Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Index to woodcuts in the text
 Memoir of the author
 Robinson Crusoe declares his birth...
 Crusoe makes the acquaintance of...
 Crusoe buys land, and becomes a...
 Crusoe, on waking in the morning,...
 Crusoe sets up a wooden cross,...
 Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances...
 The journal resumed
 The journal continued
 Crusoe in trouble about his growing...
 Crusoe makes and launches...
 Crusoe is surprised by the print...
 Crusoe takes precautions against...
 The four-and-twentieth year of...
 Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday...
 Crusoe teaches Friday the use of...
 Crusoe's subjects and their...
 Crusoe and the captain consult...
 Crusoe arrives in England, and...
 Crusoe's reflections in Englan...
 Crusoe arrives at his island, which...
 The islanders are greatly relieved...
 Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian...
 At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073603/00001
 Material Information
Title: The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xxxi, 384 p., 7 leaves of plates : ill. ; 21 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Nicholson, Thomas Henry, d. 1870 ( Illustrator )
Sheeres, Charles William ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Ward, Lock and Company, ltd ( Publisher )
Butler & Tanner Ltd ( Printer )
Selwood Printing Works ( Printer )
Publisher: Ward, Lock, and Co.
Place of Publication: London (Warwick House Salisbury Square E.C.) ;
New York (Bond Street)
Manufacturer: Butler & Tanner, The Selwood Printing Works
Publication Date: between 1882 and 1890
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1885   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
England -- Frome
General Note: Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date based on imprint information. Ward, Lock, and Co. opened a New York office in 1882 and the above form of publisher's name was used from 1873 to 1890. Cf. Brit. literary pub. houses, 1820-1880.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with memoir of the author ; with numerous illustrations, designed by T.H. Nicholson ; and engraved by C.W. Sheeres.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073603
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28050563

Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Index to woodcuts in the text
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Memoir of the author
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
    Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the water
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and keeps his reckoning of time
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 66a
        Page 67
    Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his journal, and details his difficulties
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    The journal resumed
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 92a
    The journal continued
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and birds
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Crusoe makes and launches a boat
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Crusoe is surprised by the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, and fears an attack from savages
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe's sojourn on the island
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 184a
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him about his country and its inhabitants
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries of Europe
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 214a
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Crusoe's subjects and their religions
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the mutineers
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
    Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and that his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    Crusoe's reflections in England
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some difficulty, having discovered in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed a continent, was in reality, a group of islands
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them with tools of all kinds
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 350a
        Page 351
    Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 364a
        Page 365
    At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters into partnership, and makes a voyage to Siam and China
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
Full Text


-.220omor- .. .. . --hLA_







owt meus xoril aslutrations.



Iso mst m rmr ..... ..,,.~........ --

mmozz op am Z.,,,, --. I- ia


flohim Oswe dede.hs msth*d puzusofte-Melifmesto anetatro *
-His father eoplroi ai wthb-Yiv H4 whe a soa.pmiwn tobe
iseatdip ysm-Astumsiatstetdiiof uhia boabbsdmrt
emnadt-ThsMpqp&Wag s end mpudowmiuTominth olhss 5utmtoth
dmimins bt-Is sdsd adi to # to spagin, but bunwivlel I ihwe
and ishto U ndm... ,to


Chsmoe makes th uaqusinassoe AthS oqifin At nolu enbtimbndtzAs
Affiesn CoOmsk mmd nucs aib ma bissng ofederso-Tilb a mai1WhorY-te
sipadgtesai ana sit wa r me-O th deeB~Thef iYthe sqb'inl
asnigateambihond -51 wind~d~
voyage iththea mat&-1b hlp isbtoin bIpy mi U
CrIm Ms sdolavo-Jhdmlungafthfo m oseeamko~i
thiawn Ioh mandfsulus z s t-e Iuitht h 5
eau-kllsg.AnArm hIm-8atm~us Ix the ewithd ~0-lsh~ inutewu bql
him with p.ollsu-dheot a heepwd.uhm the Wdiav es And
tied-i pifd op by a Pbartaguus I hum dole the is. bon wt
a ruerasmm-snivu U te E L .................... ..I


tsloo.m bar land behes;s a plwt-710 u G-
po alos-271a jmlaniail. musk bahlpjiu
Deooe .umspwo At a dime-A T
strike. s a mb.h-Ths mwp Zb i .* heat ok


drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rok, and seuceeds in reaching
the mainland-He rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on his position, and re-
members that he has neither food for sustenance nor weapons for defence-Sleeps
in tree ....................................................... ................................. 30


Crusoe, on waking in the morning, ses the ship lying a-ground high out of the
water-He comes down from the tree-Swims to the ship-Constrhot a raft, which
he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore-Surveys the country,
and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited-Shoots a bird, the flesh of which
proves to be carrion-Unloads the raft, and erects a hut-Swims to the ship again,
and brings a second cargo ashore-On his return is confronted by a wild at, which
discovers a disposition to be friendly-Makes a tent, which he fraishe and fortifies
-Repeats his vists to the ship, which he stripe of its content-Removes his tent to
a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly-Kills a she-goat, and is grieved
threat .................................................................... .................. 42


Crusoe sets up a wooden cros, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and
keep his reckoning of time-He seriously consider his position, and, balancin the
good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that he is not altogether
miserabl-Make various article of funiture for his house, with the aid of the tools
found in the ship-Keeps a Journal .................. ......................... ............ 67


Cruoe enlarge upon the iremstanoes noted in his Jomnal, and details his dim-
culties-Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-At first
supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his behalf but afterwards
remembers that the barley was accidentally sown-Prudently preserve the grain for
seed-The Journal resmed-Is startled by an erthqnke, which is followed by a
hurricane- ecoves Tarious articles from the wreck, which have been oast ashore in
the storm-Finds a turtle, and cooks it-Falls I; and is alarmed by a terrible
dream-Reproaches himself o acc t on f his pst life, and reflects upon his present
miseries ............................................................................ ........... 6S


The Journal resumed-Crmso thoughts during his illnes-His refletions on
the dealings of Providence with him-Finds a Bible in a seaman's chet which i
eat on shore, and is consoled and encouraged by the reading of it-Tobacco a
remedial agent-His flrt prayer-Finds deliverance from sin a greater being than
delivernce from affiction-Convalaecene--Take a fah survey of the island, and
danco tobuaco, alow, lemons, melons, grape, and wild sagar-nea-Gther
grpe, lims, and lemons, to store up for the winter-His lost at returns with
a fiy of kittens........... ................. ............. ................................. 8'



The Jorlm aoontial--O a ao the eimnaiersy of his lading uoF the
silanm by solmn f-S4i qapt ery smth day fr a Sabbath--Hs Ink begin-
ning to Kl he onlytreoas remarkable eveo in his Journal-Sow portion of the
gnra he had saved, at the wrong ae, and lua someth ing wt knowing from
the xeinrntA new diriion of tlhem. i-Tam bi hely lbit of obaerig
to soamut, in making buket-Makes a journey throeig the flnda, and MeA to a
spot where the homr is covered with trtl-Lam hisa ay ai the interim and
retmr to the ahoe from whence he zeaob his home-Cat d an tram a youM
kid-The meond anniversary of his handing-BRdectio-Diff ltie ovrme by
labour and patimee ... ....................................................................


Crusoe in trouble bout hbi growing arop which are attacked by got birds
-He delivers imlf from the enemnie and reasp hi earn-Is perplee how to
make bread of it, and drtermine to preserve the whole rop fo seed-Has c a
spede-In-door employment in the rany l sona -TeMbs n parrot to talk-Haba
pottery, nd a mortar to grind his am in-His iut baking-A new harert-
Contemplates ecaping fom the island-- Ontrcts a boat, b is unable to laumh
it-IBegin to t a canal, bat give up the attempt in despem -Fireh releetdio .. 104

Crue makes and launches a boat-eaves the slad in eah of the mainland
and econtem unexpected dange-He deapaie of getting back again-Rtnoaas to
the il and aieon reading home is satrtled by the greeting of his parrot-Perots
himnif in the making of earthenwa and bua hb -HiB ontirivp to mse ti
goSa which dneour his crn-He east as ma taes them-At bIo with his B aly
-He desoribs hbi personal appoearane-4et ot on a new journey though.
island ........................................ ............... ...... ............ it

Croe is surprised at the print of a Ina's naked foot on the dsh and hes an
attack ftom savageas-reas a sMecod fdrtlaoefn round his dwelling-DIower the
remains of a fatof canib ............................................. .. 137

ti.A) b X~L
Crne ta M.preeti against an inmion at ftO savage-Liveh a Sear
rerted lif-c-Hs prinipl employment, the milking of his goi, and ts mange-.
ment of hi look-Is surprised byn aoldhe-goat in a cve-Disavers aprty o
canbals oman the shore-A ship in dislmte-edilsthlebodyofa drowned loyceston
ahore-Liunant that t one of Ithe a hr baen sve, sdh lis me slh Ta
ver-Goe off to is wok i bi boit, mlb-aad,~eiflgi e nrhM
bea dog-leeds hin boa. t wilth.mo sy.be, dties, a. antis i -
liefliami...... -.........W. -'


; '' . . .... I i -

... ............ ...... ... ........... .

r; ~C- d- ---*-;- i-~C~ Wi I.r:a~UY~LP~sTB~I~




The for-and-twetieth year of Crooe's sojourn n the iland-He dream about
lie avages-He Coumn rs the design of getting a ariage into his poaemuon-The
rmiibtls vit the i and again, and proceed to day the prioners they bring with
them-The dream is folaled-One of the savge eape, but is pursmed-Crmee
knocae down one of the pumer, and shoots the other-He welcome the fugitive,
whom he encourage to lay the second of h menemies-Name his sTage, Friday-
Instrcts and clothes him-Humam companionship almost reconiles him to his lot... 175

Crnuoe attempts to reclaim Friday from canmniblim, and onverne with him
about hi country and its inhabitante-Ilnstrcts him in the knowledge of the true
God, and expoees the delusions of Pagan priesteraft-Friday fids it di oflt to
account for the eitence of evil-The erage becomes a Chritian, and Cruoe is
completely happy............................................................................ ... 188

Crnuoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arm, and describe to him the countries of
Europe-They make a boat, and it it with mMs and sails-Pridayis ins tmcted how
to navigate it-The savage again mrit the iland-They are attacked and routed-
Cuose reumes a Spaniard, their prisoner, and Friday discover his father ............ 199

Crasoe's subjects and their religione-The dead bodies of the asin savage are
buied-The Spaniard and Friday's father set out for the mainland to fetch rBo-
pean who had been shipwreked ther-In their absence Crose is surprised by the
appearance of a boat-load of mutinous ailors, who bring their oilers to the idand
to murder them-Crusoe release the priaoner-The mutineers are attacked and
defeated ....... .................................................................................... 217

Crnoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship fom the muti-
neea-In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore-An mbuscade is contrived,
and the mutineers lay down their arms-The captain promises merey to all except
Will Attin-The ship taken from the mutineo-Cr leaves the land, in
which he had lived for twenty-eight year ............................................. 231

