Citation
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner

Material Information

Title:
The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner with an introduction, giving a new history of Defoe's masterpiece
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Richmond & Patten ( Publisher )
Place of Publication:
New Haven, Conn.
Publisher:
Richmond & Patten
Publication Date:
Copyright Date:
1874
Language:
English
Edition:
Correctly repr. from the original ed.
Physical Description:
xx, 612 p., <13> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Connecticut -- New Haven
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

Citation/Reference:
NUC pre-1956,
General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
The "new history of Defoe's masterpiece" may be a biographical sketch of Defoe, p. ix-xx.
General Note:
Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 574, matches this description but lists only eight plates.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
with original illustrations by Ernest Griset.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
05905373 ( oclc )

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Full Text






=
=

CRUSOE AND FRIDAY, frontis,



rer es

AND

STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES |

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE,

OF YORK, MARINER,

Correctly Reprinted from the Original Edition.

lin an Ynttoduction,

GIVING A NEW HISTORY OF DEFOR’S MASTERPIECE.

With Original WMustrations by Ernest Griset,



NEW HAVEN, CONN. :
RICHMOND & PATTEN.
1874.



CONTENTS.

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Defoe, q . . . .
SECTION L.
Robinson’s Family, etc. — His Elopement from his Parents,
SECTION II.

First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life -—
Voyage to Guinea, : . . . . . . .

SECTION III.

Robinson’s Captivity at Sallee— Escape with Xury — Arrival at
the Brazils, . . : . . 0 0 f .

SECTION IV.

He settles in the Brazils as a Planter— Makes another voyage,

and is shipwrecked, . . . . . . . .
SECTION V.
Robinson finds himself in a desolate island —Procures a stock

of articles from the wreck — Constructs his Habitation, °

SECTION VI.

Carries all his Riches, Provisions, etc., into his Habitation —
Dreariness of Solitude — Consolatory Reflections, 0 .

‘SECTION VII.

Robinson’s Mode of Reckoning Time — Difficulties arising from
want of Tools — He arranges his Habitation, .

(iii)

Page

21

53

68

“80

84



Cy

iv CONTENTS.

SECTION VIII.

Robinson’s Journal — Details of his Domestic Economy and Con-
trivances — Shock of an Earthquake, . . . . es

SECTION IX.

Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck — Ifis Illness
and Affliction, . . . S f ° . ° .

SECTION X.

{lis Recovery — Ilis Comfort in Reading the Scriptures — Makes
a Excursion into the Interior of the Island — Forms his
“Bower,” . 5 . 5 . 5 : . .

SECTION XI.

Rebinson makes a Tour to Explore his Island — Employed in
Basket-Making, . e : . . . .

SECTION XII.

He returns to his Cave —His Agricultural Labors and Success,
SECTION XIII.

His Manufacture of Pottery, and contrivance for Baking Bread,
SECTION XIV.

Meditates his Escape from the Island —Builds a Canoe — Fail-
ure of his Scheme — Resignation to his condition — Makes
himself a new Dress, . . } z 0 . 0

SECTION XV.

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round
the Island — His Perilous Situation at Sea — He returns
Tiome, . . “ : . - 2 : 2

SECTION XVI.

He Rears a Flock of Goats — His Dairy — His Domestic Habits
and Style of Living — Increasing Prosperity, 5 :

SECTION XVII.

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension — He Fortifies
his Abode, . . ry , e . . 5

Page

91

105

114

134

142

147

169

178



_ CONTENTS.

SECTION XVIII.

Precautions against Surprise — Robinson Discovers that his Isl- ~

and has been Visited by Cannibals, . : . :

SECTION XIX.

Robinson Discovers a Cave, which serves him as a Retreat
against the Savages, . : : .

.

SECTION XX.

Another Visit of the Savages — Robinson Sees them Dancing —
Perceives the Wreck of a Vessel, . : 6 ; ° .

SECTION XXI.

Ile Visits the Wreck and obtains many Stores from it— Again
thinks of Quitting the Island — Has a Remarkable Dream,

SECTION XXII.

Robinson Rescues one of their Captives from the Savages, whom
he names Friday, and makes his Servant,

SECTION XXIII.

Robinson Instructs and Civilizes his Man Friday — Endeavors
to give him an Idea of Christianity, . . . .

SECTION XXIV.

Robinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry them to Friday’s
Country — Their Scheme prevented by the arrival of a Party
of Savages, . . . .

SECTION XXV.

Robinson Releases a Spaniard — Friday Discovers his Father —
Accommodation provided for these New Guests— Who are
afterwards sent to Liberate the other Spaniards — Arrival of
an English Vessel, 0 .

. . . . .

SECTION XXVI.

Robinson Discovers Himself to the English Captain — Assists
him in Reducing his Mutinous Crew, who submit tohim, .

1*

Page

188 -

199

207

227

243

tw
or
oOo

274





we





vi 5 CONTENTS.

SECTION XXVII.

Atkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life— The latter Re-
covers his Vessel from the Mutineers— And Robinson leaves
the Island, . . é 2 ee ‘ a

SECTION XXVIII.

Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain,
who renders him an Account of his Property in the Brazils —
Sets out on his Return to England by Land, . ,

SECTION XXIX.

Friday’s Encounter with a Bear— Robinson and his Fellow
Travelers attacked by a Flock of Wolves — His Arrangement
of his Affairs, and Marriage after his Return to England,

SECTION XXX.

He is seized with a Desire to Revisit his Island — Loses his
Wife—Is Fempted to go to Sea again — Takes out a Cargo
for his Colony, . . . . . .

SECTION XXXI.

Robinson’s Ship Relieves the Crew of a French Vessel that had
caught fire, . . 0 : . 6 S

SECTION XXXII.

Relieves the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving — Arrives
at his Island, . O 5 . . fs 0

SECTION XXXIII.

Robinson and Friday go Ashore—The Latter meets with his
Father — Account of what passed on the Island after Robin-
son’s quitting it, . . . . . . . . .

SECTION XXXIV.

The Account continued — Quarrels between the Englishmen —
A Battle between two Parties of Savages who Visit the Isl-
and — Fresh Mutiny among the Settlers, eno! lw eanees

314

co
Ww
oo

338

347

co
or
oO

866



CONTENTS.

SECTION XXXV.

The Mutinous Englishmen are Dismissed from the Island — Re-
turn with Several Captive Savages— Take the Females as
Wives — Arrival of Savages, . . . . . :

SECTION XXXVI.

Several Savages Killed; the remainder leave the Island —A
Fleet of them afterwards arrive—A General Battle — The
Savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored, . .

SECTION XXXVII.

tobinson learns from the Spaniards the Difficultics they had to
Encounter — He furnishes the People with Tools, etc. — The
French Ecclesiastic, —. . 0 . .

SECTION XXXIII.

Robinson’s Discourse with the Ecclesiastic as to introducing
Marriages among the People— Marriages performed — At-
kins Converts his Wife, : ¥ z : x

SECTION XXXIX.

Atkins Relates his Conversation with his wife — The latter bap-
tized by the Priest — Account of the starving state of those
on board the rescued vessel
Island, .



Robinson’s departure from the

SECTION XL.

Encounter with Savages at Sea —Friday’s Death — Robinson
finds his former Partner in the Brazils— Sails for the Kast
Indies, ; . :

SECTION XLI.

The Vessel touches at Madagascar — Affray with the Natives,
who are Massacred by the Crew—The Sailors afterwards
refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his Nephew, the
Captain, in Bengal,

: . ° : . « .

3889

404

438

497



vil CONTENTS.

Page
SECTION XLII.
Mects with an English Merchant with whom he makes some
Trading Voyages — They are Mistaken for Pirates —Vanquish
their Pursuers — Voyage to China — Rencounter. with the Co-
chin Chinese —Island of Formosa — Gulf of Nanquin— Ap-
prehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch, . . 517
SECTION XLIIlI.
Journey to Peking — Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to
Moscow — Rencvunters with the Tartars, . A : - 557

SECTION XLIV.

Route through Muscovy — Robinson and a Scots Merchant de-
stroy an Idol— The whole Caravan in great peril from the
pursuit of the Pagans— Tobolski— Muscovite Exiles — De-
garture from Tobolski— Encounter with a Troop of Robbers
in the Desert — Roktinsen reaches Archangel, and finally ar-
rives in England, : . . . : ; : . 578



BICGRAPHICAL SKETCH

OF

| DANIEL DEFOE.

aC EFOR, the author of Robinson
~ ))- Crusve, would be entitled to a
. \ prominent place in the history





of our literature, even bad he
}y never given to the world that
Wy traly admirable production ;
i | and yet we may reasonably
fi} question whether the name of
i Defoe would not long ago have
sunk into oblivion, or at least
have been known, like those
f2{ of most of his contemporaries,
only to the curious student,
49 were it not attached to a work
~® Whose popularity has been
rarely equaled —- never, perhaps, ex-
celled. Evenas it is, the reputation due
to the writer has been nearly altogether
absorbed in that of his here, and in the
all-engrossing interest of his adventures:
thousands who have read Robinson Cru-
soe with delight, and derived from it a satisfaction
in no wise diminished by repeated perusal, have
never bestowed a thought on its auther, or, indeed,
4Ny regarded it in the light of a literary performance.
While its fascination has been universally felt, the
genius that conceived it, the talent that perfected it,
have been generally overlooked, merely because it is so
full of nature and reality as to exhibit no invention or
exertion on the part of the author, inasmuch as he ap-
pears simply to have recorded what actually happened
and consequently only to have committed to paper plain
matter of fact, without study or embclilishment. We wonder at and
are struck with admiration by the powers of Shakspeare or Cervantes:
with regard to Defoe we experience no similar feelings; it is not the
skill of the artist that enchants us, but the perfect naturalness of the
picture, which is such that we mistake it for a mirror; go that every
reader persuades himself that he could write as well, perhaps better,

(ix )







\





e



x j BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

were he but furnished with the materials for an equally interesting
narrative.

There are many circumstances in Defoe’s own history that would
recommend it to the notice of the biographer, independently of his
claims as the author of Robinson: among which are the variety and
extraordinary number of his literary performances, amounting to no
fewer than two hundred and nine different publications; and the nc
less singular fact that the masterpiece of his genius was not only his
first essay in that species of composition, but was not produced till
he was far advanced in years, he having then arrived at a period of
life when the generality of authors close their literary career, and
when the powers of imagination either lose much of their vigor,
or become altogether torpid. Nor will our surprise at Defve’s indus-
try, and the almost unprecedented fertility of his pen, be at all di-
minished by considering that he was not a recluse student or professed
scholar, but was engaged in trade and various other speculations. In
one respect, however, his mercantile occupations contributed to lay
the foundation to his excellence as a novel-writer, since there can be
little doubt that it is to his actual experience of the sea, and his ac-
quaintance with other countries, we are indebted for that truth and
spirit which animate the more interesting parts of Robinson Crusoe ;
while the manly good sense, unaffected earnestness, and fund of native
intelligence, have placed him far above those who presume to under-
value his literary acquirements.

According to the latest and most copious of all his biographers,
Daniel Defoe was born in 1661, two years earlier than the generally
assigned date of his birth. His father was a butcher in the parish of
St. Giles, Cripplegate; and appears to have been a citizen in easy
circumstances, although his trade was one that confers no particular
lustre ona pedigree. It is usual to effect some degree of astonish-
ment when we read of men whose after fame presents a striking con-
trast to the humility of their origin: yet we must recollect that it is
not ancestry and splendid descent, but education and circumstances
which form the man; and in this-respect the middling classes possess
a decided advantage over those either below or above them: for if
the former are precluded from cultivating their talents and abilities,
the latter generally consider themselves exempt from the necessity of
doing so, and accordingly content themselves with cultivating mere
external accomplishments, in preference to exercising their mental
energies. Those on the contrary who are placed in a middle station,
while they are not debarred from the means of application, feel that
stimulous to exertion which arises from the desire of acquiring fortune
or fame. The history of such men as Ximenes, Wolsey, Alberoni,
and Napoleon, may, indeed, justly excite our wonder ; — when, too,
we behold unlettered genius emerging, in spite of every obstacle, from
the obscurity to which it seemed condemned, as in a Fergusson, a
Duval, a Burns, and an Opie, we may be permitted to express our as-
tonishment; but as regards his origin, the history of Defoe is that of
thousands who have afterwards raised themselves into comparative
elevation by the display of their powers. The solicitude, therefcre, so
generally displayed hy biographers, on similar occasions, to trace



DANIEL DEFOE. x1

some consanguinity with a more dignified branch of their families,
for those whose native obscurity seems to demand some apology, be-
trays a rather mistaken policy. However this may be, it is certain
that it is quite as honorable for Defoe to have ascended from a butcher
as it would have been to have descended from the Conqueror himself.

One undoubted and very great advantage, for which Defoe was in-
debted to his parents, who were Nonconformists, was an education
superior to what it was then usual for persons in their station to be-
stow upon their children; and they Were careful also to implant in
his youthful mind that regard for religion, and that strict moral integ-
rity, which afterwards displayed themselves not only in his writings,
but his conduct through life. And this rectitude of principle he mest
unequivocally evinced when his misfortunes put it so severely to the
proof. At about the age of fourteen, he was placed under the tuition
of the Rev. Charles Morton, of Newington Green, who was afterwards
vice-president of Harvard College, New England; and from various
incidental remarks in his own works, it appears that young Defoe now
entered upon an extensive course of studies, and made considerable
proficiency in languages, mathematics, philosophy, history, and the-
ology; although the natural liveliness of his disposition unfitted him
for that severe application which is necessary to form a profowid
scholar in any one of those pursuits.

It was the intention of his parents that he should embrace the -
clerical profession, which their religious feelings, and probably a very
pardonable ambition, induced them to select for him: yet, notwith-
standing his regard for the sacred office, he was unwilling to embrace
it himself; or events, at least, diverted his talents into another chan-
nel. The political and religious excitements of that period were
contagious for one of Defoe’s temper; he assumed the character of
the patriot as soon as he cast off that of the boy, and espoused the
aide of the popular party with all the ardor of youth; nor was it long
betore he had opportunities of distinguishing himself. He was a
warm advocate for the Bill of Exclusion, passed by the Commons to
prevent the succession of the Duke of York to the titrone; and re-
garded with abhorrence that spirit of despotism which sentenced
Sydney and so many others to the seaffold. At the age of twenty-one
he commenced author, which employment he continued for nearly
half a century, and that, too, almost uninterruptedly, notwithstand-
ing his various speculations of a different nature. It cannot be ex-
pected that in a sketch of this nature we should attempt to give
anything like a connected account of Defoe’s various literary perform-
ances, they being too numerous and multifarious for us to advert to them
separately, even if we conceived that by sc doing we should greatly
interest the readers of this—the most distinguished of them all.
But the truth is, the majority of them are of that class which it is
rather the province of the bibliographer than the critic to describe. We
may, however, here mention the first production of his pen, which,
under thé singular title of ‘‘ Speculum Crape-gownorum,” was a reply
to a publication of Roger L’Estrange’s, a noted party writer of that
day. In this work Defoe indulged in rather intemperate language,
and while vindicating the dissenters, reflected in too hostile and indis-



xl BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

criminate a manner upon the established clergy, This was succeeded
by a ‘Treatise against the Turks,” occasioned by the war between
them and the imperialists; and was penned by Defoe for the purpose
of showing his countrymen that, if it was the interest of Protes-
tantism not to increase the influence of a Catholic power, it was
infinitely more so to oppose a Mahommedan one; which, however
debateable it might appear to politicians, was almost too obvious a
truism to be entitled to any merit for its sagacity. It is the fate of
political publications quickly to fall into oblivion after the events
which call them forth have passed away: the reputation derived from
them is as transitory as the events themselves, or if the fame of the
writer occasionally descends to posterity, it is more than can be affirm-
ed of his writings.

Shortly after this, Defoe proved that he was as ready to support the
doctrines he advocated by the sword as by the pen: he accordingly
joined the standard of the Duke of Monmouth, when the latter landed
in England with a view of expelling a Catholic prince from the throne,
and seating himself upon it as the defender of Protestantism. The
issue of that adventure, and the subsequent fate of the unfortunate,
if not perfectly innocent, Monmouth are well known. Happier than
the leader of the enterprise, it was Defoe’s better luck to escape: he
returned to the metropolis in safety; and, abandoning politics and
warfare, was content for a while to turn his attention to the more
humble but less stormy pursuits of trade.

He now became a hosier, or rather a hose-factor, that is, a kind of
agent between the manufacturer and retailer; and, according to Mr.
Chalmers, he continued to carry on this concern from 1685 to 1695.
It was about two years after he had thus established himself, that he
was admitted a liveryman of London, on the 26th of January, 1687-8.
Business, however, did not so entirely absorb his attention but that
he found time to engage in the various controversies that agitated the
public mind, and which were occasioned by the arbitrary measures of
James, who, feeling himself secure after the removal of so dangerous
an enemy as Monmouth, began more openly to favor the Catholics, and
to dispense with the tests intended to prevent their accepting commis-
sions in thearmy. ‘his of course excited both the alarm and indigna-
tion of the Protestants, which were by no means allayed by the tem-
porizing servility of their own clergy, who exerted their eloquence in
favor of the king’s prerogative. Among those who attacked the doctrine
of the dispensing power was Defoe ; nor, as may well be imagined, was
he afterwards an unconcerned spectator of the Revolution, whose pro-
gress he had minutely watched, and whose anniversary he continued
yearly to celebrate as a day marked by the deliverance of his country
from political and religious tyranny. His attachment to the new sov-
ereign was confirmed by the personal notice shown him both by that
prince and his consort; for the ‘‘butcher’s son” had the honor of an
early introduction to the royal presence.

At this period Defve resided at Tooting in Surrey, and he had now
launched out into more extensive commercial speculations, having
embarked in the Spanish and Portuguese trade, so that he might fairly
claim the title of merchant. The precise time of his going te Spain,



DANIEL DEFOE. xit

ahether before or after the Revolution, cannot be ascertained; but he
not only made a voyage thither, but stayed some time in the country
and acquired a knowledge of the language. Sincere as was his at-
tachment to the purer tenets of Protestantism, it did not degenerate
into blind prejudice, nor prevent him from doing justice to Catholics:
he has accordingly, in his Robinson Crusoe, represented the Spanish
character under its most amiable traits, and in a tone that may al-
most pass for panegyric. This voyage as we have already remarked,
doubtlessly contributed to store his ebservant mind with many materials
for those descriptions of the perils and adventures common to @ sea-
faring life, that so strongly excite the sympathy of those who follow
his hero across the trackless deep. Nor was he without some experi-
ence of shipwreck, if not actually in his own person, by the loss of a
vessel in which he was a shareholder, and which was wrecked in a
violent storm off the coast of Biscay. It was about this period also
that he traded with Holland; probably for civet, as one of his enemies
has sneeringly styled him a ‘civet-cat merchant.”’ Besides this he
visited some other parts of the continent, particularly Germany ; he
did not, however, relinquish his hose-agency business in consequence
of his other engagements. But commercial enterprise did not prove
for him the road to wealth; on the contrary, his speculations involved
him in such embarrassments, that, in 1692, he was obliged to abscond
from his creditors. A commission of bankruptcy was taken out
against him, yet it was afterwards superseded, those to whom he was
most in debt agreeing to accept a composition on his own bond; and
he not only punetually discharged these claims, but, after he had
somewhat retrieved his circumstances, voluntarily repaid the remain-
der. This is so much the more to his honor, since so far from having ©
met with many precedents of similar probity in others, his misfortunes
had been in some degree occasioned by the knavery of unprincipled
men, who, availing themselves of the impunity held out to them by
the supineness or the impotency of the law, were then accustomed to
set their creditors at defiance in the most barefaced manner.

It was Defoe himself who first called the attention of the legisla-
ture to the intolerable abuses which arose froin those sanctuaries, as
they were termed, ‘for criminals and debtcrs, which then existed in
the metropolis; and to him, consequently, may we be said to be in-
debted for the abatement of a nuisance as disgraceful to the national
character, as it was injurious to the industrious and honest portion of
the community. : :

With a view of assisting him in his distress, some of his friends
now came forward and offered to settle him as a factor at Cadiz: yet,
advantageous as the proposal was, he declined it, prefering to endeav-
or to retrieve his finances by his pen. The country being then en-
gaged in an expensive war with France, Defoe proposed a scheme
to assist the government in raising ‘‘the ways and means; ” and some
time afterwards he received the appointment of accountant to the
commissioners of the glass duty.; but it proved only a temporary one,
as.the duty was repealed in August, 1699. Probably it was also
ubout the same period that he became secretary to the tile-works at
Tibury, in which concern he embarked some money, and was again a

2







XIV BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

sufferer. Tis ‘‘Essay on Projects,” published in January, 1696--7,
shows him to have been, if not a very successful speculator himself, at
least a very ingenious and fertile deviser of theoretical plans, most of
which must be allowed to have the welfare of society in view; nor
have they been without influence in leading to many improvements of
later times: among those which have been practically adopted, we
may mention his scheme for Friendly Societies and Saving Banks.
Were any testimony required in favor of this work, it would be suffi-
cient to quote that of the celebrated Franklin, who confesses that the
impressions he received from it gave a strong bias to his own pursuits.

If not invariably employed in the active defense of public morals,
Defoe’s pen was too honest to betray their interests on any occasion:
it was. not always that his topics called for, or even admitted, any
direct inculcations of virtue, but whenever they did, he displayed his
earnestness in its behalf. His publication entitled ‘The Poor Man’s
Plea”? is a very keen piece of satire, with a considerable touch of
humor, leveled against the vices of the upper classes of society, in
which he urges them to discountenance by their own conduct the im-
morality they deem so reprehensible in the vulgar. The stage too
did not escape his castigation; and really its transgressions were at
that period so barefaced and audacious, so offensive even to common
decency, that, whatever infamy there may have been in either toler-
ating or in attempting to defend such a system of ludeness, there
could be no great triumph in exposing that which did not even attempt
to conceal itself.

We have now to notice our author in a somewhat different charac-
ter—namoly, as a candidate for poetical fame. His satire, entitled
the “True-born Enelishman,” which was written for the purpose of .
averting from the king the abusive reflections cast upon him as a
foreigner, had indeed a very great run at the time—more, however,
on account of the matter than of the manner—since both that and
all Defoe’s other attempts of the kind convince us, that, like the great
Roman orator, he was an intolerably bad poet, and not even a decent
versifier. Yet could gratitude and enthusiastic devotion to his prince
have supplied the inspiration which the muses denied him, Defoe’s
poetry would have been of first-rate excellence, so sincere was his
adiniration of, so zealous was his devotion to, William III. The va-
rious effusions in rhyme, and the numerous political pamphlets and
tracts which he published at this interval, we must pass by, and
come directly to an event that obtained for our author a rather unen-
viable species of distinction. The reign of Anne commenced with
much violence and with cabals between the respective church parties,
leading to controversies that rather fanned than allayed the public
ferment. On such an occasion, it was not to be expected that Defoe
would remain passive: assuming the furious tone of the high-
churchmen of the day against the dissenters, he published a small
pamphlet, which was in reality a satire upon the writings which that
party had issued from the press; but the irony was so fine, and the
imitation so exact, that while it was supposed by them to utter the
real sentiments of the writer, it was also interpreted by those whom
it was intended to serve as coming from a violent cnemy. The







DANIEL DEFOE. . 5 xv

‘Shortest way with the Dissenters? — such was its title— created an.
amazing sensation: and on its real object being exposed, the high-
church party became as fierce in their indignation, as they had before
‘been warm in their applause. The author was detected, a reward
offered for his apprehension, and he himself sentenced to be imprison-
ed in Newgate, and to stand in the pillory; but the attendance of his
friends, and the enthusiasm of the populace in favor of the champion
of religious liberty, converted an ignominious punishment into a
triumph, so that his enemies had-as little reason to exalt in their vic-
tory, as to be proud of the sagacity they had displayed. If, however,
this event rather increased than diminished Defve’s reputation, it had
a different effect upon his pecuniary affairs: his confinement in New-
gate prevented his attending any longer to his concern at Tilbury, the -
consequence of which was that it was obliged to be given up; and -
thus Defoe saw himself deprived at once of what had been the source
of a handsome income, for before this affair he was in such thriving
circumstances as to be able to keep his coach. According to his own
statement, he lost three thousand five hundred pounds, a far more
considerable sum at that period than it would be now. There was
indeed one way of both speedily and safely repairing his finances,
namely, by accepting the overtures made him by the ministry, who
would gladly have enlisted in their own cause that pen which had
proved so powerful against them: but Defoe was too independent of
soul, and too high principled, to purchase his release upon terms
that would inflict upon him the disgrace the pillory had failed to
effect.

Although a prison is not the most congenial place for literary pur-
suits, ow author availed himself of the time which the loss of his
liberty afforded him, of occupying his unwelcome leisure from all
other business in writing both in verse and prose. It was here that
he published his poem on the ‘¢ Reformation of Manners,” a sufficient-
ly copious theme in every age, and aftewards continued the subject in
another, entitled «‘ More Reformation; ” in which he alludes to his
own situation in the following nervous lines, describing himself as

“ A modern tool,
To wit, to parties and himself a fool:
mbroil’d with states to do himself no good,
And by his friends themselves misunderstood 5
Misconstrucd first in every word he said, —
By these unpitied, and by those unpaid.”

Here we may truly say fueit indignatio versus for the caustic tone and. _
antithesis are not unworthy of Pope himself. The political contro- _
versial pieces which he sent forth to the world from his ‘place of
durance yvile’’ were too numerous for us to specify them; we there-
fore prefer speaking of a work of more permanent interest, one in
which he may be regarded as the immediate predecessor of two of the
most popular and admired of our classic writers in the days of Anne
—namely, Steele and Addison. Defoe’s ‘‘ Review,” which commenced
Feb. 19, 1704, deserves to be“considered as the prototype of our Tat-



xvi BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

lers and Spectators; and may earn for its author the appellation of
the Father of English Essayists: since notwithstanding that politicai
intelligence and discussion constituted a great portion of its contents,
it touched upon. a variety of other topics bearing upon literature,
manners, and morals; while it was itself hardly in any degree in-
debted for this part of its plan to proceeding or contemporary publi-
cations. Uniformly assailing vice, or exposing to just ridicule the
follies and foibies of society, Defoc varied his mode of attack, at one
time employing grave reasoning and serious remonstrance ; at another,
substituting sarcasm, humor, wit, and pleasantry, for monitory re-
proof. Toa modern reader, indeed, many of the topics might seem
to lack invention, and to be rather common-place, merely because they
have been so repeatedly handled by later writers, that both the wit and
argument displayed in them have lost their freshness. This circum-
stance, however, does not detract from Defoe’s intrinsic merit, or from
the praise due to him as an originator: on the contrary, he, in this
respect, only shares the fate common to all those who open a new path
in literature or art, inviting imitators whose number oppress, if they
do not overwhelm them: that Defoe has not since been surpassed in
this species of writing is far more than we can venture to assert; yet
it should be recollected that it is the first navigator of the Atlantic,
not those who cross it in a modern steamboat, who claims the homage
of our admiration.

