Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
 The journal

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073601/00001
 Material Information
Title: The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 496 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Grandville, J. J., 1803-1847 ( Illustrator )
Procter, John ( Illustrator )
Lea, Henry Charles, 1825-1909 ( Publisher )
Brett, E ( Engraver )
Campbell, E. V ( Engraver )
Dorrington, G ( Engraver )
Webbe ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Donohoe Kelly & Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Henry Lea and all booksellers
Place of Publication: London (112 Fleet Street E.C.)
Manufacturer: Kelly & Co.
Publication Date: 1880?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1880   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1880   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; embellished with numerous engravings, after designs by J.J. Grandville, John Proctor, and others.
General Note: Date based on citations below.
General Note: Some ill. engraved by E. Brett, E.V. Campbell, G. Dorrington, and Webbe.
General Note: Also issued in parts.
General Note: Description matches that of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 626, except this issue has half title p. and printing information on p. 496. Lovett does not have half title and printing information is on the verso of the t.p.
General Note: All pages (1-496) in decorative frame.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: University of Florida's copy rebound with insertions: leaf opposite t.p., publisher's advertisement for 'The Scalp hunters'; at front, one front and two back covers from a weekly issue of Robinson Crusoe, with pub. on front cover given as Henry Lea, 125 Fleet Street. Covers printed by R. Beard, 29, Farringdon Street, London.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073601
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28050595

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
        Advertising 1
        Advertising 2
        Advertising 3
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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And a variety of Infornation on subjects of General and Domestic Interest.
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p i; I
1li-~r F~tlI ,10 '1

V&O YMi ] I, Y),1,,
" -. ,, .
,_. ._ ,.
Mian 'm ,'I


-i. -


4 q1~l, A ,nl i)n thlit-' v 11.A ':., in thlt ,it .f Y torl;, t
i' o .,d liamiilv, tlhoutg not t.hat :...untry, imy fithr
''l.in a f..reii ler tof Bre' i-en, hli.- sezttledl tFl-t t
Hull. He cgot a good epstiat I. I. merlanl','is'U, nnld,
lea1 '1i 1ff hi tr.a le, l In:..l :leter\w.i rl at York: fr,.,m
% hence lie ha.l mI arri.'iv-''l imy ,oitthcr, liho-te rel:itionis
Be l'e inmlfiI ..lt R'bin7iion, a \ r. .:.nl. failil\' in that
colntrv, an.l fri.m Ih m I _;i c:l .l .Rol.illson
K le tn:l, : l.,t, l.y thle usunl i:rrur ti. l :f ur.l
'i- E-nglan i :re o c lle d:, n.i we .calI olu'-elves,
nt: vl rile it iiour ii.li C.''- u ; i r.l a d I-' ll evirj l0 llions
n'a- l v calleil ile.




I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieutenant-colonel to an English
regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any more than my father
or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began
to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house education and a
country free-school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuations of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to
be something fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel
against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with
me upon this subject; he asked me what'reasons more than a mere wandering
inclination I had for leaving my father's house and my native country, where I
might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application
and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of
desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other, and
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these things
were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found,
by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings
of the mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury,
ambition, and envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge
of the happiness of this state by this one thing, viz. that it was the state of
life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequences of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty. nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle
station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes




~SP~2~-~~ i~hL~ ~..~L~t~ ~=~ii~e~s~


~ -~-~-~-

-~-~--""~ ^ ~~ -- -- ---:an-


---- i




~e V

i ~tp ~ ~ ~nt-

~1~3~-,M% 44's,~'





as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so
many distempers and uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were, who, by
vicious living, luxury, and extravagances, on one hand, or by hard labour, want
of necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distempers
upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of
enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune;
that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle station of life;
that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold
to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion
of envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of
living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not
to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which nature, and
the station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me; and
endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had just been
recommending to me; and that it I was not very easy and happy in the world,
it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would
not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to
go away: and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not cease to
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
S I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though
I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears
run down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed: and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to





1 ~;~r---~p"' '~


assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart
was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be otherwise?
and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in
short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities, in a few week's after,
I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act so hastily
neither as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a
time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father had

A W,


better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now
eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time, but I
should certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she knew it would be
to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt;
and that she wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse
I had had with my father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my





I ____ -, ., .. rulrn I .sjaP a~rrL -~ L~Y~~ 9



\ ;

-~ ----~-~--ia~ -- --t~x~-~


father had used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no
help for me; but I might depend I should never have their consent to it : that
for her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should
never have it to say, that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards,
that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after shewing a
great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he
would stay at home ; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch
that ever was born; I can give no consent to it."

4 -

It was not till almost a yea
time, I continued obstinately
frequently expostulating with
determined against what they
one day at Hull, whither I we
elopement that time; but, I s
going by sea to London, in h
with the common allurement

ar after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and
ny father and mother about their being so positively
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being
nt casually, and without any purpose of making an
ay, being there, and one of my companions being
is father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,
of a sea-faring man; that it should cost me nothing
(5 5 Sst nhn





for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as
sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September 1651,
I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The ship
was no sooner got out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow, and the sea
to rise in the most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously
to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment
of Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which had not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with -the contempt
of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after;
but it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us
up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more: in this agony of mind I made
many vows and.resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in this
one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon land again, I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would take
his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and
indeed some time after; but the next day, the wind was abated, and the sea
S[ calmer, and I began to be
-- a little inured to it: how-
J* -t-- ever, I was very grave for
-----.B -= -all that day, being also a
Little sea-sick still; but -twakds night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite
over, and a charming finerevening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the
sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
^|^ f -<-6

_~L U~- I 2jj1UtL->



~' MI



I had slept well in the night, and I was no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And
now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion who had indeed
enticed me away, comes to me, "Well Bob," says he, clapping me upon the
shoulder, "how do you do after it ? I warrant you were frightened, weren't you,
last night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?"-" A cap-full d'you call it?"
said I; "'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replies he, do you
call that a storm ? why it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all
that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this sad part
of my story, we went the way of all sailors, the punch was made, and I was
made half drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being
forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the
vows and promises that I made in my distresses. I found, indeed, some intervals
of reflection; and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes ; but I shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were
from a distemper, and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits, for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got
as complete a victory over my conscience, as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it, could desire; but I was to have another trial for it still;
and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to
be such a one, as the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind
having been contrary and the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west for seven or eight days, during
which time a great many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as
the common harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days,
blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the


..- PI~-C~



anchorage good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned,
and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth,
after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make
everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon
the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead
and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror
and amazement in the faces ,
even of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of
preserving the ship, yet as :'.
he went in and out of his --
cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say,
several times, Lord be
merciful to us! we shall be
all lost; we shall be all- -s
undone!" and the like.
During these first hurries I -
was stupid, lying still in my
cabin, which was in the
steerage, andcannot describe .
my temper: I could ill re-
sume the first penitence -
which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hard- --
ened myself against: I i. \
thought the bitterness of death had been past; and that this would be nothing
too like the first: but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my
cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea went
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress around us; two ships that rid near us,
we found, had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden; and our men cried
U out, that a ship which rid about a mile a-head of us was foundered. Two more



loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and
make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a
young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than
I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into
such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not
come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves




)a! gg T11 ... I M;"^""`


ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all
adventures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the best,
as not so much laboring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came
close by us, running away with only their spritsail out before the wind.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do: but the
boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented; and when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so



,''t'''y'''''''ite^N' N\ .1r 7-

~e ~~b pll~mmt~ll~P~LFnHI~\~m)~3I~UT;-~S~L~*~ U\I%l-X~g_~y~ (i ~R~-

n _r.


v~v `~:





Ik~ iL -

acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was
deep laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect that I did not
know what they meant by "founder," till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment
when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under
all the rest of our distresses, one of the men that had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the
hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At that very word my heart,
as I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat into the cabin. However, the men soon roused me, and told me,
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another;
at which I stirred up, and went to the pump and worked very heartily. While
this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not abTe to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful
thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody minded
me, or what was become of me; but another man stept up to the pump, and,
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking me dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that
the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it
was not possible she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master
continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rode it just a-head of us,
ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came
near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side; till at last, the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern, with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much labour and hazard,
took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of
reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in
towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the
boat was staved upon shore he would make it good to their master; so, partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore, almost as far as Winterton Ness.