Cruoe arrive in England, and and that mot of his relation are dad, and that
his beefnetor and stward ha alen into misfortone-He goe to Lisbon, where e
make himself known to the captain of the ship who took him up at ea and is pt

OOrTITs. u

to ths wy or neroveM hI property ih the RaBn l Hils poue nom rm td,
aud he inds hii- f a wealthy man-Mlke aranagemens fr atho oodst of hi
estate, and ets out for England by way ofat Spain-An eneo ter with wolves-
Friday makes many with a be-Cruee arivs i Eigland, san setes thee ...... 2


Cruoe's reedtiora in Englead-He dreams of his island, mid om e a desire
to return to it, which his wife dimoer-eeasoelvs to divert his though, and begins
rming in Bedfrdhinre-On the death of his wi, he dete ine to re-rit his
island, and els eall in an Indiman, which is to touch at the Brisild-The ea is
driven by contrary winds on the oat f Ghalay, which leld to ner adnitares
-Fall in with a French merha mt veel on fre, ad deTSirv the row, who we
cried to Nterfioundlhod-8ter thence or the Weat Indies, and fol in with a
Bristol ship, the rew and pongl a of which am fanhingg............................ 27


Cruoe arrives at his land, which he iiad with some difflalty, having dis-
covered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be a contiet,
was, in reality, a group of iands-Friday is very joyo upon seeing the old place
-The scst peron CrIoe meets the Spaniard whoe lifs he eaved-Friday emaes
with his tther-Cruoe disovme that the English ailrs he left behind have
behaved badly-The history of the islad during his abee........................ .. 296


The islanders ae greatly relieved by the arrival of Cruoe, who frnishes them
with tools of all kinds-The Speards soount their adventures among the savages
before they cme to h e ilad, u d describe their joy at being dlivered-Wll
Atkins, who had ben the ngleader of the Engish ailrm in their fel dings,
having Ihon a better dipositio, the Spaniards tke him and his companies into
their oadsence-The islad iL divided into three colonies-The French piet,
whom Cruse had boughtut ou f the ship relieve by him at se, propoes in
reform-Con4venion o Wml Att Indian wifo-The Englih aion am married
-A religious onvemartion-Croea e la the l d in a hopeal condit ......... sS .

Cruwoe enmountme a fleet dian anoues at sea-Thenvges at ek his roese-
Friday is hiled-Crn ae ers es at B i, R whore he get his aoop set u and
despthe it, ldei with lie stoe, to his hidMs-St a. lo the B Indie-
Touehes at Madaganeir, where lity ar well eaied by the nai -Thie ca (
me of the sii is avenged by his death, whreupon the rew eo se a geal
mmeamre, whieh.Cnome vnhlyatlmp to skty-On umig the mM he
eproeahes the eahoi, *who at laogth maB y, sed lhibhim on Itme at BliaL...


At Bengal, Crasoe meet* with an English merchant, with whom he antes into
partnership, and makes a oyage to Siam and China-They return to Bengal, where
they purchase a Dutch coasting enael, which they afterwards discover the crew had
rn away with-Their new purchase brings them into danger, a they are mistake
for pirates, and chuendby English and Dtch boat-They eat of their pumen,
and set sail for Cochin China, where they have an encounter with the natives-They
arrive at Qunchang, where they part from their ahip-Cruoe Ti~ft Nain and
Pekin, and travel with a caravan of merchant through Tartary and RuBma-
Wintam in Siberia-Ball from Archangel to Hamb rg-Arrimce in England, after
an absence of nearly eleven yeas, and determines to wander no more ................. 86


PonTmn or DAm D Po................................................................ ia
His Boonx Bulm ................................................................................. z
Dz For I T PIrLo o ........................................................................ zxzi
IN N o AT ......................................... .. ...................... ............
Ti BaMsra PLA0c ............................................................................... ti
OSU Bon AND HM FATHE ........................................................... ; ............. 4
AN ADTErInu Wrr A ION ...................................... ............ .....
Tna Psax or Tm mxr ...................................................................
Oausou CAn Asoz .................... ............... ........ ............. 40
Tn FI sr Gu a Fna ox Tn z Is~. ...................................... ......... 4
Trm S -GOAT Aur an F K ............................................................... M
XT rATIOm HI S l ....................................................... ..............
Ta FraB P&i ........................................................................... 85
A WAL sB Tn BxA BHoM ................................. ..........................
CaOso GATaRas r a HAVT .. ........................................................ 10
A PA uLoS OLsA ........................................ ....................
CaT so l' Bowi ................................................................................... 18
TAu FOOTP rr DIBsoTaue ................................................................. 17
Ta Pr c or Bu.s... ................................. ................................... 148
S o .................................................................................... 1
Dncoraor SAvAsas .................................................................... 1
THa SMi B BD SAi. BoT ... ..........................................................
VisroAne ru i W oU ...................................... ......................... 1
O Baoi'n Hous .............................................................................. 174
A Dincoans nira T m r ........................................................... f18
FInsoT Ins rano NA n AUTIORa ................ ................................. 8m0
A ERAz Axou e T Brvez ............................................................. 00
Ta BPANs PludO m BRW COAD.............................................. ...............
A uaso's DapAouo n oM T Ibla... ............. ............................
AN ANco~n r WITa WOVa ................................................................. I
Tin SHI oN F .......................................................................
A Bonu on TRa IA o .............................. ................................... 16
A Brom M A B au.............. .................................................................... g
Du or ................................ .................. .......... .........
A Firer wrm TaI O mnr ams............................... .................. 87
A COmss DON Tarwnorwe .............................. ........ ........ ...
DINING JfrISO ............. ................ .......
OUou nIN BniESm ......... ....... ......... .

-^^m~r-- -- ^^lmsi ,tiili


ONCERNIG the ancetry, immediate or remote of the great
man who invented obinson Crosoe," little is known.
That little, however, as might be reasonably expected of a
took f m whence spring so ood a man, is fair and honoable; whioh,
to my thinking-that is, to the thinking of an individual who ohedhse
the warmest love and regard for dear old CGmoe-isa an ezadigl*
comfortable fact to reflect on. True, it would have mattered litte to
his fame as a story-wright, had De Poe been no better than a rlin.g
Staver-hanter, and his father asd grandfher mer men e f te t ob;
but it would have been very paul to uoe's ten thuaam d i
apd acquaintances to have male the diovery. The peldiaBtbs of


the case should be considered. There can be no doubt that, as a rule.
nine-tenths of the number of boy readers who peruse Robinson Crusoe's
adventures have the most implicit belief that that hero once existed
in the flesh: and this though they are aware that the matter was
written by Daniel De Foe. For written they read narrated; and if they
think about De Foe at all, it is as a good sort of fellow who wrote
from Crusoe's dictation,-an individual to whom the doughty adventurer
was under considerable obligation. It is a severe blow to the young
and trusting mind to discover that their darling solitary-islander is, after
all, a fictitious personage that lived only in the brain of a romancist, as
did Jack the Giant-killer; but if, in addition, truth insisted on the further
explanation that the said romansist was a sot or a coxcomb, or a surly
fellow, who wielded his pen for bread as a toy-maker handles his tools,
and with as sincere contempt for his fantastic handiwork, the disaupoint-
ment would indeed be complete.
De Foe's ancestry can be traced no farther than his grandfather. He
was a jovial country gentleman, living on his own estate, at Elton, in
Northamptonshire, sowing and reaping for his profit, and following the
hounds for his pleasure. It is not recorded that De Foe, the yeoman, was
a public man, or that he at all meddled with the affairs of State; still it is
shown that he was not indifferent concerning such matters, and that he
followed, or at least countenanced, the common practice of the men of his
time, of bestowing the names borne by statesmen not of their party on
dogs and other animals of low degree. Says De Foe:-" I remember my
grandfather had a huntsman that used the same familiarity with his dogs;
and he had his Roundhead and his Cavalier, his Goring and his Waller,
and all the generals of both armies were hounds in his pack, till, the times
turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter the pack, and make them
up of more dog-like surnames."
The jovial fox-hunting squire had among his sons one named James.


Concerning the boyhood of this peon nothing is recorded until we hear
of his being bound apprentice to a certain ohn Levit, a butcher of In-
don; and, having duly served his mater, we find him a master butcher in
the perish of St .iles Cripplegate, and of habit altogether different from
those of his respected father, inasmuch as he was a man of sober mind,
and a strict Nanaonfornist, and with his wife, among the most constant
adherents of the Rev. Dr. Annealey.
Young Daniel is supposed to have been bmn in St. Giles's pish, but
the registration of his birth doea not exist in the parish resod, 'hi,
however, may be explained. As.beforeementioned, his parenswere tie
Nonconformists; and their pastor, Dr. Annealey, was, for a considerable
period after Janes Foe -the buthaer had settled in buinae the ordained
minister of St. Giles's psiash ehmr;. The severe and simple teachings
f this good man, however, gave cfiae, al he was ejected f- tthe
living. Afterthis, Dr.Amnnaley eablieheda.maeting-hose initle St.
HEen's, Bishopgate, whither theroe family, with the majority of his old
congregation followed him. This alteration probably took plaoe shortly
before Daniel was born; and when that auqpidios event oco0rmsi the
bis parentse found themselves in a strait concerning his registration.
The foolish Crch ththad closed its doom against their pastomwaot
the place to which the staray Nonnfrmistsvhild could bensedd at
the little meeting-honae the ceremony could not be peformed& adLsothe
birthday of the great Daniel oe remained unchrniled. .
He is above poken of as named Foe,' and correctly; nrhowere
good his claim may have been to the prefix "De," his father andhis gzend.
father didn't adopt it. They were plain oes; and a plainloarihero
was born inithayearl66L. {Sonme few authonites game thrdatehla664
Halitt remarks:-"Upon whatoccasion it w that De -ee maddhe
altrtimion in his name, by competing it with.Ae fignLps rei J
appeams. His notice w pballnalpsdii e.hi.arigisab il .r



for its import or its harshness; or he might have been desirous of restoring
it to its Norman origin." The period at which he adopted the new title
also is not clear. It would almost seem that he must have been past the
middle age before the alteration occurred to him; for, while at the age of
forty-two, and while he was long a prisoner in Newgate for his offences
against the State, he thus replies to one of his numerous enemies who had
sneered at his name in connection with De Foe's own newspaper, the
Rewim:-" If the gentleman has a favourable opinion of the sRvim we
fancy he will not dislike it upon the account of the author's name, as like
a thing which he himself is not, being a Foe in name only, not in nature
to anybody."
Of young De Foe's childhood little or nothing is positively known.
Judging, however, from the man that sprang from the child, it is impos-
sible to conceive him anything but a studious, frank, honest bey, with
sufficient, perhaps, of his father's severity and' bluntness to get him into
scrapes innumerable, and certainly with sufficient fortitude to bear man-
fully the punishment thus brought upon him. It may, too, be fairly
assumed that he was a daring and venturesome boy,-the sort of boy, in
fact, who runs away to sea. But these are mere speculations, for which
space cannot here be permitted. It cannot, however, but be regretted
that more of such a man's boyhood is not known. Possessing but the
merest foreshadowing of the imagination that could conjure up Bobin-
son Crusoe," with all his vicissitudes, adventures, and variable fortunes,
an account of his behaviour from ten till fourteen years of age would be
vastly interesting.
At the age of fourteen Daniel was placed under the care of the Rev.
Charles Morton, who kept an academy for young gentlemen at Hewington
Green. "This gentleman," says De Foe, "was a polite andprofound
scholar; a master who taught nothing, either in polities or esenee, which
was dangerous to monarchial government, or which was improper for a


