it was I had
killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire
and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran
up directly to the mountains from whence they came,
nor could I at that distance know what it was. I
found quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh
of this creature, so I was willing to have them take
it as a favour from me, which, when I made signs
to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with
him, and though they had no knife, yet with a shar-
pened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily,
and much more readily, than we could have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them,
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of
their provision, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted; then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning


it bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set
down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore
with my jars, and filled them all three. The women
were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point:
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to sea-ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when on a sudden the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when
I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not
only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a


Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea for negroes. But when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did
not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon
which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they
would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but, after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the
help of their perspective-glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, as they supposed, must belong
to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to
let me come up. I was encouraged with this; and
as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a
waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired
a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun;
upon these signals they very kindly brought to, and
lay by for me, and in about three hours' time I came
up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of
them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was
an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they bade
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one
would believe, that I was thus delivered, as I


esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hope-
less condition as I was in, and immediately offered
all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for
my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils;
" for," says he, I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself; and
it may one time or other be my lot to be taken up
in the same condition; besides," said he, "when I
carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what you
have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor
Inglese," says he, "Mr. Englishman, I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help you to
buy your subsistence there, and your passage home
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered
the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything
I had: then he took everything into his own pos-
session, and gave me back an exact inventory of
them, that I might have them; even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that
he saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the
ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it ?
I told him, he had been so generous to me in every-
thing, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me, he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when


it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up: he offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to
take; not that I was not willing to let the captain
have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my reason,
he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium,
that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let
the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I
was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I
can never enough remember; he would take nothing
of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin which I
had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'
wax, for I had made candles of the rest; in a word,
I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo; and with this stock I went on shore
in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingeino, as they call it; that is, a plantation


and a sugar-house; I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself by that means with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle
there, I would turn planter among them; resolving,
in the meantime, to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me.
To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of natural-
isation, I purchased as much land that was uncured
as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself
to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neigh-
bour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and
we went on very sociable together. My stock was
but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for
food, than anything else, for about two years. How-
ever, we began to increase, and our land began to
come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help; and now I found, more
than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did
right, was no great wonder: I had no remedy but
to go on; I was gotten into an employment quite
remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life
I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's


house, and broke through all his good advice; nay,
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper
degree of low life, which my father advised me to
before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have
fatigued myself in the world as I had done; and I
used often to say to myself, I could have done this
as well in England among my friends, as have gone
five thousand miles off to do it among strangers and
savages in a wilderness, and at such distance, as never
to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with, but now and then this neighbour; no work to
be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used
to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some
desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been, and how should all men re-
flect that, when they compare their present conditions
with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them
to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity by their experience; I say, how just
has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life which
I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing his loading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when,


telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
"Seignor Inglese," says he, for so he always called
me, if you will give me letters, and a procuration
here in form to me, with orders to the person who
has your money in London, to send your effects to
Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such
goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you
the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders but for one
hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way;
and if it miscarry, you may have the other half to
have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my
money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the human-
ity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now
in, with all other necessary directions for my supply;
and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he
found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story, to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon, she not only delivered
the money, but out of her own pocket, sent the


Portugal captain a very handsome present for his
humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had
writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he
brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sort of tools, iron-work, and utensils neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use
to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the five
pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase, and bring me over a servant
under bond for six years' service, and would not
accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco,
which I would have him accept, being of my own
Neither was this all; but my goods being all
English manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize,
and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I may say, I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I
did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European
servant also; I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with


me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above a hundred weight, were
well cured and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen
me, for which my father so earnestly recommended
a quiet retired life, and of which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full; but
other things attended me, and I was still to be the
wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly
to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make; all these miscarriages were pro-
cured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects and those measures of life which
nature and providence concurred to present me with,
and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must
go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich
and thriving man in my new plantation, only to
pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I


cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps
could be consistent with life and a state of health in
the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars
of this part of my story; you may suppose, that
having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my
plantation, I had not only learnt the language, but
had contracted acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that in
my discourse among them, I had frequently given
them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes
there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold-
dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but negroes
for the service of the Brazils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying negroes, which was a
trade at that time not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal,
and engrossed in the public, so that few negroes
were'bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came
to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with

them of the last night, and they came to make a
secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy,
they told me, that they had a mind to fit out a
ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations
as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so much
as servants; that as it was, a trade could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the
negroes when they came home, so they desired to
make but one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions; and, in a word, the question was, whether I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ? and they
offered me, that I should have my equal share of the
negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had
it been made to any one that had not had a settle-
ment and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,
and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that
was thus entered and established, and had nothing
to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four
years more, and to have sent for the other hundred
pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of
being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling,
and that increasing too; for me to think of such a
voyage, was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them