We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship but we
saw her sink, and then I understood, for the first time, what was meant by a ship
foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up, when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me
into the boat, than that I'might be said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to bring
the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people running along the strand to assist
us when we should come near; but we made but slow way towards the shore;
nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past the light-house at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without some
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth,
where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us
either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I
had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our. blessed Saviour's parable, had
even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went away in, was cast
away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that
I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and, though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know not what
to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on
to be the instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before us, and
that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions
of my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had
met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the master's
son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me, after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, asked me how I




I .





my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for a
thousand pounds." This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than lie could
have authority to go. However, lie afterwards talked very gravely to me,
exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin;
told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. And, young man,"
said he, "depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words are
fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no more;
which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money in my pocket,

did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad : his father turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, Young man," said he, you ought never to go to sea any
more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be
a seafaring man."-" Why, Sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ? "-" That
is another case," said he; it is my calling, and, therefore, my duty; but as you
made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on .your
account, like Jonah in the ship -of Tarshish. Pray," continued he, what are
you; and on what account did you go to sea ? Upon that I told him some of
my story, at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion:
" What had I done," said he, that such an unhappy wretch should come into

~~ "


I travelled to London, by land; and there, as welli 'aon the road, had many
struggles with myself hi.-t. court. e of life I should take, and whether I should go
home or go'to sea. ., .
As to going home, shame c.l.poil tli. ibest mention that 'offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately o,:, uii*rel t.:. im. how I should be laughed at among
the neighboams, and should'be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but
even everybody else; from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is,' specially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz that they are not ashamed
to sin, and yet are. ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for which they
ought jusly to bensteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.
I-__--_-- --__ -. .

I r;l-ainl'-d 5ot tine tilie, incert.iii .. .

a. .Iil, the rim-miiiir nc f th ...
distress I had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the little motion I had in
my desires to a return wore off with it till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house, that
hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say, the
same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises
to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as
as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.






- ----



It was my great mi-fortune, that in all these adventures I did not ship myself
as a sailor;, wherelby, thouli,, I might indeed have worked a little harder than
ordinary, yet, at the same time, I had learnt, the duty and office of a foremast
man, and in time might have qualified ,lmy:lf for a mate or lieutenant, if not
for a nimater. 'But as it -va lv.y my fat.:r o choose for the worse, so I did
here; for, having money in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I wVould
always go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any
business in the ship, nor learnt to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which
does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then was;
the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early: but it was
not so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who had been
on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success there, was
resolved to go again; this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which was
not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing mne say I had a mind to see the world,
told me if I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no expence; I should
be his messmate and his companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I
should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit and, perhaps, I
might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain,
who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a
small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend, the
captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about 40 in such toys and
Strifles as the captain directed me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I
believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures,
and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under
whom, also, I got a competent knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of
navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observation,
and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a
word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant, for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in
London, at my return, almost 300, and this filled me with those aspiring
S thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of








the climate, our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen
degrees riorth, even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I
embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage,
and had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for, though I did not carry. quite 100 of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the
first was this, viz., our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those islands and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail
he could make. We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would spread, or
our masts carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our ship
having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after
returning our fire, and pouring in also his small-shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but
laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men
upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small-shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended; nor was
I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were;
but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave,
being young and nimble, and fit for the business. At this surprising change of
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that
I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven
had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption; but, alas this was but
a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.






As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing that
it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man
of war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when
he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it, but found ho way that had the least probability in it: nothing presented

i "

to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to
that would embark with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotsman there but myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself
with the imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting
it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the
old thought of making some attempt for my liberty, again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as
I heard, was for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out





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=r-~_~;_~--L~S=;~,~~-~=_1-- ----~ ~-,_-----



'i- I

IF ra.-Hp-
M W-

[The Escape.]
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a fog rose
so thick, that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of
it; and rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea


into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moresco with
him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of
his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.

---~ --- ~

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instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least two leagues from
the land; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal. of labour and
some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the :morning; but,
particularly, we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself
for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass
and some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-
boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer and haul home
the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails:
she sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and the boom jibbed
over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for
him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small-lockers to
put in some bottles of such lii uoi as he thought fit to drink; and, particularly,
his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fislinig, and as I was most dexterous
to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened one day that he
had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or
three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom-he had provided
extraordinarily, and had, therefore, sent on board the boat over-night a larger
store of provisions than ordinary ; an.l had ordered me to get ready three fuzees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they designed some
sport of fowling as well as fishing. "
I got all .things ready as he had directed,- and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her anIcient and pendants out, and everything to
accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and
told me his guests had'put off going, upon soie business that fell out, and
ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out With the boat and catch
them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish, I should bring it home to his house; all which I
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for
now I found I was like to have a little ship at my command; and, my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a
voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for, anywhere, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to 'this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must not resume to




., ~i---LL ~ -;I i -~=1=I-~ TP5LI

. 1lF


a, II~ .nlr


eat our patron's bread: he said that was true: so he brought a large basket of
rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I
knew.where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while
the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master: I
conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half
a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also; his name was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moely; so I called to him,
"Moely," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a
little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like our
curlews) for ourselves, .for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-
S "Yes," says he, "I'll bring some;" and, accordingly, he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some. bullets, and put all into
the boat: at the same time-I had found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of .the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything
needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew iwho weweere, and took no notice of us ::and we were not above a
mile out of the-port before we hauled in iour sil, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N. N. E., which wAs contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure'tto have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz ; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would,
I would be gone from that horl-iil place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had fish on
my hook I would not pull them up,>iliat ihemight not see them, I said to the
Moor, "This will not do; our master wil'Pi6t be thus served;'we must stand
farther off." He thinking no' liarma, agreed, and being in the head of the boat
set the sails, and, as I had the'lelmi, I rui the boat out near a league farther,
and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm,
I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for
something behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist,
and tossed him clean overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would
go all over the world with mei He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces I present .it

~-:&: -



at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would
do him none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat I'll shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself about, and swam for the
shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone,
I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you


will be faithful to me I'll make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, "I must
throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face and spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
- world with me.
W e Ii -- --_ _

W thile I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly to
that~~~~~ _. =_l o ituthm ndsoet efihu o e n oaloe
wo l .... m ; --,<



:, 1 gj" ",,,' 111,11111f: I 111!I!, 1 : 1 7 111''10 111 ''1 1 C

J.ET4C' 1

sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone
towards the straits' mouth ; (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do) for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I
might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the
afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not be less than a hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or,
indeed, of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful appre-
hensions I had of falling
into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on
shore, or come to an anchor;
the wind continuing fair till
S'- I had sailed in that manner
five days; and then the wind
..- "s.'" hifting to the southward,
-I concluded also that if any
-l'f of our vessels were in chase
Si : of me, they also would now
S give over; so I ventured to
-- make to the coast, and come
to an anchor in the mouth
; AA of a little river, I knew not
what, or where; neither
what latitude, what country,
what nation, or what river:
I neither saw, or desired to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was
fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country: but, as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,"


---- Y -- W UU W _~ f~





S said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who will be as
bad to us as those lions."-" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury,
laughing, "make them run way." Such English Xury spoke by conversing
Among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After
all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down
to the sea-shore and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the
pleasure of cooling themselves ; and they made such hideous cowlings and yelling, I
that I never indeed heard the like. .
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and, indeed, so was I too; but we were both
more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing
to be a monstrous, huge, and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row
away: "No," says I, "Xury; we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go
off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which something surprised
S me; however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and, taking up my gun,
fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries and
howling that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore, as higher within
Ithe country, upon the noise or report of a gun; a thing, I have some reason to
Believe, those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me that there
S was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on
. shore in the day, was another question too, for to have fallen into the hands of
any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
Tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it. '
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for 'i
Water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the
S point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would
find if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
I go ? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so
much affection, that made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
come, they eat me, you go way."-" CWell, Xury," said I, "we will both go, and
if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall eat neither of us." So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of


. bottles, which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore
as we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our arms,
i and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes
with savages down the river: but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up '
the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw him come running towards i
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild |
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him; but, when I came nearer '
to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that r
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however,
we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me lie had found good water, and seen no wild
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a
little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water fresh when the tide
was out, which flows but a little way up ; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the
hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of
any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to the coast before, I knew very well that the
islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or, at least, not remember, what
latitude they were in, and knew not where to look for them, or when to stand off
to sea towards them; otherwise I might now easily have found some of these
Islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
Part where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that
country, which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the
negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having
abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors ; and the Moors not
ai thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness,--and, indeed, both
forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other
furious creatures, which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their hunting
S only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time and,
Indeed, for near an hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a
waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but howling and roaring )
,.' of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being
!1W : y11! ip! -0-2


the high top of the mountain Terieriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to *
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but, having tried twice, I was forced
in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this
place ; and once, in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor
under a little point of land, which was pretty high ; and the tide beginning to
flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than
it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that we had best go farther