DANItL P FOB. trii

diligent scholar to know." De ee further dlares that he let Dr.
Morton's school with a considerable toe of learning. ive language,
mathematics, natural philosophy, lo geogphy, and history wre
among his acquisitions.
He remained at school till he was nineteen, when he is again lost sight
of for two years, and then appears with his first printed effsim. This,
according to Chadwick, was a pamphlet on the then raging war between
the Austrians and Turks, and in which he opposed the popular dhmour,
and pointed out the disastrous consequences likely to ensue from aisting
the Turks against the enemies, who, as he observes, "were at lest
Christians." Halitt and others, however, aset that De Fee's rst lite-
rary production was a lampoon directed against Boger L'Etrmge who
shortly before had published a Guide to the Inferor Clergy." The title
of De Foe's pamphlet was Speculum Crape Gownorium; er a Looking-
Glass for the young Academicks new Foyled, &c. By a Guide to the
Inferior Clergy." L'Estrange had in his publication directed the heavit
and sharpest shafts of his wit against the Dissenters, but they were impo.
tent as reeds compared with De Foe's rejoining onslaught on the weak-
nesses of the Fstablihied clergy.
From this period-1682 to 1685-De Foe's mark is sing from
the pages of history. Then we have the rebellion of the Duke of Me-
mouth, and the doughty Daniel De Foe, a hot-blooded young man of
twenty-four, enlisted in his cause,-not with his pen, but gp tmally.;
equipped as a soldier, and wearing a swtd. The diastos temiak-
tion of the Monmouth attempt is well known; and De Foe with many
others laid down the unprofitable word, an returned to their peateal
and proper callings.
De Foe, who does not seem as yet to hare v hamaed in y eter bei-
nti speculation asve that of pamphlet printing, now turned hibsalStam
eiunily to citizen lie, and established himself in FPmnM' TI C-eg


hill, as a hosier, or, according to Hazlitt, "as a hose-factor or middle-man
between the manufacturer and retail dealer." Whatever its exact nature,
the Freeman's Yard business must have proved tolerably satisfactory; for
within two years De Foe had come so far to regard himself as a man whose
future was settled, that, on his application, he was admitted a Liveryman
of London on the 26th of January, 1688.
Do Foe contir ed ten years in the hosiery business. He was not,
however, so utterly devoted to it that the dangers of the nation escaped him.
Within the above-mentioned ten years several most important events in
English history transpired, and with the chief of which our hero was asso-
ciated. About 1686, the King (James II.), actuated by craft and cowardice,
held out to all religious sects and creeds a project of general toleration-
Dissenters were to be allowed as much freedom of speech and action as
members of the Established Church, and Papists as both. Such a pretence
of generosity on the part of the King was well calculated to find favour
with men as oppressed as were the Dissenters of the period; but although
their desire for toleration was great, their hatred of Popery was greater,
and as a body they stood firm against the preposition. At such a time,
and in such a cause, De Foe was not likely to be idle. "Was ever any-
thing more absurd," wrote he, "than this conduct of King James and his
party in wheedling the Dissenters ? Giving them liberty of conscience by
his own arbitrary dispensing authority, and his expecting they should be
content with their religious liberty at the expense of their constitution ?
a thing, though a few were deluded with, yet the body of Dissenters saw
through. The train, indeed, was laid deep and subtilly; but this was
plain to everybody, that it was wholly inconsistent with Popish interests
to protect the Dissenters any otherwise than it was made a project to create
a feud between them and the Church, and in the end destroy both." Dc
Foe afterwards stated that he did his utmost to oppose the scheme, and
that he wrote two tracts on the subject.


This behaviour of the King created much discontent among all classes
of his subjects; till at last certain of the nobility and gentry, and eve
clergy-including the University of Oxford-petitioned the Prince of
Orange to come and take possession of the distracted kingdom. The Prince
replied with alacrity, and on the 4th of November, 1688-being both his
birth and marriage day-landed at Torbay with fifteen thousand men
His march to London was an interrupted triumph. The people so far
from resenting the invasion welcomed the invader as a deliverer, and greeted
him and his host with tumultuous joy. DeFoe was an ardent admirer of
this revolution. When he heard the news that the army of the Princo of
Orange was approaching the city, he set out as far as Henley to meet it,
and joined the motley troop of Dutch soldiers and English soldiers, and
renegade statesmen, and disaffected clergy and citizens, in their march to
Whitehall. The 4th of November was ever after regarded by De Foe as
a sacred day-" a day famous on various accounts, and every one of them
dear to Britons who love their country, value the Protestant interest or
have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day he (the Prince of
Orange) was born; on this day he married the daughter of England; and
on this day he rescued the nation from a bondage wre than that of
Egypt--a bondage of soul as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the
ambition and raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice,
cruelty, and blood." The revolution was thus consummated without
bloodshed; and the last of the Stuart, finding a throne without the sup-
port of the people untenable, fled to France, where he was well received
by the reigning monarch.
It may be assumed from passages that occur in some of his pamphlets,
that during his oconpancy of the Freeman's Yard warehouse, De o had a
country house in Surrey. He was instrumental in forming the f regular
Dissenting congregation at Tooting the Bev. losha Oldfield being eleoed
their pstr.



De Foe, in his pamphlets, repeatedly repudiates the occupation of an
hosier, and claims to be a trader-a general merchant. Oldmixo, one of
Do Foe's most annoying enemies, says, "he never had been a merchant
otherwise than peddling a little to Portugal." There is every reason to
believe, however, that during his ten years' experience as a trader, he
made several voyages to Spain and Portugal, and he himself declares that
he resided in Spain long enough to acquire the language of that country.
fe had some connexion also with Dutch commerce. He is alluded to
contemptuously as a "civit-cat merchant;" but, says Hazlitt, "it war
probably the drug, rather than the animal, in which he traded."
Whatever may have been the nature of the various enterprises De Foe
embarked in during the said ten years, it is certain that they landed him a
bankrupt, and he had to fly from his creditors. Various causes have been
assigned for this collapse of his fortune; but it must be the boldest specu-
lation to speak of the reasons of a man's failing in business, when it is
actually unknown what the nature of that business was. His debts
amounted to several thousand pounds; and now his behaviour showed him
something more than a pedlarr" or a man whose heart was in the till of
a hosiery shop. He might-and still have been nothing below the average
"trade mark"-have availed himself of the bankruptcy law, and to a very
large extent have eluded the payment of his obligations. Had he done so,
however, he would have been false to his own noble teaching, "Never
think yourself discharged in conscience though you may be discharged in
law. No title of honour, no recorded merit, no mark of distinction, can
exceed that lasting appellation, an honest man. The obligations of an honest
mind can never die. He that lies buried under such an epitaph has more
said of him than volumes of history can contain. The payment of debts
after fair discharge, is the dearest title to such a character that I know-
and how any man can begin again and hope for a blessing from Heaven,
or favour from man, without such a resolution, I know not." The debts



incurred during his trading were subsequently paid to the uttermost
To what part of the kingdom De Toe led,-that he might in quiet arrange
his affairs, and at the same time avoid the honors of a debtors' prison, is
notcertain. Probably Bristol was his hiding place. Ther is a tolerably
well-authenticated story of his appearing in a certain quarter of that city,
handsomelydressed with flowing wig, lace rifles, and aswordathis side-
but only on Sundays. "He there attained the name of the Sunday Gentle-
man, because through fear of the bailiffs he dare not appear in public on
any other day."
At this time he was thirty four years old, and, having arranged his
pecuniary affirs, he was offered and accepted a situation in the glass duty
commission. This, however, he only retained for four years, as at the
expiration of that time the glass tax was repealed. About this time he
became secretary to a tile and brick making concern at Tilbury, in Essex.
He must have bad a considerable share in the monetary afirs of the
business, for on its failure in 1703, De Foe's personal lss was three thou-
sand pounds.
His duties, however as a collector of taxes, or secretary at the tile
works, did not induce him to throw aside his pen. romm 1695 til 1701
he.wrote and published numerous works and pamphlets. His "Essay on
Prospects," which appeared in 1697, is remarkable for the soundness and
ingenuity of its arguments, as well as for the novel views it advocates A
tract in defence of the necessity of the maintenance of an English standing
army was published by him in 1697, and shortly afterwards another tract
on the same subject appeared. The subject was making. coniderable stir
in the country at the time. The treaty of Rysawik had just been signe
and consequently a large army which La bben engaged in the Freoh var
was now entirely without employment Itwas the popular wish thattis
force should be disbanded. Tradition ad precedent, like stingthmeB 4 the


--- --~ ~~J~p'Y I xx:i-



prevailing notion that a standing army was of all institutions the most to
be dreaded in a country famous for its maintenance of civil and religious
liberty. This however was, in the opinion of the wise King, a time when
precedent should be disregarded, and a deaf ear turned to the shallow
reasoning of the majority of his subjects. There were substantial grounds
for this: James, the late King of England, was residing with the King of
France, whose army was immense, skilfully generalled, and eager for active
service. King James had not forgotten that he had an hereditary right to
the English throne, and there were among the English people thousands
who likewise remembered that fact, and who would be ready, at a fair
opportunity, to push it to an issue. This, then, was no time for the
reigning King of England to abate his defensive strength, but the rather
to increase it. With all the vigour of his pen De Foe defended the King's
policy, and the King was not ungrateful.
De Foe now appears to have devoted himself solely, and with con-
siderable energy, to literary pursuits. Numerous works, both in poetry
and prose, emanated from his fertile pen, the bare enumeration of which
would occupy almost as many pages as are here devoted to his whole life.
One of the most remarkable, however, and which more closely than ever
attracted the King to him, was The True-born Englishman," a satirical
poem which made its appearance in 1701, and when the author was in his
fortieth year. The phrase "True-born Englishman" was constantly in
the mouths of those who were disaffected towards the King and his
countrymen the Dutch. By this little sentence the malcontents expressed
their immense superiority to the great Dutchman who ruled them, and to
all his adherents; when a man declared "I am a true-born Englishman,"
it was as though he had said "I am an enemy to the King." De Foe's
admiration of the King was very great: he was "his hero, his deliverer,
his friend; he was bound to him by the ties of patriotism, of religion, and
f personal obligation." Pamphleteers of all grades, taking the cantwatch-


word as their cue, had indulged in the most scandalous libels against His
Majesty, and it was to answer them, and through them their employers
and admirers, that De Foe penned his satirical poem. His description of
the origin of the "True-born Englishman" will serve as a example of
the entire production.

These are the heroes who dspise the Dutch
And rail at new-come foreigners so much,
Forgetting that themselves ae all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lied:
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled tows:
The Piot and painted Briton, treacherous Scot,
By hunger, thet and rapine, hither brought;
Norwegian pirate, bccaneering Danes,
Who joined with Normnn French, compound the breed
From whence your tre-born Englishme proceed.