I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and
would dispose of it to such as I should direct if I
miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered
into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a
formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship,
that had saved my life as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will, one half of the produce being to
himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve
my effects, and keep up my plantation; had I used
half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought
to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended
with all its common hazards; to say nothing of the
reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the
dictates of my fancy rather than my reason: and
accordingly the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the Ist of September 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went from my father
and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty ton
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides


the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no
large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were
fit for our trade with the negroes, such as beads,
bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little
looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the
The same day I went on board we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with
design to stretch over for the African coast; when
they came about Io or 12 degrees of northern lati-
tude, which it seems was the manner of their course
in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast, till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino, from
whence keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle
Fernand de Noronha, holding our course north-east
by north, and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were by our last observation in 7 degrees 22
minutes, northern latitude, when a violent tornado,
or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge:
it began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled into the north-east; from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive;
and scudding away before it, let it carry us whither
ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and
during these twelve days, I need not say that I ex-
pected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one


man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about 1 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference west
from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was
gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
Brazil, beyond the river Amazon, toward that of the
river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River,
and began to consult with me what course he should
take; for the ship was leaky, and very much dis-
abled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brazil.
I was positively against that, and looking over the
charts of the sea-coasts of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the
Caribbee islands; and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assist-
ance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of

being devoured by savages than ever returning to our
own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early in the morning, cried out, Land!
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we
were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a
moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were imme-
diately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us
from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances: we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether inha-
bited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold
many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another,
and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world;
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this : that which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expecta-
tion, the ship did not break yet, and that the master
said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off,

we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well
as we could. We had a boat at our stern, just before
the storm; but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and in the next place she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so
there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to de-
bate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her slung over the ship's side, and getting all
into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven
in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the
sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and might
well be called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we
all saw plainly that the sea went so high that the
boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we
had, could we have done anything with it; so we
worked at the oar towards the land, though with
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all
knew that, when the boat came nearer the shore, she
would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach
of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God
in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us
towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with


our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation
was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where, by great chance, we might
have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land,
and perhaps made smooth water. But there was
nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful
than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a
league and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave,
mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
bade us expect the coup degrace. In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once;
and separating us as well from the boat, as from
one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water; for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got
upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return, and take me up again. But I soon


found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with; my business was to hold my breath,
and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so,
by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest
concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry
me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave
back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me
at once twenty or thirty foot deep in its own body;
and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force
and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to
burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt my-
self rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of
the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so
long but I held it out; and finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to
recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then took to my heels, and run with what
strength I had farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the
sea, which came pouring in after me again; and


twice more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried
forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me against a piece of
a rock, and that with such force, as it left me sense-
less, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance;
for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath as it were quite out of my body; and had
it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled ih the water; but I recovered a little
before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being near land, I
held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the
next run I took I got to the main land, where, to
my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began
to look up and thank God that my life was saved in
a case wherein there was, some minutes before,
scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express to the life what the ecstacies and trans-
ports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave; and I do not wonder,
now, at that custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and


just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him: I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; re-
flecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any signs of them, except three of their
hats, one cap, and two shoes, that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore!
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kind of place I was in, and what was next
to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance:
for I'was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither
did I see any prospect before me, but that of perish-
ing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts;
and that, which was particularly afflicting to me, was,
that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against


any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs: in a word, I had nothing about me but a
knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box;
this was all my provision, and this threw me into
terrible agonies of mind, that, for awhile, I ran about
like a madman. Night coming upon me I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my
lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at
that time, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like
a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for, as yet, I saw no pro-
spect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger,
I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endea-
voured to place myself so as that if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging,
and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast
asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few
could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.




WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage
and swell as before: but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the dashing me against it; this being within about
a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship
seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I looked about me again, and the first thing I
found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the
sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon
the shore to have got to her, but found a neck, or
inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the pre-
sent, being more intent upon getting at the ship,

where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within
a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief: for I saw evidently, that
if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is
to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced
tears from my eyes again; but as there was little
relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the
ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was
hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground,
and high out of the water, there was nothing within
my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of a rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore-chains so low as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope, got up
into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank
of hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern lay lifted
up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the
water: by this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was
spoiled, and what was free: and first I found that all
the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went


to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no
time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I
had indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was
before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to
furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was
not to be had; and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in
the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and
flung as many of them overboard as I could manage
of their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. When this was done I went
down to the ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I
tied four of them fast together at both ends as well
as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I
found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was
not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being
too light; so I went to work, and with the carpen-
ter's saw, I cut a spare topmast into three lengths,
and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour
and pains; but hope of furnishing myself with neces-
saries encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight; my next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it

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