Those who are unacquainted with Defoe the essayist, as well as
Defoe the novelist, will not be able to appreciate the extent of our
author’s powers, and the variety of his inforination. But we have
already dwelt upon the ‘Review ” at greater length than is consistent
with the brevity we must perforce observe: it is time, therefore, to
proceed with our narrative. Mr. Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford,
happened, by a change in the ministry, to come into power, after
Detoe had been about two years in confinement, and being able to
appreciate his abilities —— perhaps anxious to secure them in his own
support, he represented his case to the queen, who generously sent
a. sum of money to his wife and family, and another to discharge his
fine and prison expenses. Immediately upon his liberation, Defoe re-
tired to Bury St. Edmund’s. It was there that he wrote his masterly
treatise, entitled ‘‘ Giving Alms no Charity,” in which he displays great
practical knowledge, with enlarged and sound views on the causes of
poverty, and on the employment of the poor. In the intervals of
these and other occupations, for it should be observed that he had
been sent in 1705 by Harley on a secret mission to the continent, the
express object of which has not transpired, — he found leisure to em-
ploy his pen on other subjects, and anticipating his future character
of a romance writer, he invented the ‘true narrative” of Mrs. Veal’s
apparition, which was prefixed to a translation of Drelincourt on
Death. The supposed stranger from the other world is made to rec-
ommend that performance; and, as such supernatural testimony was
irresistible, the whole impression, which had before lain on the book-
seller’s shelves, was quickly sold, and was succeeded by many others,
the work having since passed through forty different editions. This
stratagem certainly does honor to Defve’s ingenuity and penetration ;





DANIEL DEFOE. xvii.

yet whether it be entirely justifiable, considering the tendency of the °
deception, may be doubted. =

Leaving for a while the account of his literary career, we must now
briefly notice a very important national subject, namely, the Union
with Scotland, in which, besides warmly advocating the measure with
his pen, Defoe was personally employed. At the recommendation of
Harley and Lord Godolphin, by whom he had been recommended to
the queen, he was sent on a mission to Edinburgh, in which city he
arrived in October, 1706. Here,-it should seem, he was chiefly em-
ployed in making calculations relating to trade and taxes, for the
information of the committees of parliament; he also occupied hini-
self in collecting those documents relative to the Union which he
afterwards published. Besides this, he proposed several plans for en--
couraging the manufactures, and for promoting the trade, wealth, and
maritime resources of Scotland. After an absence of about sixteen
months, he returned to England in 1708, when his services obtained
for him, from the ministry, an appointment with a fixed salary; and
as it does not appear what was the nature of the office he held, we
may conclude it to have been merely a sinecure. Almost immediately
afterwards, his patron Harley was dismissed from office, through the
persevering intrigues of the duchess of Malborough, whom he had sup-
planted in the queen’s favor, an event that suddenly overclouded De-
foe’s political prospects. Without compromising his principles, how-
ever, he espoused the interest of the succeeding ministry ; but although
Godolphin treated him with consideration, he suffered his pension to fall
into arrears, perhaps in consequence of Defoe’s long absence in Scot-
land, whither he was again despatched a few months afterwards, upon
some secret business. In the following year, 1709, Defoe published a
work which, to use the words of an eminent living critic, ‘ places
him amongst the soundest historians of the day ;” and which, accord-
ing to the testimony of another, would have handed down his name to
posterity, even had he not immortalized himself by Robinson Crusoe.
This was his ‘History of the Union,” which is as interesting for the
minute descriptions it gives of the actors and incidents in that impor-
tant event, as for the documents it furnishes.

Still engaged in politics, Defoe’s continued and severe attacks
against the Toriés and high-church party so exasperated them, that
they attempted to suppress his writings, and even threatened him
with prosecutions: their animosity, however, did not procure for him, -
from those whose cause he defended, a degree of fuvor and support at
all.commensurate with his long and able services. He had also to
contend with fresh pecuniary losses in some concern in which he was
engaged (1712) with Mr. Wood, a mercer of Coleshill in Warwickshire,
and with the personal abuse with which his character was assailed by
writers who reflected upon him as being a knavish bankrupt. But
his pclitical career was now drawing to its close: having carried on his
‘Review ” for more than nine years, he finally relinquished it in May,
1718, when he was again a prisoner in Newgate upon an indictment
preferred against him by his friends the Whigs, as the author of three
treasonable Jacobitical pamphlets; whereas the publications in ques-
tion were of a directly opposite tendency. The queen once more

a 5



xvul BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

bestowed a free pardon on him, and the malice of his numerous
enemies was defeated. From this time he employed his pen only
occasionally on political subjects. By the accession of George I. to
the throne, Defoe gained nothing, although his writings had strenu-
ously pleaded the cause of the House of Hanover during the late
reign; and although he had superior claims upon public gratitude for
the zeal with which, during nearly thirty years, he had not only advo-
cated religious and political independence, but endeavored to call
attention to subjects of paramount importance to the national pros-
perity. That this neglect should, in spite of all his philosophy, have
occasioned him considerable mortification, is not much to be won-
dered at; and to the effect it had upon his health was attributed an
apopleetic attack in the year 1715, from which he continued to suffer
for six months. ,

After so serious a blow to his constitution, and at his advanced
period of life, it might have been expected that he would now lay aside
his pen, —at least “remit his exertions. Yet it was subsequently to
this apparently cloudy epoch of his career that the brightest and most
durable of his literary wreaths was won. Great versatility of talent
is not often accompanied by an equal degree of vigor and raciness of
intellect: when, however, such does happen to be the case, it should
scem that the former is rather beneficial than otherwise to its posses-
sor, and that change of subject serves to recruit the mental energies.
Defoe at least may be quoted as an extraordinary instance of rejuvenes-
cency of mind in the decline of years. We do not here allude to his
“Family Instructor,” although that performance is one of the most
valuable and useful systems of practical morality in our language,
and has, doubtless, been far more bencticial to society than many works
of even splendid celebrity. It is the series of novels which now appear



in quick succession from his pen, that have won for him an imperishable

roputation among the worthies of English literature; nor will his
claims upon our admir ation be diminished by considering the extrava-
gant, unnatural system of romance-writing which had till then pre-
vi uiled, where everything was cither so artificial or so shadowy, that not
aglimpse of real life was to be discerned. In Defoe’s narratives, on
the contrary, there is such an air vf downright matter-of-fact and un-
adorned truth, as to amount to actual deception ; thereby prevent-
ing us from crediting the author with any merit on the score of
imagination, contrivance, or invention. Of this the reader will be
zinply convinced by the perusal of the present work, on which it is
not necessary that we should expatiate, and we shall therefore merely
advert to the circumstances connected with its origin and publication.
The history of Robinson Crusoe was first published i in the year 1719.
and its popularity may be said to have been established immediately,
since four editions were called for in about as many months, a cireum-
stance at tliat time almost unprecedented in the annals of literature,
It rarely happens that an author’s expectations are surpassed by the
success of his work, however astonishing it may seem to others: yet
perhaps even Defoe himself did not venture to look forward to such a
welcome on the part of the public, after the repulses he had experi-
enced on that of the booksellers; for incredible as it now appears, the

.



DANIEL DEFOE. - xix

manuscript of the work had been offered to, and rejected by, every
one in the trade, in which respect its destiny was not only similar to
that of Paradise Lost, but two of the most celebrated literary pro-
ductions of the present day, namely, Waverly and Child Harold; the
former of which remained in manuscript ten years, without any proba-
bility of ever sceing the light, although its fame has since extended .
itself wherever the English language is known—unay more, has even
penetrated the wilds of Siberia.

Astonishing as was the success of Defve’s romance, it did not deter
the envious from attempting to disparage it. The materials, it was
said, were either furnished by, or surreptitiously obtained from,
Alexander Selkirk, a mariner who had resided for four years in the



desert island of Juan Fernandez, and returned to England in 1711. ~- —

Very probably, his story, which then excited considerable interest and
attention, did suggést to Defoe the idea of writing his romance; but ~
all the details and incidents are entirely his own. Most certainly
Defoe had obtained no papers or written documents from Selkirk, as
the latter had none to communicate. So far, however, have others
been from taxing our author with plagiarism, that they have, on the.
contrary, charged him with putting on paper a heap of chimeras, to~
impose upon public credulity. Thus these two contradictory charges
reciprocally destroy each other. An attempt has also been made to
rob him entirely of the brightest jewel in his literary crown, by deny-
ing him to have been the author of Robinson Crusoe, which has been -
ascribed, by, some, to Arbuthnot; by others, to Defoe’s patron, the
first earl of Oxford. Those who have wished to gain credit for the
latter opinion, assert that it was composed by that nobleman during
his imprisonment in the Tower, in 1715, on a charge of high treason 3.
and they have urged that the whole tone of the work, especially of
that part towards the conclusion where an account is given of the
exiled nobles of Muscovy, is what would naturally be suggested by
the solitude of a prison. Yet as far as internal evidence is con-
cerned, that is, indisputably, much stronger in favor of Defoe; for
he had not only been familiar with imprisonment, but was also by his
acquaintance with foreign countries, and his experience in business
and traffic, much better qualified to produce a work which displays so
much practical knowledge of things, as well as of man. Indeed,
nothing short of the most conclusive and undeniable testimony of
facts to the contrary can at all invalidate the claims to be considered
as the real author. Had Robinson Crusoe been the only production
of the kind that proceeded from his pen, there might be better reason
for doubting whether he wrote it; but the various other novels, or
rather pieces of fictitious biography, which he produced form an ad-
ditional reason for attributing it to him.

Of these latter we must here speak far more briefly than they de-
serve: the ‘‘History of Moll Flanders,” which was published in
1721, is an admirably drawn picture of life, and contains an excellent
moral lesson, although many of the scenes it necessarily discloses are
coarse and revolting. The ‘Life of Colonel Jaque” contains almost
as much able delineation of real life; and in that part of the narrative
Which gives account of the hero’s residence in Virginia, Defoe has









xx BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

humanely advocated the cause of the negro‘slaves. His ‘‘ Memoirs
of a Cavalier,” which work is supposed to have been written about
the same time, is rather history attired in the form of an imaginary
piece of biography, than a romance. Indeed, all the details are so
circumstantial and accurate, that it has been mistaken for a genuine

‘narrative of the events of the civil wars in England and Germany ;

and it was actually recommended as the very best account of them by
the great Lord Chatham, with whom it was a favorite book. In like

_manner our author’s ‘History of the Plague” imposed upon Dr

Mead, and since upon others, who have referred to it as an authentic
document, and a true recital of that great national calamity. Here
he is the rival of Thucydides and Boccacia; and depicts the horrors
of pestilence as vividly and as masterly as Poussin. It may, how-
ever, be imagined by some that this is rather suspicious praise, and
that the work of fiction which can pass as true history must be cold,
matter-of-fact, and tame — repulsive and dry. It is not, however, in
the formal gravity of style that these works resemble history; but
they imitate and reficct the features of the past in their most inter-
esting, if not their most engaging aspect.

Besides the preceding, and one or two other productions of a simi-
iar cast, Defoe produced that very excellent and popular work entitled
‘Religious Courtship,” which was first published in 1722, and after-
wards wentthrough numerous editions. This and his ‘¢ Family Instruc-
tor” are replete with lessons of the soundest practical wisdom, and place
their author among the most extensively useful of our English mor-
alists.

Here, however, we must terminate our sketch, having barely left
ourselves room to mention a few particulars relative to the close of
his life. Although the profits accruing from his publications had of
late been considerable, and he had been able to give a portion to his
daughter Sophia, who married Mr. Baker, the celebrated natural
philosopher, in 1729, yet he was still doomed to contend with misfor-
tune. In addition to the affliction of bodily infirmity and severe pain,
he again fell into great pecuniary difficulties, and was even arrested.
Ile appears, however, to have recovered his liberty within a short
time; but the unnatural conduct of his son, who refused to give up the
property that had been intrusted to him, with a view of securing a
provision to his mother and two unmarried sisters, was a heavier blow
than any he had befcre experienced; and the mental anguish it occa-
sioned doubtless accelerated his death, which occurred on the 24th of
April, 1731. Since that period more than a century has elapsed ; and
in that interval many names of considerable eminence in their day
have sunk into irretrievable oblivion; Defoe, also, has lost some por-
tion of the celebrity he enjoyed with his contemporaries: yet, after
deduction, enough remains to entitle him to a place among the wor-
thies of English literature, for should all his other productions he
forgotten, his Robinson Crusoe must remain impcrishable,



ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

SECTION I.

ROBINSON'S FAMILY, ETC. —HIIS ELOPEMENT FROM HIS PARENTS.

T was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a-yood
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, named Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and after whom I was so called,
that is to say, Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we, are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lienteane
colonel, to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What
became of my second brother, I never knew, any more ‘than
my father and mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son. of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very aged, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education and.
acountry free school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea;

(21)



99 ADVENTURES OF

and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of miscry which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. Ie
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject : he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
“ing inclination, I had for leaving his house, and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry, with a life
of case and pleasure. Ile told me it was men of desperate
fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all cither too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in
the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings, of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of man-
kind: he told me, I might judge of the happiness of this
state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his
testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have “neither poverty nor riches.”

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part



ROBINSON ORUSOE. 8g

of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasincsses, cither of body or mind,
as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagan-
cies, on the onc hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and _
mean and insufficient dict, on the other hand, bring distempers
upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all ©
kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quictness, health, society, all agreeable di-
versions, and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of ‘it,
not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, -
or seeret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feel-
ing that they are happy, and learning, by every day’s experience,
to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of sceking my bread; that he would do,
well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it mae
be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would _



94 ADVENTURES OF

be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home, as he direct-
ed; so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as
to give me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to. whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless me; and I would have
leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed, in the last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose, my father didwnot know it
to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure
to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he
broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was_so full, he
could say no more to me. ee

T was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to scttle at home, according to my
father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in
short, to prevent any of my father’s farther importunities in a
few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. How-
ever, I did not act so hastily neither, as my first heat of reso-
lution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon sceing the world that
I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his consent,
than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
sld, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25.

‘

an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my mas-
ter before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me make but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a- double diligence, to recover the
time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon”
any such a subject; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est, to give his consent to anything so much to my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions, as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it:
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction ; and I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not. j

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him ;
and that my father, after showing great concern at it, said to
her, with a sigh, “That boy might be happy, if he would
stay at-home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it.””

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
_time, and one of my companions then going to London by

sea in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them.
3





26° . ADVENTURES of

by the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word
of it; but left them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any considera-
tion of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows.

SECTION II.

FIRST ADVENTURES AT SEA, AND EXPERIENCE OF A MARITIME LIFE—
VOYAGE TO GUINEA.

On the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfor-
tunes, I believe, began younger, or continued longer than
mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber, than
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind: I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels of my
parents, my father’s tears, and my mother’s entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-
ment of my duty.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though notaing

_ like what I have seen many times since; no,-nor what I saw.
? ?

afew days after; but, such as it was, enough to affect me:



ROBINSON CRUSOE | ee ce

then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known any ~~
thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and at every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, into the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
tise more; and in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life this
voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again, -
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run -
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle sta-
tion of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his’
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
neues go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued during the orn
and indeed some time after; but the next-day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to. be a little inured
to it. However, I was very grave that day, being also a little
sea-sick still: but towards night the weather cleared up, the -
wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that I ever saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that
was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and pleasant in a little time after. :

And now, lest my good resolution should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and
said, Well, Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, ne do you de
after it? I warrant you were frightened, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?—A cap-full, do -
you call it? said I; ’twas a terrible storm.— A storm, ‘you.





98 ADVENTURES O#

fool! replies he, do you call that a storm? Why, it was noth-
ing at all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that: you are but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that. D’ye see what charming weather
’tig now? To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made

- drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned

all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea
was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness
by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ;
and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again
sometimes; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to
drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits —
for so I called them; and had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young sinner, that
resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire. But as I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providenée, as in
sueh cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely with-
out excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worse and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy
of. The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships



ROBINSON CRUSOE. ~ 29

might wait for a wind for the River Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our
ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day, —
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and —
* close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon
the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our an-
chor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and
the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces of even the
seamen themselves. The master was vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship; but, as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several
times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall
be all undone! and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first
penitence, which I had so trampled upon, and hardened my-
self against ; I thought that the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would have been nothing too, like the first:
but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should all be lost; I was dreadfully frightened.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look |
about, I could see nothing but. distress around us; two ships,
that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the board,

3*





80 ’ ADVENTURES OF

Deing deeply laden ; and our men cricd out that a ship, which
rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring
in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close to
us, running away, with only their spritsails out, before the
wind. Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, ,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at buta little. But if I can express, at this dis-
tance, the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions
I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it; but the worst

“was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
swallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and ex-
pecting every moment the ship would go to the bottom. In
‘the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-
tresses, onc of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,



* ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to.the
pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within
me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I
sit in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told-me ~
that I, who was able to de nothing before, was as well able to
pump asanother: at which I stirred up and went to the pump,
and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master”
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I
thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had hap-
pened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, no one minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrust me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was
a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard.that the boat came near us, but it was impossi-
ble for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near. the ship’s
side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,

_to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her towards shore as much as we could; \



$2. - ADVENTURES OF

and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the north-
ward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness. =

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to

‘goin. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great ienaniiy, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us cither to London or back to Hull, as we saw fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy: and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me: for, hearing the ship I went in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any as-
surance that I was not drowned.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 88

But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that noth-
ing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. —I know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, -’
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm rea-
sonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I: the
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters; I say, the first time. he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did; telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for
a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father, turr‘ng to
me, with a grave and concerned tone, Young man, says he,
you had never ought to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a sea-
faring man. — Why, sir? said 1; will you go to sea no more?
— That is another case, said he; it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to ex-
pect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of the Tarshish. — Pray, con-
tinues he, what are you, and on what account did you go to -
sea? Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. What had
I done, said he, that such an unhappy wretch should have



84 ADVENTURES OF

come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds. This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority. to go. — However, he afterwards talked very gravely
to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father’s
words are fulfilled upon you.

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more: which way he went, I know not: as for
me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even every body else. From whence I
have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to be es-
teemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men. :

In this state of life, however, I remained'some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.- That





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s
house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say,
the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor ; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at that time, I
had learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not a
master: but as it was always my fate to choose for the worse,
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit -
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall
into pretty good company in London; which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then’
was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early. But it was not so with me: I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship, who had been on the coast-

of Guinea, and who, having had very good success there, was re- -

solved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me
say [had a mind to see the world, told me, that if I would go
the voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his |
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement. I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-

dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small :



36 ADVENTUBES OF

adventure with me; which, by the disinterested honésty of
my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds of such toys and trifles as the cap-
tain directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with: and who, I believe, got my father, or, at
least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integ-
rity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom I
also got a competent knowledge of mathematics and the rules
of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant :
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen de-
grees north, even to the Line itself.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

SECTION III.

ROBINSON’S CAPTIVITY AT SALLEE—ESCAPE WITH XURY— ARRIVAL AT
THE BRAZILS.

I wAs now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite a hun-
dred pounds of my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hun-
dred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, ©
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage: and the first was this, viz.— our ship, making
her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the gray of
the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, _
our ship having twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broad side upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi--

4







88 ADVENTURES OF

ately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such,
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port bolonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended: nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now looked back upon
my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miser-
able, and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now
so effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse ; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was un-
done, without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other,
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war,
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of
mine was soon taken away, for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin,
to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to cffect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
min, ot Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice. ,

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
ny liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnacle, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he al-
ways took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat,
we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and
some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in
the middle of the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it, to steer and haul home the main sheet, and



40 . ADVENTURES OF

room before fora hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and
.the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and
particularly his bread, rice and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, over-
night, a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had or-
dered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the neat
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and or-
dered me with a man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house; and commanded, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was
my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41

this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s fread:
he said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which
it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed about half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of_
great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also: his name was Ishmael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley: so I calied to him; Moley, said I, our patron’s guns
are on board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot ?.
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship. Yes, says he, I will bring some; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and
a half of powder, or rather more, and another of shot, that
had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat: at the same time I found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles
in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the en-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
as; and we were not above a mile out of the port, before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had-been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate,

4*





- 42 ADVENTURES OF.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not sce them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.
He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat near
a league farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm under his waist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sca. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with
me. He swam so strong after the Theat that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quict, I would do him none:
But, said I, you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the
sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I will shoot
you through the head; for Iam resolved to have my liberty.
So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore; and I
make no doubt but he reached it with case, for he was an ex-
cellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father’s beard), I must throw you into the sea too.
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world a me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, T



“ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Strait’s
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for.who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,

- where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with







their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the

shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee,
quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ;

- and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
- would now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and
“. came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
_ what or where, neither what latitude, what country, what na-
~ tion, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
_ people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
_ came into this creck in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country : but as soon
as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
-- ot what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
=. and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,



44 ADVENTURES OF

said I, then I will not; but it may be, we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we may
give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make them
run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles to
cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night. I
say still, for we slept none ; for in two or three hours we saw
vast creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
~ lowing and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures swimming towards our boat: we could not
see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a mon-
strous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they
cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever # was) within two oars’ length, which
something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
again.

But it was impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was no going on
shore for us in the night upon that coast: and how to venture
on shore in the day, was another question too; for to haye



~RoBiNsON cRUsoR. 46

fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least,
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as-it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for'we had not a pint left in the boat;
when and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat. The boy answered with so much affection, that he
made me love him ever after. Says he, if wild mans come,
they eat me, you go away. — Well, Aury, said I, we will both
go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us. So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I
mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as near the shore
as we thought proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing
but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
secing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it ;
and, by and by, I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by some
wild beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but when

‘Tcame nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in color, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted
on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our way,



46 ADVENTURES Of |

having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part
of the country.

AsI had been one voyage to this coast Feline I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de
Verd Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had
no instruments to take an observation, to find what latitude we
were in; and did not exactly know, or at least remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might
now have easily found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned .
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moore not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness ; and, indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigi-
ous numbers of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious crea-
tures which harbor there: so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thou-
sand men ata time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my little
-essel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.



ROBINSON ChUSOL. 4?

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me,
that we had best go further off the shore; for, says he, Look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast -
asleep. I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung,
as it were, over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and
kill him. Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth: one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets: and a third, for
we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him in
the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone: he started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again and then got up on three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little sur-
prised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move
off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure
to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
goon shore. Well, go, said 1; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with
the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.



48 ADVENTURES OF

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet: for what, Xury? said I.
Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, how-
ever, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if
Tcould. So Xury and I went to work with him: but Xury
was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to
do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day; but at last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal: that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
- not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands or
perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Furope, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Bra-
zil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands:
and in a word I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, 6r must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also perceive
they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but as Xury was my better



ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 49

counselor, and said to me, No go, no go. However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they -
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept ata
distance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and
particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat:
upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country ; and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, such as the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains to-
wards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange ;
but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart,
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into

5



50 ADVENTURES Of

the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their divet-
sion; at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than
Tat first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sunk
— down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was:
he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water,
he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.

The other ereature, fuicaeaie with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for cating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thank-
ful for. Immediately they fell to work with him: and though
they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the



ROBINSON cRUsok. : $1

fiesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but
made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

Iwas now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward ~
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, ona
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking
it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound for the coast of Guinea, for



52 ADVENTURES OF

Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore ; upon which I stretched
out to sca as much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by be-
fore I could make any signal to them ; but after I had crowded
to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me,
by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost: so they shortened sail, to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s
ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miscrable, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return to my deliverance ; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For, says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition. Besides, said he, when I



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53>

carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own coun-
try, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I had given. _
No, no, Senhor Ingles (Mr. Englishman), says he, I will carry
you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again.



SECTION IV.

HE SETTLES IN THE BRAZILS AS A PLANTER—MAKES ANOTIER VOYAGE,
AND IS SHIPWRECKED.

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything —
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good onc; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He of-
fered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I Ict him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would

Q*





54 \ ADVENTURES OF

give the boy an oblization to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go with him, I let the captain have him.
: We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miscrable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty
for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, —for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
~ about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ;
and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house).
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar ;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them: endeavoring in the meat-
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his



ROBINSON CRUSOE. _ 55.

plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything clse, for about two years. ,
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come in
order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my —
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice: nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done:
and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
tlien this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life



56 ADVENTURES OF

-which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all
‘probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich!

T was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,

’ near three months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sin-
cere advice: Senhor Inglez, says he (for so he always called
me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my re-
turn: but since human affairs are all subject to changes and

_ disasters, I would have you give orders for but one hundred
pounds sterling, which you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to for your supply. This was so
wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accord-
ingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left
my moncy, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
desired me.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures ; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary di-
rections for my supply ; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money, but,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me at the Brazils: among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have al! sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, neces-
“sary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would not ac-
cept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce. Neither
was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures, ©
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable
and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage; so that I might say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
‘plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought mea Negro
slave, and a European servant also: I mean another besides
that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

~ But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. J went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbors: and these fifty rolls, be-
ing each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the flect from Lisbon: and
now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to

be full of projects and undcrtakings beyond my reach; such





58 : "ADVENTURES OF

as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which
he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to
be full of: but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the willful agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make all
these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and
pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of thosé pros-
pects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As [had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human mis-
ery that ever’man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story. — You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
of St. Salvador, which was our port: and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an account
of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast for *trifles—such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold





ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers. ;

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only.
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the asstentos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Por-
tugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes.
were bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and ”
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to se-
crecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go-to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations; and, in
a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have an equal share
of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had nota settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for —
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to
do but go on as I begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could scarce.
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-

.










60 ADVENTURES OF

ling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voy-
age, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.

. But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
or covenants to do so: and I made a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my uni-
versal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; onc-half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England. In short, I took all
possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up ‘my
plantation : had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving
all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of

my fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship,

being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done:
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on.
board in an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, be-
ing the same day eight years that I went from my parents at

Hull, in order to act the rebel to. their authority, and the fool

to my own interest. 3

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen. men, besides the master, his-







ROBINSON ORUSOE. 61.

boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, *
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Ne-
groes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little, looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and
the like.

The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast. When they came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our coast N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days’
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twen-
ty-two-minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in
the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whithersoever fate
and the fury of the winds directed ; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
lives. .

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dicd of the calenture, and one man and a boy,
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abat-
ing a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference,
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got
upon the coxst of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond

6







62 , ADVENTURES OF —

the river Amazons, toward that of the river Oronoco, com
monly called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil. j

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Carribee islands, and’ therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the very way of all human commerce, that had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men carly in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sca
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sca.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 68:

what-land it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind
of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every mo-
ment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for an - -
other world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do
in this: that which was our present comfort, and all the com:
fort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to
abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of sav-
ing our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, andeither sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but ow to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break -
in pieces every minute, and scme told us she was actually-
broken already. 2

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her
flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, we let her
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy, and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, —-
and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the ~
sea in a storm. 4

And now our case was very dismal indecd; for we all saw



w=

- 64 .. «. ADVENTURES OF

_ plainly; that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done any-

- thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,

- though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for
we all knew that. when the boat came nearer to the shore, she
would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we has-
tened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as

. we could towards land.

What the shore was— whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal—we knew not; the only hope that could rationally.

- give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
nothing of this appeared, and as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

_After we had rowed, or. rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, It took us with such fury, that it oversct
- the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!”

* for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt, when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
‘draw my breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather

carried me a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water [ took in. I had so much presence
of. mind,’as well as breath left, that secing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my fect, and endeay-











erate ise,



SH!IPWRECKE Page 64.





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

ored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come
after me as high asa great hill, and as furious as an encmy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my busi-
ness was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing,
and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest
concern now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great
way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it-when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carricd with mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore, a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
mysclf to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relicved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water 4 good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and be-
gan to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my fect. I stood still a
few moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me,
or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as ta

6 *



66 ADVENTURES OF

“my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water: but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and, seeing I should again be covered with the water, I re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
‘breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there were, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecsta-
cics and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the
custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about
his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has
a reprieve brought to him; I say, Ido not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw,them afterwards, or any





ROBINSON -CRUSOE. a 67. -

sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap and two shoes.
that were not fellows.

T cast my eyes to the stranded vessel—when the breach .

and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off — and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of.
my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind of
a place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything cither to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
sec any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was partic-
ularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any ercature for my sustenance or to defend my-
self against any other creature that might desire to kill me for

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a to-

bacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny —
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night —
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the_

shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I -

did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little to-
bacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I
should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging ;



v





68 ADVENTURES OF

and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition ; and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.

SECTION V.

ROBINSON FINDS HIMSELF IN A DESOLATE ISLAND—PROCURES A STOCK
OF ARTICLES FROM THE WRECK — CONSTRUCTS HIS HABITATION.

WueEn I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before ;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment im the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, be-
ing more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile





‘noBinsoN ckbsot.

of the ship: and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I
had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all ©
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in this, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water: but
whon I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied
a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great diffi-
culty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, al-
most to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure .
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and
what was free; and, first, I found that all the ship’s provision,
were dry and untouched by the water: and, being very well
disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pock-
cts with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need cnough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with





70 ADVENTURES Off

“these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage foi
_ their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not

drive away. When this was done, I went down to the ship’s
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as wells I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was



not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; .

so I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I
should have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen’s chests, which
T had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder, of European corn, which

- had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea

with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some bar-
ley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I
found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which wére some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,

_ there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room

for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. = a1

und open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which
I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon: as,
first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long search--
ing that I found the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look irito it,
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think -how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all
my navigation.