As might reasonably be expected, although a reply to his enemies
couched in such language pleased King William not a little, and had the
effect of stopping their clamour, it in no way tended to alter their opinions
or to promote their esteem for Daniel De Foe, the writer. The poem had
an enormous sale-at least eighty thousand copies finding their way into
the hands of an equal number of Englishmen, true-born" or otherwise.
From this time De Foe was in high favour with the King, who
employed him in many secret services, the nature of which is not known.
In one of his "Reviews," published aboutten years after the King's death,
this bold counsellor tells how that he advised His Majesty "to send a
song fleet to the Havannah to seize that part of the island in which it is
situated, and rom thence to seize and secure the possession at least of the
coast, if not by consequence the Terra iarm, of the Empire of Mexico,
and thereby entirely out off the Spanish commerce and the return of their
plate ships, by the immense riches whereoZ and by which only, both
France and Spain have been enabled to support this war."


De Foe's career as a courtier was, however, cut short by the death
of his royal patron, which took place on the 8th of March, 1702. No
sooner was the lion dead than the host of cure who since the publication
of "The True-born Englishman" had vented their spleen in smothered
growls, again gave tongue and heaped scandal and abuse on the "dead
Dutchman"-one pamphlet more prominent than the rest appearing with
the title "The Mourners." To this De Foe replied by a dignified letter,
calling it The Mock Mourners," sufficiently forcible to still the mirth of
the dead King's cowardly defamers.
With Anne for Queen came in fresh troubles for the Dissenters. Ad-
vised doubtless by those whose interest that way lay, the Queen, from the
moment of her accession to the throne, made it her business to conciliate
the Church at all risks. "Sacheverell and the Established Church, and
extermination to Dissenters," became a popular cry; and there was nothing
left for De Foe but again to take the helm and endeavour to steer his co-
religionists through the storm that lowered on every side. With the view
of warning them he published "A New Test of the Church of England's
Loyalty," and shortly afterwards "The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,"
which is regarded as one of the finest pieces of satire and irony ever com-
posed-indeed its extreme cleverness militated against it. The High
Church, against whom the satire was of course levelled, failed to see or
feel the hidden sting, and, taking the pamphlet, rejoiced at winning over
so powerful an advocate to their cause; while the Dissenters, with mar-
vellous dulness, especially as they had had so many proofs of De Foe's
sincerity, failed likewise to catch the true meaning of the tract, and re-
garded their unwearying champion as a traitor-a wolf that at last had
thrown off his disguise.
In this strait De Foe was reduced to the necessity of publishing an
explanation to his pamphlet; but this only made bad worse, for while it
failed to convince his fellow Dissenters of the injustice of which they had


been guilty, the eyes of the Churchmen were opened to the folly they h;i
been betrayed into, and they suddenly turned from glorying in their new
champion to hating him as a villain double-dyed. An advertisement was
inserted in the London Gazette for the apprehension of "Daniel Doe Foe,
alias Do Fooc, a middle-sized spare man, about forty years old, of a
brownish complexion, and dark brown-coloured hair, a hooked nose, a
sharp chin, and a large mole near his mouth." At the same time it was
resolved in the House of Commons, "That this book, being full of scan-
dalous reflections on the Parliament, and tending to promote sedition,
be burnt by the hands of the common hangman to-morrow in New Palace

His Books Burnt.

In this predicament he was forced to go
from a gaol. This course, however, he soon
S reward of fifty pounds for his apprehension,
of the printer and publisher of the obnoxious

into hiding to save himself
abandoned. The offer of a
was followed by the arrest
pamphlet, so he generously



came forward and gave himself up to the Government. He was brought
to trial, and the penalty of his crime was fixed at a fine of two hundred
marks, three separate standings in the pillory, and imprisonment during
the Queen's pleasure; and, when that expired, he was to find substantial
securities for his good behaviour during the following seven years.
It happened, however, that although De Foe had lost the faith of his
old friends, and earned for himself the extreme hatred of his enemies, he
was the idol of the crowd; and, when he was led out to the pillory, a vast
mob accompanied him, cheering as lustily as though they had elected him
king, and were about to crown him. As for the pillory, it was hung with
garlandsofflowers; and, while he stood in it, the mob made a merry time
of it, cheering him and drinking his health, and converting what was
intended as a degrading punishment into a famous triumph.

In the Pitory.

The imprisonment in Newgate had to be endured for several months.
However, this time was not passed by the great man in an idle way. Novels
and pamphlets were projected and a complete edition of his works collected
and printed. It was while he was a tenant of Newgate also that the
Review was established-a publication which appeared two or three times
a week for several years. It was entirely written by Do Foe. At last,



in August, 1704, through the instrumentality of Mr. Harley, then Secre-
tary of State, the prisoner was released. After all, it would not seem to
have been the Queen's pleasure that he remained in Ncwgate so long, for
when she was informed of the facts of his case, she not only gave him his
liberty, but forwarded him by Lord Godolphin a considerable sum of money,
wnerewith he was enabled to pay his debts and re-establish his home.

.. .i...i :i

So ably did he acquit himself of this mission, that in 1708 a pension
h q oil

In Newgate.
To recruit his health, Do Foe now retired with his family to Bury St.
Edmunds, continuing his literary labours, however, with untiring energy.
In 1706 he was commissioned by the Government to visit Scotland, with
a view of assisting in the formation of a union between the two countries.
So ably did he acquit himself of this mission, that in 1708 a pension
was granted him. Political changes, however, soon deprived him of this
Being once more dependent on his pen, he set to work assiduously,
and from 1708 till 1715, produced a vast number of pamphlets and works


,f greater size, including a "History of the Union of Great Dritain," "An
Essay on the South Sea Trade," The Present State of Parties in Great
Britain," tc., etc. In 1713, and when he was fifty-two years old, De Foe
once more got into trouble. He produced a clever, well-meaning tract,
entitled, "An Answer to the Question that nobody Thinks of, viz.: But
what if the Queen should Die? and What if the Pretender should
Come?" Once more was the point of his wit too fine for the dull-eyed.
The Government was amazed at the writer's audacity, and he was arrested
and sent to gaol; and it was not until he endured considerable imprison-
ment that his accusers saw their error, and recommended the Queen's
It would seem that even the giant mind of Daniel De Foe now found
itself overtaxed, and he resolved to have no more to do-at least directly-
with polities. For thirty years he had busied himself with public affairs,
and with no better uawuni-beyond the serene consciousness that his
course had been true and..honest-than persecution, and disaster, and
imprisonment, or, at best, wth five ssiies for one friend. Before, how-
ever, he abandoned his politillcareer, he was desirosof squaring accounts
with those with whom lhsjbd so lng.dealt, and to that end prepared "An
Appeal to Honour and Justice, though it be of his worst Enemies. By
Daniel De Foe: being a True Account of his Conduct in Public Affairs."
This narrative, however, though published, was never completed. While
working at it, De Foe was smitten with apoplexy, and lay between life
and death for six months. Knowing the sick man's anxiety that this
" True Account of his Conduct" should go forth to the world, his friends
resolved to delay its publication no longer, and it therefore appeared un-
finished as it was, and with a note added by the publisher, ascribing the
delay to the author's illness.
As Hazlitt truly observes:-" The close of De Foe's political career
was the beginning of his greatness. In the retirement which he now




lsouht to quit no aoe, he laisue to his asetve srit was esoupiedf te
creating of a series of works which raised his nam i~measureblyhigler
than it had ever been before in the opinion of his eantemporsies,and
which will preserve that name in feshness and honour so long as te
language in which they are written endss" De Foe recovered from his
illness, and, being in his iM -ffth year, sat down to romance writing with
a mind a vigorous and elastic a young man of thirty. Within six years
he produced more than a dozen works, among the rest,-"The Life, Ad-
entures, and Pyracies of Captain Singleton;" "The Dumb Philosopher;"
" Colonel lack;" "oll Flanders;" "The Mysteries of Magic;" "The
History of the Plague;" and "Robinson Crusoe." The last mentioned
story was one of the earliest produced after his retirement from political
life, and was published in 1719. Concerning "obinson Crusoe," nothing
need here be aid. All that could be attempted would be to sing its
praises to a new air; and when one has so few words to harp n--"won-
drous wisdom," "perfection of wit," "enchanting interest," and a few
others-their adaptation to a new tune is dilmilt, especially as the said
tune must be one that every English boy may easily sing, for sing it he
certainly will to some tne or other.
At the age of sixty, De Foe was famous through his latter works; he
possessed a handsome house at Stoke Newington, and could have been in
no other than easy circumstances. He was sorely eicted with gout, and
besides was troubled with a painful intestinal complaint. Another mis-
fortune he had to bear was heavier than both,-a- dissolute, ungratefuhl son.
Still, in the teeth of these great troubles, De Foe's teeming brain couldn't
be still. His History of the Plague" is justly regarded as e of the most
marvellous ofhis productions. "o one," says Hazlitt, "eantake up e
book without believing tht it is the addr of Whitehapel who is teng
hisown story; and that he was an eye-witnes to all he rates; Atahe
actually saw the easing sis which porteadef sthe clmity; that luirbi

- S

- T p~


ri~n..r~Li Aiai-~i.r-ur


nessed the grass growing in the streets; read the inscriptions upon tae
doors of the infected houses; heard the bell-men crying 'Bring out your
dead;' saw the dead carts conveying the people to their graves, and was
present at the digging of the pits in which they were deposited. It is no
wonder that a work so gravely written should have deceived Dr. Mead,
who quoted it as an authentic history in his Treatise on the Plague.' "
In 1724 appeared "Roxana, the Fortunate Mistress;" and the follow-
ing year a new Voyage found the World," the most instructive, if not
the most interesting, of his histories. Other works of a less important
character followed, and in 1727 was issued "The Complete English
Tradesman." This is generally regarded as the best of De Foe's prac-
tical works, and was greatly admired by Benjamin Franklin. Following
this came "The Military Memories of Captain Carleton," which, with
some few pamphlets, carried him on to his sixty-ninth year, when we find
him engaged on a work of considerable magnitude, entitled The Com-
plete Gentleman."
Of this, however, part only was written, end but a single sheet printed.
We find him writing to his printer (Mr. J. Watt, in Wild Court), apolo-
gising for some delay, but excusing himself on the ground that he is
"exceedingly ill." He was not fated, however, to end his well-worn life
easily and pleasantly. Strange as it may appear, considering the profitable
nature of his works during the preceding twelve or fifteen years, he was
reduced in his extreme old age to absolute poverty, forfeiting his house at
Newington, and actually thrown into prison for debt. His imprisonment
was of but short duration, but his worldly condition never afterwards
mended. His bodily aflhietions increased, and his wicked son added a
climax to his previous ill-behaviour by squandering the little hoard saved
from the wreck of his father's property, entrusted tc this son for the use of
his mother and sisters. Writing concerning family matters generallyto his
son-in-law, Mr. Baker, a few months before his death, poor De Foe thus


alludes to this scapegrace: "I depended upon him-I trusted him-I gave
ap my two dear unprovided children into his hands; but he has no com-
passion, and suffers them and their poor dying mother to beg their bread
at his door, and to crave, as if it were an alms, what he is bound by hand
and seal, besides the most sacred promises, to supply them with; himself
at the same time living in a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me.
Excuse my infirmity; I can say no more, my heart is too full."
On the 24th of April, 1731, in the seventieth year of his age, Do Foe
found rest from the world wherein he had worked so long and so nobly,
and which at last treated him so unkindly. He died in the parish he was
born in-St. Giles's, Cripplegate-and was buried in what was then known
as Tindall's Burying Ground, and now as Bunhill Fields. Whether he died
surrounded by his family, whether he died all alone or attended by strangers,
cannot be discovered. The worst, however, may be surmised; for had
one of his kindred been at hand at the time of his death, it is reason-
able to suppose that the good man's proper name would have been supplied
to the parish registrar, which certainly was not the case, for there the
entry reads:-" 1731-April 26-Mr. Dubow, Cripplegate."