-[- W u d -- n -" ----
[The Wounded Lion.]

off the shore : "For," says he, "look, yonder lies a dreadful monster, on the side
of that hillock, fast asleep." .I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over him.
"Xury," says I, "you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted,
and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth !"-one mouthful he meant:
however, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest







11h y I;I,.

iun, ,.hi'h wV IhI :;Ct i,,% f,.t-l,,:,r,., .1 ,,,l .l I
it \ i;tl .1 L..-,_I ,"h r :t *,: .v.l1 r, an l \.;it I \,
nlu..-, an I l.i-I it l.,,, n : th,_ [ I, -,l .l :fn. ,? r
, I. th, tiw l.ul. t : :i.l the thi'I f.t' \\I .
I.,.I three si,-e.- I ,.1, 1 F .: lh i, r ,ll,-r
I.ull-t-. I t-..k the Ihe-t ain I .',-. 1 with tih."-
h i
i,-, lI it thile .lit Inlt lii' 1 1. i, ut thle n,..,
;i 'l e,'a_ t Ir lilt.. H e -t:rt-.'i upi r.,i\\ lii .


i' at first, but, finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three
legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
That I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second piece
immediately, and, though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him into
the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on
shore. Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and, taking a
little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and, coming close
to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him into .
the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to
lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes on board,
and asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off
his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at
it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day,
but at last we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the top of our cabin,
the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to do for fresh water:
my design in this was, to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to
seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all the ships
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those Islands; and, in a word, I put the whole of
my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some ship, or
must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I
began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed
by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also perceive
S they were quite black, and stark naked. I was once inclined to go on shore to .
tj them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, "No go, no go."


however, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had no weapons in
S their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xurv said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at
a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I could, and, particularly,
i made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by,
and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was :
however, we were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore
and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends;
but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for,
while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards the sea:
( whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in
rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
Strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those ravenous
creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the
people terribly frightened, especially the women. The man that had the lance,
or dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did: however, as the two creatures
ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about as if they had come
for their diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at
first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as he came
fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head: immediately
he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if
he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was : he immediately made to the
shore ; but, between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of
: the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
T 1 ,1 .1 ,1


It is impossible to express the astonishment ot these poor creatures at tile
nois' and the fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and
sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took

*~ .

"' r~


8&D i-'


The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire, and the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains, from whence they came,
nor could I at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favour from me, which, when I made signs to them that they might take him,
they were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him, and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his
skin as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give
it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which, though I did not understand, yet

1( -~"; 1

I accepted; then I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my
jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to shew that it was empty, and that I
wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends;,and
there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burned,
as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury


heart, and came to the shore, and began to search for the creature. I found him
by his blood staining the water, and, by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it
was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree, and the
negroes held up their hands with admiration to think what it was I had killed him

- ~------~-~- -- -~-~--^ ~

~.~2i~:u~ .Ilri"~~~`M;r~lbrZ~-~if~,~;~c~\,uulL..~ bbPlrp~a~aP~r~g)~L~~

m ~S-~g



on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as stark naked
as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and,
leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the
sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point: at length, doubling the point,
at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to
sea-ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain, indeed, that this was the Cape

de Verd, and those tle islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best
to do; for, if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me
down, Xury having the helm, when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, "Master,
master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, namely, that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for negroes.
But when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore; upon



Yd- 05



-;~;;--;-;;;~;;~=;;jJ~.7~,~~ --8~'3~-;6~/~-~;~?







which, I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if
V'1 possible.
A With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their
way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
Sbut after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw
me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat,
t which, as they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this; and as I had
my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly
Brought to, and lay by for me, and, in about three hours' time, I came up with
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in French
but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman-that I had
made my escape out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They bade me come
S on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would believe, that I was thus
delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in, and immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when I came to the
Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than I would
be glad to be saved myself ; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken
I; up in the same condition : besides," says he, "when I carry you to the Brazils,
Sso great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what you have,
S you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No,
no, Seignor Inglese," says he, Mr. Englishman, I will carry you thither in
charity, and those things will help you to bty your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so lie was just in the performance to a'
S tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I[
had: then lie took everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them ; even so much as my earthern

As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told me le
-would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would have for it ? I i
'., told him he had been so generous in everything, that I cold not offer to make i



any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which, lie told me, lhe
1':: would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil;
S- and, when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up: he
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loath to
take ; not that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loath
to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free .
in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de Todos
los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what
to do next with myself I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember.
He would take nothing of me for my passage--gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused
everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece
of the lump of bees'-wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this
stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good
honest man, like himself, who had an "ingeino," as they call it,--that is, a
plantation and a sugar-house,-I lived with him some time, and acquainted ri,; ...11,
Sby that means, with the manner of their planting and making of sugar; and,
S seeing how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them; resolving,
in the mean time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in
London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of a letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money would
reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement, and such a one as
i might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from
S I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
Sneighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
Together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food,
Than myllthii,_ else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our

Me T I
c~s L~iV



anted some tobacco,

land-began to come into order; so that the third year we pl
and made each of us a large piece of ground re-idv f.c -
planting canes in the year to come; but we l:otl h i\\.te. -i
help: and now I found, more than before, I li.-. d.rn.
wrong in parting with Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong, that never .li. li.l t. -
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to :-. 0:n-1 I-
was gotten into an employment quite remote to my I .-niii-, -
and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, :n..l fI'r:
which I forsook my father's house, and broke thIitaiJIh .11I
his good advice-nay, I was coming into the \.vi- Inill.i.- .-
station, or upper degree of low life, which iv I tl.:r' -
advised me to before; and which, if I reso&: -l t.l:i I': I -
with, I might as well have staid at home, ;:-ii n.'r -:
have fatigued myself in the world as I have .
done; and I used often to say to myself, I i,"
could have done this as well in England
among my friends, as have gone five thou-
sand miles off to do it among strangers and
savages in a wilderness, and at such
distance, as never to hear from any part of the world
knowledge of me.

SIN- .

Ii j
-- _'; ; ',


how just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that,

that had the least
In this manner,
I used to look upon
my condition with
the utmost regret.
I had nobody to
converse. with, but
now and then this
neighbour, no work
to be done but by
the labour of my
hands; and I used
to say, I lived just
like a man cast
away upon some
desolate island, that
had nobody there
but himself. But
when they compare




t=*. $l- !~ -; ---


1pIil lIl

t~ t ttt w.&Li

!1 1 Iv- t t 11

l' -111 -1

I- -I il-A-A'v




great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out the five pounds,
which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, topurchase and bring
me over a servant under bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my
own produce.


I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation,
before my kind friend, the captain of the ship, that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing his loading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months: when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, lie gave me this friendly and sincere advice; Seignor Inglese," says he,
for so he always called me, "if you will give me letters, and a procuration here,
in form to me, with orders to the- person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my
return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come safe, you
may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have the other
half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I, accordingly, prepared letters
to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply : and when this honest captain came to Lisbon he found
means, by some of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only,
but a full account of my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it
effectually to her; whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but, out of her
own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present for his humanity
and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in English goods, such
as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), lie had taken care to have all sorts
of tools, iron-work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were 'of





TM -- M ,:






Neither was this all; but my goods being all English manufactures, such as
cloth, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country,
I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I may say I had
more than four times the value of my first- cargo, and was now infinitely beyond
my poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first
thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also-I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the means of our greatest
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my
plantation : I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I
had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty rolls being
each of above a hundred weight, were well cured and laid by againstthe return
of the fleet fron Lisbon. And now, increasing in business, and in wealth, my
head began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the happy
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described the middle station of
life to be full; but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent
of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections on myself, which, in my future sorrows, I should have leisure to make,
all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit
of those prospects and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in my breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich
and thriving man in my new plantation, bnly to pursue a rash and immoderate
desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell
into, or perhaps, could be consistent with life and a state of health, in the
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my story:
you may suppose, that, having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
Beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learnt the language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my
l1k..\~-ip Nit..' -, as well as among the merchants at.St. Salvadore, which was our
port; and that in my discourse among them, I had frequently given them an

iux\-~nr~i~o~ ~

l~i~s.'Y~R~m~i2~xaJ~ab~r~ "~~~kw~n_*r, --------- Llk--e~-~


-------------L I



- I

account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles-
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only
gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but negroes for the service of the
Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads; but,
especially to that part which related to buying negroes, which was a trade at
that time not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried
on by the assientos," or permission, of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few negroes were bought, and those excessively
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to
me the next morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I
had discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret
proposal to me; and, after enjoining me'secrecy, they told me, that they had a

.,,. ....... ..

mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as
I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own plantations; and,
in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the ship to

( !