I had three encouragements: Ist, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, What
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
ceteek or river there, which I might make use of as a pert to
get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little



72 ADVENTURES OF

opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so J guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
asccond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily would
have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the chan-
nel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in
the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a
strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could. ,

‘At length I spicd a little cove on the right shore of the
creck, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sca again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land,
but where onc end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endan-
ger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

80 it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and
one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay till
the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and-which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great
labor and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw ‘my fate, to my
great affliction, viz., that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe,-uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world : I had
no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual _
note ; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the

a :

~





74 ADVENTURES Of

“creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colot
and beak resembling it, but it had no tallons or claws ‘more
than common. Its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me
up the rest of the day: what to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I barrica-
doed myself round with chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet gét a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voy-
age on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything
out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I
stripped before I went to my hut; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and 2 pair of pumps
on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter’s
stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
acrew-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that

se



ROBINSON CRUSOE: , 48

thost useful thing called a grindstone. All these I- secured
together, with several things belonging to the gunner ;- partic-
ularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket: bul-
lets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these
things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a
spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence
from the land, my provisions might be devoured on shore : but”
when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there

*sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not un-
derstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—-I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought. everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or

beast.



7% ADVENTURES Of

When J had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, lay-
ing my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by
me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well
to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still ;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and, brought away something
or other: but particularly the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the sails first
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvass only.

But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
though I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, ina
word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces



ROBINSON CRUSOE. SE

~

such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, -
with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the ©
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to

make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and

came away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for

this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was

entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my

goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, -
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;

but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially

the iron, which I expected would have been of great use

to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the

pieces of cable ashore, aad some of the iron, though with in-
finite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day

- on board, and brought away what I could get.

i I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven

times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to

bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held,-I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece, but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin s0 effectually
as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of

eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled « myself at the sight of this money; O drug! I ~
exclaimed, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap : T have no manner of use for thee ; e’en

7*



78 ADVENTURES OF

remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second
thoughts, 1 took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide or flood be-
gan, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and pastly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no
more ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recov-
ered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had
lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of
her, that would be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was
little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had more
time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck ; as indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island: and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth; and, in short, T resolved on both; the







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

manner and description of which, it may not be improper to

give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, nea
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now
mentioned : secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun : thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which
I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into
the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow oes I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-



‘

dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green -

before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was

on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from- _

the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi:diame-
ter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its
beginning and ending.
Tn this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
* a







~~ 80- ADVENTURES-OF

A ee eat oS
9X

v

driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like

- piles, the biggest end being out of the ground, about five feet

and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two fect and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost mea great deal of time and labdr, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth. :

The entrance into this place I-made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could.
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution against the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

SECTION VI.

CARRIES ALL HIS RICHES, PROVISIONS, ETC., INTO HIS HABITATION —
DREARINESS OF SOLITUDE—CONSOLATORY REFLECTIONS.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. -

And now I lay no more for a while in the-bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods; I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down -
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labor and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: O my powder! My very heart
sank within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my pow-
der might be destroyed ; on which, not my defense only, but
the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder taken fire, I should never have known who had -
hurt me,

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and hoxes, to-



82 ADVENTURES OF

separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little ina
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided
into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that;
sol placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called
my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very care-
fully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
‘me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it
was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them: but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them; I
observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they were
upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright,
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were above
them: so afterwards, I took this method —I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I
killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily ; but when the old one fell, ”



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up;
and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; -
upon which I Jaid down the dam, and took the kid in my
arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up -
tame; but it would not cat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, .
for I eat sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much-as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn,
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its
proper place: but I must first give some little account of my-
self, and of my thoughts about living, which it may well be
supposed, were not few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voy-
age; and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great’rea-
son to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my |
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I
made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so aban-
doned without help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check .
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day
walking with my gun in my hand, by the seaside, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray’



84 ADVENTURES OF : .

remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here or there? And then I pointed
to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that
is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to my-
self), what should I have done without a gun, without ammu-
nition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in
a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I hada
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as 1
lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would pro-
vide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should be spent,
but even after my health or strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammu-~
‘nition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so.
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September,



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equi-
nox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by ~
observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.

SECTION VII.

BOBINSON’S MODE’ OF RECKONING TIME— DIFFICULTIES ARISING FROM
WANT OF TOOLS — HE ARRANGES HIS HABITATION.

AFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sab-
bath days from the Soiene days: but to prevent this I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and mak-
ing it into a great cross, I set it.up on the shore oie IT first
landed, viz., “I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
1659.” om the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages, which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I found, somie
time after, in rummaging the chests: as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gun- ~
ner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation ; all of which I huddled -together, whether J

8 . te -





86 , ADVENTURES OF

might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things ; some Portuguese books also,
and, among them, two or three popish prayer-books, and sev-
erdl other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats,
of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing, in its place: for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost ;
and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact, but after that was gone, I could not; for I could not
make any ink, by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in sind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; necdles, pins, and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving
it into the ground ; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one cf the iron
crows ; which, however, though I found it answer, made driy-
ing these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any-





ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

thing I had to do; seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor.
had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seck
for food; which I did, more or less, every day. _

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the .
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that. .
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
as to deliver my thoughts from daily pouring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL. GooD.

But I am alive; and not drown-
ed, as all my ship’s company were.

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
covery.

T am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

Iam divided from mankind, a
solitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

But Iam singled out too from
all the ship’s crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and per=
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where,
If I had clothes, i could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af-
rica: and what if I had been us
wrecked there ?





$8 ADVENTURES OF

I have no soul to speak to, or § But God wonderfully cent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shcre,
= — that I have got out so many neces-
sary things, as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply

myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an unbounded testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from the
~ experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to seligh my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship; I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy
to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two fect thick
on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and
a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods intu
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself te
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a
Joose sandy rock which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed



EOBINSON CRUSOE. 89

cn it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and
then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made ~~ _
mea door to come out in the outside of my = or fortifi- ©
cation.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back
way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but oe me room to.
stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make "such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do sev-
eral things with so much pleasure, without a- table: so I went
to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is
the substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, mas-
ter of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life ; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance, I
found at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance vf
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin asa plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method, 1
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or
board: but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was ag
well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces

8





90 ADVENTURES OF

* ‘of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when ©

_I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one’ side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work

_on; and ina word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up :- so that had my cave been seen, it locked like ©
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
-thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my

_-stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only as to labor, but in much discomposure of

-mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of many
dull things: for example, I must have said thus—< Sept.
30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with a great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being de-
voured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast dis--
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and, ~
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and °
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my foily.

But, having gotten over these things i in some measure, and —



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

\

having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome stuff about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal : of which I shall here give ~
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.

SECTION VIII. ~

ROBINSON’S JOURNAL—DETAILS OF HIS DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND CON-
TRIVANCES — SHOCK OF AN EARTHQUAKE.

THE JOURNAL.

SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
IstAND oF Despair; all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and in de-
spair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: that I
should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach '
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.

Ocroser 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken



Q2.—Ci« -- ADVENTURES OF

in-pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get om board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief),
80, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
zomrades; who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have beer
all drowned, as they were: and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.

Ocr. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Ocr. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the
wind blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to
be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which £
had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Ocr. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. ‘Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; whick
T resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

~ From the 26th to the 80th, I worked very hard in carrying



HoliNeok cntsok. - 98

all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which
I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

NovemBer 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made, my rafts; and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out for
my fortification.

Nov. 8. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I
went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz., every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock ; then ate what I had to live on;
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next was wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman :
though time and necessity made me a complete natural me-
chanic soon after, as I believe they would any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went-abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand : but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which
while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were)
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.







94 - ADVENTURES Of

Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
Tth, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it
to pieces several times.

Nore. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,

omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
which. :
_ Novy. 18. This day it rained; which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as pos-
sible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one an-
other as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large
bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into
the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.

Nore. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectu-
ally without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found



ROBINSON ORUSO#. 95

« tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
tre iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought
it home, too, with diificulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine: for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in Eng-
land, only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so
long in making.

I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket or a whecl-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware;
at least, none yet found out: and as to the wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to get about it: besides, I
had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and, for carrying
away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing
like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in for the brick-
layers. This was not so difficult for me as the making the
shovel : and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than
four days: I mean, always excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, ene
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and. deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Nore. During all this time, I worked to make this room



96 ADVENTURES OF

or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept the tent: except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, and in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.

_ DecemBer 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished ; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side ;
so much, that in short, it frightened me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I should never have wanted
a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up,
so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly ;-
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post: this I finished
the next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about
a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts standing
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all” day : no stirring out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.

Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than be
fore, and pleasanter.



ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so .
that I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it
home, I bound, and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long,
it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze: so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food ;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within
doors.

January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I re-
solved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.

Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing and perfecting this wall; though it
was no more than about twenty-five yards in length, being a
half circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center,
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me

9





98 ADVENTURES OF

many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything
was done with, especially the bringing of piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them
much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside deuble fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not per-
ecive anything like a habitation: and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my ad-

. vantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pig-
eons, in the holes of the rocks : and, taking some young ones,
I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when
they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps, was, at
first, for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the manag-
ing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet
or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it: J could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss fora
candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by
seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remember the
lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African



ROBINSON CRUSOK. 99.

adventure; but I had none of that now: the only remedy I
had was, that when I killed a goat, J saved the tallow; and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to ©
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the aidals of all my labors it happened, that in
rummaging my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted
before, had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry;
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been
in the hag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in
the bag but ltusks and dust: and being willing to have the
bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortifica-
tion, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything
there: when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our Buea nay, as our Eng-
lish barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts~on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
things that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, a3 we
lightly say, what pleases God: without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and.



Full Text








=
=

CRUSOE AND FRIDAY, frontis,
rer es

AND

STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES |

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE,

OF YORK, MARINER,

Correctly Reprinted from the Original Edition.

lin an Ynttoduction,

GIVING A NEW HISTORY OF DEFOR’S MASTERPIECE.

With Original WMustrations by Ernest Griset,



NEW HAVEN, CONN. :
RICHMOND & PATTEN.
1874.
CONTENTS.

Biographical Sketch of Daniel Defoe, q . . . .
SECTION L.
Robinson’s Family, etc. — His Elopement from his Parents,
SECTION II.

First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life -—
Voyage to Guinea, : . . . . . . .

SECTION III.

Robinson’s Captivity at Sallee— Escape with Xury — Arrival at
the Brazils, . . : . . 0 0 f .

SECTION IV.

He settles in the Brazils as a Planter— Makes another voyage,

and is shipwrecked, . . . . . . . .
SECTION V.
Robinson finds himself in a desolate island —Procures a stock

of articles from the wreck — Constructs his Habitation, °

SECTION VI.

Carries all his Riches, Provisions, etc., into his Habitation —
Dreariness of Solitude — Consolatory Reflections, 0 .

‘SECTION VII.

Robinson’s Mode of Reckoning Time — Difficulties arising from
want of Tools — He arranges his Habitation, .

(iii)

Page

21

53

68

“80

84
Cy

iv CONTENTS.

SECTION VIII.

Robinson’s Journal — Details of his Domestic Economy and Con-
trivances — Shock of an Earthquake, . . . . es

SECTION IX.

Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck — Ifis Illness
and Affliction, . . . S f ° . ° .

SECTION X.

{lis Recovery — Ilis Comfort in Reading the Scriptures — Makes
a Excursion into the Interior of the Island — Forms his
“Bower,” . 5 . 5 . 5 : . .

SECTION XI.

Rebinson makes a Tour to Explore his Island — Employed in
Basket-Making, . e : . . . .

SECTION XII.

He returns to his Cave —His Agricultural Labors and Success,
SECTION XIII.

His Manufacture of Pottery, and contrivance for Baking Bread,
SECTION XIV.

Meditates his Escape from the Island —Builds a Canoe — Fail-
ure of his Scheme — Resignation to his condition — Makes
himself a new Dress, . . } z 0 . 0

SECTION XV.

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round
the Island — His Perilous Situation at Sea — He returns
Tiome, . . “ : . - 2 : 2

SECTION XVI.

He Rears a Flock of Goats — His Dairy — His Domestic Habits
and Style of Living — Increasing Prosperity, 5 :

SECTION XVII.

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension — He Fortifies
his Abode, . . ry , e . . 5

Page

91

105

114

134

142

147

169

178
_ CONTENTS.

SECTION XVIII.

Precautions against Surprise — Robinson Discovers that his Isl- ~

and has been Visited by Cannibals, . : . :

SECTION XIX.

Robinson Discovers a Cave, which serves him as a Retreat
against the Savages, . : : .

.

SECTION XX.

Another Visit of the Savages — Robinson Sees them Dancing —
Perceives the Wreck of a Vessel, . : 6 ; ° .

SECTION XXI.

Ile Visits the Wreck and obtains many Stores from it— Again
thinks of Quitting the Island — Has a Remarkable Dream,

SECTION XXII.

Robinson Rescues one of their Captives from the Savages, whom
he names Friday, and makes his Servant,

SECTION XXIII.

Robinson Instructs and Civilizes his Man Friday — Endeavors
to give him an Idea of Christianity, . . . .

SECTION XXIV.

Robinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry them to Friday’s
Country — Their Scheme prevented by the arrival of a Party
of Savages, . . . .

SECTION XXV.

Robinson Releases a Spaniard — Friday Discovers his Father —
Accommodation provided for these New Guests— Who are
afterwards sent to Liberate the other Spaniards — Arrival of
an English Vessel, 0 .

. . . . .

SECTION XXVI.

Robinson Discovers Himself to the English Captain — Assists
him in Reducing his Mutinous Crew, who submit tohim, .

1*

Page

188 -

199

207

227

243

tw
or
oOo

274





we


vi 5 CONTENTS.

SECTION XXVII.

Atkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life— The latter Re-
covers his Vessel from the Mutineers— And Robinson leaves
the Island, . . é 2 ee ‘ a

SECTION XXVIII.

Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain,
who renders him an Account of his Property in the Brazils —
Sets out on his Return to England by Land, . ,

SECTION XXIX.

Friday’s Encounter with a Bear— Robinson and his Fellow
Travelers attacked by a Flock of Wolves — His Arrangement
of his Affairs, and Marriage after his Return to England,

SECTION XXX.

He is seized with a Desire to Revisit his Island — Loses his
Wife—Is Fempted to go to Sea again — Takes out a Cargo
for his Colony, . . . . . .

SECTION XXXI.

Robinson’s Ship Relieves the Crew of a French Vessel that had
caught fire, . . 0 : . 6 S

SECTION XXXII.

Relieves the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving — Arrives
at his Island, . O 5 . . fs 0

SECTION XXXIII.

Robinson and Friday go Ashore—The Latter meets with his
Father — Account of what passed on the Island after Robin-
son’s quitting it, . . . . . . . . .

SECTION XXXIV.

The Account continued — Quarrels between the Englishmen —
A Battle between two Parties of Savages who Visit the Isl-
and — Fresh Mutiny among the Settlers, eno! lw eanees

314

co
Ww
oo

338

347

co
or
oO

866
CONTENTS.

SECTION XXXV.

The Mutinous Englishmen are Dismissed from the Island — Re-
turn with Several Captive Savages— Take the Females as
Wives — Arrival of Savages, . . . . . :

SECTION XXXVI.

Several Savages Killed; the remainder leave the Island —A
Fleet of them afterwards arrive—A General Battle — The
Savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored, . .

SECTION XXXVII.

tobinson learns from the Spaniards the Difficultics they had to
Encounter — He furnishes the People with Tools, etc. — The
French Ecclesiastic, —. . 0 . .

SECTION XXXIII.

Robinson’s Discourse with the Ecclesiastic as to introducing
Marriages among the People— Marriages performed — At-
kins Converts his Wife, : ¥ z : x

SECTION XXXIX.

Atkins Relates his Conversation with his wife — The latter bap-
tized by the Priest — Account of the starving state of those
on board the rescued vessel
Island, .



Robinson’s departure from the

SECTION XL.

Encounter with Savages at Sea —Friday’s Death — Robinson
finds his former Partner in the Brazils— Sails for the Kast
Indies, ; . :

SECTION XLI.

The Vessel touches at Madagascar — Affray with the Natives,
who are Massacred by the Crew—The Sailors afterwards
refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his Nephew, the
Captain, in Bengal,

: . ° : . « .

3889

404

438

497
vil CONTENTS.

Page
SECTION XLII.
Mects with an English Merchant with whom he makes some
Trading Voyages — They are Mistaken for Pirates —Vanquish
their Pursuers — Voyage to China — Rencounter. with the Co-
chin Chinese —Island of Formosa — Gulf of Nanquin— Ap-
prehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch, . . 517
SECTION XLIIlI.
Journey to Peking — Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to
Moscow — Rencvunters with the Tartars, . A : - 557

SECTION XLIV.

Route through Muscovy — Robinson and a Scots Merchant de-
stroy an Idol— The whole Caravan in great peril from the
pursuit of the Pagans— Tobolski— Muscovite Exiles — De-
garture from Tobolski— Encounter with a Troop of Robbers
in the Desert — Roktinsen reaches Archangel, and finally ar-
rives in England, : . . . : ; : . 578
BICGRAPHICAL SKETCH

OF

| DANIEL DEFOE.

aC EFOR, the author of Robinson
~ ))- Crusve, would be entitled to a
. \ prominent place in the history





of our literature, even bad he
}y never given to the world that
Wy traly admirable production ;
i | and yet we may reasonably
fi} question whether the name of
i Defoe would not long ago have
sunk into oblivion, or at least
have been known, like those
f2{ of most of his contemporaries,
only to the curious student,
49 were it not attached to a work
~® Whose popularity has been
rarely equaled —- never, perhaps, ex-
celled. Evenas it is, the reputation due
to the writer has been nearly altogether
absorbed in that of his here, and in the
all-engrossing interest of his adventures:
thousands who have read Robinson Cru-
soe with delight, and derived from it a satisfaction
in no wise diminished by repeated perusal, have
never bestowed a thought on its auther, or, indeed,
4Ny regarded it in the light of a literary performance.
While its fascination has been universally felt, the
genius that conceived it, the talent that perfected it,
have been generally overlooked, merely because it is so
full of nature and reality as to exhibit no invention or
exertion on the part of the author, inasmuch as he ap-
pears simply to have recorded what actually happened
and consequently only to have committed to paper plain
matter of fact, without study or embclilishment. We wonder at and
are struck with admiration by the powers of Shakspeare or Cervantes:
with regard to Defoe we experience no similar feelings; it is not the
skill of the artist that enchants us, but the perfect naturalness of the
picture, which is such that we mistake it for a mirror; go that every
reader persuades himself that he could write as well, perhaps better,

(ix )







\





e
x j BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

were he but furnished with the materials for an equally interesting
narrative.

There are many circumstances in Defoe’s own history that would
recommend it to the notice of the biographer, independently of his
claims as the author of Robinson: among which are the variety and
extraordinary number of his literary performances, amounting to no
fewer than two hundred and nine different publications; and the nc
less singular fact that the masterpiece of his genius was not only his
first essay in that species of composition, but was not produced till
he was far advanced in years, he having then arrived at a period of
life when the generality of authors close their literary career, and
when the powers of imagination either lose much of their vigor,
or become altogether torpid. Nor will our surprise at Defve’s indus-
try, and the almost unprecedented fertility of his pen, be at all di-
minished by considering that he was not a recluse student or professed
scholar, but was engaged in trade and various other speculations. In
one respect, however, his mercantile occupations contributed to lay
the foundation to his excellence as a novel-writer, since there can be
little doubt that it is to his actual experience of the sea, and his ac-
quaintance with other countries, we are indebted for that truth and
spirit which animate the more interesting parts of Robinson Crusoe ;
while the manly good sense, unaffected earnestness, and fund of native
intelligence, have placed him far above those who presume to under-
value his literary acquirements.

According to the latest and most copious of all his biographers,
Daniel Defoe was born in 1661, two years earlier than the generally
assigned date of his birth. His father was a butcher in the parish of
St. Giles, Cripplegate; and appears to have been a citizen in easy
circumstances, although his trade was one that confers no particular
lustre ona pedigree. It is usual to effect some degree of astonish-
ment when we read of men whose after fame presents a striking con-
trast to the humility of their origin: yet we must recollect that it is
not ancestry and splendid descent, but education and circumstances
which form the man; and in this-respect the middling classes possess
a decided advantage over those either below or above them: for if
the former are precluded from cultivating their talents and abilities,
the latter generally consider themselves exempt from the necessity of
doing so, and accordingly content themselves with cultivating mere
external accomplishments, in preference to exercising their mental
energies. Those on the contrary who are placed in a middle station,
while they are not debarred from the means of application, feel that
stimulous to exertion which arises from the desire of acquiring fortune
or fame. The history of such men as Ximenes, Wolsey, Alberoni,
and Napoleon, may, indeed, justly excite our wonder ; — when, too,
we behold unlettered genius emerging, in spite of every obstacle, from
the obscurity to which it seemed condemned, as in a Fergusson, a
Duval, a Burns, and an Opie, we may be permitted to express our as-
tonishment; but as regards his origin, the history of Defoe is that of
thousands who have afterwards raised themselves into comparative
elevation by the display of their powers. The solicitude, therefcre, so
generally displayed hy biographers, on similar occasions, to trace
DANIEL DEFOE. x1

some consanguinity with a more dignified branch of their families,
for those whose native obscurity seems to demand some apology, be-
trays a rather mistaken policy. However this may be, it is certain
that it is quite as honorable for Defoe to have ascended from a butcher
as it would have been to have descended from the Conqueror himself.

One undoubted and very great advantage, for which Defoe was in-
debted to his parents, who were Nonconformists, was an education
superior to what it was then usual for persons in their station to be-
stow upon their children; and they Were careful also to implant in
his youthful mind that regard for religion, and that strict moral integ-
rity, which afterwards displayed themselves not only in his writings,
but his conduct through life. And this rectitude of principle he mest
unequivocally evinced when his misfortunes put it so severely to the
proof. At about the age of fourteen, he was placed under the tuition
of the Rev. Charles Morton, of Newington Green, who was afterwards
vice-president of Harvard College, New England; and from various
incidental remarks in his own works, it appears that young Defoe now
entered upon an extensive course of studies, and made considerable
proficiency in languages, mathematics, philosophy, history, and the-
ology; although the natural liveliness of his disposition unfitted him
for that severe application which is necessary to form a profowid
scholar in any one of those pursuits.

It was the intention of his parents that he should embrace the -
clerical profession, which their religious feelings, and probably a very
pardonable ambition, induced them to select for him: yet, notwith-
standing his regard for the sacred office, he was unwilling to embrace
it himself; or events, at least, diverted his talents into another chan-
nel. The political and religious excitements of that period were
contagious for one of Defoe’s temper; he assumed the character of
the patriot as soon as he cast off that of the boy, and espoused the
aide of the popular party with all the ardor of youth; nor was it long
betore he had opportunities of distinguishing himself. He was a
warm advocate for the Bill of Exclusion, passed by the Commons to
prevent the succession of the Duke of York to the titrone; and re-
garded with abhorrence that spirit of despotism which sentenced
Sydney and so many others to the seaffold. At the age of twenty-one
he commenced author, which employment he continued for nearly
half a century, and that, too, almost uninterruptedly, notwithstand-
ing his various speculations of a different nature. It cannot be ex-
pected that in a sketch of this nature we should attempt to give
anything like a connected account of Defoe’s various literary perform-
ances, they being too numerous and multifarious for us to advert to them
separately, even if we conceived that by sc doing we should greatly
interest the readers of this—the most distinguished of them all.
But the truth is, the majority of them are of that class which it is
rather the province of the bibliographer than the critic to describe. We
may, however, here mention the first production of his pen, which,
under thé singular title of ‘‘ Speculum Crape-gownorum,” was a reply
to a publication of Roger L’Estrange’s, a noted party writer of that
day. In this work Defoe indulged in rather intemperate language,
and while vindicating the dissenters, reflected in too hostile and indis-
xl BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

criminate a manner upon the established clergy, This was succeeded
by a ‘Treatise against the Turks,” occasioned by the war between
them and the imperialists; and was penned by Defoe for the purpose
of showing his countrymen that, if it was the interest of Protes-
tantism not to increase the influence of a Catholic power, it was
infinitely more so to oppose a Mahommedan one; which, however
debateable it might appear to politicians, was almost too obvious a
truism to be entitled to any merit for its sagacity. It is the fate of
political publications quickly to fall into oblivion after the events
which call them forth have passed away: the reputation derived from
them is as transitory as the events themselves, or if the fame of the
writer occasionally descends to posterity, it is more than can be affirm-
ed of his writings.

Shortly after this, Defoe proved that he was as ready to support the
doctrines he advocated by the sword as by the pen: he accordingly
joined the standard of the Duke of Monmouth, when the latter landed
in England with a view of expelling a Catholic prince from the throne,
and seating himself upon it as the defender of Protestantism. The
issue of that adventure, and the subsequent fate of the unfortunate,
if not perfectly innocent, Monmouth are well known. Happier than
the leader of the enterprise, it was Defoe’s better luck to escape: he
returned to the metropolis in safety; and, abandoning politics and
warfare, was content for a while to turn his attention to the more
humble but less stormy pursuits of trade.

He now became a hosier, or rather a hose-factor, that is, a kind of
agent between the manufacturer and retailer; and, according to Mr.
Chalmers, he continued to carry on this concern from 1685 to 1695.
It was about two years after he had thus established himself, that he
was admitted a liveryman of London, on the 26th of January, 1687-8.
Business, however, did not so entirely absorb his attention but that
he found time to engage in the various controversies that agitated the
public mind, and which were occasioned by the arbitrary measures of
James, who, feeling himself secure after the removal of so dangerous
an enemy as Monmouth, began more openly to favor the Catholics, and
to dispense with the tests intended to prevent their accepting commis-
sions in thearmy. ‘his of course excited both the alarm and indigna-
tion of the Protestants, which were by no means allayed by the tem-
porizing servility of their own clergy, who exerted their eloquence in
favor of the king’s prerogative. Among those who attacked the doctrine
of the dispensing power was Defoe ; nor, as may well be imagined, was
he afterwards an unconcerned spectator of the Revolution, whose pro-
gress he had minutely watched, and whose anniversary he continued
yearly to celebrate as a day marked by the deliverance of his country
from political and religious tyranny. His attachment to the new sov-
ereign was confirmed by the personal notice shown him both by that
prince and his consort; for the ‘‘butcher’s son” had the honor of an
early introduction to the royal presence.

At this period Defve resided at Tooting in Surrey, and he had now
launched out into more extensive commercial speculations, having
embarked in the Spanish and Portuguese trade, so that he might fairly
claim the title of merchant. The precise time of his going te Spain,
DANIEL DEFOE. xit

ahether before or after the Revolution, cannot be ascertained; but he
not only made a voyage thither, but stayed some time in the country
and acquired a knowledge of the language. Sincere as was his at-
tachment to the purer tenets of Protestantism, it did not degenerate
into blind prejudice, nor prevent him from doing justice to Catholics:
he has accordingly, in his Robinson Crusoe, represented the Spanish
character under its most amiable traits, and in a tone that may al-
most pass for panegyric. This voyage as we have already remarked,
doubtlessly contributed to store his ebservant mind with many materials
for those descriptions of the perils and adventures common to @ sea-
faring life, that so strongly excite the sympathy of those who follow
his hero across the trackless deep. Nor was he without some experi-
ence of shipwreck, if not actually in his own person, by the loss of a
vessel in which he was a shareholder, and which was wrecked in a
violent storm off the coast of Biscay. It was about this period also
that he traded with Holland; probably for civet, as one of his enemies
has sneeringly styled him a ‘civet-cat merchant.”’ Besides this he
visited some other parts of the continent, particularly Germany ; he
did not, however, relinquish his hose-agency business in consequence
of his other engagements. But commercial enterprise did not prove
for him the road to wealth; on the contrary, his speculations involved
him in such embarrassments, that, in 1692, he was obliged to abscond
from his creditors. A commission of bankruptcy was taken out
against him, yet it was afterwards superseded, those to whom he was
most in debt agreeing to accept a composition on his own bond; and
he not only punetually discharged these claims, but, after he had
somewhat retrieved his circumstances, voluntarily repaid the remain-
der. This is so much the more to his honor, since so far from having ©
met with many precedents of similar probity in others, his misfortunes
had been in some degree occasioned by the knavery of unprincipled
men, who, availing themselves of the impunity held out to them by
the supineness or the impotency of the law, were then accustomed to
set their creditors at defiance in the most barefaced manner.