I' '--




Rohina Cr..oe drel hi Mrth i d pnmtgbe-He beb, to a mahig alb-ni Mhae
upostulat with him- Tidt Hall, whie a compBlno tempt him tike trip by s--A
sorm ario, I. the m1it of whi be nreeoi o- hb disobedimt ol -The s.p pbgf p s
lak, mad gor dow In h Y rmol eade-Eop to the shon a beolt-s lfied aot to
p t sse ai%, bat million to etmtl hom, sad tmael to Ladn.

WAS born in the car 1632 in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at HulL He got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving of his trade, lived afterward at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations
wore named obinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was so called Iobinsn Krentsnaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, may,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crsoe; and so my ompanion
always called me.
I had two elder brother, one of whom was lioutenan-oanel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanderm s formerly commanded by the amnou
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkir against tha.
Spaniardm What beme of my se d brother, I never e, anym
than my father or mother did know what was become of m
Being the third son of the hmily, and not bred to any ta le 4,
began to be Alled very early with gambling thoughts. Ej.fhiB lBW dP
er earient, had givre me a *cog i0dinm l of Liqmini, jks g blk
nn w ] t ,.

... .^ .ii ii ..



I-ieYI ---


education and a country free school generally go, and designed me for the
law: but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that pro-
pension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and ex-
postulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house, and my native country, where I might be well introduced,
and had a prospect of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
fortunes, on one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes, on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that
these things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of
low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in
the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life
which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequences of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this as the jnst standard
of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that
the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so
many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind: sy, they
were net subjected to so many distempers and uneasiness, either of body
or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extra
gnces, on one hand, or by hard labour, went of necessaries, and mean m

NBOBiN80 CRBs80. 8

sauffciont diet, on the other Land, bring ditempers pon themseatves by
the natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle station
of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaid. of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversros,
and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, .
and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things: but, in easy circumstances, Aiding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's expe-
rience to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate man-
ner, not to play the young ma, nor to precipitate myself into miseries
which nature, and the station of life I was born in, se mt po-
vided against; that I was under no neessity of seeding y 4e i*at
he would do well for me, and endeavour fo enter -me tA t m the
station of life which he had been just reoommending-t, at if
I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must i am -me hte,
or fault, that must hinder it; and tha h ave c han noining to answer
for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he new would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away; and, to close all, he toldme I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest peraa-
sions to keep him from going into the Low Country wara, but could net
prevail, his young desires prompting him to ran into the army, whrehe
was killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to pray fora yet
he would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish~ ad
would not bless me, and I would have leisure, hereafter, to destllipon
having neglected his eounsel,when there might be am to atAhieRi
recovery. .
I oberved, .this lnst part hidiseosWe whihws-ttrge'w
phetie, tngh zsaxppspb smyftaBuidid ntsow ittobe, rl6e ipr

A.*~~.-.'J.AJve.t',. .. 1i*~r'fM B


I say, I observed the tears ran down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that, when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could
say no more to meo.

I'lt I1~1I

I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who could be
otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to
settle at home, according to my father's desire. But, alasi a few days
wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further im-
portunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily, neither as my first heat of resolution
prompted; but I took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely
bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle to any thing with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or lerk to a
attorney that I was ore, if I did, I should never serve oat my time
id I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out



and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it I would go
no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she knew i
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a subject;
that he knew too well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
such thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could
think of any such thing, after such a discourse as I had with my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to
me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself there was no help forme;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it: that, for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction, and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I have
heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him; and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he
will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose; though in
the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to
business, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they knew my inclina-
tions prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement that time, but I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by seato London in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them with the common allure-
ment of seafaring men, vi., that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father nor mother anymore, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
161, I went on board a ship bound fot London. Never asy young ad-
venturer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer, than .
mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Hmber but the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a mot frigUhtM morer; and


as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for
my wicked leaving my father's house. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which 1 had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor like what 1 saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was buW a young sailor, and had never
known any thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in
this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot
on dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into
a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the
goodness of his observations about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like
a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm con-
tinned, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was
abated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it. How-
ever, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still;
but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly dear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue my companion, who
had indeed enticed mo away, comes to me. "'Well, Bob," says he


clapping me an the shoulder, "how do you do after it? I warrant ya
were frighted, wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of
wind?" A cap-full, do you call it?" aid I, "'twas a teblestorm."
'A storm, you fool!" replies he, "do you call that a storm? Why, itwas
nothing at all; give s but a good ship and sea room, and we think nothing
of snch a squall of wind as that. But you are but a fresh-water ailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye
see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this sad prt of my
story, we went the way of all ailrs; the punch was made, and 1 was
made drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past.conduct, and all my resolu-
tions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its mooth-
anes of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of
being swallowed up by the ea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in
my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off and roued myself fom them, as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fit-for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as
complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy of
The ixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth oads: the
wind having been contrary and the weather ealm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we-were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-weet for seven or
eight days, during which time a great many bips from Newcatle came
into the am road, as the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid here so log, but
we should have tide up the river, but that the wind blew too fesh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very had. However, the ren d
being reckoned a good as ahaboor, the anchorage good, and our.ghpmd
tokle very srong, or ma ware mneoniArned, and not b te least


apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say
several times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone! and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so appa-
rently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitter-
ness of death had been passed, and that this would be nothing, too, like
the first. But when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out
of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the
sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing but distress around us. Two
ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that
with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away with only their spritsails out before the wind.
rewards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder,
he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast the mainmast
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut it
away also and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but s


little. But if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I wa in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of
my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the remo
lutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that
I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with snch fary that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
r did not know what they meant byfonder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often sen, themaster, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayer,
and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word my heat, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that 1, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another: at which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing some light collier
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to
sa, and would come neat us, ordered us to fire a gun a a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised that
I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this wa a
time when every body had his own life to think of nobody minded me, or
what was become of me, but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it waa apparent
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to ablte a
little, yet as it wa not possible she could wim till we might run into a
port, so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light hip, who
had rid it out just ahead of us,entaud a boat out to help a. It w
with the utmost hard the boat eane n us, but it was imposble for



us to get on loard, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, tll at last
the men, rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, which they, after great labour and hazard took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,
to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make
it good to their master: so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship, but
we saw her sink: and then I understood, for the first time, what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly
eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat than that I might be said to go
in: my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the
waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along
the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made slow
way towards the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till being past the
light-house at Winterton, the share falls of to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke of a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on
shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the
town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and myfather, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I
went away in was cast away in Yarmouth RBads, it was a great while
before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
Dut my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could


resist; and though I had several times load calls frm my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go hom yet I had no power to do i I
know not what to call thin, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling
decree that hurries s n to be the instruments o ourown destruction,
even though it be before m, and that we push upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending
and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and peraasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two sach visible instructions as I had met with in
my fist attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less forward than I: the firt time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three day, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the fist time he
saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did? and telling his father who
I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, "Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea any amme; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faringman." "Why, sir?"saidI; "willyou gotoseanomore?" "That
is another case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; butas
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist Perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, "what are you, and on what account did you go to sa?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion. "What had I done," says he, "that such
an unhappy wretch should come into my ship I would not set my foot
in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed
was, as I said, an excursion of hi spirits, which-were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was further than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me: exhorted me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me: "And, young man," said
he, "depend upon it, if you do not go baok, wherever you go you
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments till your ftheer
words are fulfilled upon you."



We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more: which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land, and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take,
and whether I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every
body else: from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to
that reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluct-
ance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the little
motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite
laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.


Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the African coast,
and embarks as a trading adventurer-Takes a fever, learns how to navigate a ship, and returns
enriched-On the death of the captain he makes a second voyage with the mate-The ship is
taken by Turkish pirates, whose leader makes Crusoe his slave-Fishing off the Morocco coast,
he contrives an escape-The Moor is thrown overboard, and swims for his life-Sets sail with the
Moresco boy-Dangers of coasting-An African Lion-Steers for the south-Falls in with savages,
who supply him with provisions-Shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and ter-
rified-Is picked up by a Portuguese merchantman-Sells the Moresco boy, with a reservation-
Arrives at the Brazils.

HAT evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those con-
S ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the
coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a
little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time I had learned the duty
and office of a foremastman, and in time might have qualified myself for
a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, no'
learned to do any.
It was my lot, first of all to fall into pretty good company in London;
which does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows
as I then was, the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early. But it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted
with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,


having had very good success there, was resolved to go again; and wo,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me, if
I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no expense-I should be
his mensmate and his companion; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and,
perhaps, I might meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer,
and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about forty pounds
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with, and who I believe got my father, or, at
least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account
of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost three hundred pounds, and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin. Yet even in this voyage I had..ly misfortunes too; par-
ticularly that I was continually sic, being thrown into a violent calen-
ture* by the excessive heat of the climate-our principal trading being
upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader: and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate

A ol' t fr, toncidet to persons in hot dimatM, etpcaUy to natrsr eole
dlhmst, and to which, therefore, Emropean sals a peliarly lish. One of t1
symptom is peculiar: the person atected imagines th ses to be a p tem and
somestimu, attempting to walk on it, is lost


in the former voyage, and had now got the command of tne ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite a hundred pounds of my new-gained wealth--so that I had
two hundred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me-yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage: and the first was this, is.-our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Turkish
rover of Balee, who gave chase to us with all the sails dse could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts
carry, to have got cear; but finding the pirate gained upon us and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, our
ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and pour-
ing in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and backing
the decks and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our decks of them twice. How-
ever, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Salleea, port belonging to the
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the Emperor's court, as the rest of
our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his propel
prize, and made his dave, being young and nimble, and fit for his busi-
nes. At .this surprising change of my cirumstences, from a marched
to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked bad
upon my fathers prophet discoure to me, that I should be miserable
and have nome to relieve me, which I thought was now so efectually
brought to pas, that I could not be worse-that now the landp of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemptira. Blt, j



alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will
appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again,
believing that it would, some time or other, be his fate .to be taken by
:; Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war, and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for when he went
to sea he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after
the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had
nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me,-no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself: so that
for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship
-which, as I heard, was for want of money-he used constantly, once or
twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weatherwas fair, to take the ship's
pirnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me
and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore,
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we
laboured all day and all the next night, and when the morning come, we
found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and
that we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;'but, particularly, we
were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of


himself for the future; and having lying by him the longboat of our
English hip he had taken, h resolved he would not go a fishing a-y
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also n English lave, to build a little state-eom or
cabinin the middle of the lngbot, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer and haul home the main sheet, and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She ailed with that we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the
cabin, which lay very nnug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some smalllockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought it to drink, particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fshing, and as I was most
dexterous to catch fih for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go aot in this boat, either for pleasure or for
fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinary, and had therefore sent an board
the boat, overnight, a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had
ordered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot which were
on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of bowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests: when, by and by, my patron ame on board
alone, and told me his guest had put of going, upon some business that
fell out, and ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go ut with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I had got some fsh, I should
bring it home to his hoe: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my forme notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself not for
fishing buinees but for a voyage; though I knew not, neiter did I
so much as oandider, whither I should teer: for any whee to get oai o
that place was my way.
My firt ontrivance was to make a ptence to speak to fthb l
to get something for our smbelsti on heard; far I toMd Mh we ma *
not prestme to eat of o pd ols bd. He mid, tAt ws mta


he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jar
with fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident by the make were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also. His name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley; so I called
to him: "Moley," said I, "our patron's guns are on board the boat, can
you not get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some
alcamics (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship." Yes," says he, "I will bring some;" and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound
and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with shot, that had five
or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything
needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and
we were not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been sure to
have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz;
but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from
that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing, for when I' had
fish on my hook I would not pull them up that he might not see them, I
said to the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus served;
we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I ran the boat
out near a league farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise,
with my arm under his twist,* and tossed him clear overboard into the
The halow oa the imid the thigh.


sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, and told me he would go all over the world with
me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would have reached me
very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieoes, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hmt, and if he would be quiet I would do
himnone. "But,"saidI, "you swim well enough to reach the shore, and
he sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore and Iwill do youno
harm; but if you come near the boat I will shoot you through the head;
for I am resolved to have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and hare
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy whom they called Xnry, and said to him,
Xury, if youwill be faithful to me I will make you a great man; butif
you will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard), I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him;
and swore tobe faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming I stood uat
directly to se, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one that
had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly Bar-
barian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sum to surround u
with their canoes and destroy us, where we could never once go n shore
but we should be devoured by savage beast or more mer~ile savages
of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a air fesh
gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe li
the next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made thele
I could not be less than one hundred and fifty mile south aof saliee fit
beyond the Emperor of Mdaocoos dominions, o indeed of any owilag
thereaboute; for we saw nopeople.
Yet such was the frigit I had taken at the MHors, and fte l
I c;,~t~~iaseC"


apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, a
go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew
not what or where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, of
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. "Well, Xury," said I, then I won't; but it may
be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"Then we may give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing, "make
them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night. I say still, for we slept none: for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howling and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frighted when we heard one of the mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat: we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know, but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away. "No," says I, "Xury,
we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but Iperceived the creature (whatever i
was) within two oar' length, which something surprised me; however, I
immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fred at
him, upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
ohare gain.


But it is impossible to describe the horrible noise, and hideous ries
and howling that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore a
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a thing I
believe, those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day, was another question too; for to have falen
into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have falle
into the paws of lions and tigers: at least we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.
Bo that as it would, we were obliged to go on share somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when or where
to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would fnd if there was any water, and bring sme to
me. I asked him why he would go; whyI should not go, andhe staying
the boat? The boy answered with so mued affection, that he made me
love him ever after. Says he, I wild mas come, they eat me, you go
away." "Well, Xury," saidI, "we will both go; and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them; they shall eat neitherof us." So I gave Xury
a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's aea of bottles,
which I mentioned before; and we hauled the boat in as near theshore as
we thought was proper, and waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low plaie
about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by, I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and I therefore ran forwards to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a create that he had ahot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat: but the great joy that poor Xury came with,
was to tll me he had found good water, and een no wild mass
But we found afterwards that we need not takesuch pains fo water;
for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found tih water fresh
when the tie was out, which ows but a little way up; as waAled
our jars, and feasted o the hre we had killed; and przomeMl .o g
on our way, having seen no footteps of my human ceatm a iLi i
part of the country.

'"- f


As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that
the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation, to
know what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at least
remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I
stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that
would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must be
that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions
and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except.by wild beasts; the
Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the
Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there: so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time; and, indeed,
for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a
waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howling and
roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Canaries, and had a
great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel: so I resolved to pursue my first design, and
keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left
this place; and once, in particular, being early in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to How, we lay still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; For," says he, "look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I
looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a
piece of the hill that hung, as it were, over him. "Xury," says I,


" you shall go on shore and kill him."
Xury looked frighted, and said, "He
kill! he eat me at one mouth"-
one mouthful he meant. However, I
said no more to the boy but bade him
be still; and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket bore
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two eluge, and
laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and a third,
for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him into tha
head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that
the slugs hit his leg above the knee, and broke the bone. He started
up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the
head; however, I took up the second piece immediately, and though
he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let


him go on shore. "Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to the shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of-the
piece to his ear, and shot him into the head again, which dispatched
him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so
he comes on board and asked me to give him the hatchet or what.
Xury?" said I. "He cut off his head," said he. However Xury could
not cut off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and
it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself however, that per
haps the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury and I went t
work with him: but Xury was much the better workman at it, for ]
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day;
but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually, for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this, was to make the river
Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say, any where about the Cape de Verd,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship: and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands,
or perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East
Indies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a word I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at
us: we could also perceive they were qnite black and stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in
nearer the shore, that I might talk to them: and I found they ran along


the shore by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long alnder stick, which Xury said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with good aim; so
I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and
particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat: upon this I lowered
the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country,
and in less than half-an-hom came back and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, asch as is the produce of their country:
but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we were
willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the
shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a great way of till we
fetched it on board, and then came cose to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends: but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fny, from
the mountains towards the sea- whether it was the male pursuing the
female, or whether they were in sport or in rage we could not tell, any
more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe it
was the latter, because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the people
terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance,
or dar, did not ly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall
upon any of the Negres, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about, as if they had come for their diversion. At last, oe them began
to come nearer our boat than I at first expected; but I layready for him,
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As son a he came fairly within my rea, I flred,
and shot him directly into the head: immediately he sunk down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plugged up and down, as if he was trggii
forlife, and so indeed be was: he innediately made to thie daboe liht
between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the itangling ti
water, he diedjust before 6 e reached the sore.
It is impossible to express the atnishment of these poor reat at



the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were ready even todie
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw
the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them
to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water;
and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they case; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so
I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no
knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as
readily, and much more readily than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the akin, which they gave me
vary freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made.signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upwards, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury
on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large oing, to make
this point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues fhom the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I canomolde
as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and thase


'C yrIr i

~__~.~~ahcPu.~L ~I~L~i~lll;~6~L~L151~1~

UOBINON- CIsoa. IT 2 7

$ie islands called, Am thence, Cope d Ved Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best todo1
for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
aor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stopped into the abin, and
mat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy iled
out, Master, master, a ship with auail I" and the foolish boy was frighted
out of his wit, thinking it must needs be some of his masters ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten for enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately sea, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Negroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them, if possible.
With all the sil I could make, I found I should not be able to com
in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any
signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glass,
and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must belong
to some ship that was lot; so they shortened sail to let me come p. I
was encouraged with this and as I had my patron's ancient on boad,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fed a gun, 'o
which they saw; fr they told me they saw the smoke, thouglthey did
not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I me up with
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanie, endin
French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me, ad I answered him, and told himl was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery fom the Moo at
Sallee: then they bade me come uo board, and very kindly took in,
and all my goods.
It was an inexp~essble joy to me, which any me will belieab I
was thus delivered as I eteemed it, t s um a m t at alb ila et
hopeless condition s I was in; ad I himlseq lyam ed at t
the captain of the ship, a a etm dr my dslbmaa; batu bsgil

. 4 .


told me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe tome when I came to the Brazil. "For," say he, "Ihave
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved
myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry you to the Brails, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what you
have, yon will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I
have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese," (Mr. Englishman), says he, "I
will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the perform-
ance to a tittle : for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to
touch anything I had: then he took every thing into his own posses-
eion, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might have
them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and thathe saw, and told me
he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would
have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in every thing,
that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him: upon which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned
it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de
Todos lo Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the meet miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I was now to
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I-had


in the boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be punctually
delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the
case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax,
-for I had made candles of tho rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of cight of all my cargo; and with this stock,
I went on shore in the Brazils.

-. I -
,' -- __ _

'"1^ -y ^^ ^;- ^



Crns bays land, and becomes planter-The Portu8geae eaptaa ontlnti bIa g od ofieee-The
plantation ucceeds, but prosperity does not bring contentment-Beeomna superargo of a slaver
-A hurricane-The ship is driven westward, and atrIkes on a asetbank-The crew take to their
boat, which iL swamped-All are drowned, except Crsoe, who Is washed against a rock, and
ancecods in reaching the mainland-He rcjoico at his deliveance, rcfleet on hia position, an
remembers that he has neither dr foo for stnae nor weapon for defence-Sleps in a tree.

HAD) not been long here, but being recommended by the captain
to the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it-that is, a plantation and a sugar-house,
-I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar: and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I
was. I call him neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine,
and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but low as well
as his, and we rather planted for food than any thing else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made
each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come; but we both wanted help, and now I found, more than before, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great


-onder. Ihad no remedy, but to go on: I was gotten into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary tot life I
delighted in, and for which I frsook my father's house ad broke
through all his good advice: nay, I was coming into the vry middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to
before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had
aone. and I used often to say to myself I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off
to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a
distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to eay, I
lived just like a man cost away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself But how just has it been! and how should
all men reflect that, when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, nd
be convinced of their former felicty by their experience. I say, how just
has it been that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of
mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared
it with the life which I then led, in which had I continued, I had, in
all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back (for the ship remained ere, in providing his loading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months) when telling im what
little stock I had left behind me ki London, he gave me this friendly and
sincere advice: "8eignior Inglese,'ays he (for sohe always calledme), "if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London to send your effects
to Lisbon to suchpersons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
ling, at my return; but snoe human aif s are all subject to obg
and disasters, I would have yo give orders but for one ha drd
sterling, which, you may, s half your stock, and let the harl run
the At,no wthat, i it sme sle, yo may order s rm the o& A


and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could
not but be convinced it was the beat course I could take; so I aceordiigly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and
a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adven-
tures,-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply: and when this
honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her:
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket,
sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for his humanity
and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at
Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils: among which,
without my direction (for I was too young in my business to think of
them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils,
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid
out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a present for
himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant under bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a little
tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures,
such as cloths, stuff, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable
in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I may say, I had more than four times the value of my rst eargo,
and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance.
ment of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro
slave, and a European servant also-I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of a
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next yearwith great