I '









manage the
I should ha

trading part upon the coast of Guinea? and they offered me, that
ve my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one
that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which was
in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it.
But for me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go
on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England, and who, in that time and with that little
addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds
sterling, and that increasing too-for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father's good counsel
was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried, This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings, or covenants, to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing
of my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of the ship
that had saved my.life as before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of
my effects as I had directed in my will, one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and keep up my
plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own
interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and not to





;~ii~Z-itNN! WL-My

_~ ..-.Jus~,-n"-.~~s~-slr~-arnm~.~~rmaa

- I .1 .:" _;T



have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of athriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards; to say nothing of the reasons I had
to expect particular misfortunes to-myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy, rather
than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo
furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my partners in the voyage, I
ient on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their'authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about onelhundred ancd'twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
fourteen men, besides the mni telr, the boy and niyself ; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes, such
as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to the northward
upon our own coast, with design to stretch, over for the African'coast, when they
came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was
the manner of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only
excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of
land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding
our course north-east by north, and leaving those isles on the east. In.this course
we passed the Line in aboutvtwelve days' time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east,
Same about to the north-west, and then settled into the north-east; from whence
it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
1 nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate
and the fury of the winds directed; and during those twelve days, I need not say
that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to'save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men dead
I: of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth,
li ldayr, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he
Should, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he
was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino;
so that he found he was gotten upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of
SBrazil, beyond the river Amazons, toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
8tr, toi 8



called the Great River, and began to consult with me what course he should
take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he' was going directly
back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over the charts of the sea coasts of
America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
in-il.-ift, of the bay or gulf of Mexiaco, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas, wie could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and to, ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away north-iest by
west, in order to reach some of our Efglish islands,, where I hoped for relief:
but our voyage was otherwise determined;, for being in 'the latitude twelve
degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce that had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in
danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men, early in the
morning, cried out, "Land !" and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the w9rld we were, blut the ship struck
upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stepped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner, that we expi.et-l v.1, should all have perished immediately;,
and we v..?re 'iue..li.lt>:lv driven into our lose quarters, to shelter us from the
very foam -and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like condition, to describe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances: we knew nothing
where we were, or upon wh-at land it was we were driven--whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited: and as the rage of 'the wind was
still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes withoutt breaking in pieces, unless the -winds, by a
kind of miracle, should turn immediately about In a word, we sat looking
one upon another, and expecting death every moment, and every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world'; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this: that which was our present comfort, and all the comfort we
had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that
.the master said the wind 'began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having
thus struck upon. the sand, and sinking too fast for us to expect her getting off,
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of



I L ~

- ,J~lhn._-~+~l~ij~rt;lo~A()~

~b`B~sR~naT;i~R----luor, -- ------------




saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the
/ next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there
was no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but how to get her off into. it
the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was-no room to debate, for we fancied
the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us she had actually
broken already.
S In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and, with the
Help of the'rest of the men, they got her slung over the ship's side, and getting-
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy and the wild sea, for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the
sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might well be called "den wild zee,"
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

1 n.: __- .-- v. J N-_l"-- i .i':v.. -I -il pl in Y, that the
I .. t It h: b. t-L- th-:..- -I 1-:t -.--_'- n- t .l o.u i- -h-.uld be In.i Vti..1

N. ]---- ---- ,.. tc .o .. the beach of the

.1.. 11 .. in .: t manner and
S -. ,il -
... ., ~ ... I.- :"' -'-"

\ >1 .... 0. 1.-i : l "-l i,- tha- th

I '>' i :.: i ,L: itii- ,i.. .- i u :t n'- anne ; n

the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew


-- -- ---- _---- --- .- ..- -= --- -
=-- -. r -' -' ; 7 -- -"- '- "= -" -!-

-- -
. .

[The Shipwreck.]

not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation
was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river,


4' where, by great chance, we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the
i land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared;
but, as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly
S bade us expect a watery grave. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it
I overset the boat at once; and, separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say Oh God !" for we were all swallowed ji
up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt when I sank into
the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the
waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and, having spent itself, went back, and left me
upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the
land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up again.
But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me
as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or
strength to contend with-my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible-my greatest concern now being, that
the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thirty feet
S deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
F holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I
found my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though 1
it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
Greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and, finding the water had spent
Itself, and began to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves, and
a felt-ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover breath,
and till the water went from me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what \
strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
S from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice


; more I was lifted up by the waves, and carried forwards as before, the shore being
i very flat.
S The last time of these two, had well near been fatal to me; for the sea, having
hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to
my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as
Sit were, quite out of my body, and, had it returned again immediately, I must
have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
; waves, and, seeing I should be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold
fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being near land, I
held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not
so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the
mainland, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore, and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God
that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life what the
ecstacies and transports of the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the very grave; and I do not wonder, now, at that custom, namely, that when a
malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him-I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm
him :
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
L I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I
".A may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
" gestures and motions which I cannot describe-reflecting upon all my comrades
iJ that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but myself-for,
Sas for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of
S their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
S I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea
being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how
was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I
began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in,'and what was next

-1 -~
ii ~~LAu 1VVFI1r~'~



All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time was, to get up into a
thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I
resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as
yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if
I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having
drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that if I should
sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my
defence, I took up my lodging; and, having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast
asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my con-

to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a
dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything
either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me
but that of perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that
which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs-in a word, I had nothing about
me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my
provision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to
consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in-that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.









\~zra~.~awns~iabnc-~L~- al~La -~QI~ .,.-- 84-_M+~ 1W~---ru~*


edition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so
that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most
was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the


S_ .-r -- ,

[The Raft.]

swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it; ti- s being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
-- .-



upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least, I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, (-
and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had .
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far
as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water,
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to .
, find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very' calm, and the tide ebbed so far out,
that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief : for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board,
S we had been all safe-that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as
I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was little relief
in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship-so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water. But when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board ; for, as she lay
aground and high out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of
rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains, so
low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and, by the help of that rope,
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, 'or rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank,
J and her head low almost to the water: by this means all her quarter was free,
Sand all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
J search and to see what was spoiled, and what was free, and first I found that all
the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water : and being very well
disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled: my pockets with biscuit,
Sand ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found
some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had
indeed need enough of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me,
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had: and this
extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and two or three
large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to
work with these, and flung as many of them overboard as I could manage of


S their weight, tying every one with a rope that they might not drive away. S
When this was done I went down to the ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I
I; tied four of them fast together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found
SI could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight,
Sthe pieces being too light; so I went to work, and, with the carpenter's saw, I
A cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labour and pains; but hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
S another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight; my next
care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the
surf of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks
or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I most wanted,
I first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied,
Sand lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled with provisions,
namely, bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which
1 we lived much upon, and a little remainder of European corn, which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
S killed. There had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
Disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
Were some cordial waters, and in all above five or six gallons of rack: these I
stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor no
i room for them. While I was doing this I found the tide began to flow, though
Very calm, and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
9 I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were
I i only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings: however,
this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no
more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon: as, first, tools to work with on shore; and it was after long searching
I that I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to
1 me, and much more valuable than a ship-load of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good
fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols: these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not here our gunner had

4;B&7 ~ j--:3 -_--- 2.:

- ~ ,~- -


had landed before; by which I perceived that tnere was some indraft of the water,
and, consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little opening of the
land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as
well as I could to keep in the middle of the stream; but here I had like to have
suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have broke my
heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that

3 .Pt'-.1 gl ; Is-~ ~



stowed them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and good,
the third had taken water: those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now
I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea; 2. The tide rising,
and setting in to the shore; 3. What little wind there was blew me toward the
land: and thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a
hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft
went very well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I




- h~~~C~ I md?-7-~-I~i~Sg~~


-- --------
~---~ -

--------,-----~--~------;--~- _~_
----- --------=----- ----- --~

;_~ --~-----~-~_- -~;---~--

-;1_ I



ii htlui i tll ~i 'if- ii i ltwhi

V.ii t.: v tl rl tiv i~1t ti ti I'
1 I I 'c: I Iii .