It was Defoe himself who first called the attention of the legisla-
ture to the intolerable abuses which arose froin those sanctuaries, as
they were termed, ‘for criminals and debtcrs, which then existed in
the metropolis; and to him, consequently, may we be said to be in-
debted for the abatement of a nuisance as disgraceful to the national
character, as it was injurious to the industrious and honest portion of
the community. : :

With a view of assisting him in his distress, some of his friends
now came forward and offered to settle him as a factor at Cadiz: yet,
advantageous as the proposal was, he declined it, prefering to endeav-
or to retrieve his finances by his pen. The country being then en-
gaged in an expensive war with France, Defoe proposed a scheme
to assist the government in raising ‘‘the ways and means; ” and some
time afterwards he received the appointment of accountant to the
commissioners of the glass duty.; but it proved only a temporary one,
as.the duty was repealed in August, 1699. Probably it was also
ubout the same period that he became secretary to the tile-works at
Tibury, in which concern he embarked some money, and was again a

2




XIV BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

sufferer. Tis ‘‘Essay on Projects,” published in January, 1696--7,
shows him to have been, if not a very successful speculator himself, at
least a very ingenious and fertile deviser of theoretical plans, most of
which must be allowed to have the welfare of society in view; nor
have they been without influence in leading to many improvements of
later times: among those which have been practically adopted, we
may mention his scheme for Friendly Societies and Saving Banks.
Were any testimony required in favor of this work, it would be suffi-
cient to quote that of the celebrated Franklin, who confesses that the
impressions he received from it gave a strong bias to his own pursuits.

If not invariably employed in the active defense of public morals,
Defoe’s pen was too honest to betray their interests on any occasion:
it was. not always that his topics called for, or even admitted, any
direct inculcations of virtue, but whenever they did, he displayed his
earnestness in its behalf. His publication entitled ‘The Poor Man’s
Plea”? is a very keen piece of satire, with a considerable touch of
humor, leveled against the vices of the upper classes of society, in
which he urges them to discountenance by their own conduct the im-
morality they deem so reprehensible in the vulgar. The stage too
did not escape his castigation; and really its transgressions were at
that period so barefaced and audacious, so offensive even to common
decency, that, whatever infamy there may have been in either toler-
ating or in attempting to defend such a system of ludeness, there
could be no great triumph in exposing that which did not even attempt
to conceal itself.

We have now to notice our author in a somewhat different charac-
ter—namoly, as a candidate for poetical fame. His satire, entitled
the “True-born Enelishman,” which was written for the purpose of .
averting from the king the abusive reflections cast upon him as a
foreigner, had indeed a very great run at the time—more, however,
on account of the matter than of the manner—since both that and
all Defoe’s other attempts of the kind convince us, that, like the great
Roman orator, he was an intolerably bad poet, and not even a decent
versifier. Yet could gratitude and enthusiastic devotion to his prince
have supplied the inspiration which the muses denied him, Defoe’s
poetry would have been of first-rate excellence, so sincere was his
adiniration of, so zealous was his devotion to, William III. The va-
rious effusions in rhyme, and the numerous political pamphlets and
tracts which he published at this interval, we must pass by, and
come directly to an event that obtained for our author a rather unen-
viable species of distinction. The reign of Anne commenced with
much violence and with cabals between the respective church parties,
leading to controversies that rather fanned than allayed the public
ferment. On such an occasion, it was not to be expected that Defoe
would remain passive: assuming the furious tone of the high-
churchmen of the day against the dissenters, he published a small
pamphlet, which was in reality a satire upon the writings which that
party had issued from the press; but the irony was so fine, and the
imitation so exact, that while it was supposed by them to utter the
real sentiments of the writer, it was also interpreted by those whom
it was intended to serve as coming from a violent cnemy. The




DANIEL DEFOE. . 5 xv

‘Shortest way with the Dissenters? — such was its title— created an.
amazing sensation: and on its real object being exposed, the high-
church party became as fierce in their indignation, as they had before
‘been warm in their applause. The author was detected, a reward
offered for his apprehension, and he himself sentenced to be imprison-
ed in Newgate, and to stand in the pillory; but the attendance of his
friends, and the enthusiasm of the populace in favor of the champion
of religious liberty, converted an ignominious punishment into a
triumph, so that his enemies had-as little reason to exalt in their vic-
tory, as to be proud of the sagacity they had displayed. If, however,
this event rather increased than diminished Defve’s reputation, it had
a different effect upon his pecuniary affairs: his confinement in New-
gate prevented his attending any longer to his concern at Tilbury, the -
consequence of which was that it was obliged to be given up; and -
thus Defoe saw himself deprived at once of what had been the source
of a handsome income, for before this affair he was in such thriving
circumstances as to be able to keep his coach. According to his own
statement, he lost three thousand five hundred pounds, a far more
considerable sum at that period than it would be now. There was
indeed one way of both speedily and safely repairing his finances,
namely, by accepting the overtures made him by the ministry, who
would gladly have enlisted in their own cause that pen which had
proved so powerful against them: but Defoe was too independent of
soul, and too high principled, to purchase his release upon terms
that would inflict upon him the disgrace the pillory had failed to
effect.

Although a prison is not the most congenial place for literary pur-
suits, ow author availed himself of the time which the loss of his
liberty afforded him, of occupying his unwelcome leisure from all
other business in writing both in verse and prose. It was here that
he published his poem on the ‘¢ Reformation of Manners,” a sufficient-
ly copious theme in every age, and aftewards continued the subject in
another, entitled «‘ More Reformation; ” in which he alludes to his
own situation in the following nervous lines, describing himself as

“ A modern tool,
To wit, to parties and himself a fool:
mbroil’d with states to do himself no good,
And by his friends themselves misunderstood 5
Misconstrucd first in every word he said, —
By these unpitied, and by those unpaid.”

Here we may truly say fueit indignatio versus for the caustic tone and. _
antithesis are not unworthy of Pope himself. The political contro- _
versial pieces which he sent forth to the world from his ‘place of
durance yvile’’ were too numerous for us to specify them; we there-
fore prefer speaking of a work of more permanent interest, one in
which he may be regarded as the immediate predecessor of two of the
most popular and admired of our classic writers in the days of Anne
—namely, Steele and Addison. Defoe’s ‘‘ Review,” which commenced
Feb. 19, 1704, deserves to be“considered as the prototype of our Tat-
xvi BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

lers and Spectators; and may earn for its author the appellation of
the Father of English Essayists: since notwithstanding that politicai
intelligence and discussion constituted a great portion of its contents,
it touched upon. a variety of other topics bearing upon literature,
manners, and morals; while it was itself hardly in any degree in-
debted for this part of its plan to proceeding or contemporary publi-
cations. Uniformly assailing vice, or exposing to just ridicule the
follies and foibies of society, Defoc varied his mode of attack, at one
time employing grave reasoning and serious remonstrance ; at another,
substituting sarcasm, humor, wit, and pleasantry, for monitory re-
proof. Toa modern reader, indeed, many of the topics might seem
to lack invention, and to be rather common-place, merely because they
have been so repeatedly handled by later writers, that both the wit and
argument displayed in them have lost their freshness. This circum-
stance, however, does not detract from Defoe’s intrinsic merit, or from
the praise due to him as an originator: on the contrary, he, in this
respect, only shares the fate common to all those who open a new path
in literature or art, inviting imitators whose number oppress, if they
do not overwhelm them: that Defoe has not since been surpassed in
this species of writing is far more than we can venture to assert; yet
it should be recollected that it is the first navigator of the Atlantic,
not those who cross it in a modern steamboat, who claims the homage
of our admiration.

Those who are unacquainted with Defoe the essayist, as well as
Defoe the novelist, will not be able to appreciate the extent of our
author’s powers, and the variety of his inforination. But we have
already dwelt upon the ‘Review ” at greater length than is consistent
with the brevity we must perforce observe: it is time, therefore, to
proceed with our narrative. Mr. Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford,
happened, by a change in the ministry, to come into power, after
Detoe had been about two years in confinement, and being able to
appreciate his abilities —— perhaps anxious to secure them in his own
support, he represented his case to the queen, who generously sent
a. sum of money to his wife and family, and another to discharge his
fine and prison expenses. Immediately upon his liberation, Defoe re-
tired to Bury St. Edmund’s. It was there that he wrote his masterly
treatise, entitled ‘‘ Giving Alms no Charity,” in which he displays great
practical knowledge, with enlarged and sound views on the causes of
poverty, and on the employment of the poor. In the intervals of
these and other occupations, for it should be observed that he had
been sent in 1705 by Harley on a secret mission to the continent, the
express object of which has not transpired, — he found leisure to em-
ploy his pen on other subjects, and anticipating his future character
of a romance writer, he invented the ‘true narrative” of Mrs. Veal’s
apparition, which was prefixed to a translation of Drelincourt on
Death. The supposed stranger from the other world is made to rec-
ommend that performance; and, as such supernatural testimony was
irresistible, the whole impression, which had before lain on the book-
seller’s shelves, was quickly sold, and was succeeded by many others,
the work having since passed through forty different editions. This
stratagem certainly does honor to Defve’s ingenuity and penetration ;


DANIEL DEFOE. xvii.

yet whether it be entirely justifiable, considering the tendency of the °
deception, may be doubted. =

Leaving for a while the account of his literary career, we must now
briefly notice a very important national subject, namely, the Union
with Scotland, in which, besides warmly advocating the measure with
his pen, Defoe was personally employed. At the recommendation of
Harley and Lord Godolphin, by whom he had been recommended to
the queen, he was sent on a mission to Edinburgh, in which city he
arrived in October, 1706. Here,-it should seem, he was chiefly em-
ployed in making calculations relating to trade and taxes, for the
information of the committees of parliament; he also occupied hini-
self in collecting those documents relative to the Union which he
afterwards published. Besides this, he proposed several plans for en--
couraging the manufactures, and for promoting the trade, wealth, and
maritime resources of Scotland. After an absence of about sixteen
months, he returned to England in 1708, when his services obtained
for him, from the ministry, an appointment with a fixed salary; and
as it does not appear what was the nature of the office he held, we
may conclude it to have been merely a sinecure. Almost immediately
afterwards, his patron Harley was dismissed from office, through the
persevering intrigues of the duchess of Malborough, whom he had sup-
planted in the queen’s favor, an event that suddenly overclouded De-
foe’s political prospects. Without compromising his principles, how-
ever, he espoused the interest of the succeeding ministry ; but although
Godolphin treated him with consideration, he suffered his pension to fall
into arrears, perhaps in consequence of Defoe’s long absence in Scot-
land, whither he was again despatched a few months afterwards, upon
some secret business. In the following year, 1709, Defoe published a
work which, to use the words of an eminent living critic, ‘ places
him amongst the soundest historians of the day ;” and which, accord-
ing to the testimony of another, would have handed down his name to
posterity, even had he not immortalized himself by Robinson Crusoe.
This was his ‘History of the Union,” which is as interesting for the
minute descriptions it gives of the actors and incidents in that impor-
tant event, as for the documents it furnishes.

Still engaged in politics, Defoe’s continued and severe attacks
against the Toriés and high-church party so exasperated them, that
they attempted to suppress his writings, and even threatened him
with prosecutions: their animosity, however, did not procure for him, -
from those whose cause he defended, a degree of fuvor and support at
all.commensurate with his long and able services. He had also to
contend with fresh pecuniary losses in some concern in which he was
engaged (1712) with Mr. Wood, a mercer of Coleshill in Warwickshire,
and with the personal abuse with which his character was assailed by
writers who reflected upon him as being a knavish bankrupt. But
his pclitical career was now drawing to its close: having carried on his
‘Review ” for more than nine years, he finally relinquished it in May,
1718, when he was again a prisoner in Newgate upon an indictment
preferred against him by his friends the Whigs, as the author of three
treasonable Jacobitical pamphlets; whereas the publications in ques-
tion were of a directly opposite tendency. The queen once more

a 5
xvul BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

bestowed a free pardon on him, and the malice of his numerous
enemies was defeated. From this time he employed his pen only
occasionally on political subjects. By the accession of George I. to
the throne, Defoe gained nothing, although his writings had strenu-
ously pleaded the cause of the House of Hanover during the late
reign; and although he had superior claims upon public gratitude for
the zeal with which, during nearly thirty years, he had not only advo-
cated religious and political independence, but endeavored to call
attention to subjects of paramount importance to the national pros-
perity. That this neglect should, in spite of all his philosophy, have
occasioned him considerable mortification, is not much to be won-
dered at; and to the effect it had upon his health was attributed an
apopleetic attack in the year 1715, from which he continued to suffer
for six months. ,

After so serious a blow to his constitution, and at his advanced
period of life, it might have been expected that he would now lay aside
his pen, —at least “remit his exertions. Yet it was subsequently to
this apparently cloudy epoch of his career that the brightest and most
durable of his literary wreaths was won. Great versatility of talent
is not often accompanied by an equal degree of vigor and raciness of
intellect: when, however, such does happen to be the case, it should
scem that the former is rather beneficial than otherwise to its posses-
sor, and that change of subject serves to recruit the mental energies.
Defoe at least may be quoted as an extraordinary instance of rejuvenes-
cency of mind in the decline of years. We do not here allude to his
“Family Instructor,” although that performance is one of the most
valuable and useful systems of practical morality in our language,
and has, doubtless, been far more bencticial to society than many works
of even splendid celebrity. It is the series of novels which now appear



in quick succession from his pen, that have won for him an imperishable

roputation among the worthies of English literature; nor will his
claims upon our admir ation be diminished by considering the extrava-
gant, unnatural system of romance-writing which had till then pre-
vi uiled, where everything was cither so artificial or so shadowy, that not
aglimpse of real life was to be discerned. In Defoe’s narratives, on
the contrary, there is such an air vf downright matter-of-fact and un-
adorned truth, as to amount to actual deception ; thereby prevent-
ing us from crediting the author with any merit on the score of
imagination, contrivance, or invention. Of this the reader will be
zinply convinced by the perusal of the present work, on which it is
not necessary that we should expatiate, and we shall therefore merely
advert to the circumstances connected with its origin and publication.
The history of Robinson Crusoe was first published i in the year 1719.
and its popularity may be said to have been established immediately,
since four editions were called for in about as many months, a cireum-
stance at tliat time almost unprecedented in the annals of literature,
It rarely happens that an author’s expectations are surpassed by the
success of his work, however astonishing it may seem to others: yet
perhaps even Defoe himself did not venture to look forward to such a
welcome on the part of the public, after the repulses he had experi-
enced on that of the booksellers; for incredible as it now appears, the

.
DANIEL DEFOE. - xix

manuscript of the work had been offered to, and rejected by, every
one in the trade, in which respect its destiny was not only similar to
that of Paradise Lost, but two of the most celebrated literary pro-
ductions of the present day, namely, Waverly and Child Harold; the
former of which remained in manuscript ten years, without any proba-
bility of ever sceing the light, although its fame has since extended .
itself wherever the English language is known—unay more, has even
penetrated the wilds of Siberia.

Astonishing as was the success of Defve’s romance, it did not deter
the envious from attempting to disparage it. The materials, it was
said, were either furnished by, or surreptitiously obtained from,
Alexander Selkirk, a mariner who had resided for four years in the



desert island of Juan Fernandez, and returned to England in 1711. ~- —

Very probably, his story, which then excited considerable interest and
attention, did suggést to Defoe the idea of writing his romance; but ~
all the details and incidents are entirely his own. Most certainly
Defoe had obtained no papers or written documents from Selkirk, as
the latter had none to communicate. So far, however, have others
been from taxing our author with plagiarism, that they have, on the.
contrary, charged him with putting on paper a heap of chimeras, to~
impose upon public credulity. Thus these two contradictory charges
reciprocally destroy each other. An attempt has also been made to
rob him entirely of the brightest jewel in his literary crown, by deny-
ing him to have been the author of Robinson Crusoe, which has been -
ascribed, by, some, to Arbuthnot; by others, to Defoe’s patron, the
first earl of Oxford. Those who have wished to gain credit for the
latter opinion, assert that it was composed by that nobleman during
his imprisonment in the Tower, in 1715, on a charge of high treason 3.
and they have urged that the whole tone of the work, especially of
that part towards the conclusion where an account is given of the
exiled nobles of Muscovy, is what would naturally be suggested by
the solitude of a prison. Yet as far as internal evidence is con-
cerned, that is, indisputably, much stronger in favor of Defoe; for
he had not only been familiar with imprisonment, but was also by his
acquaintance with foreign countries, and his experience in business
and traffic, much better qualified to produce a work which displays so
much practical knowledge of things, as well as of man. Indeed,
nothing short of the most conclusive and undeniable testimony of
facts to the contrary can at all invalidate the claims to be considered
as the real author. Had Robinson Crusoe been the only production
of the kind that proceeded from his pen, there might be better reason
for doubting whether he wrote it; but the various other novels, or
rather pieces of fictitious biography, which he produced form an ad-
ditional reason for attributing it to him.

Of these latter we must here speak far more briefly than they de-
serve: the ‘‘History of Moll Flanders,” which was published in
1721, is an admirably drawn picture of life, and contains an excellent
moral lesson, although many of the scenes it necessarily discloses are
coarse and revolting. The ‘Life of Colonel Jaque” contains almost
as much able delineation of real life; and in that part of the narrative
Which gives account of the hero’s residence in Virginia, Defoe has






xx BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF

humanely advocated the cause of the negro‘slaves. His ‘‘ Memoirs
of a Cavalier,” which work is supposed to have been written about
the same time, is rather history attired in the form of an imaginary
piece of biography, than a romance. Indeed, all the details are so
circumstantial and accurate, that it has been mistaken for a genuine

‘narrative of the events of the civil wars in England and Germany ;

and it was actually recommended as the very best account of them by
the great Lord Chatham, with whom it was a favorite book. In like

_manner our author’s ‘History of the Plague” imposed upon Dr

Mead, and since upon others, who have referred to it as an authentic
document, and a true recital of that great national calamity. Here
he is the rival of Thucydides and Boccacia; and depicts the horrors
of pestilence as vividly and as masterly as Poussin. It may, how-
ever, be imagined by some that this is rather suspicious praise, and
that the work of fiction which can pass as true history must be cold,
matter-of-fact, and tame — repulsive and dry. It is not, however, in
the formal gravity of style that these works resemble history; but
they imitate and reficct the features of the past in their most inter-
esting, if not their most engaging aspect.

Besides the preceding, and one or two other productions of a simi-
iar cast, Defoe produced that very excellent and popular work entitled
‘Religious Courtship,” which was first published in 1722, and after-
wards wentthrough numerous editions. This and his ‘¢ Family Instruc-
tor” are replete with lessons of the soundest practical wisdom, and place
their author among the most extensively useful of our English mor-
alists.

Here, however, we must terminate our sketch, having barely left
ourselves room to mention a few particulars relative to the close of
his life. Although the profits accruing from his publications had of
late been considerable, and he had been able to give a portion to his
daughter Sophia, who married Mr. Baker, the celebrated natural
philosopher, in 1729, yet he was still doomed to contend with misfor-
tune. In addition to the affliction of bodily infirmity and severe pain,
he again fell into great pecuniary difficulties, and was even arrested.
Ile appears, however, to have recovered his liberty within a short
time; but the unnatural conduct of his son, who refused to give up the
property that had been intrusted to him, with a view of securing a
provision to his mother and two unmarried sisters, was a heavier blow
than any he had befcre experienced; and the mental anguish it occa-
sioned doubtless accelerated his death, which occurred on the 24th of
April, 1731. Since that period more than a century has elapsed ; and
in that interval many names of considerable eminence in their day
have sunk into irretrievable oblivion; Defoe, also, has lost some por-
tion of the celebrity he enjoyed with his contemporaries: yet, after
deduction, enough remains to entitle him to a place among the wor-
thies of English literature, for should all his other productions he
forgotten, his Robinson Crusoe must remain impcrishable,
ADVENTURES OF ROBINSON CRUSOE.

SECTION I.

ROBINSON'S FAMILY, ETC. —HIIS ELOPEMENT FROM HIS PARENTS.

T was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a-yood
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, named Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and after whom I was so called,
that is to say, Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we, are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.

I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lienteane
colonel, to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What
became of my second brother, I never knew, any more ‘than
my father and mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son. of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very aged, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education and.
acountry free school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea;

(21)
99 ADVENTURES OF

and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of miscry which was to befall me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. Ie
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject : he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
“ing inclination, I had for leaving his house, and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry, with a life
of case and pleasure. Ile told me it was men of desperate
fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; that these things were all cither too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in
the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings, of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of man-
kind: he told me, I might judge of the happiness of this
state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his
testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have “neither poverty nor riches.”

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
ROBINSON ORUSOE. 8g

of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasincsses, cither of body or mind,
as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagan-
cies, on the onc hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and _
mean and insufficient dict, on the other hand, bring distempers
upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all ©
kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quictness, health, society, all agreeable di-
versions, and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of ‘it,
not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, -
or seeret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feel-
ing that they are happy, and learning, by every day’s experience,
to know it more sensibly.

After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of sceking my bread; that he would do,
well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station
of life which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it mae
be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would _
94 ADVENTURES OF

be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home, as he direct-
ed; so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as
to give me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to. whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless me; and I would have
leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed, in the last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose, my father didwnot know it
to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure
to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he
broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was_so full, he
could say no more to me. ee

T was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to scttle at home, according to my
father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in
short, to prevent any of my father’s farther importunities in a
few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. How-
ever, I did not act so hastily neither, as my first heat of reso-
lution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon sceing the world that
I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his consent,
than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
sld, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 25.

‘

an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my mas-
ter before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me make but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a- double diligence, to recover the
time I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon”
any such a subject; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est, to give his consent to anything so much to my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions, as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it:
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction ; and I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not. j

Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him ;
and that my father, after showing great concern at it, said to
her, with a sigh, “That boy might be happy, if he would
stay at-home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent
to it.””

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
_time, and one of my companions then going to London by

sea in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them.
3


26° . ADVENTURES of

by the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word
of it; but left them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any considera-
tion of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows.

SECTION II.

FIRST ADVENTURES AT SEA, AND EXPERIENCE OF A MARITIME LIFE—
VOYAGE TO GUINEA.

On the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer’s misfor-
tunes, I believe, began younger, or continued longer than
mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber, than
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind: I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father’s house. All the good counsels of my
parents, my father’s tears, and my mother’s entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-
ment of my duty.

All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I
had never been upon before, went very high, though notaing

_ like what I have seen many times since; no,-nor what I saw.
? ?

afew days after; but, such as it was, enough to affect me:
ROBINSON CRUSOE | ee ce

then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known any ~~
thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and at every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, into the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
tise more; and in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life this
voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again, -
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run -
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle sta-
tion of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his’
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
neues go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued during the orn
and indeed some time after; but the next-day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to. be a little inured
to it. However, I was very grave that day, being also a little
sea-sick still: but towards night the weather cleared up, the -
wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed ;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that I ever saw.

Thad slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that
was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and pleasant in a little time after. :

And now, lest my good resolution should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and
said, Well, Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, ne do you de
after it? I warrant you were frightened, wa’n’t you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?—A cap-full, do -
you call it? said I; ’twas a terrible storm.— A storm, ‘you.


98 ADVENTURES O#

fool! replies he, do you call that a storm? Why, it was noth-
ing at all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that: you are but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that. D’ye see what charming weather
’tig now? To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made

- drunk with it; and in that one night’s wickedness I drowned

all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea
was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness
by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection ;
and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again
sometimes; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to
drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits —
for so I called them; and had in five or six days got as com-
plete a victory over conscience as any young sinner, that
resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire. But as I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providenée, as in
sueh cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely with-
out excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worse and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy
of. The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ~ 29

might wait for a wind for the River Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our
ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day, —
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and —
* close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon
the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our an-
chor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and
the cables veered out to the better end.

By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces of even the
seamen themselves. The master was vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship; but, as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several
times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall
be all undone! and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first
penitence, which I had so trampled upon, and hardened my-
self against ; I thought that the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would have been nothing too, like the first:
but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should all be lost; I was dreadfully frightened.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look |
about, I could see nothing but. distress around us; two ships,
that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the board,

3*


80 ’ ADVENTURES OF

Deing deeply laden ; and our men cricd out that a ship, which
rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring
in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close to
us, running away, with only their spritsails out, before the
wind. Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain protesting to him, ,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
it away also, and make a clear deck.

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at buta little. But if I can express, at this dis-
tance, the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions
I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it; but the worst

“was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
swallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and ex-
pecting every moment the ship would go to the bottom. In
‘the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-
tresses, onc of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,
* ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to.the
pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within
me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I
sit in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told-me ~
that I, who was able to de nothing before, was as well able to
pump asanother: at which I stirred up and went to the pump,
and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master”
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I
thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had hap-
pened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, no one minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrust me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was
a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard.that the boat came near us, but it was impossi-
ble for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near. the ship’s
side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,

_to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her
drive, and only to pull her towards shore as much as we could; \
$2. - ADVENTURES OF

and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the north-
ward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
Ness. =

We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to

‘goin. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great ienaniiy, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us cither to London or back to Hull, as we saw fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy: and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me: for, hearing the ship I went in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any as-
surance that I was not drowned.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 88

But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that noth-
ing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. —I know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction, -’
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm rea-
sonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master’s son, was now less forward than I: the
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters; I say, the first time. he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did; telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for
a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father, turr‘ng to
me, with a grave and concerned tone, Young man, says he,
you had never ought to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a sea-
faring man. — Why, sir? said 1; will you go to sea no more?
— That is another case, said he; it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to ex-
pect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of the Tarshish. — Pray, con-
tinues he, what are you, and on what account did you go to -
sea? Upon that I told him some of my story ; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. What had
I done, said he, that such an unhappy wretch should have
84 ADVENTURES OF

come into my ship? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds. This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority. to go. — However, he afterwards talked very gravely
to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father’s
words are fulfilled upon you.

We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more: which way he went, I know not: as for
me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even every body else. From whence I
have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to be es-
teemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men. :

In this state of life, however, I remained'some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.- That


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

evil influence which carried me first away from my father’s
house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say,
the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.

It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor ; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at that time, I
had learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not a
master: but as it was always my fate to choose for the worse,
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit -
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall
into pretty good company in London; which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then’
was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early. But it was not so with me: I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship, who had been on the coast-

of Guinea, and who, having had very good success there, was re- -

solved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me
say [had a mind to see the world, told me, that if I would go
the voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his |
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encour-
agement. I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-

dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small :
36 ADVENTUBES OF

adventure with me; which, by the disinterested honésty of
my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds of such toys and trifles as the cap-
tain directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with: and who, I believe, got my father, or, at
least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integ-
rity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom I
also got a competent knowledge of mathematics and the rules
of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship’s
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant :
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen de-
grees north, even to the Line itself.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

SECTION III.

ROBINSON’S CAPTIVITY AT SALLEE—ESCAPE WITH XURY— ARRIVAL AT
THE BRAZILS.

I wAs now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite a hun-
dred pounds of my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hun-
dred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend’s widow, ©
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage: and the first was this, viz.— our ship, making
her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the gray of
the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, _
our ship having twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broad side upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi--

4




88 ADVENTURES OF

ately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such,
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee,
a port bolonging to the Moors.

The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended: nor was I carried up the country to the emperor’s
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed ; and now looked back upon
my father’s prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miser-
able, and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now
so effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse ; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was un-
done, without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.

As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other,
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war,
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of
mine was soon taken away, for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin,
to look after the ship.

Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to cffect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 89

would embark with me ; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish-
min, ot Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
practice. ,

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
ny liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship’s
pinnacle, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he al-
ways took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat,
we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and
some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in
the middle of the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it, to steer and haul home the main sheet, and
40 . ADVENTURES OF

room before fora hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and
.the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and
particularly his bread, rice and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, over-
night, a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had or-
dered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.

I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the neat
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and or-
dered me with a man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house; and commanded, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.

This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage ;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was
my way.

My first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 41

this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron’s fread:
he said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron’s case of bottles stood, which
it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed about half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of_
great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also: his name was Ishmael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley: so I calied to him; Moley, said I, our patron’s guns
are on board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot ?.
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship. Yes, says he, I will bring some; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and
a half of powder, or rather more, and another of shot, that
had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat: at the same time I found some powder of my master’s
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles
in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the en-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
as; and we were not above a mile out of the port, before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had-been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate,

4*


- 42 ADVENTURES OF.

After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not sce them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.
He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat near
a league farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm under his waist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sca. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with
me. He swam so strong after the Theat that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quict, I would do him none:
But, said I, you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the
sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I will shoot
you through the head; for Iam resolved to have my liberty.
So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore; and I
make no doubt but he reached it with case, for he was an ex-
cellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father’s beard), I must throw you into the sea too.
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world a me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, T
“ROBINSON CRUSOE. 43

stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Strait’s
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for.who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,

- where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with







their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the

shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at
three o’clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee,
quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days ;

- and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
- would now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and
“. came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
_ what or where, neither what latitude, what country, what na-
~ tion, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
_ people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
_ came into this creck in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country : but as soon
as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
-- ot what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
=. and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,
44 ADVENTURES OF

said I, then I will not; but it may be, we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we may
give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make them
run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles to
cheer him up. After all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night. I
say still, for we slept none ; for in two or three hours we saw
vast creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
~ lowing and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.

Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures swimming towards our boat: we could not
see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a mon-
strous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they
cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever # was) within two oars’ length, which
something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
again.

But it was impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was no going on
shore for us in the night upon that coast: and how to venture
on shore in the day, was another question too; for to haye
~RoBiNsON cRUsoR. 46

fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least,
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.

Be that as-it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for'we had not a pint left in the boat;
when and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat. The boy answered with so much affection, that he
made me love him ever after. Says he, if wild mans come,
they eat me, you go away. — Well, Aury, said I, we will both
go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us. So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron’s case of bottles, which I
mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as near the shore
as we thought proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing
but our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
secing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it ;
and, by and by, I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by some
wild beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but when

‘Tcame nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare,
but different in color, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted
on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our way,
46 ADVENTURES Of |

having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part
of the country.

AsI had been one voyage to this coast Feline I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de
Verd Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had
no instruments to take an observation, to find what latitude we
were in; and did not exactly know, or at least remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might
now have easily found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.

By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco’s dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned .
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moore not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness ; and, indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigi-
ous numbers of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious crea-
tures which harbor there: so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thou-
sand men ata time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roaring of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my little
-essel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.
ROBINSON ChUSOL. 4?

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me,
that we had best go further off the shore; for, says he, Look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast -
asleep. I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung,
as it were, over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and
kill him. Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth: one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down ;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets: and a third, for
we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him in
the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone: he started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again and then got up on three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little sur-
prised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move
off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure
to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
goon shore. Well, go, said 1; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with
the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.
48 ADVENTURES OF

This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet: for what, Xury? said I.
Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, how-
ever, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if
Tcould. So Xury and I went to work with him: but Xury
was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to
do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day; but at last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days’ time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal: that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
- not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands or
perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Furope, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Bra-
zil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands:
and in a word I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, 6r must perish.

When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also perceive
they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but as Xury was my better
ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 49

counselor, and said to me, No go, no go. However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they -
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept ata
distance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and
particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat:
upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country ; and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, such as the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains to-
wards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange ;
but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart,
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into

5
50 ADVENTURES Of

the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their divet-
sion; at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than
Tat first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sunk
— down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was:
he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water,
he died just before he reached the shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.

The other ereature, fuicaeaie with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for cating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thank-
ful for. Immediately they fell to work with him: and though
they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the
ROBINSON cRUsok. : $1

fiesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but
made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.

Iwas now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward ~
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other.

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, ona
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking
it must needs be some of his master’s ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound for the coast of Guinea, for
52 ADVENTURES OF

Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was
soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore ; upon which I stretched
out to sca as much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by be-
fore I could make any signal to them ; but after I had crowded
to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me,
by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost: so they shortened sail, to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s
ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.

They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee: they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.

It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miscrable, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return to my deliverance ; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For, says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition. Besides, said he, when I
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 53>

carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own coun-
try, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I had given. _
No, no, Senhor Ingles (Mr. Englishman), says he, I will carry
you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again.



SECTION IV.

HE SETTLES IN THE BRAZILS AS A PLANTER—MAKES ANOTIER VOYAGE,
AND IS SHIPWRECKED.

As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything —
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good onc; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship’s use; and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He of-
fered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy’s liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I Ict him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would

Q*


54 \ ADVENTURES OF

give the boy an oblization to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go with him, I let the captain have him.
: We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints’ Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miscrable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s skin, and forty
for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, —for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
~ about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo ;
and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.

I had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house).
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar ;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them: endeavoring in the meat-
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted tome. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his
ROBINSON CRUSOE. _ 55.

plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything clse, for about two years. ,
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come in
order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my —
father’s house, and broke through all his good advice: nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done:
and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
tlien this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands: and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
56 ADVENTURES OF

-which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all
‘probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich!

T was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,

’ near three months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sin-
cere advice: Senhor Inglez, says he (for so he always called
me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my re-
turn: but since human affairs are all subject to changes and

_ disasters, I would have you give orders for but one hundred
pounds sterling, which you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to for your supply. This was so
wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accord-
ingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left
my moncy, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
desired me.

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all
my adventures ; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary di-
rections for my supply ; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money, but,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 57

out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me at the Brazils: among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have al! sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, neces-
“sary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years’ service, and would not ac-
cept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce. Neither
was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures, ©
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable
and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
very great advantage; so that I might say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
‘plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought mea Negro
slave, and a European servant also: I mean another besides
that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.

~ But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. J went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbors: and these fifty rolls, be-
ing each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the flect from Lisbon: and
now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to

be full of projects and undcrtakings beyond my reach; such


58 : "ADVENTURES OF

as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which
he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to
be full of: but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the willful agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make all
these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and
pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of thosé pros-
pects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.

As [had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human mis-
ery that ever’man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story. — You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
of St. Salvador, which was our port: and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an account
of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast for *trifles—such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like—not only gold


ROBINSON CRUSOE.

dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers. ;

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only.
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the asstentos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Por-
tugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes.
were bought, and those excessively dear.

It happened, being in company with some merchants and ”
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to se-
crecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go-to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations; and, in
a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea ; and they offered me that I should have an equal share
of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had nota settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for —
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to
do but go on as I begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could scarce.
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-

.







60 ADVENTURES OF

ling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voy-
age, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.

. But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father’s good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
or covenants to do so: and I made a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my uni-
versal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; onc-half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England. In short, I took all
possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up ‘my
plantation : had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving
all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of

my fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship,

being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done:
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on.
board in an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, be-
ing the same day eight years that I went from my parents at

Hull, in order to act the rebel to. their authority, and the fool

to my own interest. 3

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen. men, besides the master, his-




ROBINSON ORUSOE. 61.

boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, *
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Ne-
groes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little, looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and
the like.

The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast. When they came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our coast N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days’
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twen-
ty-two-minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in
the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whithersoever fate
and the fury of the winds directed ; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
lives. .

In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men dicd of the calenture, and one man and a boy,
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abat-
ing a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference,
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got
upon the coxst of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond

6




62 , ADVENTURES OF —

the river Amazons, toward that of the river Oronoco, com
monly called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil. j

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Carribee islands, and’ therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days’ sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.

With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the very way of all human commerce, that had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men carly in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sca
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sca.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 68:

what-land it was we were driven, whether an island or the
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind
of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every mo-
ment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for an - -
other world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do
in this: that which was our present comfort, and all the com:
fort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to
abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of sav-
ing our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship’s rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, andeither sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but ow to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break -
in pieces every minute, and scme told us she was actually-
broken already. 2

In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her
flung over the ship’s side; and getting all into her, we let her
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s
mercy, and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, —-
and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the ~
sea in a storm. 4

And now our case was very dismal indecd; for we all saw
w=

- 64 .. «. ADVENTURES OF

_ plainly; that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done any-

- thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,

- though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for
we all knew that. when the boat came nearer to the shore, she
would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we has-
tened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as

. we could towards land.

What the shore was— whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal—we knew not; the only hope that could rationally.

- give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
nothing of this appeared, and as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

_After we had rowed, or. rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. Ina word, It took us with such fury, that it oversct
- the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, “O God!”

* for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt, when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
‘draw my breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather

carried me a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water [ took in. I had so much presence
of. mind,’as well as breath left, that secing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my fect, and endeay-








erate ise,



SH!IPWRECKE Page 64.


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 65

ored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come
after me as high asa great hill, and as furious as an encmy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my busi-
ness was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing,
and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest
concern now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great
way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it-when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carricd with mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore, a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
mysclf to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relicved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water 4 good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and be-
gan to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my fect. I stood still a
few moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me,
or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as ta

6 *
66 ADVENTURES OF

“my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water: but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and, seeing I should again be covered with the water, I re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
‘breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there were, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecsta-
cics and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the
custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about
his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has
a reprieve brought to him; I say, Ido not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never saw,them afterwards, or any


ROBINSON -CRUSOE. a 67. -

sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap and two shoes.
that were not fellows.

T cast my eyes to the stranded vessel—when the breach .

and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off — and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore?

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of.
my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind of
a place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything cither to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
sec any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was partic-
ularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any ercature for my sustenance or to defend my-
self against any other creature that might desire to kill me for

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a to-

bacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny —
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night —
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the_

shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I -

did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little to-
bacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I
should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defense, I took up my lodging ;



v


68 ADVENTURES OF

and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition ; and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.

SECTION V.

ROBINSON FINDS HIMSELF IN A DESOLATE ISLAND—PROCURES A STOCK
OF ARTICLES FROM THE WRECK — CONSTRUCTS HIS HABITATION.

WueEn I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before ;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment im the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, be-
ing more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile


‘noBinsoN ckbsot.

of the ship: and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I
had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all ©
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in this, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water: but
whon I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied
a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great diffi-
culty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, al-
most to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure .
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and
what was free; and, first, I found that all the ship’s provision,
were dry and untouched by the water: and, being very well
disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pock-
cts with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need cnough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.

It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with


70 ADVENTURES Off

“these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage foi
_ their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not

drive away. When this was done, I went down to the ship’s
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as wells I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was



not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; .

so I went to work, and with the carpenter’s saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I
should have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen’s chests, which
T had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats’ flesh (which we lived
much upon), and a little remainder, of European corn, which

- had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea

with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some bar-
ley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I
found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which wére some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,

_ there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room

for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. = a1

und open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which
I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon: as,
first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long search--
ing that I found the carpenter’s chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look irito it,
for I knew in general what it contained.

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think -how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all
my navigation.

I had three encouragements: Ist, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, What
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
ceteek or river there, which I might make use of as a pert to
get to land with my cargo.

As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
72 ADVENTURES OF

opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so J guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
asccond shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily would
have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the chan-
nel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in
the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a
strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could. ,

‘At length I spicd a little cove on the right shore of the
creck, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sca again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land,
but where onc end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endan-
ger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

80 it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and
one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay till
the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.

My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and-which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great
labor and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw ‘my fate, to my
great affliction, viz., that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.

I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe,-uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world : I had
no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual _
note ; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the

a :

~


74 ADVENTURES Of

“creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colot
and beak resembling it, but it had no tallons or claws ‘more
than common. Its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.

Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me
up the rest of the day: what to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I barrica-
doed myself round with chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night’s lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.

I now began to consider that I might yet gét a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voy-
age on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything
out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I
stripped before I went to my hut; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and 2 pair of pumps
on my feet.

I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter’s
stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
acrew-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that

se
ROBINSON CRUSOE: , 48

thost useful thing called a grindstone. All these I- secured
together, with several things belonging to the gunner ;- partic-
ularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket: bul-
lets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side. Besides these
things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a
spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence
from the land, my provisions might be devoured on shore : but”
when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there

*sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not un-
derstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks—-I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought. everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or

beast.
7% ADVENTURES Of

When J had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, lay-
ing my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by
me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well
to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still ;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and, brought away something
or other: but particularly the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. Ina word, I brought away all the sails first
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvass only.

But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
though I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, ina
word, I got all this safe on shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces
ROBINSON CRUSOE. SE

~

such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, -
with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the ©
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to

make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and

came away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for

this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was

entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my

goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, -
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;

but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially

the iron, which I expected would have been of great use

to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the

pieces of cable ashore, aad some of the iron, though with in-
finite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day

- on board, and brought away what I could get.

i I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven

times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to

bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held,-I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece, but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin s0 effectually
as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of

eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled « myself at the sight of this money; O drug! I ~
exclaimed, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is
worth all this heap : T have no manner of use for thee ; e’en

7*
78 ADVENTURES OF

remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second
thoughts, 1 took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide or flood be-
gan, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and pastly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no
more ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recov-
ered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had
lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of
her, that would be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was
little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had more
time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck ; as indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island: and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth; and, in short, T resolved on both; the




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

manner and description of which, it may not be improper to

give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, nea
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now
mentioned : secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun : thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which
I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into
the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just before this hollow oes I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-



‘

dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green -

before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was

on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from- _

the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi:diame-
ter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its
beginning and ending.
Tn this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
* a




~~ 80- ADVENTURES-OF

A ee eat oS
9X

v

driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like

- piles, the biggest end being out of the ground, about five feet

and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two fect and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost mea great deal of time and labdr, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth. :

The entrance into this place I-made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could.
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution against the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.

SECTION VI.

CARRIES ALL HIS RICHES, PROVISIONS, ETC., INTO HIS HABITATION —
DREARINESS OF SOLITUDE—CONSOLATORY REFLECTIONS.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 81

very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails. -

And now I lay no more for a while in the-bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods; I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down -
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labor and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: O my powder! My very heart
sank within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my pow-
der might be destroyed ; on which, not my defense only, but
the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder taken fire, I should never have known who had -
hurt me,

Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and hoxes, to-
82 ADVENTURES OF

separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little ina
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided
into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that;
sol placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called
my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very care-
fully where I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
‘me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it
was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them: but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them; I
observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they were
upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright,
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were above
them: so afterwards, I took this method —I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I
killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily ; but when the old one fell, ”
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 83

the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up;
and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; -
upon which I Jaid down the dam, and took the kid in my
arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up -
tame; but it would not cat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, .
for I eat sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much-as possibly I could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn,
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its
proper place: but I must first give some little account of my-
self, and of my thoughts about living, which it may well be
supposed, were not few.

I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voy-
age; and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great’rea-
son to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my |
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I
made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so aban-
doned without help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check .
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day
walking with my gun in my hand, by the seaside, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray’
84 ADVENTURES OF : .

remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out? Is it better to be here or there? And then I pointed
to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that
is in them, and with what worse attends them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to my-
self), what should I have done without a gun, without ammu-
nition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering?
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in
a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I hada
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as 1
lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would pro-
vide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should be spent,
but even after my health or strength should decay.

I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammu-~
‘nition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so.
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 85

when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equi-
nox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by ~
observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.

SECTION VII.

BOBINSON’S MODE’ OF RECKONING TIME— DIFFICULTIES ARISING FROM
WANT OF TOOLS — HE ARRANGES HIS HABITATION.

AFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sab-
bath days from the Soiene days: but to prevent this I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and mak-
ing it into a great cross, I set it.up on the shore oie IT first
landed, viz., “I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
1659.” om the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.

But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages, which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I found, somie
time after, in rummaging the chests: as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain’s, mate’s, gun- ~
ner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation ; all of which I huddled -together, whether J

8 . te -


86 , ADVENTURES OF

might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things ; some Portuguese books also,
and, among them, two or three popish prayer-books, and sev-
erdl other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats,
of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing, in its place: for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost ;
and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact, but after that was gone, I could not; for I could not
make any ink, by any means that I could devise.

And this put me in sind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; necdles, pins, and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.

This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving
it into the ground ; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one cf the iron
crows ; which, however, though I found it answer, made driy-
ing these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any-


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 87

thing I had to do; seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor.
had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seck
for food; which I did, more or less, every day. _

I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the .
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that. .
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
as to deliver my thoughts from daily pouring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

EVIL. GooD.

But I am alive; and not drown-
ed, as all my ship’s company were.

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
covery.

T am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

Iam divided from mankind, a
solitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

But Iam singled out too from
all the ship’s crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved, and per=
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where,
If I had clothes, i could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af-
rica: and what if I had been us
wrecked there ?


$8 ADVENTURES OF

I have no soul to speak to, or § But God wonderfully cent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shcre,
= — that I have got out so many neces-
sary things, as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply

myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an unbounded testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from the
~ experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to seligh my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship; I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy
to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two fect thick
on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a year and
a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.

I have already observed how I brought all my goods intu
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself te
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a
Joose sandy rock which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed
EOBINSON CRUSOE. 89

cn it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and
then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made ~~ _
mea door to come out in the outside of my = or fortifi- ©
cation.

This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back
way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but oe me room to.
stow my goods.

And now I began to apply myself to make "such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do sev-
eral things with so much pleasure, without a- table: so I went
to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is
the substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, mas-
ter of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life ; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance, I
found at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance vf
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin asa plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method, 1
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or
board: but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was ag
well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces

8


90 ADVENTURES OF

* ‘of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when ©

_I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one’ side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work

_on; and ina word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up :- so that had my cave been seen, it locked like ©
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
-thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my

_-stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day’s employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only as to labor, but in much discomposure of

-mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of many
dull things: for example, I must have said thus—< Sept.
30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with a great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone! till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being de-
voured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast dis--
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and, ~
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and °
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my foily.

But, having gotten over these things i in some measure, and —
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 91

\

having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome stuff about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal : of which I shall here give ~
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.

SECTION VIII. ~

ROBINSON’S JOURNAL—DETAILS OF HIS DOMESTIC ECONOMY AND CON-
TRIVANCES — SHOCK OF AN EARTHQUAKE.

THE JOURNAL.

SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
IstAND oF Despair; all the rest of the ship’s company being
drowned and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and in de-
spair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: that I
should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach '
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.

Ocroser 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken
Q2.—Ci« -- ADVENTURES OF

in-pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get om board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief),
80, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
zomrades; who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have beer
all drowned, as they were: and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.

Ocr. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.

Ocr. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the
wind blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to
be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which £
had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Ocr. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. ‘Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; whick
T resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

~ From the 26th to the 80th, I worked very hard in carrying
HoliNeok cntsok. - 98

all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which
I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

NovemBer 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made, my rafts; and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out for
my fortification.

Nov. 8. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I
went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz., every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o’clock ; then ate what I had to live on;
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next was wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman :
though time and necessity made me a complete natural me-
chanic soon after, as I believe they would any one else.

Nov. 5. This day went-abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand : but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which
while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were)
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.




94 - ADVENTURES Of

Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
Tth, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it
to pieces several times.

Nore. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,

omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
which. :
_ Novy. 18. This day it rained; which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as pos-
sible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one an-
other as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large
bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.

Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into
the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.

Nore. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectu-
ally without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found
ROBINSON ORUSO#. 95

« tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
tre iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought
it home, too, with diificulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine: for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in Eng-
land, only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so
long in making.

I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket or a whecl-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware;
at least, none yet found out: and as to the wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to get about it: besides, I
had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and, for carrying
away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing
like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in for the brick-
layers. This was not so difficult for me as the making the
shovel : and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than
four days: I mean, always excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, ene
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and. deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.

Nore. During all this time, I worked to make this room
96 ADVENTURES OF

or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept the tent: except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, and in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.

_ DecemBer 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished ; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side ;
so much, that in short, it frightened me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I should never have wanted
a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up,
so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly ;-
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post: this I finished
the next day ; and setting more posts up with boards, in about
a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts standing
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.

Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order within
doors.

Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all” day : no stirring out.

Dec. 25. Rain all day.

Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than be
fore, and pleasanter.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 97

Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so .
that I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it
home, I bound, and splintered up its leg, which was broke.

N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long,
it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze: so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food ;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within
doors.

January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I re-
solved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.

Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.

N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing and perfecting this wall; though it
was no more than about twenty-five yards in length, being a
half circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center,
behind it.

All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me

9


98 ADVENTURES OF

many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything
was done with, especially the bringing of piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them
much bigger than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside deuble fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not per-
ecive anything like a habitation: and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
occasion.

During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my ad-

. vantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pig-
eons, in the holes of the rocks : and, taking some young ones,
I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when
they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps, was, at
first, for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the manag-
ing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet
or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it: J could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss fora
candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by
seven o’clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remember the
lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African
ROBINSON CRUSOK. 99.

adventure; but I had none of that now: the only remedy I
had was, that when I killed a goat, J saved the tallow; and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to ©
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the aidals of all my labors it happened, that in
rummaging my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted
before, had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry;
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been
in the hag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in
the bag but ltusks and dust: and being willing to have the
bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortifica-
tion, under the rock.

It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything
there: when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our Buea nay, as our Eng-
lish barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts~on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
things that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, a3 we
lightly say, what pleases God: without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and.
106 ADVENTURis Of

especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled mé
. strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild
miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of
my eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of
nature should happen upon my account: and this was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for my support, but not doubting that there was more
in the place, I went over all that part of the island where I
had been before, searching in every corner, and under every
rock, for more of it; but I could not find any. At last it oc-
curred to my thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chick-
en’s-meat in that place, and then the wonder began to cease;
and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s provi-
dence began to abate too, upon the discovering of all this was
nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it
had been miraculous; for it was really the work of -Provi-
dence, as to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve
grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up im-
mediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it any where else, at that
time, it would have been burned up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying
up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in
time, to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 101

But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself
the least grain of corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as
I shall show afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed.
the first season, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed
just before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at
least not as it would have done; of which in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.,
to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it
up without baking, though I did that also after some time—
But to return to my Journal.

I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; con-
triving to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a
ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my hab-
itation.

Aprit 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it
down in the inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from
without, unless it could firsts mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had al-
most all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed; the
case was thus :— As I was busy in the inside of it behind my
tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly fright-
ened with the most dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for, all ~
on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the
roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head,
and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought noth-
ing of what really was the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before; and
for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder,
and not thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall

oS
- 102 p ADVENTURES OF

for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected might roll /
down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake: for
the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight min-
utes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down
with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I
perceived also that the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.

I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was
like one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea:-but the
noise of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and
rousing me from the stupified condition I was in, filled me
with horror, and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon
my tent and my household goods, and burying all at once;
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart
enough to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried
alive; but sat still upon the ground greatly cast down, and
disconsolate, not knowing what todo. All this while I had
not the least serious religious thought; nothing but the com-
mon Lord, have mercy upon me! and when it was over that
went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain; and soon after the wind rose by a little
and little, so that in less than half an hour, it blew a most
dreadful hurricane : the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth; the shore was covered with a breach of the
water; the trees were torn up by the roots ; and a terrible
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 2 oe

storm it was. This held about three hours, and then began to
abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to~
rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very
much terrified and dejected : when, on a sudden, it came into
my thoughts that these winds and rain being the consequence
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, _
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought ~
my spirits began to revive; and the ‘rain also helping to per-
suade me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the rain
was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with
it; and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go
out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of
the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And
now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much,
I went to my little store, and took a small cup of rum; which,.
however, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I-
could have no more when that was gone. It continued rain-.
ing all that night and great part of the next day, so that I
could not stir abroad: but my mind being more composed, I
began to think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the.
island was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no
living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might surround with
a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men: for if I staid where I was, I should cer-
tainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from
the place where it now stood, being just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and


104 ADVENTURES OF



how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swallowed ©
alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet tne
apprehension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost
equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed,
and how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a
vast deal of time for me to do this; and that I must be con-
tented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed a con-
venient camp, and secured it so as to remove to it. With this
conclusion I composed myself for a time; and resolved that
I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle as before, and set up my tent
in it when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to. _ This was
the 21st. a

Apri 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this measure into execution ; but I was at a great
loss about the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance
of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the
Indians); but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull: and though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This
caused me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and
death of aman. At length I contrived a wheel with a string,
to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
liberty.

Nore. I had never seen any such thing in England, or
at least not to take notice how it was done, though since I
have observed it is very common there : besides that, my grind-
stone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full
week’s work to bring it to perfection.

Aprit 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grind-
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ~ 105

ing my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone perform-
ing very well. oe me

Aprit 30. Having perceived thit my bread had been
low a great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced
myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.

SECTION IX.

ROBINSOW OBTAINS MORE ARTICLES FROM THE WRECK --— HIS ILLNESS AND
AFFLICTION.

May il. In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck-of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie-
highor out of the water than it used todo. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel
of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder was -
caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled it farther on the
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as
I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in the sand,
was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which was
broke to pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force of the —
sea, soon after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it
were, up, and cast on one side: and the sand was thrown so -
106° ADVENTURES OF

high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out; whereas there was a great
piece of water before, so that I could not come within a quar-
ter of a mile of the wreck without swimming. I was sur-
prised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by
the earthquake ; and as by this violence the ship was more bro-
ken open than formerly, so many things came daily on shore,
which the sea had loosened, and which the winds and water
rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that .
day especially, in scarching whether I could make any way
into the ship: but I found nothing was to be expected of that
kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand.
However, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I re-
solved to pull everything to pieces that I could out of the ship,
concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 38. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter-deck together ; and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay
highest ; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over
for that time.

May 4. I wenta fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going
to leave off, L caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much asI cared to eat; all which I
dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May 5. Worked on the wreck: cut another beam asun-
der, and brought three great fir planks off from the decks,
which I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide
of flood came on.

May 6. Worked on the wreck: got several iron bolts


ROBINSON ORUSOE. 107

out of her, and other pieces of iron work : worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving
it over.

May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent
to work ; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several picces of the ship
seemed to lic loose; and the inside of the hold lay 80 open.
that I could sce into it; but almost full of water and sand.

May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow, to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide: I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.

May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also
a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy
to remove.

May 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got a
great many picces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or
three hundred weight of iron.

May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,

-and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
ippeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
30 long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.

May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy-
for me to bring away. ;

May 24, Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck ;
108 ADVENTURES OF

and with hard labor I loosened some things so much, with the
crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and
two of the seaman’s chests: but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day, but pieces of timber,

‘and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the

salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
every day to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be
ready when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten

timber, and plank and iron work, enough to have built a good

boat, if I had known how: and I also got, at several times,
and in several places, near one hundred weight of the sheet-
lead.

June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tor-
toise or turtle. This was the first I had scen; which, it seems,
was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scar-
city ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island
I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I found
afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.

June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three-score eggs: and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savory and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life: having
had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in thir
horrid place.

June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. 1
thought, at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewk xt
chilly; which I knew was not unusual in that latitude.

June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.

June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head,
and feverish.

JunE 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help :
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 109

but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all
confused. :

June 22. A little better: but under dreadful apprehen-
sions of sickness.

June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivaridis and then
a violent headache.

JunE 24. Much better.

JunE 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours; cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.

JuNE 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak: however, I killed a
she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled
some of it, and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made
some broth, but had no pot.