9 -

success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bours; and these fifty rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and in wealth my head began
to be fall of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be fall of: but other things attended me, and
I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and, par.
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the reflections uppn myself
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent .obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination in .
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and
plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature
and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
Is As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I cold
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health, in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my
story: you may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazil, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plan-
tation, I had not only learned the language, but had contracted so-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as wll as among
the merchants at St. alvador, which was our prt; and that, in my
discourse among them, I had frequently given them an aseount of my
two voyages to the coast of Guine, the manner of trading with t
Ncgroe there, and how easy it s to purcseupo the coat, fortify
sch as beads toyms knives, sss, mateb i of glas, andm the like-
not only gold dust. Guinea grains, dephab O, eLo,
the ervice of Se Brad in geMis t a l






They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes; which
was a trade at that time not only not far entered into, but, as far as it
was, had been carried on by the asmietos, or permission of the kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,-so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
ef my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last
night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after en-
joining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a
ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that, as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring
the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions; and, in a word, the question was whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ?
and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes,
without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a
good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had began, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England,-and who
in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of
being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing
too,-for me to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing
that ever man, in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenant, to do
so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in


case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my univeral heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will,-one half of the produce being to himself and the
other to be shipped to England
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effect, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving
circumstance and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect pertioular mis-
fortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy,
rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being fitted out and the
cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my partners in
the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the first of September,
1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool
to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself: we had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toy as were t for our
trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd tribes,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I wenton board, we set sail, standing away to the north
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African
coast when they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude,
which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augstino; from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N. by N. and
leaving those isles on the east In this course we passed the Line in
about twelve days' time, and ware by our last observation, in seven
degrees twenty-two minutes orther latitude, when a violent tornado, or
humrrane, took us quite out of our knowledge: itbegan from the soth-
east, came about to the north-wet, anm then settled in the norh-ess
from whence it lew in such a terrible mannf tht for twelve iasp

^^ ,..- ,-.. Z..-_, j>.-. ,, -- ... iin1 i i i


together we could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let
it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference, west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guyana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by
keeping off at sea to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail,-whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by
R. in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for
relief: but our voyage was otherwise determined, for being in the latitude
of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out
of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
raly in the morning& cried out, Land! and we had no sooner run out ol
the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we
were, but the ship struck upon a and, and in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven


into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances: we
knew nothing where we were or upon what land it was we were driven,
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and
as the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at rfrt,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes
without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment; and every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, andall
the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for s to expect
her getting off we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do, but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was'no hope from her.
We had another boat on board, but how to get her of into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and, with
the help of the rest of the men, they got her lung over the ship's side;
and, getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in
number, to God's meroy and the wild sea; for though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore,
and might well be called Id wUid s, as the Dutch call the sea in a
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly
that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor,
i we hd, could we have done anything with it, o we worked atthe or
towards the lad, though with heavy hearts, le men going to execution



for we all knew that whn the boat came nearer the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal-
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat
in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water.
But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
Alter we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bid us expect the coup d grace. In a word, it took us
with such fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as
well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say,
"0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and
having spent itself went back and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I
expected, I got upon my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the
land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up
again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which
I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could, and so, by swimming,
to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great
way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried meat onee twenty or thirty
foot deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way; but I held my


breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might I
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly,gave me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and finding the water had spent
itself and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath and till the water went from me, and then took to my
heels and ran with what strength I had further towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fry of the sea, which came pour-
ing in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very fat
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; fr thb
sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such fore as it left me senseless
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverane; for the blow, taking my
side and, breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body, and
had it returned again iruedisely, I must have been strangled in the
water; but I recovered a it e bere the return of the waves, ad, seeing
I should be covered again 'wltVates, t ved to hold fest by a piece
of the rock, and so to h my breath wave went back.
Now as the waves were ot o high as the near lnd, I held
my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched northern, which mought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to % waime away; andthe next ran I took,
I got to the main land, where to'geat comfort, I lambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, efreom danger and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some ininutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express
to the life what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are, irhom is
so saved, as I may say, out of the grave; and I do notwapder now aitat"
custom, vis., that when a malefactor, who has the halter tis nek,.
is tied up and just going 4o be turamed ofi and has a reprieve brought
to him,-I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to


let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:
For sadden joys, lie griefs, confound at first"
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whola
being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of my deliverance;

making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; refect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself-for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards,
or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows
I east my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of
the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far ofl, and con-
idered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore


After 1 had solaced my mind with the comfortable prt of my con-
dition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place I was in and
what was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and
that, in a word, I lad a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me;
neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was parti-
cularly affecting to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This
was all my provision; and.this threw me into terrible agonies of mind,
that for a while, I run about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I
began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that tnie, was to get
up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-which grew near me,
and where I resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day what
death I should die, for as yet I saw no project of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy, and having drunk, and put a little tobacco
in my month to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might
not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a truncheon, for my
defence, I took up my lodging, and, having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.



Crooea, on waking In the morning, see the ship lying a-ground high ot of the wate--Ee omes
down from the tree-Swhne to the ship-Constdut a raft, which he loead with stores, and
guides with difficulty to the shore-Surrey. the ountry, and discover that it is an sland and
ninhabited-Shoots a bird, the fesh of which proves to be carrion-Unloads the ran, nd
mrect a hut-Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo ashre-On hi return i
conlonted by a wild cat, which dlcovers a disposition to be filedly-Makea a tent, which he
furnishec and fortifies-Repeate his viite to the hlp, whch he stdip of its contets-Renov
his tent to a more advantaeous lite, and fences it strongly-Kill a a shpoet, and 1. grioved

"EN I waked it was broad day, the weather dear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where
she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far
as the rock which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by
the dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind
and the sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but
found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to fnd something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and
here I 'und a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently that, if


we had kept on board, we had all been safe-that is to say, we had
all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable s to be lefl
entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was. This forced
tears from my eyes again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water: but when I came to the ship,
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board, for as she
lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of I swam round her twice, and the second time I
spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the fore-chains, so low as that with great difficulty I got hold of
it, and by the help of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost
to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in
that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search and
to see what was spoiled and what was free: and first I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water; and being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great'cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before
me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to finish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had, and
this extremity roused my application; we had several spare yards, and
two or three large spar of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship.
I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage of their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the
ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both end, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two om
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any eat weight, the
pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with the carpenter's aw I
cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my rft, with a
great deal labour and pais. But the hope of farnihig myself wit

a' k-- .-- -----.. ^- .^.#a-s.a&asH-a-


necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea. Bat I was not long considering this.
I first laid all the planks, or boards, upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn which had been laid by
for some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and, in all, about five
or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being no
need to put them into the chests, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon, as, first, tools to work with on
shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship loading of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into
it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in'the ship,
but knew not where our gunner had stowed them, but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with



them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The tide
rising, and setting in to the shore. 3. What little wind there was
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws, an are, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well,
only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined so it was: there appeared before me a little opening If
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guidi
my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream. But here
I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground
at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither
durst I stir from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little
after, the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore
resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near
as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but
here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again, for that
shore lying pretty steep, that is toy, sloping, there was o place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran an shore, would lie so high, and


the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping
the raft with my oar, like an anchor to hold the aide of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground which I expected the water would flow
over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that fiat piece of ground, and
there fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground, one on one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for
my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from what-
ever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether in
danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder,
and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up to the top, I saw my
fate, to my great affiction, viz., that I was in an island environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, however,
I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kind;
neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food and what
not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon
a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there sincethe creation of the world: I had no sooner fired,
but from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying every
one according to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I
knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to


work to bring my c-.a on shore, which took me up the rest of that day;
what to do with myself at night I knew not nor indeed where to rest
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild
beast might devonur me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really
no need for the fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought an shore, and made a kind of a hut
for that nights lodging. As for food, I yet sw not which way to supply
myself except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hae, run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out
of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly sme of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land; and I
resolved to make another voyage n board the vessel impossible. Ad,as I
knew that the first storm tbatblw must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart till Igot every thing out of the ship
that I oould get Then I called a council, that is to say, in my though,
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticabe: so
I resolved to go, sb when the te was down and I did s, only that
I stripped before I went from my t having nothing a. but a chequered
shirt and a pair of linen drawers, and apair of pmps an my fet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second aft; and
having had experience of the first, I neither made this as unwieldy, nor
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me: as, frt,inthe carpenter'sstres I found two orthree ba ll ofnails
and spikes, a great sarew-jse, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone All these I secured together,
with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly to or three
iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven musket, and another
fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full
of small shot, and a gre roll of sheet lead; bu this last was so heavy I
could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all theme's clothes that I could find, and
a spare fore-topil, hammo, and some bedding; and with this I laded
my second raft, and brought them all sfe on shore to my very gst

I wasunder some apprehend s, during my absence fmn the l tat
at least my proviansmightbeldevoured en Ae but, whenIm e b

... ..i^ i>^-.,--^fc -.^.. ^,.^^.-.-. :.,_*.,. -_ m j i ^ H -


1 found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned,
and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me, I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say,


and she went to it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked, as pleased, for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks,-I went to work to make me a little tent with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose, and into this tent I brought
every thing that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and, spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept
very quietly all night: for I was very weary and heavy, for the night
before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to
fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still, for, while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out of her
that I could: so every day, at low water, I went on board and brought
away something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass, which
was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last, only that I was
fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that, at last of all, after 1
had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,-I say,
after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of
rum or spirits, and a box of sugar and a barrel of fine flour; this was
surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions,
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out: and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and ft to hand out, I began with the cables,


and cutting the groat cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two
cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and
having cut down the sprit-sal yard and the mizen-yard, and every thing
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that, after Iwas entered the little cove where I
had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I
did the other, it oversot, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me. However, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a
work which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of
hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though, I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece; but, preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another
I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself atthe sight ofthis money. "0 drug" said I aloud,
":what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the.
bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of
Canvass, I began to think of masting another raft; but while I was pre-
paring this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and
in a quarter of an hur it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the
wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of

*-' -. -R~ ~ ~~"Frry-*~ll


flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all
Acordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across the
channel which lay between the ship and the and, and even that with
dificulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me,
and partly the roughnees at the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a strm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, wih all ty
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night and in
the morning, when I looked out, behold no moe ship was to be seen!
I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfetaor
reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get
everything out of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, thee
was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had.had more
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of
her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use
to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any wre in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cae in the
earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, the
manner and description of which it may not be improper to give an
account at
I soon found the place Iwas in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome; and more particularly became there was no
fresh water near it: so I resolved to fnd a more healthy and mae oon.
venient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: first, Health and fresh water I just now mentioned;
secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, Security omdn
ravenous features, whether man or beast; fourthly, A view to the sea
that if God sent any hip in ght, I might not lose any advategea a .a
deliverance, for which I was not willing to banish all my epeeghiB ylq
In search of a place proper for this, I fend a little plain ae
of a rising hill, whose twa b s tbik tie plain ia 2s.iss* ni


I I 11 7 I




.,i. .


side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the
side of this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave, but there was not really any cave, or way
into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to
pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and
about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end
of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
seaside. It was on the north-north-west side of the hill, so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a west-and-by-south
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow-place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top:
the two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle between these two
rows of stakes up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post: and
this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or
over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me, and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,
which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared after-
wards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that I
apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from the
rains that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered


the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the
And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had brought
on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, add
belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, Imade up the
entrance, which, till now, I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as
I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and,
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent,
I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it
raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus Imade a cave,
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash
of lightning happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning as I was with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the
lightning itself: Oh, my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I
thought, that at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied
myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a
little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than one hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fanoy,
I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the


rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.
SIn the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
eiery day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill


,- ," ,,r

any thing fit for food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out, I presently'dis-
covered that there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfao-
tion to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, via.,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the
moet difficult thing in the world to come at them: but I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in
this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the valley though



they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright -
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rock, they
took no notice of me; from whence I concluded that, by the position of
their optics, their eight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards, I took this
method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
bad frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures,
I killed a sho-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my.arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to hae bred it up
tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly and
saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of it in its place: but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was not east away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz., some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven that, in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miser-
able,-so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check thesethoughte
and to reprove me; and, particularly, one day walking with my gun in
my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive upon fte subject of my
present condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me.the
other way, thus: "Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is tao;


but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not
they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to
be here or there?" And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to
be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my sub-
sistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened,
which was a hundred thousand to one, that the ship floated from the
place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore that
I had time to get all these things out of her: what would have been
my case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in which I at
first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them? Particularly," said I aloud (though to myself), what
should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make any thing or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings ?" and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such
a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent,
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long
as I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would provide
for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come,
even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my
health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened
and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order.