uIii'1no till I II .:if i ll.. 1% iL1;t

---- --L i
-------- --I---- ----
--~----. ---r~--
--- -- --
-- --- --- -

~-~~ __

----=-- ---

i -

.-- .----. .--- .----" ,-- --.-.. -.- ..-:-

r Y)
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel; and then, driving, up higher, I at length found myself in
1-' .the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current, or tide,
running up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore; for I
Swas not willing to be driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see I
some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I .
could. i
":r At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with '
great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near as that,
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had
liked to have.dipped all my cargo in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land but where one end of the
float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as. before,
that it would endanger my cargo again: all that I could-do, was to wait till the e .
tide was at the highest, keeping my raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough-for
my raft drew about a foot of water-I thrust her on upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground-one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my
cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for my
habitation and where to stow my goods, to secure them from whatever might j
I, hlanen. Where I was I vet knew not: whether on the continent or on an

island-whether inhale
or not. There was a
Sand high, and which s
from it northward. I
and a horn of powder
of that hill, where, aft
: saw my fate to my gi
Severe way with the se;
way off, and two small
,' west.
I found also, that
S believe, uninhabited,
I saw abundance of fo
. could I tell what was j

)ited or not inhabi
hill, not above a
seemed to overtop s
took out one of t
; and thus armed,
er I had with gre;
great affliction, nam
a-no land to be se
1 islands less than t

the island I was in
except by wild bea
wls, but knew not
ft for food, and wh

ted-whether in danger of wild beasts
mile from me, which rose up very steep
ome other hills which lay as in a ridge
he fowling-pieces and one of the pistols,
I tr:,-.l1..1 for discovery up to the top P,;
at labour and difficulty got to the top, I
ely, that I was in an island, environed
oen, except some rocks, which lay a great
his, which lay about three leagues to the

was barren, and as I saw good reason to -
sts, of which, however, I saw none; yet
their kinds ; neither, when I killed them,
at not. At my coming back, I shot at a


great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood: I believe
it was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world. I
Shad no sooner fired, but, from all parts of the wood, there arose on innumerable
number of fowls of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying, every
one according to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew.
SAs for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak
S resembling it, but had no talons, or claws, more than common; its flesh was
S carrion, and fit for nothing.
S Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to work to
i bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day; and what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me; though,
as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the chests and
boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I
had seen two or three creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot the
1 fowl.
I now began to consider that I might get a great many things out of the ship,
which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails,
and such other things as might come to land, and I resolved to make another
voyage on board the vessel, if possible; and as I knew that the first storm that
blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set dl other things
apart, till I got every thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a
S council (that is to say, in my thoughts), whether I should take back the raft; but
this appeared impracticable; so i resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checked shirt and a pair of linen trousers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and having
I had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldly, nor loaded it so
hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to me; as first, in the
carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most useful thing called
a grindstone: all these I secured, together with several things belonging to the
gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket-bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder
more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead: but this last
was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.


Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare
foretop-sail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safo on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land, that at
least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but, when I came back I found
no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature, like a wild cat, upon one of the
chests, which, as I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood
still: she sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if
she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but as she
did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir
away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not

very free of it, for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say,
and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked, as pleased, for more; but
I thanked her, and could spare no more-so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open the barrels
of powder, and bring them by parcels-for they were too heavy, being large
casks-I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail and some poles
which I cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing that I
knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and
casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either
from man or beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards
within, and an.empty chest set up on end without, and, spreading one of the beds
upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length
by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
S very weary and heavy; as the night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe,
for one man, but I was not satisfied still; for, while the ship sat upright in that
1 .. tIu',': I thought 1 ought to get every thing out of her that I could: so every
day, at low water, I went on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I
could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gun-
powder; in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain
to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no
more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I had made
52 fma




The next day I made another voyage; and now, having plundered the ship
of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables; and cutting the
great cable into pieces,
S"'such as I could move, I
,. .got two cables and a haw-
-. i i ser on shore, with all the
I i ron work I could get;
i i^'' and having cut down the
1 1'''i spritsail-yard, and the
mizen-yard, and every
SI thing I could, to make a
Si .I large raft, I loaded it with

S ; u came away; but my good
I luck began now to leave
,i ,i me: for this raft was so
S'I I w, r mdunbwieldly and overladen,
That, after I had entered
Sthe little cove, where I
had landed the rest of
Smy goods, not being able
-- to guide it so handily as
__ ______-I did the others, it over-
set, and threw me and all
my cargo into the water. As for myself it was no great harm, for I was near
the shore; but as to my cargo, it was, great part of it, lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me: however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though
with infinite labour: for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.
58 .

five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from
the ship that was worth my meddling with I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar,
and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in
pieces of the sails, which I cut out: and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore



I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board
the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well
be supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had the calm held, I should .
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece : but, preparing the twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low water I
went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as
that nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it,
in which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some
ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six
pounds value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. drug !" said I, aloud,
"what art thou good for? thou art not worth to me-- no, not the taking off the
ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I have no manner of use for
thee; even remain where thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose life
is not worth saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away, and,
wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making another raft:
but, while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to
rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all: accordingly, I let myself
down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water, for the wind rose very
hastily, and, before it was quite high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay with all my wealth about
S me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning when I
S looked out, behold, no more ship was to be seen I was a little surprised, but
S recovered myself with this satisfactory reflection, namely, that I had lost no time,
nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her that could be useful to me,
and that indeed there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had
had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any thing out of her,
except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her
: afterwards did; but those things were of small tuse to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either
savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to


make--whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth:
..:' and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and description of which it may
not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not
be wholesome, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so
I resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I found would be proper for
I me: 1st, Health and fresh water I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the ,
Seat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; .
4thly, A view to the sea, that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose
any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
S expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a
rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that
nothing could come down upon me from the top: on the side of this rock there
was a hollow place worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave, but
there was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved o pitch my
tent : this plain was not above an hundred yards broad, and about twice as long,
and lay like a green before my door, and at the end of it descended irregularly
every way down into the low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the north-north-
west side of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came
Sto a west-and-by-south sun, or thereabouts. which in those countries is near the
S setting.
S Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before the hollow place, which
i took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in
its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
S In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the
Ground till they stood very firm, like piles, the .i_-.1 t end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top: the two rows did
not stand above six inches from one another.
S Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in
Srows, one upon another, within the circle between these two rows of stakes up to
the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet
Sand a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so. strong, that neither
man nor beast could get into it, or over it: this cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive
them into the earth.


< i
( ;

"'ci ~ "r-~ C -

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder,
to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me: and so I
was completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I
made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of
the year are very violent
there, I made double,
namely, one smaller tent -
within, and one larger
tent above it, and covered
the uppermost with a. .
large tarpaulin, which I il
had saved among the '' i
sails, 1 'I
And now I lay no more, I ,
for a while, in the bed i
which I had brought on 1 '
shore, but in a hammock,
which was, indeed, a very
good one, and belonged
Into this tent I brought
all my provisions, and -
every thing that would
spoil by the wet; and -
having thus enclosed all --
my goods, I made up the
entrance, which, till now, I had left open, anJd-so passed and repassed, as I said,
by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and, bringing
all the earth and stones that I dug down, out through my tent, I laid them up
within my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised the ground within
about a foot and a half; and thus-I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house,
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought




~r-w/~-~i-~: "~==~L_;i~kr\~




to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things which took up
some of my thoughts. At the same time, it happened, after I had laid my
scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after
that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning as I was with a thought which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning itself : Oh, my powder my very heart sank within me,


when I thought that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended:
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
1 57


Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over, I laid
aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags
and boxes, to separate the powder, and so keep it a little and a little in a parcel,
in hope that, whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once, and to keep
it so apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I :-,l-...
this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which, in all, was about
two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than a hundred
parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger
from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen;
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might
come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kill any thing fit
for food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then, it was attended with this
misfortune to me, namely, that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them. But I was not
discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon
happened; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner
for them. I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the
rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they'were feeding in
the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed down-
ward, that they did not readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards I
took this method; I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures I killed
a she-goat, which had a httle kid by her which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I
came and took her up; and not only so, but, when I carried the old one with
S me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which
I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale,
in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill
it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as possibly I
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a
place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I
enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in


its place: but I must first give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may ...11 be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was not cast away upon
that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some hundreds of
leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that, in this desolate place, and in this
desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my
face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with
i ,...1 why Providence should thus completely ruin his creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed,
that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and, particularly, one day walking, with my gun in my hand, by
the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when
reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus -" Well, you are
in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray, remember, where are the rest of you?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten'? Why were
they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled out ? Is it better to be
here or there?" And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered
with the good that is in them, and with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence,
and what would have been my case if it had not happened, which was an hundred
thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near the shore, that I had time to get all things out of her. What
would have been my case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in which I
at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them ? Particularly," said I, loud, though to myself, what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools to make any
thing, or to w-ork with- without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of
covering ?" and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without my gun when my
ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any
want, as long as I lived: for I considered, from the beginning, how I should
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come,
even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed
at one blast, I mean, my powder being blown up by lightning and this made the


thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened and thundered, as I observed
y, just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of


island, when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head; for I reckoned myself by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line. After I had been there about ten
or twelve days, it came into my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning of time
for want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the sabbath days
from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross, I set it up on the shore
m I'm


where I first landed, namely, I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
1659. Upon the sides of this square post, I cut every day a notch with my knife,
and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the
month as long again as that long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship in the several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I
omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several
parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping, three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation, all which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no.
Also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from
England, and which I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese books,
also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books:
all which I carefully secured. And we must not forget, that we had in the ship
a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself and swam on shore to me the day after I
went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years: I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make
up to me--I only wanted to have him talk to me; but that he could not do.
As I observed before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the
utmost; and I shall shew, that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but
after that was gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any means that
I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding all that
I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth: needles, pins, and thread; as for linen I
soon learnt to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and it was near a
whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation :
the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so tlat I
S spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a
third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron crows, which,
however, though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or piles, very laborious
and tedious work.