JUNE 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get
myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was
light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say: only lay and cried, Lord, look .upon
me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me! I suppose I
did nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing
off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When
I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
eceding thirsty : however, as I had no water in my whole hab-
itation, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep I had this terrible dream: I
thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my
wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man, descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look .
towards him: his countenance was inexpressibly dreadful, im-
possible for words to describe: when he stepped upon the
ground with his fect, I thought the earth trembled, just as it

10
ot

«
110° 7 ADVENTURES OF

had done before in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to
my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He had no sooncr landed upon the earth, but he moved for-
ward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tanec, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it; all that I can say I un-
derstood, was this: Seeing all these things have not brought
thee to repentance, now thou shalt die; at which words, I
thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand, to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terri-
ble vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even
dreamed of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to de-
scribe the impression that remained upon my mind when I
awaked, and found it was but a dream.

Thad, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received
by the good instruction of my father was then worn out, by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a.constant conversation with none but such as were,
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. Ido not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought -that so
much as tended either to looking upward towards God, or in-
ward towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of
evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our com-
mon sailors, can be supposed to be ; not having the least: sense,
cither of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him,
in deliverances.

In the relating what is already a part of my story, this will
be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through al.
the varicty of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I
never -had so much as one thought of its being the hand of
God, or that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 111°

rebellious behavior against my father, or my present sins, which
were great; or even as punishment for the general course of
my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on
the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought
of what would become of me; or one wish to God to direct
me, whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures
as cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a
Providence ; acted like a mere brute, from the principles of
nature, and by the dictates of common sense only; and in-
deed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at-sea
by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly,
and honorably, as well as charitably, I had not the least thank-
fulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was far
from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment; I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable.

It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship’s crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surpsised with
a kind of ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the ~
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness: but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight~
of joy: or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre-
served when all the rest were destroyed, or any inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: just the same com-
mon sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck ; which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over:
and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was,
afterwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condi-
tion, —how I was cast on this dreadful place, out-of the reach
of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of re-
112 ADVENTURES OF

demption, —as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that
I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me; these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal,
had, at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect
me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something
miraculous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was
removed, all the impression which was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more immedi-
ately directing to the invisible Power, which alone directs such
things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impression
it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God, or
his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my cir-
cumstances being from his hand, than if I had been in the
most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to
be sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my past
life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon
strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my dis-
temper; and,.in the violence as well of the fever as of the
dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted from me some
words like praying to God: though I cannot say it was a
prayer attended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather
the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror
ROBINSON. CRUSOE. 118

uf dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapors in my
head with the mere apprehension : and, in these hurries of my
soul, I knew not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a miserable creature
am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me? Then the tears burst
out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came to my
mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the
beginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I should have leisure here-
after to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery. Now, said I, aloud,
my dear father’s words are come to pass: God’s justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected
the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a
station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy ; but
I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my parents to
know the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly ;
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it: I
refused their help and assistance, who would have pushed me
in the world, and would have made everything easy to me;
and now I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no ad-
vice. Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress. This was the first prayer, if I may call it so, that I
had made for many years. But I return to my Journal.
114 ADVENTURES OF eg

SECTION X.

HIS RECOVERY—HIS COMFORT IN READING THE SCRIPTURES— MAKES
AN EXCURSION INTO THE INTERIOR OF THE ISLAND—FORMS HIS
‘ BOWER.” ;

June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did
was to fill a large square case bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bread: and to take off the chill or
agueish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about; but was very weak,
and withal very sad and heavy-hcarted in the sense of my mis-
crable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next
day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in
the shell: and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to wall; but found myself so weak,
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out with-
out that); so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the
ground, looking out, upon the sca, which was just before me,
and very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts
as these occurred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which
T have scen so much? Whence is it produced? And what
am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal? Whence are we? Surely, we arc all made by some
ROBINSON GRUSOE. 115

secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made all. Well, but then, it came on, if God has
made all these things, he guides and governs them all, and all
things that concern them; for the power that could make all
things, must certainly have power to guide and direct them :
if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works,
cither without his knowledge or appomtment.

And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition: and if
nothing happens without his appointment, he has appointed all
this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thought, to con-
iradict any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon
me with the greatest force, that it must needs be that God had
appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this
miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole
power, not of me only, but of everything that happens in the
world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this to
me? What have I done to be thus used? My conscience pres-
ently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed : and
methought it spoke to me like a voice! Wretch, dost show ask
what thou hast done? ‘Look back upon a dreadful misspent
life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done? Ask, why is
it thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight when the
ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war ; devoured by the wild
beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here, when all the
crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask what thou hast
done? J was struck dumb with these reflections, as one as-
tonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer to
myself; and rising up pensive and.sad, walked back to my re-
treat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to bed:
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclina-
tion to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark, Now, as the apprehension of the
116 ADVENTURES OF

return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their to-
bacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll
of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured; and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.

I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I
found a cure for both soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles
which I mentioned before, and which, to this time, I had not
found leisure or so much as inclination, to look into. I say, I
took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not; but I
tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of the leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupi-
fied my brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such
as I had not been much used to. Then I took some and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take
a dose of it when I lay down: and lastly, I burnt some upon
a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as
long as I could bear it; as well for the heat, as almost for suf-
focation. Ia the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible, and began to read; but my head was too much dis-
turbed by the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time;
only, having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these: ‘Call on me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These
words were very apt to my case: and: made some impression
upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the
word had no sound, as ] may say, to me; the thing was so
remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that, as
the children of Israel said when they were promised flesh to
ROBINSON cRUSOL. 117

eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness?” so I began
to say, Can even God himself deliver me from this place?
And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared,
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however, the
words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It now grew late: and the tobacco had, as
I said, dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I
left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything
in the night, and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did
what I never had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and
prayed to God to fulfill the promise to me. After my broken
and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I
had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it down; immedi-
ately upon this I went to bed. I found presently the rum
flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a sound sleep,
and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o’clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, ©
I am partly of opinion, that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know not
how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done; for if I
had lost it by crossing ahd recrossing the Line, I should have
lost more than one day ; but certainly I lost a day in my ac-
count, and never knew which way. Be that, however, one
way or the other, when I awaked I found myself exceedingly
refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful: when I got up
I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry: and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home ; but was not very forward to eat them ; so I ate
118 ADVENTURES OF

some more of the turtles eggs, which wore very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did me
good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum; only I
did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the
leaf, or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not so
well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as I hoped I
should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was
not much.

Juty 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which
I drank.

Jury 8. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some wecks after. While I
was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly
upon this Scripture, “I will deliver thee ;”” and the impossi-
bility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my
ever expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I poured so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz., Have I not been deliv-
ered, and wonderfully, too, from sickness ; from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be and that was so frightful to
me? and what notice have I taken of it? Have I done my
part? God has delivered me, but I have not glorified hir
that is to say, I have not owned and been thankful for that a
a deliverance: and how can I expect a greater deliverance
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I knelt
down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness. :

Juty 4. In the morning I took the Bible: and begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and
imposed upon myself to read a while every morning and every
night; not binding myself to the number of chapters, but as
long as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after
Ropitsol-crtson. 119.

T set seriously to this work, that I found my heart more deeply ~
and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived: and the words, All
these things have not brought thee to repentance, ran seriously -
in my thoughts. I was carnestly begging of God to give me
repentance, when it happened providentially, the very same
day, that, reading the scripture, I came to these words, “ He
is exalted a Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to
give remission.” I threw down the book; and with my heart
as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstacy
of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus,
thou exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance! This
was the first time in all my life I could say, in the true sense
of the words, that I prayed; for now I prayed with a sense
of my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the word of God: and from
this time I may say, I began to have hope that God would
hear me.

Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, ‘“ Call
on me, and I will deliver thee,”’ in a différent sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was in; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in an-
other sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bere
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of |
it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison with this.
And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that
whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find
deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance
from affliction.
120 ADVENTURES Of

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable
as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by constantly reading the scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a
great deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing
of; also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me
to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as I could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chicfly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before: neither can I recommend it to any one
to practice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time: I
learned from it also this, in particular; that being abroad in
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which
came in the dry season was almost always accompanied with
such storms, so I found that this rain was much more danger-
pus than the rain which fell in September and October.

I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great de-
sire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions, I might find which I yet knew
nothing of.

It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
ROBINSON. CRUSOE. _ 12%

first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found
after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher ; and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it; at least, not
any stream. On the banks of this brook I found many pleas-
ant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds (where the water, as it might be supposed, never
overflowed), I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and grow-
ing to a very great and strong stalk: and there were divers
other plants, which I had no knowledge of, or understand-
ing about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of their
own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
root, which the Indians, in all that climate, make their bread
of; but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but
did not understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but
wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented
myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the
virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I
should discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in
short, I made so little observation while I was in the Brazils,
that I knew little of the plants in the field ; at least, very little

that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress. _
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again;
and after going something farther than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs begin to cease,
and the country became more woody than before. In this
part I found different fruits; and particularly I found melons
upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees; the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the
clusters of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and
rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly
glad of them, bnt I was warned by my experience to eat spar
11 :
192 ADVENTURES OF

ingly of them}; remembering that when I was ashore in Bar-
bary, the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen,
who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers.
I found, however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought would be (as in-
deed they were) as wholesome and as agrecable to eat, when
no grapes were to be had.

1 spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation ; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. At night, I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the
next morning proceeded on my discovery, traveling near four
miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping
still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north
sides of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out at the side of the hill
by me, rau the other way, that is, due east; and the country
appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in
a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a
planted garden. JI descended a little on the side of that de-
licious vale, surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though
mixed with other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was
all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country in-
defeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could con-
vey it, | might have it in inheritance as completely as any
lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa
trees, and orange, lemon, and- citron trees, but all wild, and
very few bearing any fruit; at least not then. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but
very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with
water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and- re-
freshing. I found now I had business enough, to gather and
earry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes


ROBINSON Chisoe, 498.

as limcs and Jemons, to furnish myself for the wet seagou,
which I knew was approaching. In order to this, I gathered
a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in another
place; and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ;
and taking a few of ‘each with me, I traveled homeward; and
resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what I
could make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly, having
spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now
call my tent and my cave) : but before I got thither, the grapes
were spoiled; the richness of the fruits, and the weight of the”
juice, having broken and bruised them, they were good ‘for
little or nothing : as to the limes, they were goed, but I could
bring only a few. =

The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was sur-
prised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich
and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread about,
trod to»pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts which had done this, but
what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was
no laying them up in heaps, and no carrying them away in a
sack; but that one way they would be destroyed, aud the
other way they would be crushed with their own weight; I
took another course: I then gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the out-branches of the trees,
that they might cure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes
and lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand
under.

When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the
pleasantness of the situation ; the security from storms on that
side; the water and the wood; and concluded that I had
pitched upon a place to fix my abode in, which was by far the.
worst part of the country. Upon the whole, I began to con- .
194 ADVENTURES OF

sider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a placé
equally safe as where I was now situate; if possible, in that
pleasant fruitful part of the island.

This thought ran long in my head; and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempt-
ing me: but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered
that I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible
that something might happen to my advantage, and, by the
same ill-fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
“unhappy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce
probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to en-
close myself among the hills and woods in the center of the
island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore
I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so en-
amored of this place, that I spent much of my time there for
the whole remaining part of the month of July; and though,
upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above stated, not to re-
move, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as
high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with
brushwood. Here I lay very secure sometimes two or three
nights together: always going over it with a ladder, as before;
so that I fancied now I had my country and my sea-coast house.
This work took me up till the beginning of August.

J had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labor, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation: for though I had made a tent like the other,
with a piece of sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind
me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished
my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 8d of August, I
found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried, and in-
deed were excellent good raisins of the sun; so I began to take
ROBINSON ORUSOE. 126

them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did
go, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and
T should have lost the best part of my winter food; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I
taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain: and from hence, which was the 14th
of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days.

In this season, I was much suprised with the increase of
my family. -I had been concerned for the loss of one of my
cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead ;
and I heard no more of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because, about the end of August, though I had killed a wild
cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a
different kind from our European cats: yet the young cats
were the same kind of house-breed as the old one; and both
of my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats. .
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and
to drive them from my house as much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food ;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last
day, which was the 24th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus; I ate a
bunch of raisins for my breakfast ; a piece of the goat’s flesh,
or of the turtle, broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great mis-
fortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything) ; and two or
three of the turtle’s eggs for my supper.

During this confinement in my cover from the rain, I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave; and
by degrces worked it on towards one side, till J came to the

*


- 126 ADVENTURES OF

outside of the hill; and made a door, or way out, which came
beyond my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way.
But I was not perfectly easy at lying so open: for as I had
managed myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas
now, I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive
that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature
that I had as yet seen upon the island being a goat.
SEPTEMBER 30. I was now come to the unhappy anni-
versary of my landing; I cast up the notches of my post, and
found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days.
I kept this day as a solemn fast! setting it apart for religious
exercise, prostrating myself on the ground with the most seri-
ous humiliation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging
his righteous judgments upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the
least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, and
went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this
time observed no sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to
distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary
~ for the sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of
the days were: but now having cast up the days, as above, I
found I had becn there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and
set apart every seventh day. for a sabbath; though I found, at
the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my reckon-
ing. A little after this, my ink beginning to fail me, I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly; and to write down
only the most remarkable events of my life, without continu-
ing a daily memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide
for them accordingly ; but I bought all my experience’ before
Thad it; and what I am going to relate, was one of the most
discouraging experiments that J had made at all,
ROBINSON CRUSOE. Bi

[have mentioned that I had saved a few ears of barley,
and rice, which I had so surprisingly found .sprung -up, as I
thought, of themselves. I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought
it a proper time to sow it after the rains; the sun being in its
southern position, going from me, Accordingly, I dug a picce
of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade; and di-
viding it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was sow-
ing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not sow
it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it; so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each; and it was a great comfort for me
afterwards that I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed
this time came to anything; for the dry month following, and
the earth having thus had no rain after the seed was sown, it
had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all
till the wet scason had come again, and then it grew as if it
had been but newly sowa. Finding my first sced did not
grow, which I easily imagined was from the drought, I sought
for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in; and I
dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the
rest of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equi-
nox. This having the rainy months of March and April to
water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good
crop; but having only a part of the sced left, and not daring
to sow all that I had, I got but a small quantity at last, my
whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment. I was made master of my business,
and knew exactly when was the proper time to sow; and
that I might expect two secd-times, and two harvests evéry
year.

While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the raina
were over, and the weather began to settle, which was about
the month of N ovember, I made a visit up the country tomy
128 ADVENTURES OF

bower; where, though I had not been for some months, yet
I found all things just as I had left them. The circle or
double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew
thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches,
as much as a willow-trce usually shoots the first year after
lopping its head; but I could not tell what tree to call it that
these stakes were cut from. I was surprised, and yet very
well pleased, to sce the young trees grow; and I pruned them,
and led them to grow as much alike as I could; and it is
scarce ercdible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three
years; so that, though the hedge made a circle of about twen-
ty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now
call them, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, suffi-
cient to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve
to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a
semi-circle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling),
which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double row,
at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently ; and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and
afterwards served for a defense also; as I shall observe in its
order.



SECTION XI.

ROBINSON MAKES A TOUR TO EXPLORE HIS ISLAND—~EMPLOYED IN BAS~
KET-MAKING.

I rounp now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter as in Europe, but into the
rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were generally thus;
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 129

From the’ middle of February to the middle of April, rainy ;
the sun being then on or near the equinox. From the middle
of April till the middle of August, dry; the sun being then
north of the line. From the middle of August till the middle
of October, rainy; the sun being then come back to the Line.
From the middle of October to the middle of February, dry;
the sun being then to the south of the Line.

The rainy scason held sometimes longer and sometimes
shorter, as the winds happened to blow; but this was the gen-
eral observation I made. After I had found, by experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care
to furnish myself with provisoins before hand, that I might
not be obliged to go out; and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. This time I found much em-
ployment, and very suitable also to the time; for I found great
occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish my-
self with but by hard labor and constant application ; particu-
larly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket; but all
the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle that
they would do nothing. It proved an excellent advantage to
me now, that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight
in standing at a basket-maker’s in the town where my father
lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys
usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the
manner how they worked those things, and sometimes lending
a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods
of it, so that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it
came into my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence I
cut my stakes that grew might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers, in England ; and I resolved to try.
Accordingly, the next day, I went to my country-house, as I
called it; and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them
to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon I came
the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was plenty of them These I


- 130 ADVENTURES OF

set up to dry within my circle or hedge; and when they were
fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the

next season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could,

several baskets; both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any-

‘thing as I had occasion for. Though I did not finish them

very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for

my purpose: and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be

without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more ;

especially strong decp baskets, to place my corn in, instead of

sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to sce, if possible, how to
supply two other wants. I had no vessel to hold anything that
was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum ;
and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others
(which were case bottles) square, for the holding of waters,
spirits, &e. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything; ex-_
ecpt a great kettle which I saved out of the ship, which was
too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to make broth, and
stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I would fain
have had, was a tobacco pipe; but it was impossible for me to
make onc; however, I found a contrivance for that too at last.
I employed myself in planting my second row of stakes or
piles, and also in this wicker-working all the summer or dry
season; when another business took me up more time than it
could be imagined I could spare.

I mentioned before that I had a great mind to sce the
whole island; and that I had traveled up the brook, and so
on to where I had built my bower, and where I had an open-
ing quite to the sca, on the other side of the island. I now
resolved to travel quite across to the seashore, on that side: so
taking my gun, a hatchet and my dog, and a larger quantity
of powder and shot than usual; with two bisoutt-cakee and a
great bunch of raisins in my Sai for my store; I began
my journcy. When I had passed the vale where my ‘bower


ROBINSON CRUSOE: 181.

stood, as above, I came within view of the sea, to the west ;
and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried Iand, whether
an island or continent I could not tell; but it lay very high,
extending from W. to W.S.W. at a very great, distance; by
my gucss, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be;
otherwise than that I knew it must be part of America; and,
as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Span-
ish dominions; and perhaps was all inhabited by savages,
where, if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condi-
tion than I was now. I therefore acquiesced in the disposi-
tions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe
ordered every thing for the best; I say, I quieted my mind
with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of
being there. Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I
considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should
certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one
way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and the Brazils, whose inhabitants are
indecd the worst of savages; for they are cannibals, or men-
eaters, and fail not to murder and devour all human beings that.
fall into their hands.
With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward,
I found this side of the island, where I now was, much pleas-
anter than mine; the open or savannah fields sweetly adorned
with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw
abundance of parrots; and fain would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak to
me. I did, after taking some pains, catch a young parrot;
for I knocked it down with a stick, and, having recovered it,
I brought it home; but it was some years before I could make
him speak; however, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though
3t be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I founds in
132 ADVENTURES OF

the low grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes:
but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met
with; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed
several. But I had no need to be venturous; for I had no
want of food, and of that which was very good too ; especially
these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise.
With these, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market could not
have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the com-
pany; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness ; as I was not driven to any ex-
tremities for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties.

I never traveled on this journey above two miles outright
in a day, or thereabout ; but I took so many turns and returns
to see what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough
to the place where I resolved to sit down for the night; and,
then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself
with a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either from
one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me.

As soon as I came to the seashore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island;
for here indeed the shore was covered with innumerable tur-
tles; whereas, on the other side, I had found but three in a
year and a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls
of many kinds; some of which I had seen, and some of which
I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat;
but such as I knew not the names of, except those called pen-
guins.

T could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very spar-
-ing of my powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to
kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on. But,
though there were many goats here, more than on my side of
the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could
come near them; the country being flat and even, and they
saw me much sooner than when I was upon a hill.
. ROBINSON CRUSOE. 188

I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine; yet I had not the least inclination to remove; for as I
was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to me, and [
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a jour-
ney, and from home. However, I traveled along the seashore
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and then set-
ting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded I
would go home again; and that the next journey I took should
be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and
so round till I came to my post again: of which in its place.

I took another way to come back than that I went, think-
ing I could easily keep so much of the island in my view, that
I could not miss my first dwelling by viewing the country:
but I found myself mistaken; for being come about two or
three miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley,
but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the
position of the sun at that time of the day. And it happened
to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for
three or four days while I was in this valley; and not being
able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and
at last was obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post,
and come back the same way I went; and then by easy jour-
neys I turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things very heavy.

12


134 . _ ADVENTURES OF

SECTION XIU.
HE RETURNS TO HIS CAVE—TIIIS AGRICULTURAL LABORS AND SUCUES8

IN this journey, my dog surprised a young kid, and seized up-
on it: and running to take hold of it, I caught it, and saved
it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if
I could; for I had often been musing whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot would be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, with a string
which I had made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty, till I
came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and left him; for
I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
irto my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock bed. This
little wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
wyself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and
it revdered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey; during which, most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll,
who began now to be more domestic, arid to be mighty well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned within my little circle, and resclved to
fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it (for indeed it could not get out), but
ROBINSON ‘CRUSOE. 185°

was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs
of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and-
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to
lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I
had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog: and
as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gen-
tle, and so fond, that it was from that time one of my domes-
tics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island ;
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent-the
whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was at-
tended with, and without which it might have been infinitely —
more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks to God for
having been pleased to discover to me, that it was possible I
might be more happy even in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world; that he could fully make up to me the
deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human so-
ciety, by his presence, and the communications of his grace to.
my soul: supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to de-.
pend upon his providence here, and to hope for his eternal
presence hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how: much more”
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days: and now I changed both my sorrows-
and my joys: my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past. -
Before, as I walked-about, either on my hunting, or for view--
ing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition would
136 3 ADVENTURES OF

break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts
I was in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eter-
nal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness,
without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures
of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm and
make me wring my hands and weep like a child: sometimes
it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would im-
mediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an
hour or two together: this was still worse to me; but if I
could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings by words,
it would go off; and my grief being exhausted would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I
daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it
to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words, “‘E will never leave thee, nor for-
sake thee:’” immediately it occurred that these words were
to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken by God and man? Well then, said I, if
God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or
what matters it, though the world should forsake me; seeing
on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the
favor and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in
the loss?

From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any _
other particular state of the world; and with this thought I
was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst
thou be such a hypocrite, said I, even audibly, to pretend to
be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest en-


ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 187-

deavor to be contented with, thou wouldst’rather pray heartily
to be delivered from? Here I stopped; but though I could
not say I thanked God for being here, yet I sincerely gave
thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting
providences, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the
Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for
direeting my friend in England, without any order of mine, to
pack it up among my goods; and for assisting me afterwards
to save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my “third
year ; and though I have not given the reader the trouble of so
particular an account of my works this year as the first, yet in
general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle; but
having regularly divided my time, according to the several
diily employments that were: before me; such as, first, My
duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day: secondly, Going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took, me up three
hours every morning, when it did not rain: thirdly, Ordering,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or catched
for my supply; these took up great part of the day; also it is
to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun
was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to
stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the -
time I could be supposed to work in; with this exception, that
sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and working, and
went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in the
afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may be ‘added
the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours
which, for want of tools, want of help, and want of skill,
everything I did took up out of my time: for example, I was
full two and forty days making mea board for a long shelf,

1a*




188 ADVENTURES OF

which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their
tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the
same tree in half a day.
~My case was this; it was a large tree that was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I
was three days cutting down, and two more in cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it toa log, or picce of timber. With
inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of
it into chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned
it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board, from
cud to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other
side, till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick,
and smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labor of
my hands in such a piece of work; but labor and patience
carried me through that, and many other things; I only ob-
serve this in particular, to show the-reason why so much of
my time went away with so little work, viz., that what might
be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labor, and
required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. Not-
withstanding this, with patience and labor I went through
many things; and, indeed, everything that my circumstances
made necessary for me to do, as will appear by what follows.
I was now in the months of November and December, ex-
pecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had ma-
ured or dug up for them was not great; for as I obscrved,
my sced of each was not above the quantity of half a peck,
having lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry scason: but
now my crop promised very well; when, on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again by encmies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep from it; as, first,
the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tast-
ing the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon
as it came up, and ate it so close, that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalk.
T saw no remedy for this, but by making an enclosure
ROBINSON CRUSOE. — = 89>

about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil;
and the more, because it required speed. However, as my
arable land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably _
well fenced in about three weeks’ time; and shooting some of
the creatures in the daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the
night, tying him up toa stake at the gate, where he would
stand and bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies
forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and
began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it
was in the car; for going along by the place to sce how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, I know’
not of how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I
should be gone. I immediately let fly among them (for I
always had my gun with me); I had no sooner shot, but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not scen at all,
from among the corn itself. /

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved,
and never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could
not tell: however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I
went among it, to see what damage was already done, and
found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was
yet too green for them, the loss was not so great, but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.

I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me,
as if they only waited till I was gone away; and the event
proved it to be so;. for as I walked off, as if gone, I was no
sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down, one by one,
into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not have
patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every grain
they ate Now was, as it might be said, a peck loaf to me in
140 ADVENTURES OF

the consequence; so coming up to the hedge, I fired again,
and killed three of them. This was what I wished for; so I
took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves
in England, viz., hanged them in chains, for terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that. this should have such an effect
as it had; for the fowls not only never came to the corn, but,
in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could
never sec a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung
there. This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and about
the latter end of December, which was our second harvest of
the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down:
and all I could do was to make one as well as I could, out of
one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among
the arms out of the ship. However, as my first crop was but
small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down: in short, I
reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and car-
ried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rub-
bed it out with my hands; and at the end of all my harvest-
ing, I found that out of my half peck of seed I had near two
bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley ;
that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure.

However, this was great encouragement to me; and I fore-
saw that, in time, it would please God to supply me with
bread; and yet here I was perplexed again; for I neither
knew how to grind, or make meal of my corn, or indeed how
to clean it and part it; nor if made into meal, how to make
bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to
bake it: these things being added to my desire of having a
good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I re-
solved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for
seed against the next season; and, in the meantime, to em-
ploy all my study and hours of working to accomplish this
great work of providing myself with corn and bread.

Tt might be truly said, now T worked for my bread, It ie
ROBINSON CRiSO#. dat

» little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz., the strange multitude of little things neces-
sary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making,
and finishing this one article of bread. I, that was reduced
toa mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-
ment, and was made more sensible of it every hour, even after
I had got the first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said,
came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.

First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or
shovel to dig it: well, this I conquered by making a wooden
spade, as I ohserved before; but this did my work in but a
wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it, yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out sooner, but
made my work the harder, and performed it much worse. How-
ever, this I bore with, and was content to work it out with pa-
tience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When
the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over
it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to
scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or harrow it.
When it was growing and grown, I have observed already how
many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it,
cure and carry it home, thresh, part it from the chaff, and save
it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; and yet
all these things I did without, as shall be observed ; and the
corn was an inestimable comfort and advantage to me: all this,
as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to me, but
that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss
to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every
day appointed to these works; and as I resolved to use none
of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I
had the next’six months to apply myself wholly, by labur and
invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the per-
forming all the operations necessary for making corn fit for my
use. .
142 ADVENTURES OF

SECTION XIII.


















HIS MANUFACTURE OF POTTERY, AND CONTRIVANCE FOR BAKING BREAD»

Burt now I was td prepare more land; for I had seed enough.
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a.
week’s work at least, to make me a spade; which, when -it
was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and re-
quired double labor to work with it: however, I went through
that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of ground, as
near my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced *
them in with a good hedge; the stakes of which were all cub.
off that wood which I had set before, and knew it would grow ;

so that in one year’s time, I knew I should have a quick ors
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work
took me up full three months; because a great part of the time
was in the wet season, when I could not go abroad.’ Within
doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found
employment on the following occasions ; always observing that
while I was at- work, I diverted myself with talking to my.
parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly taught him
to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud,
Poll; which was the first word I ever heard spoken in’ the isl:
and by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my:
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had.
a great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long:
_ studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen:
vessels, which indeed I wanted much, but knew not where
come at them: however, considering the heat of the climat
I did not doubt but if-I could find out‘any clay, I might bote
up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun, be har
and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold anythivg th:




































TEACHING THE PARROY TO TALK Page 142.
- ROBINSON ckisdE: 148

was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was necessary
in the preparing corn, meal, &c., which was the thing I-was up-
on, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit’ only
to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me,
to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this pastil;
what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them —
fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough
to bear its own weight; how many eracked by the over vio- -
lent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how many
fell in pieces with only removing, as well before as after they_
were dried; and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to
find the clay; to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and
work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things
(I cannot call them jars) in about two months’ labor.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I
lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in two
great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for them,
that they might not break; and as between the pot and the
basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the
rice and barley straw; and these two pots being to stand al-
ways dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the
meal, when the corn was bruised.

Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success; such as
little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any-
thing my hand ‘turned to; and the heat of the sun baked them
very hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get
an earthen pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none
of these could do. It happened some time after, making a
pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it
out after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of
my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as. a stone,


144 : ADVENTURES Of

and red asa tile. Iwas agreeably surprised to see it; and
said to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn
whole, if they would burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I had
some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins and
two or three pots in a pile, one upon another, and placed my
fire-wood all around it, with a great heap of embers under
them. JI plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and
upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite
through, and observed that they did not crack at all: when I
saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five
or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack,
did melt or run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay
melted by the violence of the heat, and would have run into
glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till
the pots began to abate of the red color; and watching them
all night, that I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the
morning I had three very good, I will not say handsome, pip-
kins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be
desired; and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthenware for my use: but I must needs say, as to
the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, as I had no way of making them but as the children
make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste. No joy at a thing of so mean a nature
was ever equal to mine, when I found I had made an earthen
pot that would bear the fire ; and I had hardly patience to stay
till they were cold, before I set one on the fire again, with
some water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admira-
bly well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very good
“ROBINSON CRUSOE. - oes 145:

broth ; though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients -
requisite to make it so good as I would have had it been..

My next concern was to get a stone mortar to stamp or
beat some corn in it; for as to the mill, there was no thought
of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands, _
To.supply this want I was at a great loss; for, of all trades in
the world, I was perfectly unqualified for 2 stonecutter as for
_ any whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I
spent.many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar; but could find none at
all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way
to dig or cut out 3 nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of
sufficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy crumbling
stone, which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle,
nor would break the corn without fillmg it with sand; so, _
after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave ;
it over, and resolved to look out a great block of hard wood, |
which I found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as I -
had strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the outside
with my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of the fire,
and infinite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in .
Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made.a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood, called iron-wood: and this I
prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when -
I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.

My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or search, to dress
my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without
which I did not see it possible I could have any bread. -
This was a most difficult thing, even but to think on; for I
had nothing like the necessary thing to make it ; I mean fine
thin canvass or stuff, to search the meal through. Here I was
at a full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to
do: linen I had none left, but what was mere rags; I had

13
146 ADVENTURES Of

goats’ hair, but ucither knew how to weave it nor spin it; and
had I known how, here were no tools to work it with: all the
remedy I found for this was, at last recollecting I had, among
the seaman’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin, with some pieces of these I
made three small sieves, proper enough for the work; and
thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall
show in its place. ‘

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I came to have corn: for, first,
Thad no yeast; as to that part, there was no supplying the
want, so I did not concern myself much about it; but for an
oven I was indeed puzzled. At length I found out an expe-
dient for that also, which was this; I made some earthen ves-
sels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two fect
diameter, and not above nine inches deep: these 1 burned in
the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and when
I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, which I
had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and
burning also ; but I should not call them square. When the
firewood was burned into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there
let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then sweeping away
all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and covering
them with the earthen pot, drew the embers all round the out-
side of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and thus, as
well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley loaves,
and became, in a little time, a good pastry-cook into the bar-
gain; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the
rice; but made no pies, as I had nothing to put into them ex-

‘cept the flesh of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up
most part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be
observed, in the intervals of these things, I had my new har-
vest and husbandry to manage: I reaped my corn in its season,

x
foBINSON GRUSOE. 147

and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the
ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to ruh it out; for I
had no floor to thresh it on, or instrument to thresh it with.

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger: I wanted a place to lay it
up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me so much,
that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of rice as
much, or more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to use
it freely ; for my bread had been quite gone a great while: I
resolved also to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a
whole year, and to sow but once a year.

Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley
and rice were much more than I could consume in a year; 80
I resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I
sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully pro-
vide me with bread, &e.

SECTION XIV.

MEDITATES HIS ESCAPE FROM THE ISLAND — BUILDS A CANOE — FAILURE
OF MIS SCHEME — RESIGNATION TO HIS CONDITION — MAKES HIMSELF
A NEW DRESS. :

Aut the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I
had seen from the other side of the island; and I was not
without some secret wishes that I was on shore there ; fancying,
that seeing the main land, and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps
at last find some means of escape.

But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of
148 ADVENTURES OF

e

such a condition, and that I might fall into the hands of savd-
ges, and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far
’ worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came
in their power, I should run a hazard of more than a thousand
to one of being killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had
heard that the people of the Carribean coast were cannibals, or
man-eaters; and I knew, by the latitude, that I could not be
far off from that shore. Then supposing they were not canni-
bals, yet that they might kill me, as they had many Europe-
aus who had fallen into their hands, even when they have been
ten or twenty together; much more I, who was but one, and
could make little or no defense; all these things, I say, which
I ought to have considered well of, and did cast up in my
thoughts afterwards, took up none of my apprehensions at
first; yet my head ran mightily upon the thought of getting
- over to the shore. i

Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa: but this was in vain: then I
thought I would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I
have said, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where
she did at first, but not quite; having turned, by the force of
the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward, against a
high ridge of beachy rough sand; but no water about her, as
before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done very
well, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her
easily enough; but I might have forescen that I could no more
turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could
remove the island: however, I went to the woods, and cut le-
vers and rollers, and brought them to the boat, resolving to try
what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but
turn her down, and repair the damage she had received, she
would be a very good boat, and I might venture to sea in her


ROBINSON CRUSOE. . 149

I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil/and
spent, I think, three or four weeks about it: at last, finding it.
impossible to heave her up with my little strength, I fell to
digging away the sand, to undermine her, and so as to make
her fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide her
right in the fall. But when I had done this, I was unable to -
stir her up again, or to get under her, much less to move her
forward towards the water; so I was forced to give it over:
and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire
to venture over the main increased, rather than diminished, as
the means for it seemed impossible. :

At Iehgth; I began to think whether 1t was not possible to
make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of these
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without
hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely with the idea.
of making it, and with my having much more convenience for "
it than any of the Negroes or Indians; but not at all consid-
ering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more
than the Indians did, viz., the want of hands to move it into
the water when it was made, a difficulty much harder for me
to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools could
be to them: for what could it avail me, if, after I had chosen
my tree, and with much trouble cut it down, and might be able
with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the proper shape
of a boat, and burn or cut the inside to make it hollow, so as
to make a boat of it —if, after all this, I must leave it just
where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water ?

One would imagine, if I had had the least reflection upon
my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat,
I should have immediately thought how I was to get it into
the sea: but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage in
it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the
land; and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for
me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than the forty+

18"


150 ADVENTURES OF

five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the
water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased
myself with the design, without determining whether I was
able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching
my boat came often into my head; but I put a stop to my
own inquiries into it, by this foolish answer: Let us first make
it; I warrant I will find some way or other to get it along
when it is done. j

This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness
of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar
tree, and I question much whether Solomon ever had such a
one for the building of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five
feet ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and
four fect eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two fect,
where it lessened and then parted into branches. It was not
without infinite labor that I felled this tree; I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more getting
the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of it, cut
off: after this, it cost mc a month to shape it and dub it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near
three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to
make an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, without fire, by
mere mallet and chiscl, and by the dint of hard labor, till I
had brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough
to have carried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big enough
to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really mach bigger than ever
I saw a canoe or a periagna that was made of one tree, In my
life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and
there remained nothing but to get it into the water; which,
had I accomplished, I make no question but I should haye be-

-
e
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 151

gun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be per-
formed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me;
though they cost me inexpressible labor too. It lay about one
hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the first in-
convenience was, it was up hill towards the creck. Well, to
take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the sur-
face of the earth and so make a declivity ; this I began, and it
cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains
that have their deliverance in view?); when this was worked
through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much the same,
for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the canoc, seeing I
could not bring the cance down to the water. Well, I began
this work ; and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate
how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to
be thrown out, I found by the number of hands I had, having
none but my own, that it must have been ten or twelve years
before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so
high, that at the upper end it must have been at least twenty
fect deep; this attempt, though with great reluctancy, I was
at length obliged to give over also.

This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late,
the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and
before we judge rightly of our own strength to go through
with it.

In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in
this place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion,
and with as much comfort as before; for, by a constant study
and serious application to the word of God, and by the assist-
ance of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I
had before; I entertained different notions of things; I looked
upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do
with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about; ina


152 : ADVENTURES OF

word, I had nothing to do with it, nor was ever likely to have;
I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter,
viz., asa place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and
well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, ‘“ Between me
and thee is a great gulf fixed.”

Tn the first place, I was here removed from all the wicked-
ness of the world; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust

of the eye, nor the pride of life. “I had nothing to covet, for

T had all that I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of
the whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king
or emperor over the whole country which I had possession of ;
there were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute
sovereignty or command with me: I might have raised ship-
loadings of corn, but I had no use for it: so I let as little
grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoige or
turtle enough, but now and then one was as much as I could
put to any use; I had timber enough to have built a flect of
ships; and I ta grapes enough to have made wine, or to have
cured into raisins, to have loaded that flect when it had ‘been
built.

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I
had enough to cat and supply my wants, and what was the
rest tome? If I killed more flesh than I could cat, the dog
must eat if, or vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could
eat, it must be spoiled; the trecs that I cut down were lying
to rot on the ground; I could make no use of them than for
fuel, and that I had no other cccasion for but to dress my
food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to
me, upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world
are of no farther good to us than for our use; and that what-
ever we may heap up to give others, we enjoy only as much as
we can use, and no more. The most covetous griping miser
in the world would have been cured of the vice of covetous-
ness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely
ROBINSON ORUSOE. "188:

more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire,.
except it was for things which I had not, and they were com-.
paratively but trifles, though indeed of great use tome. I had,
as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver,
about thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry,
useless stuff lay: I had no manner of business for it: and I
often thought within myself, that I would have given a handful
of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my
corn; nay, I would have given it all for a sixpenny worth of
turnip and carrot secd from England, or for a handful of peas
and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the
least advantage by it, or benefit from it; but there it lay- in a
drawer, and grew mouldy with the dinp of the ‘cave in the
wet seasons; and if I bad had the drawer full of diamonds, it
had been the same case, — they would have been of no man-
ner of value to me because of no use. ;

I had now brought my state of life to be much more com- -
fortable in itself than it was at first, and much casier to my’
mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat
with thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, _
which had thus spread my table in the wilderness : I learned to
look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less upon .
the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed, rather-than what
I wanted: and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts,
that I cannot express them; and which I take notice of here,
to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot en- -
joy comfortably what God has given them, because they see
and covet something that he has not given them. All our
discontents about what we want appeared to me to spring from
the want of thankfulness for what we have. ‘

Another reflection was of great use to me, and dosibitiees
would be so to any one that should fall into such distress as
mine was; and this was, to compare my present condition with
what I at first expected it would be: nay, with what it would -
_ certainly have been, if the good providence of God had not~
154 : ADVENTURES OF

wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up near the shore,
where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I
got out of her to the shore, for my relief and comfort; with-
out which, I wanted for tools to work, weapons for defense,
and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in represent-
ing to myself, in the most lively colors, how I must have acted
if Thad got nothing out of the ship. I could not have so
much as got any food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it
was long before I found any of them, I must have perished ;
that I should have lived, if I had not perished, like a mere
savage; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any contriv-
ance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from
the skin and the bowels, or to cut it up, but must gnaw it with
my tecth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of
Providence to me, and very thankful for my present condition,
with all its hardships and misfortunes; and this part also I
cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt,
in their misery, to say, Is any affliction like mine? Let them
consider how much worse the cases of some people are, and
thcir case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort
my mind with hopes; and this was, comparing my present
ecndition with what I had deserved, and had therefore reason
to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dread-
ful life, perfectly destitute of the knowledge and fear of God.
I had been well instructed by my father and mother; neither
had they been wanting to me, in their endeavors to nifuse an
early religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty,
and what the nature and end of my being required of me.
But, alas! falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all
lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though his ter-
rors are always before them; I say, falling early into the sea-
faring life, and into scafuring company, all that little sense of
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 155 °

religion. which I had entertained was laughed out of me by
my messmates; by a hardened despising of dangers, and the
views of death, which grew habitual to me; by my long ab-
sence from all manner of opportunities to converse with any-
thing but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was
cod, or tending towards it. ‘

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least
sense of what I was, or was to be, that in ihe greatest deliver-
ances I enjoyed (such as my escape from Sallee, my being
taken up by the Portugese master of a ship, my being planted
so well in the Brazils, my receiving the cargo from England,
and the like) I never had once the words, Thank God, so much
as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest distress
had I so much as a thought to pray to him, or so much as to
say, Lord, have merey upon me! no, nor to mention the name
of Gud, unless it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.

I had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months,
as I have ‘already observed, on account of my wicked and
hardened life past; and when I looked about me, and consid-
cred what particular providences had attended me since my
coming into this place, and how God had dealt bountifully with
me,—had not only punished me less than my iniquity had de-
served, but had so plentifully provided for me, —this gave me
great hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God
had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections I worked my mind up, not only to
a resignation to the will of God in the present disposition of
my circumstances, but even to a sinccre thankfulness for my
condition ; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to
complain, secing I had not the due punishment of my sins;
that I enjoyed so many mercies which I had no reason to have
expected in that place, that I ought never more to repine at
my condition, -but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that
daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of wonders could have
brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed by a miracle,




-156 ADVENTURES OF

even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a
long series of miracles; and that I could hardly have named
a place in the uninhabitable part of the world where I could
have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I had
no society, which was my afHiction on one hand, so I found
no ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my:
life; no venomous or poisonous creatures, which I might feed
on to my hurt; no savages, to murder and devour me. Ina
word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life
of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life of
comfort, but to make myself sensible of God’s goodness to
me, and care over me in this condition; and after I did make
a just improvement of these things, I went away, and was no
more sad.

I had now been here so long, that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were cither quite gone, or very
much wasted, and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone for some time, all’
but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a
little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black
upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made use of it to
minute down the days of the month on which any remarkable
thing happened to me: and, first, by casting up times past, I
remember that there was a strange concurrence of days in the
various providences which befell me, and which, if I had been
superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I
might have had reason to have looked upon with a great deal
of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away
from my father and my friends, and ran away to Hull, in or-
der to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was taken by the
Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave; the same day of the
year that I escaped out of the wreck of the ship in Yarmouth
Roads, that same day years afterwards, I made my escape from
Sallee in the boat: and the same day of the year I was born


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 157 -

on, viz., the 80th of September, that same day I had my life
so miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast
on shore in this island : so that my wicked life and my solitary
life began both on one day. :

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my
bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the ship:
this I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but
one cake of bread a day for above a year; and yet I was quite
without bread for near a year before I got any corn of my
own; and great reason I had to be thankful that I had any at
all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to
miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily: as to linen, I
had none for a great while, except some checkered shirts which
I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I care-
fully preserved, because many times I could bear no clothes on
but a shirt; and it was a very great help to me that I had,
among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of
shirts. There were also, indeed, several thick watchcoats of
the seamen’s which were left, but they were tco hot to wear:
and though it is true that the weather was so violently hot
that there was no necd of clothes, yet I could not go quite ~
naked, no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not,
nor could I abide the thought of it, though I was all alone.
The reason why I could not go quite naked was, I could not
bear the heat of the sun. so well when quite naked as with
some clothes on; nay, the very heat frequently blistered my
skin: whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some mo-
tion, and whistling under the shirt, was two-fold cooler than
without it. No more could I ever bring myself to go out in
the heat of the sun without acap or hat; the heat of the
. sun beating with such violence as it does in that place, would

give me the headache presently, by darting so directly upon

my head, without a cap or a hat on, so that I could not bear

-it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.
14




158 ADVENTURES OF

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the
few rags I had, which I called clothes, into some order. I had
worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my business was now
to try if I could not make jackets out of the great watchcoats
that I had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so
I sct to work a tailoring, or rather, indecd, a botching, fur I
made most piteous work of it. However I made shift to make
two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me
a great while: as for breeches, or drawers, [ made but a very
sorry shift indecd, till afterwards.

Thave mentioned that I saved the skins of all the crea-
tures that I killed, I mean four-footed ones; and I had hung
them up, stretched out with sticks, in the sun, by which means
some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little,
but others I found very useful. The first thing I made of
these was a great cap for my head, with the hair on the out-
side, to shoot off the rain; and this I performed so well, that
after this I made me a suit of clothes wholly of the skins, that
is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches, open at the knees, and
both loose; for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than
warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse
tailor. However, they were-such as I made very good shift
with; and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair
of my waistcoat and cap being uppermost, I was ,kept very
dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to mike
me an umbrella: I was indeed in great want of one, and had
a great mind to make onc: I had seen them made in the Bra-
zils, where they were very useful in the great heats which are
there; and I felt the heat every jot as great here, and greater
too, being nearer the equinox: besides, as I was obliged to be
much abroad, it was a most uscful thing to me, as well for the
rains as the heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a
great while before I could make anything likely to hold; nay,


ROBINSON CRUSOE. “159

after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three be-
fore I made one to my mind; but at last made one that an-
swered indifferently well; the main difficulty I found was to
make it to let down: I could make it spread, but if it did not
Ict down too, and draw in, it was not portable for me any way
but just over my head, which would not do. However, at last,
as I said, IT made one to answer, and covered it with skins, the
hair upwards, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and
kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the -
hoitest of the weather with greater advantage than I could be-
fore in the coolest; and when I had no necd of it, could close
it and carry it under my arm.

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely
composed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing my-
self wholly upon the disposal of his providence. ‘This made
my life better than sociable; for when I began to regret the
want of conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus con-
versing mutually with my own thoughts, and, as I hope I may
say, with even God himself, by ejaculations, was not better
than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the world ?

SECTION XV.

IE MAKES A SMALLER CANOE, IN WHICH HE ATTEMPTS TO CRUISE ROUND
THE ISLAND — HIS PERILOUS SITUATION AT SEA— HE RETURNS HOME..

I cANNor say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary
thing happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in
the same posture and place, just as before; the chief things I
was employed in, besides my yearly labor of planting my bar-
ley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always








Da eine eh



160 ADVENTURES OF’

kept up just enough to have sufficient. stock of one year’s pro-
vision beforchand : I say, besides this yearly labor, and my daily
pursuit of going out with my gun, I had one labor, to make
me a canoe, which at last I finished; so that by digging a
canal to it of six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought it
into the ercek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was
so vastly big, as I made it without considering beforehand, as
T ought to do, how I should be able to launch it, so, never be-
ing able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I
was obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memorandum to
teach me to be wiser the next time: indeed, the next time,
though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place
where I could not get the water to it at any less distance than,
as I have said, near half a mile, yet as I saw it was practicable
at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labor, in hopes of having a
boat to go off to sca at last.

However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the
size of it was not at all answerable to the design which I had
in view when I made the first; I mean of venturing over to the
terra firma, where it was above forty miles broad; accord-
itly, the smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that
design, and now I thought no more of it. As I hada boat,
my next design was to make a cruise round the island; for as
Thad been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have
already described it, over the Jand, so the discoveries I made
in that little journey made me very eager to see other parts of
the coast; and now I had a boat, T thought of nothing but
sailing round the island.

For this purpose, that I might do everything with disere-
tion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and_
made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the ship’s sails
which lay in store, and of which I hada great stock by me.
‘Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found
she would sail very well: then I made little lockers, or boxes,


ROBINSON CRUSOE. . 161 ©

at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammu-
nition, &c., into, to be kept dry, cither from rain or the spray
of the sea; anda little long hollow place I cut in the inside
of the bout, where I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang
down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, |
to stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me,
like an awning; and thus every now and then took a little
voyage upon the sca, but never went far out, nor far from the
little creck. At last, being eager to view the circumference
of my little. kingdom, I resolved upon my cruise ; and accord-
ingly, I victualed my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen
of loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an
earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great deal of),
alittle bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for
killmg more, and two large watchcoats, of those which, as I
mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen’s chests ;
these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the
night.

It was the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my
reign, or my captivity, which you please, that I sct out on this
voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected; for
though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came
to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie about
two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it;
and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry, half a league more,
so that I was obliged to go a great way out to sca to double
the point. i

When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my
enterprise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might
oblige me to put out to sca, and above all, doubting how I
should get back ayain; so I came to an anchor; for I had
made me a kind of anchor with a picce of a broken grappling
which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went op

4*




162. ADVENTURES OF :

shore, climbing up on a hill, which seemed to overlook that
point where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to ven-
ture. i

In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I per-
ceived a strong, and indeed-a most furious current, which ran
to the east, and even came close to the point; and I took the
more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger
that, when I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the
strength of it, and not be able to make the island again: and,
indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it would
have been so; for there was the same current op the other
side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I
saw there was a strong eddy under the shore: so I had noth-
ing todo but get out of the first current, and I should pres-
ently be in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing
pretty fresh at K.S.E., and that being just contrary to the said
current, made a great breach of the sca upon the point; so
that it was not safe for me to keep too close to the shore, for
the breach, nor to go too far off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated
over night, the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a
warning-piece again to all rash and ignorant pilots: for no
sooner was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s
length from the shore, but I found myself in a great depth of
water, and a current like the sluice of a mill; it carried my
boat along with it with such violence, that all I could do
could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found
it hurricd me farther and further out from the eddy, which
was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me,
and all I could do with my paddles signified nothing: and
now I began to give mysclf over for lost; for as the current
was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ dis-
tance they must join again, and then I was irrecoverably gone ;
nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had no


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 168

prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that
was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I had indeed
found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and
had tossed it into the boat; and T had a great jar of fresh wa-
ter, that is to say, onc of my earthen pots; but what was all
this to being driven into the vast occan, where, to be sure, there
was no shore, no main land or island, for a thousand leagues at
least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God
to make even the most miserable condition of mankind worse.
Naw I looked back upon my desolate, solitary island as the
most pleasant place in the world; and all the happiness my
heart could wish for was to be but there again. I stretched
out my hands to it, with eager wishes: O happy desert! said
I, I shall never sce thee more. O miserable creature ! whither
am I going! Then I reproached myself with my unthankful
temper, and how I had repined at my solitary condition; and
now what would I give to be on shore there again! Thus we
never sec the true state of our condition till it is illustrated to
us by its contrarics, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but
by the want of it. It is scarce possible to imagine the conster-
nation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for
so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost
two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it
again. However, I worked hard, till indeed my strength was
almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much to the northward,
that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy lay on,
as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun passed the
meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my face,
springing up from 8.8.K. This checred my heart a little, and
especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty
gentle gale. By this time I got at a frightful distance from
the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather inter-
vened, I had been undone another way too; for I had no com-
pass on board, and should never ‘have known how to have.






\
‘

164 ADVENTURES OF

steered towards the island, if I had but once lost sight of it;
but the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get up
my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the north
as much as possible, to get out of the current.

Just as I had sct my mast and sail, and the boat began to
stretch away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some
alteration of the current was near; for where the current was
so strong, the water was foul; but percciving the water clear,
I found the current abate; and presently I found to the cast,
at about half a mile, a breach of the sea upon some rocks:
these rocks I found caused the current to part again, and as the
main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks
to the north-cast, so the other returned by the repulse of ‘the
rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the
north-west, with a very sharp stream.

They who know what it is to have a repricve brought to
them upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thcives just going
tu murder them, or who have been in such-like extremities, may
guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I
put my boat into the stream of this eddy; and the wind also
freshening, how gladly I spread my sail to it, running cheer-
fully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under
foot.

This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again,
directly towards the island, but about two leagues more to the
northward than the current which carried me away at first: so
that when I came near the island, I found myself open to the
northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the isl-
land, opposite to that which I went out from.

When I had made something more than a league of way
by the help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and
served me no farther. However, I found that being between
two great currents, viz., that on the south side, which had hur-
ried me away, and that on the north, which lay about a league


hoistitsoN cftsok. «= HBB

on the other side; I say, between these two, in the wake of
the island, I found the water at least still, and running. no
way ; and having still a breeze of wind fair to me, I kept on
steering directly for the island, though not making such fresh
way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within a
league of the island, I found the point of the rocks which occa-
sioned this disaster stretching out, as is described before, to
the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had,
of course, made another eddy to the north; and this I found
very strong, but not directly setting the way my course lay,
which was due west, but almost full north. However, having
a fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west ;
and, in about an hour, came within about a mile of the shore,
where, it being smooth, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God
thanks for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts
of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself with
such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in
a little cove that I had spicd under some trecs, and laid me
down to sleep, being quite spent with the labor and fatigue of .
the voyage. :

_ I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my
boat: I had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the
case, to think of attempting it by the way I went out; and
what might be at.the other side (I mean the west side) I knew
not, nor had I any mind to run any more ventures; so I only
resolved in the morning to make my way westward along the
shore, and see if there was no creek where I might lay up my
frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In-
about three miles, or thereabout, coasting the shore, I came to
a very good inlet or bay, about a mile over, which narrowed
till it came to-a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a
very convenient harbor for my boat, and where she lay as if
ié6 ADVENTURES Of

she had been in a little dock made on purpose for her. Heré
I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I weat on
shore, to look about me, and see where I was.

T soon found I had but a little passed by the place where
I had been before when I traveled on foot to that shore; so
taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for
it was exceeding hot, I began my march. The way was com-
fortable enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I
reached my old bower in the evening, where I found every-
thing standing as I had left it; for I always kept it in good
order, being, as I said before, my country house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest
my limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep: but judge
you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise I must
be in, when I was awaked out of. my sleep by a voice, calling
me by my name several times, Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe ;
poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you, Robin Crusoe? Where
are you? Where have you been?

Iwas so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing,
or paddling as it is called, the first part of the day, and with
walking the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but
dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that
somebody spoke to me; but as the voice continued to repeat
Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe, at last I began to wake more per-
fectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in
the utmost consternation ; but no sooner were my eyes open, but
I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the hedge; and immedi-
ately knew it was he that spoke to me: for just in such be-
moaning language I had used to talk to him; and teach him;
and he had learned it so perfectly, that he would sit upon my
finger, and lay his bill clese to my face, and ery, Poor Robin
Crusoe; Where are you? Where have you been? How came
you here? and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that
indeed it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I


RoBiNSON cRtisoL. 167°

could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the creature’
got thither ; and then how he should just keep about the place
and nowhere else; but as I was well satisfied it could be no-
body but honest Poll, I got over it; and holding out my hand,
and calling him by his name, Poll, the sociable ereature came
to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and contin-
ued talking to me, Poor Robin Crusoe! and how did I come
here? and where had I becn ? just as if he had been overjoyed
to see me again: and so I carried him home along with me.

I now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and
had enough todo for many days to sit still, and to*reflect upon
the danger I had been in. I would have been very glad to
have had my boat again on my side of the island; but I knew
not how it was practicable to get it about. As to the east side
of the island, which I had gone round, I knew well enough
there was no venturing that way ; my very heart would shrink,
and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and as to the
other side of the island, I did not know how it might be there ;
but supposing the current ran with the same force against’ the
shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might run
the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by
the island, as I had been before of.being carried away from it;
so, with these thoughts, I contented myself to be without any
boat, though it had been the product of so many months’ labor
to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper I remained near a year,
lived a very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and
my thoughts being very much composed, as to my condition,
and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really happily in all things except
that of society.

I improved myself in this time in‘all the mechanic exer.
cises which my necessities put me upon applying myself to;
and I believe I could upon occasion, have made a very good
carpenter; especially considering how few tools I had.
168 ADVENTURES Of 4

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpectea perfection in my
earthen-ware, and contrived well enough to make them with a
wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better; because I
made things round and shapcable, which before were filthy
things indeed to look upon. But I think I was never more
vain of my own performance, or more joyful for anything I
found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and
though it was a very ugly clumsy thing when it was done, and
only burned red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard
and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly com-
forted with it, for I had been always used to smoke: and
there were pipes in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not
thinking that there was tobacco in the island; and afterwards,
when I searched the ship again, I could not come at any pipes
at all.