Cruoe bt up a woodme eae on which he hribes the date of hi. aIdia, sand keep hi
rckoning of time-BHe seriouly conlder his portion, and, balance the good in it paint the
enil, arlr. at the onelslon that he I. not altogether marablo-IMake vsiou articles of
aitre tfor l hoMuse with the ald of the toot fond in the hlp-Keep. a Joinal.

T was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island,-
when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox, was
almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself~ by observa-
tion, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of
the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books,
and pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath days from the
working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a
large post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set
it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., "I came on shore here
the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square post I
cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was
as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long again
as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at
all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before, as, in par-
ticular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's
gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation:
all which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no: also


I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from
England, and which I had poked up among my things; some Porta-
guese books also, and, among them, two or three Popish prayer books,
and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried
both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make
up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that, while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but, after that was gone, I could not, for I could
not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together: and of these, this of ink was one, as
also spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pins, and thread. As for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and it
was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale,
or surrounded habitation. The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy
piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows, which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving those
posts, or piles, very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, if that
had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider =eously my condition, and the circumstance
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing,
not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me (ir I
was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily


poring pon them, and adlioting my mind: and, as my season began
now to master my despondeny, I began to comdat myself a well -
I could, and toset ithe good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguiah my ae hom worse; and I stated it very i rtially,
like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enioe against the mieries
I suffered thus:
sm. GOOD.
I am cut pon sharrible date island, But I an sli; and am not drowned,
void of ab hope of reoomy. s all my il company as.
I am singled out and separated, t it But I m ingled out, too, hom sn th
we, fi n all the word, to be misable. ip's row, to be iared fm death; nd
He that mirsenlously d n mefm death,
an deliver me ftom thit emnitio

I am divided ftom m-ankimd l si, s ButI ea not trd, andpiohignron
one baniehd from human society. brrm plso, sffoading no eateoMese.
I haenoclothesto er me. But I at in a hot doim~ e, wv e, if
had clothe, I could hardly va the.
I am without any delmes, or meas to But I m ea ont in d, where I ee
rreit my iolene of mn or beat no wild beast to hurt s a I aw o the
eas of d iae; and what if I had ben
lbipwratoed there?
have no soul to speak to, or relieve me. But God weaderafolly eant th ship in
ear emogh to the she, tat I have
gotten o so many namr thun g e s wil
ldthr ll m wesol, ormal me to
supply mYe aens long ai I hi.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there ws something
negative, or something positive, to be thanks for in it; and let Ihis
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable of all
conditions in this world, that we may always ilnd in it something to
comfort ourselves ftm, and to set, in the description at good and evil,
on the credit side of the aoount.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, ad
givenover looking out to e, to see if I could spy a sip-I y, gling
over these things, I began to apply myself to oneosnmodate my way
af living and to make thing as easy to me a I could.
I have ahldy described my habitation, whih ws a it
the side a roee, maaanns wi-a a s ig pale a
bnt I might now aaer 'ea-a. i Air I ainaed a I.s



k~~e~ --~a~- na a a


against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside, and after some
time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning
to the rock, and thatched, or covered, it with boughs of trees and uach
things as I could get, to keep out the rain, which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in
no order, so they took up all my place: I had no room to turn myself, so
I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth; for it
was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on
it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside
of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world,-
I could not write, or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure,
without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must reeds observe that, as reason
is the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most rational judg-
ment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic
art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools, and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. Por example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as
thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I
had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board


but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the
first place-and this 1 did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards, as
above, I made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a hal, one over
Another all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and
iron-work, and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general maga-
sine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's
-employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much a hurry, and not
only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind, and my
journal would have been full of many dull thins; for example, I must
have said thus-" Seft. 80t.-After I got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into
my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wring-
ing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced
to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured."
Some days after this, and after Ihad been on boardthe ship and got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of
a little mountain and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail-please myself with the hopes of
it,-and then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite,
and sit down andweep like a child, and thus increase mymisery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair,
nd all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my jornal,-of
which I shas here give you the copy (though in it will be told al these
particulars over again) as Iong as it lasted; for, having io more i- k'
was forced to leave it a t

~R-~r r



Sptembr 30, 1659.-I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked during a dreadful storm in the offng, came on shore an this
dismal unfortunate island, which I called the I~sa ow DsSPm all
the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to, and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we
might, perhaps, have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day also it continued racing, though with
no wind at all.
.From the 1st of Octoer to the 241.-All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brougl
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days
though with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the
rainy season.
Ot. 20.-I overset my raft and all the goods I had ot upon it, but
being in shoal water, and the things being chifly heavy, I recovered
many of them when the tide was out.
O. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusas wind;

r anr7-gi~.~fsu~n


'U9c. -e

during which time the ship broke in pieces,the wind blowing a lite
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the week of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in ooveri and seeing
the goods which I had sved, that the rain might not spoil then.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place
to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself hufm my attack.
in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I Axed
upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolve to strengthen with a wor, wall, or forti-
cation, made of double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
From the 26th to the 80U, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceeding hard.
The 81s, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food and discover the country, when I killed a she-goat
and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
NormIer 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night, making it.as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing
my hammock upon.
Nos. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. S.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make p
a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my'times of work, of going
out with my gun, time of sleep, end time of diversion; vis., every ornm-
ing I walked out with my gun or two or three hours, if it did not rain;
then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; thn eat what,
I had to live on; and fom twelve to two I lay down to eep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work agin. The
working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making
my table, for I was yet but a ery eaoy workman, though
aedessity made me a complete natural meohanio oon aser, l
it would do my one else.
Nev. 5.-Thidfy I wpt bed hu my Sq,

j ITM it a



a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: every
creature I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back
by the seashore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not under-
stand, but was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into
the sea and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before
I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday, according to my
reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and, even in the
making, I pulled it to pieces several times.-Note. I soon neglected my
keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on-my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and
lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Noe. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little square
chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at
most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to
make room for my farther conveiencey.-Not. Three things I wanted
exceedingly for this work, viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow,
or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made
use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that
indeed, I could do nothing effeetually without it, but what kind of one
to make I knew not.
Ho 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I fond atree of tat
woo, or like it, which, in the rasils they call tbhe hi tree, fr it


exceeding hardness: of this, with great labor, and aheet spoiling my
ae, I cut a piece, and brought t home, too with diioulty enough, fr
it was exceeding heavy. The exceive hardness the wood, nd having
no other way, made me a long while upon this m einee; fr worked it
effectually, by little and lite, into the form of a shoel or spde the
handle exactly shaped like ouam in Englad, only tht the brad pat
having no iron shed upon it at bottom, it would not last me soling:
however, it served well enough for the uses which I had ocsioee fo put
it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fhin, or so
long a-making.
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbaow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make wioker-ware, at least none yet fhad out; ad
as to the wheelbarow, I fanied I could make al but the wheel, but th
I Iad no notion oa neither did I know how to go aboutit; besides I had
no possible way to make iron gudgeons fot the spindle or a s of the
wheel torun in; so I gave it over: and so, or carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hoa which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so diicult to me as the making the shovel; an yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to-make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four day--I men, always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom hiled, ad
very seldom failed also of bringing home something ft to eat
No. 23.--My other work having now stood stl, because of my
making these tools, when they were fniha I went n, mad working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening an deepening my e that it might hold my
goods commodiou y.--E During all this time I wtoedto make his
room, or eave spacious enough to aseommodate me as a wauzouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-rom, and a ollar. As for a lodging, I
kept to the tent; exoeptthat sometimes, in the wet season the oya, it
rained so hard that I could Aot keep myself dry, which case=dl agea-
wards to cover al myplniM in my pee with loaggoi in* as
fi,nitm. leaing *i*t .t 4 pqis ad m w&e *pad BasP
,leam ofe an, li*ke skt
J*'~.rbMi WI -Bi
qp.r8S-m^-^*^5^h.^f.1ffin;aR^i l

~e~lE~ I





fell down from the top and one side-so, much, that, in short, it frighted
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under it I had never
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out, and. which was
of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board
across over each post: this I finished the next day, and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured;
and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, hanging every thing up that could be hung up;
and now I began to bring every thing within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried every thing into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to get very scarce with me;
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat and lamed another, so that I catched
it, and led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke.-N.B. I took such care of it
that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but, by
nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 20, 30.-Great heats, and no breeze: so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food: this time I spent in
putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I
found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to como


;Jla (


at: however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.-
N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal: it is sufficient to observe now, that I was no less time
than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April, working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall,-though it was no more than about twenty-four
yards in length, being a half circle, from one place in the rock to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.


C(usoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his difficulties-Is
surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-At first supposes that
Providence has specially intervened on his behalf, but afterwards remembers that the barley
was accidentally sown-Prudently preserves the grain for seed-The Journal resumed-Is
startled by an earthquake, which is followed by a hurricane-Recovers various articles from
the wreck, which have been cast ashore in the storm-Finds a turtle, and cooks it-Falls ill,
and is alarmed by a terrible dream--Reprozohes himself on account of his past life, and reflects
upon his present miseries.

S' LL this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
4'1 $] i many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought
[ I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was
"-'J, finished: and it is scarce credible what inexpressible
labour every thing was done with, especially the bringing piles out of
the woods, and driving them into the ground, for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced with a
turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there they would not perceive anything like a
habitation: and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these
walks, of something or other to my advantage; particularly I found a
kind of wild pigeons, who built, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and, taking some
young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when
they grew older, they flew all away, which, perhaps, was at first for
want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them. However, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were very
good ricat.

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