S But what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? Nor hlad I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the island
to seek for food, which I did more or less every day.
S now began to consider seriously my condition, and te circumstances I was
reduced to, and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave
them to any that were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs), as
to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and
5 as my reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as
well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse: and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the mercies I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible desolate island, But I am alive and not drowned, as all my
void of all hope of recovery. ship's company was.
I am singled out and separated, as it were, But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's
from all the world, to be miserable, crew to be spared from death; and He that
miraculously saved me from death can deliver
me from this condition.
I am divided from mankind, a solitaire, one But I am not starved and perishing on a
banished from human society. barren place, affording no sustenance.
I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, if I had
clothes I could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, or means to resist But I am cast on an island, where I see no
any violence of man or beast. wild beasts to hurt me, as I saw on the coast of
Africa ; and what if I had been shipwrecked
there ?
I have no soul to speak to, or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that I have gotten out so
many necessary things as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to supply myself, even as
long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that
we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to set in the
description of good and evil on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given over
looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship -I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as
easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent, under the side of a
rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might now rather


call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside; and after some time I think it was a year and a half -I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs
S of trees, and such things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at.
some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into
the cave which I had made behind me; but I must observe, too, that at first this
was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place: I had no room to turn myself, so I set myself to enlarge my cave and
S works farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to
the labour I bestowed on it and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to the
Sbeasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the rock; and then,
Turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out, on
the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I
most wanted, particularly a chair and a table: for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few comforts I had in the world--I could not write or eat, or do several
things, with so much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of mathematics, so, by stating and squaring every thing by
reason, and by uii: .l the most rational judgment of things, every man may be
in time master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life, and
yet in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found at last that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools : however, I made
i bundance of things even without tools, and some with no more tools than an
adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour- for example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but
Sto cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
4 with my adze. It is' true, by this method I could make but one board out of a
whole tree: but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for
the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or
Board; but my time and labour were little worth, and so they were as well
Employed one way as another.
S However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
Place -- and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft
from the ship; but, when I had wrought out some boards, I made large shelves


of the breadth of a foot and a half one over another, all along one side of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and, in a word, to separate every
thing at large in their places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that would



hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and Ihad every thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock
of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's employment;
for indeed at first I was in too much a hurry; and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal would have been full of
many dull things. For
example, I must have :- ---
said thus : Septem-
her the 30th, after I
got to shore, and had ..
escaped drowning, in-
stead of being thank-
ful to God for my de- fl
liverance, having first
vomited with the great
quantity of salt water ,
which was gotten into
my stomach, and reco-
vering myself a little, '"il.
I ran about the shore, '
wringing my hands and
beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my
misery, and crying out,
I was undone, undone till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all that
I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy at a vast
distance I spied a sail- please myself with the hopes of it--and then, after
looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and ween like
a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.


'~`;~3'~"-~"" i~Vn~i

IPIEt 1~

G~16~*RI~Pb~"C-J""~-'" 11U~eL~n ~b -p

i ).

--~ -


But having gotten over these things in
some measure, and having settled my house-
hold stuff and habitation, made me a table
and a chair, and all as handsome about me
as I could, I began to keep my journal, of
which I shall here give you the copy (though
in it will be told all these particulars over
again) so long as it lasted; for, having no

more ink, I was forced to leave it off.


-- I~, i

,. --- ---
I __



I-, ~ I

SEPTEMBER 30TH, 1659.-I, poor, miserable
R-obinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during a
S:-_: dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on this
-' dismal unfortunate island, which I called the Island
of Despair; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead. All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting
myself at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely, I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw
nothing but death before me, either that I should be
devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
Starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures,
but slept soundly, though it rained all night.

.., F -.-. --._. OCTOBER 1.-In the morning I saw to my great
S. --- surprise, the ship had floated with the high tide and
was driven on shore again, much nearer the island;
S~ w;-:hich, as it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing
her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if
the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of
her for my relief; so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have saved the
Ship, or at least that they would not have been all drowned as they were: and
that had the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the
ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent
great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
~ 66

7%,S 11 I Q g 111!r



----"YU~L---~- I*L___ ___ ----_ILUII _U~IZ---~irP~---~-Cb-) ~I*_XP-

6z -





.L.9 j./


-- `~;"

S OCT. 25. It rained all night and all day, with
--:----- some gusts of wind; during which time the ship
Stroke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than
_-, k
Before, and was no more to be seen except the wreck
of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that rain might not spoil
OCT. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all
S i day, to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly
S. -i,,.i concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
4 J'-- night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night I fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and
--- marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I
resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles,
lined within with cable, and without with turf.

S FuRO1 THE 26TH TO THE 30TH I worked very
Shard in carrying all my goods to my new habitation,
'-- though some part of the time it rained exceedingly

,, /> THE 31ST in the morning, I went out into the
I"" island with my gun, to seek for some food, and
-- '-discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and
S.': -- her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed
--also, because it would not feed.


'd & 11
i-__ ; 4494FEZ&

., Y

these days entirely spent in many several voyages to
\ get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
Sshore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also
_: in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.

OcT. 20. -I overset my raft, and all the goods I
had got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the
things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
S, when the tide was out.

-- .~~"7


der a rock,
as large as
y hammock

boards, and
s, and with
within the

d killed two
od. In the

S.Nov. 4. -This morning I began to order my
'" times of work of going out .with my gun, time of
sleep, and time of diversion : namely, every morning
1 .- I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if
it did not rain, then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock, then ate what I had to live on, and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot, and then in the evening to work
again. The working part of this day, and of the next were wholly employed
in making my table; for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and
necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would
do any one else.
:-_. .- Nov. 5.- This day went abroad with my gun and
-. my dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing: every creature I
--~~- ---- killed, I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of
sea-fowls, which I did not understand: but was surprised, and almost frighted,
with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they
were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

'' Nov. 6. --After my morning walk, I went to
S work with my table again, and finished it, though
Sti not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned to
-j. mend it.

f 111 111 1

NOVEMBER 1.- I set up my tent uni
and lay there for the first night, making it
I could, with stakes driven in to swing m

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and
the pieces of timber, which made my raft
them formed a fence round me, a little
place I had marked out for my fortificatio:

Nov. 3.- I went out with my gun, an
fowls like ducks, which were very good fo
afternoon went to work to make me a table






Nov. 7.- Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th
and part of the 12th, (for the 11th was Sunday,) I took wholly up to
chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but never

me; and even in the making, I pulled it in pieces several times.-Note. I soon
neglected my keeping Sundays; for omitting my mark for them on my post, I
forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.- This day it rained, which refreshed
me exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was
Accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frighted me dreadfully for fear of my powder.
As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

it Nov. 14, 15, 16. -These three days I spent in
_" .making little square chests or boxes, which might hold
about a pound, or two pound at most, of powder: and
so putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as
secure and remote from one another as possible.
On one of these three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew
not what to call it.




9th, 10th,
make me a
:r to please



Nov. 17.- This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my further

NOTE. -Three things I wanted exceedingly for
S- this work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
S-- barrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
V-- began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools: as for a pick-axe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing was a
shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could do nothing
effectually without it, but what kind of one to make I knew not.

_. I- I Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods,
--- I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the
-o -E.-*. Brazils they call the iron tree, for its exceeding
,"-4_ '.' .' hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost
-- .... spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it 'home
too with difficulty enough, for it was exceedingly heavy. The excessive hardness
of the wood, and having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine;
for I worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long : however it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; -but never was a shovel,
I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.
S I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
.-- wheel-barrow: a basket I could not make by any
Means, having no such things as twigs, that would
bend to make wicker-ware, at least not yet found out:
S and as to a wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make all
but the wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither
did I know how to go, about it; besides I had no possible way to make the iron
gudgeons for the spindle, or axis, of the wheel, to run in, so I gave it over; and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing
like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel, and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took me




~ ,,.~




Le U


~n~mars-sz-sun~arraai~a 1_~_- .-~ aC1+1~-~hhuu-T~pBa~s~d~"?~




rning walk with my
ng home something

Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still,
I -? because of my making these tools, when they were
7 finished I went on, and working every day, as my
J strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious
enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, or dining-
room, and a cellar: as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes,
in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my'place within my pale with long poles
in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and
large leaves of trees like a thatch.

SDECEMBER 10.-I began now to think my cave or
vault, finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had
made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down
/ from the top and one side, so much that in short it
frighted me, and not without reason too; for if I had
been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth to carry out, and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be
sure no more would come down.

DEC. 11. --This day I went to work with it
.' accordingly, and got two shores, or posts pitched
S i upright to the top with two pieces of boards across
over each post; this I finished the next day: and
S. s.-. setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
partitions to part off my house.

DEC. 17.- From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails
on the posts to hang every thing up that could be hung up; and now I began to
be in some order within doors.



up no less than four days I mean always excepting my mo
gun, which I seldom failed: and seldom failed also in bring
to eat.




I~~irrr\urar~u~*~,~Y sDU~-F~~-~iFU;~L~;-~^-II -h~--~C-P-~r

ry ~tiY- ----Y-~ I-C~----~





DEc. 20.-Now I carried every thing into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me : also I made me another table.

DEC. 24.- Much rain all night and all day; no
Stirring out.

DEC. 25.-Rain all day.

DEC. 26.- No rain, and the earth much cooler -. ':
than before, and pleasanter.

.DEC. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string: when
I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke.-N.B. I took such care of it, that
it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as ever;
but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door,



and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
bi'eeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and
shot was all spent.

,,.,- -,

[The Earthquake ]

DEC. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze; so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food. This time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.

JANUARY 1. -Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with my gun,
and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going further into the


valleys which lay towards
goats, though exceedingly
I could not bring my dog


the centre of the island, I found
shy and hard to come at; however
to hunt them down.

JAN. 2.-Accordingly, the n
my dog, and set him upon the g
taken, for they all,faced about u
knew his danger too well, for
near them.

I JAN. 3.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being
S still jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I
*I :_I^ resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B. -This wall being described before I purposely omit what was said in
the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was.no less a time than to the 14th
of April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than
about twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from one place in the rock
to another place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the
centre behind it.
All this time I worked very iard, the rains hindering me many days, nay,
sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure until
this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour every
thing was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced with a turf wall
raised up close to it, I persuaded myself, that if any people were to come on
shore there they would not perceive any thing like a habitation; and it was
very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
L for game, every day, when the rain permitted me,
Sand made frequent discoveries, in these walks, of
something or other to my advantage; particularly, I
found a kind of wild pigeons, who built, not as wood
pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to bring them up tame, and did so: but
when they grew older they flew away, which, perhaps, was at first for want of





r6 1.

There was plenty of
,r, I resolved to try if

text day I went with
oats; but I was mis-
ipon the dog; and he
he would not come






feeding them: for I had nothing to give them. However, I frequently found
their nests, and got their young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in
many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make, as, indeed,
as to some of them, it was-for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped.
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the heads, nor joint the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold water, so I gave that also over.
In the next place I was at a great loss for candle, so that as soon as ever it
was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed.
I remembered the lump of bees' wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now. The only remedy I had was, that, when
I killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me a light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours, it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little
bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry,
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured with the
rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust: and being willing to have
the bag for some other use -I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it
for fear of the lightning, or some such use--I shook the husks of corn out of it,
on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned, that I threw this
stuff away, taking no notice of any thing, and not so much as remembering that
I had thrown any thing there: when about a mouth after, or thereabout, I saw
some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and perfectly astonished,
when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which
were perfectly green barley, of the same kind as our European-nay, as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on
this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all. Indeed,
I had very few notions of religion in my head, or had entertained any sense of
any thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say,
what pleases God; without so much as enquiring into the end of Providence in
these things, or his order in governing events in the world. But after I saw
barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and




- V". -




especially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I
began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused this grain to grow, without
any help of seed sown; and that it so was directed, purely for my sustenance on
that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began
to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support,
but not doubting but that there was #ore in the place, I went all over that part

of the island where I had been before, peeping in every corner, and under every
rock, to see for more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thought, that I had shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that place, and then the
wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate too, upon discovering that all this was nothing but
what was common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so strange and
unforeseen a Providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work
of Providence, as to me, that should order or appoint ten or twelve grains of
corn to remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had





~f3r~z\ '
~-S~li~5y_'~L~--;-f -


r; `.


-. -~1b-




been dropped from Heaven-as, also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it any where else at that time, it had been burnt up
and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure, in their season, which
was about the end of June, and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread;
but it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of
this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its
order-for I lost all I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time-
for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least,
not so as it would have done-of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which
I preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the
same purpose, namely, to make me bread, or rather food: for I found ways to
cook it up without baking, though I did that also after some time. But to return
to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months to get my wall done;
and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door,
but over the wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the outside of my

'' APRIL 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up
t.: .' with the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up
;., I .I ,after me, and let it down on the inside. This was a
SI '" complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first mount
my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour
overcome at once, and myself killed. The case was thus :-as I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly
frighted with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for on a sudden I found
the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of
the hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what was really
the case, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had
done before; and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the
pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner


NftrPi' Qtpa'~a








stept down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake,
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance, with
three such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest building that could be
supposed to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with such a
terrible noise as I never heard in all my life: I perceived also the very sea was
put into violent motion by it: and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or discoursed
with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupified; and the motion of
the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise of
the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and, rousing me from the stupified
condition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the
hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once;
and thus sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to
take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for
fear of being buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and
disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious
religious thought, nothing but the common "Lord have mercy upon me!" and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it would
rain; soon after that, the wind rose by little and little, so that in less than half an
hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was all on a sudden covered over
with foam and froth, the shore was covered with the breach of the water, trees
were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was, and this held about three
hours, and then began to abate, and in two hours more it was stark calm, and
began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected, when
on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being a
consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and 1
might venture into my cave again, with this thought my spirits began to revive,
and, the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent, but
the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I
was forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely, to cut a hole through my
fortification like a sink, to let water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of


~~-~~- ---~~-~~

~sJ"-~~an~/la~_'-Yunr~8;~sruum~ura~r-- --- --



i ---------- ~i~"-"S- -~"





the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed; and now to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took
a small cup of rum, which, however, I did then, and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad; but, my mind being more composed, I began to think of
what I had best do, concluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes,
there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall as I had
done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men: but concluded, if
I staid where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place where it
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again would certainly fall upon my tent. And I spent the two
next days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet, and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almost equal to it,
but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing was put in order, how
pleasantly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to
In the meantime, it occurred to me, that it would require a vast deal of time
for me to do this, and that I must be content to run the venture where I was, till
I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So
with this resolution I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I should go
to work with all speed, to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a circle as
before, and set my tent up in it when it was finished; but that I would venture to
stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
APRIL 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to put this
resolve in execution, but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large
axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians) ; but, with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all
full of notches and dull, and, though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it, and
grind my tools too; this cost me as much thought as a statesman would have
bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a
man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that
I might have both my hands at liberty. Note.- I had never seen any such thing
in England, or at least to take notice how it was done, though since I have


~ ~------ -6a6SP/--~or-s~0


""MIMS= =1111

"" --I-eh"-~---~----

sr\ _




observed it very common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large
heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.


and .


APRIL 28, 29.--These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my
machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.


APRIL 30.-Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, now I took a survey of it, and
reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a-day, which made
my heart very heavy.

._ 1 MAY 1.-In the morning, looking towards the
s-' ea-side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on
the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
Scask. When I came to it, I found a small barrel,
-: and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and, looking .towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.

mi- i'm,-l"Rs~




2- d--._.'S.y:'

:- -- -- .- :-- -Z -- .





I ex\,Imir.;,l til- Iarel hh i ,,; 1r '-r, o
l,,re, an, soon furl it wN a lire:1 *, f :. n-
bl,.w.M r, Jut it l a I: taken wv at, r. a;1l thie ow-
r wa, r canke-l as haMi .~tl,:: a C[ .-Iatil'. I
i. rlle it farther ,-n sii:,re for ithe Jrsnt.
and w:. t CIn up':,n the sands i -,s ,: n. I I .9 oul,


~t~ ~~Pr~L~Ar
I ,,, Ile

~--~--- -~-- -:~

~""` -~L~~iB~-- -~$'~


,before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which
was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest by the
S- force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging
-i ,, -- her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side:
_- -. and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
S- stern, that whereas there was a great piece of water
before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I was
1 ,, ,1 1 P n 1 .-.-..- 1_ L1_ : 1 1 *1 .1


surprised with this at nrst, out soon concluetu i1 must De cone by tne earth-
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so
many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the ,
winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation;
and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in searching whether I could
make any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand; however, as I
had learned not to despair of any thing, I resolved to pull every thing to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding, that every thing I could get from her, would
be of some use or other to me.

S -. MAY 3.--I began with my saw, and cut a piece of
,--. a beam through, which I thought held some of the
a V upper part or quarter-deck together, and when I had
-- cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I
I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide
coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

MAY 4.- I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I
was weary of the sport, when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin.
I had made a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat: all which I dried in the sun, and
ate them dry.

S. MAY 5.-Worked on the wreck-cut another
i, beam asunder, and brought three great fir planks off
ft-)i g from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim
-- <^ on shore when the tide of flood came on.

MAY 6.-Worked on the wreck again got several iron bolts out of her,
and other pieces of iron work; worked very hard and came home very much
tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.




.- -;- MAY 7.- Went to the wreck again, but with an
._ --:.- intent not to work, but found the weight of the wreck
:; "-: -_ had brought itself down, the beams being cut; that
-- several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the
_- _inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it,
but almost full of water and sand.

MAY 8.--Went to the wreck, and car
crow to wrench up the deck, which no
clear of the water or sand; I wrenche
planks, and brought them on shore als
tide: I left the iron crow in the wreck fo

,ied an iron t
w lay quite
d open two
so with the
r next day.


--..-- MAY 9.- Went to the wreck, and with the crow
Si, made way into the body of the wreck, and felt
several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but
could not break them up: I felt also the roll of
English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.

MAY 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.--Went every day to the
wreck, and got a great many pieces of timber, and
boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of


, _-__ -MAY 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
-Y not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
S -: edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other,
\ but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.

AMAY 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more
Broken by the force of the water; but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons
for food, that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

MAY 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance,
near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found it was a
S piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.



kg_'AMiEou~D Y ~ I12ILI~1


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MAY 24.- Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some things
.^ so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide
L -several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land that day but
pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary
to get food, which I always appointed during this part of my employment to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this
time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got at several times, and in several pieces,
near one hundred weight of sheet lead.

JUNE 16.- Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle: this was the first that I had
seen, which seems was only my misfortune, not any
defect of the place or scarcity; for had I happened to
'"be on the other side of the island I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps I had paid dear
enough for them.

JUNE 17TII I spent in cooking the turtle: I found in her three-score eggs,
and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life, having had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I landed in
this horrid place.

JUNE 18.- Rained all day, and I staid within. I thought at this time the
rain felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that

JUNE 19.- Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

S JUNE 20.- No rest all night, violent pains in my head, and feverish.

JUNE 21.- Very ill, frighted almost to death with
'i .'i' -- the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and
no help. Prayed to God, for the first time since the
Sbs storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why,
my thoughts being all confused.

JUNE 22.- A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness,

p- ~*l~~~c,';;~



JUNE 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

JUNE 24.-Much better.

JUNE 25.- An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours, cold fit and
hot, with faint sweats after it.
JUNE 26.-Better; and, having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak; however,
I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it
home, and broiled some of it, and ate; I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.

JUNE 27.--The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither
ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst, but so weak I had not strength to
stand up, or to get my-
self any water to drink.
Prayed to God again,
but was light-headed:
and when I was not, I "
was so ignorant, that I -l
knew not what to say, -
only I lay, and cried,
"Lord look upon me! -
Lord pity me! Lord -:e

have mercy upon me!" -=
I suppose I did nothing
else for two or three
hours, till, the fit wear-
ing off, I fell asleep, '
and did not wake till
far in the night; when
I waked I found myself "
much refreshed, but
weak and exceedingly
thirsty: however, as I
had no water in my
whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In
this second sleep I had this terrible dream:-
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where
I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend

i -~---; u -





~1. \


Y. W~~

,I, -2. h .- -
-I ___________-------~--------------------*
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground. He
was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
J him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to
describe; when lie stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake, and the air looked to my
apprehension as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved forward towards me, ,
with a long spear, or weapon, in his hand to kill me; and when he came to a
rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible
that it is impossible to express the terror of it; all that I can say I understood, i
was this-"Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance, now
thou shalt die!" at which words, I thought he lifted up the spear, that was in his
hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I shall be able to
describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision-I mean that even while it
was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked and found
it was but a dream.
I had, alas no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good
instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight
years, of sea-faring wickedness, and a constant conversation with nothing but
such as were, like iy,..lf, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
S remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own
ways. But a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of
evi!, had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the most hardened,
u thinking, wicked creature, among our common sailors, can be supposed to be,
S not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness
to God in deliverances.
S In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily
believed, when I shall add, that, through all the variety of miseries that had to
S this day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin -my rebellious behaviour
: against my father, or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a
"'f; punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was on the
?" desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one
thought of what would become of me, or one wish to God to direct me whither I
should go, or keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well
from voracious creatures as cruel savages; but I was merely thoughtless of a God,


or a Providence, acted like a mere brute from the principles of nature, and by the
dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,
and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When again I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in
danger of drowning on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment -I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's crew
drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some
transports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up to
true thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy,
S or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the ii
distinguishing goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled me
out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed; or an enquiry why Provi-
dence had been thus merciful to me: even just the same common sort of joy
which seamen generally have, after they have got safe on shore from a shipwreck,
which they drown all in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is
over and all the rest of my life was like it.
Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my
condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind,
out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a
prospect of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the
works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God
against me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had at first some
little influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I
thought it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever that part of
S thought was removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off also as
I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or
more immediately directing to the invisible Power, which alone directs such
things; yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impression it had made went
off also. I had no more sense of God or his judgments, much less of the present
affliction of my circumstances being from his hand, than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of


death came to place itself before me: when
burden of a strong distemper, and nature was
fever, conscience that had slept so long, began
myself with my past life, in which I had so e
provoked the justice of God to lay me under
me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me from the se
and in the violence, as well of the fever as
conscience, extorted some words from me like


1 :

Essay they were either a prayer attended with d
the voice of mere fright and distress: my thou
great upon my mind, and the horror of dying i
vapours into my head with the mere apprehen
soul, I knew not what my tongue might expre

certainly die for want of help, and what will
burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more
,1 i ,


ay spirits began to sink under the
exhausted with the violence of the
to awake, and I began to reproach
vidently, by uncommon wickedness,
uncommon strokes, and to deal with

:cond or third day of my distemper
of the dreadful reproaches of my
praying to God, though I canno

_- _-i

esires or with ho
ghts were confuse
in such a miserable
sions; and in the
ss: but it was ra
SI If I should
become of me ?'
for a good while.



d, the convictions
ie condition raised
ese hurries of my
other exclamation,
d be sick, I shall .
Then the tears





G I;


his prediction, which I mentioned in the beginning of this story, namely, that, if
I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure
.-I hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none
to assist in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are
k come to pass: God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear
1E, 89


me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which' had mercifully put me in a
Posture or station of life, wherein I 'might have been happy and easy; but I
would neither see it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my parents.
I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted .2'
me into the world, and have made every thing easy to me, and now I have
difficulties to -ti ui!.:- with, too great for even nature itself to support, and no
assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my
S help; for I am in great distress "
This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many
years. But I return to my journal.
JUNE 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and
the fit being entirely off, I got up: and though the fright and terror of my dream
was very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the
next day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself,
when I should be ill: and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle
with water, and set it upon my table in reach of my bed: and to take off the
chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum
into it, and mixed them together: then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and
broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted, under a sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made
my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as
we call it, in the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's
blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak that I could
7 hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that); so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just
S' before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me:- '
What is the earth and sea, of which I-have seen so much? Whence is it i
produced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human

and brutal-whence are we?
Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky- and who is that ?
Then it followed most naturally;-it is God that has made it all. Well, but
then--it came on strangely-if God has made all these things, he guides and
governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and direct them.




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