In my wicker ware also I improved much, and made
abundance of necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed
me; though not very handsome, yet they were such as were
very handy and convenient for my laying things up in, or
fetching things home. For example, if I killed a goat abroad,
I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it, and cut it in
pieces, and bring it home in a basket; and like by a turtle; I
could cut it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of the
flesh, which was cnough for me, and bring them home in a
basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also large deep bas-
kets for the receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed out
as soon as it was dry, and cured, and kept it in great baskets.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ;
this was a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and
I began seriously to consider what I must do when I should
have no more powder, that is to say, how I should do to kill
any goats. I had as is observed, in the third year of my be-
ing here, kept a young kid, and bred her up tame, and I was
in hopes of getting a he-goat: but I could not by any means




ROBINSON ORUSOE. — . $69

bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I could
never find it in my heart to kill her, she died at last of mere
age.

SECTION XVI.

IIE REARS A FLOCK OF GOATS—HIS DAIRY— HIS DOMESTIC HABITS AND
STYLE OF LIVING — INCREASING PROSPERITY.

Bring now in the eleventh year of my residence, and as I
have said, my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study
some art to trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could
not catch some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a
she-goat great with young. For this purpose, I made snares
to hamper them; and I do believe they were more than once
taken in them : but my tackle was not good, for I had no wire,
and I always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At
length I resolved to try a pitfall: so I dug several large pits
in the earth, in places where I had observed the goats used to

feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles, of my own making

too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put
ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and I
could easily perceive that the goats had gone im and eaten up
the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length I
set three traps in one night, and going the next morning, I
found them all standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone.
This was very discouraging : however, I altered my traps; and,
not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see
iy traps, I found in one of them a large old he-goat, and in
one of the others three kids, a male and two females.

18



!
170 ~ ADVENTURES OF

. As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he-
was so fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to
say, to go about to bring him away alive, which was what I
wanted: I could have killed him, but that was not my busi-
ness, nor would it answer my end; so I even let him out, and
he ran away, as if he had been frightened out of his wits.
But I had forgot then, what I had learned afterwards, that
hunger will tame a lion. If J had let him stay there three or
four days without food, and then have carried him some water
to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame
as one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable
ereatures, where they are well used. However, for the present
I let him go, knowing no better at that time: then I went to
the three kids, and taking them one by one, I ticd them with
strings together, and with some difficulty brought them all
home.

It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing
them some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be
tame. And now I found that if I expected to supply myself
with goat’s flesh when I had no powder or shot left, breeding
some up tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have
them about my house like a flock of sheep. But then it oc-
curred to me, that I must keep the time from the wild, or else
they would always run wild when they grew up; and the only
way for this was, to have some enclosed piece of ground, well
fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep them in so effectu-
ally, that those within might not break out, or those without
break in.

This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet
as I saw there was an absolute necessity for doing it, my first
work was to find out a proper piece of ground, where there
was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them to
drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.

Those who understand such enclosures will think I had
very little contrivance, when I pitched upon a place very proper
HobtNsoN citso#. . i

for all these (being a plaiti open piece of meadow land, or sa-
vannah, as our people call it in the western colonies), which ~
had two or three little drills of fresh water in it, and at one
end was very woody; I say, they will smile at my forecast,
when I shall tell them, I began my enclosing this piece of
ground in such a manner, that my hedge or pale must have
been at least two miles about. Nor was the madness of it so
great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was
like to have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider
that my goats would be as wild in so much compass as if they
had had the whole island, and I should have so much room to
chase them in, that I should never-catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe about fifty
yards, when this thought occurred to me: so I presently stop-
ped short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to enclose a
piece of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one
hundred yards in breadth : which, as it would maintain as many
as I should have in any reasonable time, so, as my stock in-
ereased, I could add more ground to my enclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work
with courage. I was about three months hedging in the first
piece; and, till I had done it, I tethered the three kids in the
best part of it, and used’ them to feed as near me as possible,
to make them familiar; and very often I would go and carry
them some ears of tavley, or a handful of rice, and feed them
out of my hand: so that after my enclosure was finished, and
I let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating
after me for a handful of corn.

This answered my end; and in about a year and a half I
had a flock of about swelve goats, kids and all; and in two
years more, I had three and forty, beside several that I took
and killed for my food. After that I enclosed five several
pieces of ground to feed them in, with little pens to drive them
into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out of one piece of
ground into another.
172 ADVENTURES Of

But this was not all; for now I not only had goat’s flesh to
feed on when I pleased, but milk too; a thing which, indeed,
in the beginning, I did not so much as think of, and which,
when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable sur-
prise; for now I sct up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon
or two of milk ina day. And as Nature, who gives supplies
of food to every ereature, dictates even naturally how to make
use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a goat,
or scen butter or cheese made, only when I was a boy, after a
great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter and
cheese at last, and also salt (though I found it partly made to
my hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the rocks of
the sea), and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully can
our Creator treat his creatures, even in those conditions in
which they seemed to be overwhelmed in destruction! How
can he sweeten the bitterest providences, and give us cause to
praise him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here
spread for me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing, at first,
but to perish for hunger !

It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my
little family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the
prince and lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all my
subjects at my absolute command; I could hang, draw, give
liberty, and take it away; and no rebels among all my sub-
jects.

Then to sce how like a king I dined too, all alone, attended
by my servants: Poll, as if he had been my favorite, was the
only person permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now
grown very old and crazy, and had found no species to muliply
his kind upon, sat always at my right hand; and two cats, one
on one side of the table, and one on the other, expecting now
and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of special favor.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore
at first, for they were both of them dead, and had been inter-
ted near my habitation by my own hand; but one of them


ROBINSON ORUSOE. 178 -

having multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these
were two which I preserved tame, whereas the rest ran wild in
the woods, and became indced troublesome to me at last; for
they would often come into my house, and plunder me too, till
at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did kill a great many ;
at length they left me.— With this attendance, and in this
plentiful manuer, I lived: neither could I be said to want any-
thing but society; and of that, some time after this, I wag
like to have too much.

I was something impatient, as [ have observed, to have the
use of my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards ;
and therefore, sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about
the island, and at other times I sat myself down contented
enough without her. But I had a strange uncasiness in my
mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as I have
said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore
lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had to
do: this inclination increased upon me every day, and at length
I resolved to travel thither by land, following the edge of the
shore. I did so; but had any one in England been to meet
such a man as I was, it must cither have frightened him, or
raised a great deal of laughter; and as I frequently stood still
to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my :
traveling through Yorkshire, with such an equipage, and in
such adress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as
follows.

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat’s skin,
with a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from
me as to shoot the rain off from running into my neck; noth-
ing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the
flesh, under the clothes.

I had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down
to about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed

- breeches of the same; the breeches were made of the skin of
an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either
16*




174 ADVENTURES OF

side, that, like pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs;
stockings and shoes I had none, but had made me a pair of
somethings, I scarce know what to call them, like busking, ‘to
flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes,
but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed were ail the rest of
my clothes.

Thad on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew
together with two throngs of the same, instead of buckles;
and in a kind of a frog on cither side of this, instead of a
sword and dagger, hung a little saw and hatchet; one on one
side, and one on the other. I had another belt, not so broad,
_ and fastened in the same manner, which hung over my shoul-
der ; and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches,
both made of goat’s skin too: in one of which hung my pow-
der, in the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket,
and on my shoulder my gun ; and over my head a great clumsy
ugly goat’s skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary thing I had about me, next to my gun. As for my
face, the color of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might
expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within
nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suf-
fered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long; but as I
had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had cut it pretty short,
except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into
a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn
by some Turks at Sallee; for the Moors did not wear such,
though the Turks did; of these mustachios or whiskers, I will
not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but
they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such
as, in England, would have passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so
few to observe me that it was of no manner of consequence ;
so I say no more to that part. In this kind of figure I went
my new journey, and was out five or six days. I traveled first -
along the seashore, directly to the place where I first brought


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 175

my boat to an anchor, to get upon the rocks; and having no
boat now to take care of, I went over the land, a nearer way,
to the same height that I was upon before; when looking for-
ward to the point of the rocks which lay out, and which I was
obliged to double with my boat, as is said above, I was sur-
prised to sec the sca all smooth and quict; no rippling, no
motion, no current, any more than in any other places. I was
at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved to spend
some time in observing it, to sce if nothing from the sets of
the tide had occasioned it; but I was presently convinced how
it was, viz., that the tide of ebb, setting from the west, and
joining with the current of waters from some great river on
the shore ; must be the occasion of this current; and that ac-
cording as the wind blew more forcibly from the west, or from
the north, this current came nearer, or went farther from the
shore: for waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up the
rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly
saw the current again as before, only that it ran farther off,
being near half a league from the shore ; whereas, in my case,
it sct close upon the shore, and hurricd me and my canoe
along with it, which, at another time, it would not have done.

This observation convinced me, that I had nothing to do
but to observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I
might very easily bring my boat about the island again: but
when I began to think of putting it in practice, I had such a
terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I
had been in, that I could not think of it again with any pa-
ticnce; but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution,
which was more safe, though more laborious; and this was,
that I would build, or rather make me another periagua or
canoe; and so have one for one side of the island, and one for
the other. a

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it,
two plantations in the island; one, my little fortification, or
tent with the wall about it, under the-rock, with the cave be-
176 ADVENTURES OF

hind me, which, by this time, I had enlarged into several apart-
ments or caves, one within another. One of these, which was
the driest and largest, and had a door out beyond my wall or
fortification, that is to say, beyond where my wall joined to
the rock, was all filled up with large earthen pots, of which I
have given an account, and with fourteen or fifteen great bas-
kets, which would hold five or six bushels each, where I laid
up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the ear,
cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my
hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles,
those piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so
big, and spread so very much, that there was not the least
appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.

Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the
land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land,
which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly
yielded me their harvest in its season; and whenever I had
occasion for mbre corn, I had more land adjoining as fit as
that.

Besides this, I had my country seat; and I had now a tol-
erable plantation there also: for, first, I had my little bower,
as I called it, which I kept in repair; that is to say, I kept the
hedge which encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual
height, the ladder standing always in the inside: I kept the
trees, which at first were no more than my stakes, but were now
grown very firm and tall, always cut so, that they might spread
and grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade,
which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of this
T had my tent always standing, being a piece of a sail spread
over poles, set up for that purpose, and which never wanted
any repair or renewing; and under this I had made me a
squab or couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed,
and with other soft things; and a blanket laid on them, such
as belonged to our sea bedding, which I had saved, and a great


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 7

watch-coat to cover me; and here, whenever I had occasion to
be absent from my chief seat, I took up my country habita-
tion.

Adjoining to this I had my enclosures for my cattle, that
is to say, my goats; and as I had taken an inconceivable deal
of pains to fence and enclose this ground, I was so, anxious to
see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I
never left off, till, with infinite labor, I had stuck the outside
of the hedge so full of small stakes, and so near to one another,
that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce
room to put a hand through between them; which afterwards
when those stakes grew, as they all did the next rainy season,
made the ‘enclosure strong like a wall, — indeed, stronger than
any wall.

This will testify for- me that I was not idle, and that I
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary
for my comfortable support; for I considered the keeping up

a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living -

magazine of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as
I lived in the place, if-it were to be forty years; and that
keeping them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfect-
ing my enclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure of
keeping them together; which, by this method, indeed, I so
effectually secured, that when these little stakes began to
grow, I had planted them so very thick, that I was forced to
pull some of them up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I prin-
cipally depended on for my winter store of raisins, and which
I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best and most
agreeable dainty of my whole diet: and, indeed, they were
not only agreeable, but medicinal, wholesome, nourishing, and
refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half way between my other habita-
tion and the place where I laid up my boat, I generally stayed
and lay here in my way thither: for I used frequently to visit


178 ADVENTURES OF

my boat; and I kept all things about or belonging to her, in
very good order: sometimes I went out in her to divert my-
self, but no more hazardous voyages would I go, nor scarce
ever above a stonc’s cast or two from the shore, I was so ap-
prehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the
currents or winds, or any other accident. But now I come to
a new scene of my life.

SECTION XVII.

UNEXPECTED ALARM AND CAUSE FOR APPREHENSION — HE FORTIFIES HIS
ABODE.

Ir happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I
was exceedingly surprised with the print of a man’s naked
foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen in the sand.
I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an appari-
tion: I listened, I looked round me, but I could hear nothing,
nor see anything; I went up to a rising ground, to look far-
ther; I went up the shore and down the shore, but it was all
one; I could sec no other impression but that one. I went to
it again to sce if there were any more, and to observe if it
might not be my fancy; but there was no room for that, for
there was exactly the print of a foot, toes, heel, and every part
of a foot: how came it thither, I knew not, nor could I in the
least imagine; but, after innumerable fluttcring thoughts, like
aman perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to
my fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went
on, but terrified to the last degree ; looking behind me at every
two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and fancy-
ing every stump at a distance to be aman. Nor is it possible


ROBINSON CRUSOE.

to describe how many various shapes my affrighted imagination ”
represented things to me in, how many wild ideas were found
every moment in my fancy, and what strange unaccountable _
whimsies came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever
after this), I fled into it like one pursued; whether I went
over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at the hole in’
the rock, which I had called a door, I cannot remember ; no,
nor could [remember the noxt morning; for never frightened
hare fled to cover, or fox to carth, with more terror of mind
than I to this retreat.

I slept none that night: the farther I was from the occa-
sion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions were ; which
is something contrary to the natute of such things, and especi-
ally to the usual practice of all creatures in fear; but I was
so embarrassed with my own frightful ideas of the thing,
that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to myself, even
though I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied
it must be the Devil, and reason joined in with me upon this
supposition ; for how should any other thing in human shape
come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought
them? What marks were there of any other footsteps ?
And how was it possible a man should come there? But
then to think that Satan should take human shape upon him
in such a place, where there could be no manner of occasion
- for it, but to leave the print of his foot behind him, and that
even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure F should see
it, — this was an amusement the other way. I considered that
the Devil might have found out abundance of other ways to
have terrified me than this of a single print of a foot; that
as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never
have been so simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was
ten thousand to one whether I should ever see it or not, and -
in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high
wind, would have defaced entirely: all this seemed incon-~







180 ADVENTURES OF

sistent with the thing itself, and with all the notions we usu-
ally entertain of the subtlety of the Devil.

Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me
out of all apprehensions of its being the Devil; and I pres-
ently concluded, then, that it must be some more dangerous
creature, viz., that it must be some of the savages of the main
land over against me, who had wandered out to sea in their
canoes, and, either driven by the currents or by contrary winds,
had made the island, and had been on shore, but were gone
away again to sea; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in
this desolate island as I would have been to have had them.

While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was
very thankful in my thoughts that I was so happy as not to
be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my boat,
by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants
had been in the place, and perhaps have searched farther for
me: then terrible thoughts racked my imagination about their
having found my boat, and that there were people here; and
that if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater
numbers, and devour me: that if it should happen so that
they should not find me, yet they would find my enclosure,
destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame
goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope, all that
former confidence in God, which was founded upon such won-
derful experience as I had had of his goodness, as if he that :
had fed me by miracle hitherto could not preserve, by his
power, the provision which he had made for me by his good-
ness. I reproached mysclf with my laziness, that would not
sow any more corn one year than would just serve me till the
next season, as if no accident would intervene to prevent my
enjoying the crop that was upon the ground; and this I
thought was so just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to
have two or three years’ corn beforehand, so that, whatever
might come, I might not perish for want of bread.


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 181

How strange a checker-work of Providence is the life of
man! and by what secret different springs are the affections
hurried about, as different circumstances present! To-day we
love what to-morrow we hate ; to-day we seck what to-morrow
we shun; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even
tremble at the apprchensions of; this was exemplified in me,
at this time, in the most lively manner imaginable; for I,
whose only affliction was that I seemed banished from human
society, that I was alone, circumscribed by the boundless
ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned to what I called
silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought not wor-
thy to be numbered among the living, or to appear among the
rest of his creatures; that to have scen one of my own species
would have seemed to me a raising me from death to life, and
the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme
blessing of salvation, could bestow; I say, that I should now
tremble at the very apprehensions of sccing a man, and was
ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent ap-
pearance of a man’s having set his foot in the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life; and it afforded
me a great many curious speculations afterwards, when I had
a little recovered my first surprise. I considered that this was
the station of life the infinitely wise and good Providence of
God had determined for me; that as I could not foresce what
the ends of divine wisdom might be in all this, so I was not to
dispute his sovereignty, who, as I was his creature, had an un-
doubted right, by creation, to govern and dispose of me abso-
lutely as he thought tit; and who, as I was a creature that
had offended him, had likewise a judicial right to condemn me
to what punishment he thought fit; and that it was my part
to submit to bear his indignation, because I had sinned against
him. I then reflected, that as God, who was not only right-
eous, but omnipotent, had thought fit thus to punish and afflict
me, so he was able to deliver me; that if he did not think
fit to do so, it was my unquestionable duty to resign myself

16

4


182° ADVENTURES OF

absolutely and entirely to his will; and, on the other hand, it
was my duty also to hope in him, pray to him, and quictly to
attend the dictates and directions of his daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may

“say, weeks and months; and one particular effect of my cogi-
tations on this occasion I cannot omit. One morning early,
lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger
from appearances of savages, I found it discomposed me very
much ; upon which these words of the Scripture came into my
thoughts: “Call upon me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” Upon this, rising
cheerfully out of my bed, my heart was not only comforted,
but I was guided and encouraged to pray carnestly to God for
deliverance : when I had done praying, I took up my Bible,
and opening it to read, the first words that presented to me
were, “ Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and he shall
strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is im-
possible to express the comfort this gave me. In answer, I
thankfully laid down the book, and was no more sad, at least
on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and re-
ficctions, it came into my thoughts one day, that all this might
be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot might be the
print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat:
this cheered me up a little too, and I began to persuade myself
it was alla delusion; that it was nothing else but my own foot :
and why might I not come that way from the boat, as well as
I was going that way to the boat? Again, I considered also,
that I could by no means tell, for certain, where I had trod,
and where I had not; and that if, at last, this was only the
print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools,
who try to make storics of spectres and apparitions, and then
are frightened at them more than anybody.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again,
for I had not aud out of my castle for three days and nights,

a




ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 188 <

so that I began to starve for provisions; for I had little or
nothing within doors but some barley cakes and water: then I
knew that my goats wanted to be milked too, which usually
was my evening diversion;*and the poor creatures were in
great pain and inconvenience for want of it: and, indeed, it
almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk. —
Encouraging myself, therefore, with the belief that this was
nothing but the print of one of my own feet, and that I might
be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to go abroad
again, and went to my country house to milk my flock: but
to see with what fear I went forward, how often I looked be-
hind me, how I was ready, every now and then, to lay down °
my basket and run for my life, it would have made any one
think I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had
been lately most terribly frightened; and so, indeed, I had.
However, as I went down thus two or three days, and having
scen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there
was really nothing in it but my own imagination; but I could
not persuade myself fully of this till I should go down to the
shore again, and sce this print of a foot, and measure it by my
own, and see if there was any similitude or fitness, that I
might be assured it was my own foot: but when I came to the
place, first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up
my boat, I could not possibly be on shore anywhere there-
about: secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my
own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal.
Both these things filled my head with new imaginations, and
gave me the vapors again to the highest degree, so that I
shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home again,
filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore
there; or, in short, that the island was inhabited, and I might
be surprised before I was aware; and what course to take for
my security I knew not.

O, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed
with fear! It deprives them of the use of those means which





184. , ADVENTURES OF

reason offers for their relief. The-first thing I proposed to
myself was, to throw down my enclosures, and turn all my
tame cattle wild into the woods, lest the enemy should find
them, and then frequent the island in prospect of the same or
the like booty: then to the simple thing of digging up my two
cornfields, lest they should find such a grain there, and still be
prompted to frequent the island: then to demolish my bower
and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of habitation,
and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the per-
sons inhabiting.

These were the subject of the first night’s cogitations after
I was come home again, while the apprehensions which had
so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my head was
full of vapors, as above. Thus fear of danger is ten thousand
times more terrifying than danger itself when apparent to the

-eyes; and we find the burden of anxiety greater, by much,
than the evil which we are anxious about: and, which was
worse than all this, I had not that relief in this trouble from
the resignation I used to practice, that I hoped to have. I
looked, I thought, like Saul, who complained not only that the
Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken him;
for I did not now take due ways to compose my mind, by cry-
ing to God in my distress, and resting upon his providence, as
I had done before, for my defense and deliverance; which, if
TI had done, I had at least been more cheerfully supported un-
der this new surprise, and perhaps carried through it with more
resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me awake all night;
but in the morning I fell asleep; and having, by the amuse-
ment of my mind, been as it were tired, and my spirits ex-
hausted, I slept very soundly, and waked much better com-
posed than I had ever been before. And now I began to think
sedately ; and, upon the utmost debate with myself, I con-
eluded that this island, which was so exceeding pleasant,
fruitful, and no farther from the main land than as I had seen,


ROBINSON CRUSOE. _ 185

was not so entirely abandoned as I might imagine; that al-~
though there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot,
yet that there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, '
who, either with design, or perhaps never but when they were
driven by cross winds, might céme to this place; that I had
lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people yet; and that if at any time
they should be driven here, it was prebable they went away
again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought
fit to fix here upon any occasion; that the most I could sug-
gest any danger from, was from any casual accidental landing
of straggling people from the main, who, as it was likely, if
they were driven hither, were here against their wills, so they
made no stay here, but went off again with all possible speed; _
seldom staying one night on shore, lest they should not have
the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that, there-
fore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat,
in case I should see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so
large as to bring a door through again, which door, as I said,
came out beyond where my fortification joined to the rock :
upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw
me a second fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle,
at a distance from my wall, just where I had planted a double
row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made men-
tion: thesé trees having been planted so thick before, they
wanted but few piles to be driven between them, that they -
might be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon fin-
ished: so that I had now a double wall: and my outer wall
was thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every- |
thing I could think of, to make it strong, having in it seven
little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out at. In
the inside of this, I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick,
with continually bringing earth out of my cave, and laying it
at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it; and through the

16 *


186 ADVENTURES OF

seven holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took
notice that I had got seven on shore out of the ship: these
T planted like my cannon, and fitted them into frames, that
held them like a carriage, so that I could fire all the seven
guns in two minutes’ time: this wall I was many a weary
month in finishing, and yct never thought myself safe till it
was done.

When this was donc, I stuck all the ground without my
wall, for a great length every way, as full with stakes, or

' sticks, of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow, as
they could well stand; insomuch, that I believe I might set
in near twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large space
between them and my wall, that I might have room to see an
enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees,
if they attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five
or six years’ time I had a wood before my dwelling, growing
so monstrous thick and strong, that it was indeed perfectly
impassable; and no men, of what kind soever, would ever im-
agine that there was anything beyond it, much less a habita-
tion. As for the way which I proposed to myself to go in
and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders,
one to a part of the rock which was low, and then broke in,
and left room to place another ladder upon that: so when the
two ladders were taken down, no man living could come down
to me without doing himself mischief; and if they had come
down, they were still on the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could sug-
gest for my own preservation; and it will be seen, at length,
that they were not altogether without just reason, though I
foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere fear sug-
gested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my
other affairs: for I had a great concern upon me for my little
herd of goats; they were not only a ready supply to me on


ae ROBINSON ORUSOE. 187

every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the
expense of powder and shot, but also without the fatigue of:
hunting after the wild ones; and I was loth to lose the advan-
tage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.
For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of
“but two ways to preserve them: one was, to find another con-
venient place to dig a cave under ground, and to drive them
into it every night; and the other was, to enclose two or three
little bits of land, remote from one another, and as much con-
cealed as I could, where I might keep about half a dozen
young goats in each place; so that if any disaster happened
to the flock in general, I might be able to raise them again
with little trouble and time; and this, though it would require
a great deal of time and labor, I thought was the most rational
design. / ‘
Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most re-
tired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one, which was
as private, indeed, as my heart could wish for: it was a little
damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick
woods, where, as he observed, I almost lost myself once before,
endeavoring to come back that way from the castern part of
the island. Here I found a clear piece of land, near three
acres, so surrounded with woods, that it was almost an inclos-
ure by nature; at least, it did not want near so much labor
to make it so as the other pieces of ground I had worked so
hard at.
188 ADVENTURES OF

SECTION XVIII.

PRECAUTIONS AGAINST SURPRISE — ROBINSON DISCOVERS THAT HIS ISL»

AND IAS BEEN VISITED BY CANNIBALS.

J IMMEDIATELY went to work with this piece of ground, and
in less than a month’s time I had so fenced it round, that my
flock, or herd, call it which you please, who were not so wild
now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough
secured in it; so, without any farther delay, I removed ten
young she-goats and two he-goats to this piece ; and when they
were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had made it
as secure as the other, which, however, I did at more leisure,
and it took me up more time by a great deal. All this labor
I was at the expense of purely from my apprehensions on the
account of the print of a man’s foot which I had scen ; for, as
yet, I never saw any human creature come near the island; and
‘T had now lived two years under this uneasiness, which, indeed,
made my life much less comfortable than it was before, as may
be well imagined by any who knows what it is to live in the
constant snare of the fear of man. And this I must observe,
with grief too, that the discomposure of my mind had too
great impressions also upon the religious part of my thoughts ;
for the dread and terror of falling into the hands of savages
and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I seldom found
myself in a due temper for application to my Maker, at least
not with the scdate calmness and resignation of soul which I
was wont to do: I rather prayed to God as under great afilic-
tion and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in
expectation every night of being murdered and devoured be-
fore morning; and I must testify from my experience, that a
temper of peace, thankfulness, love and affection, is much the
more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and discom-
ROBINSON Oktsok. > 489

posure; and that under the dread of mischief impending,
man is no more fit for a comforting performance of the duty
of praying to God, than he is for a repentance on a sick bed;
for these discomposures affect the mind, as the others do the
body; and the discomposure of the mind must necessarily be
as great a disability as that of the body, and much greater :
praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not of the
body.

But to goon: after I had thus secured one part of my
little living stock, I went about the whole island, searching for
another private place to make another deposit; when, wander-
ing more to the west point of the island than I had ever done
yet, and looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the
sea, at a great distance. I had found a perspective glass or
two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our
ship, but I had it not about me; and this was so remote, that
I could not tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till
my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer; whether it _
was a boat or not, I do not know, but as I descended from the
hill I could see no more of it; sol gave it over; only I re-
solved to go no more out without a perspective glass in my
pockct. When I was come down the hill to the end of the
island, where, indeed, I had never been before, I was presently
convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not
such a strange thing in the island as I imagined: and, but
that it was a special providence that I was cast upon the side
of the island where the savages never came, I should easily
have known that nothing was more frequent than for the
canoes from the main, when they happened to be a. little too
far out to sec, to shoot over to that side of the island for har-
bor; likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes,
the victors, having taken any prisoners, would bring them over
to this shore, where, according to their dreadful costumes, be-
ing all cannibals, they would kill and eat them; of which
hereafter.


190 a ADVENTUTS Of ,

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said
above, being the south-west point of the island, I was per-
fectly confounded and amazed; nor is it possible for me to ex-
press the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with
skulls, hands, feet, and other bones of human bodies; and
particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire
made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I
supposed the savage wretches had sat down to their inhuman
feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished at the sight of these things, that I en-
tertained no notions of any danger to myself from it for a
long while: all my apprehensions were buried in the thoughts
© of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror

of the degeneracy of amas nature, which, though I had |

heard of it often, yet I never had so near a view of before:
in short, I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my

stomach grew sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, .

when: nature discharged the disorder from my stomach; and
having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved,
but could: not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got
me up the hill again with all the speed I could, and walked on
towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I
stood still a while, as amazed, and then recovering myself, I
looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with a
flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my
first lot in a part of the world where I was distinguished from
such dreadful creatures as these; and that, though I had es-
teemed my present condition very miserable, had yet given me
so many comforts in it, that I had still more to give thanks
for than to complain of; and this, above all, that I had, even
in this miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge
.of Himself, and the hope of His blessing, which was a felicity
more than sufficiently equivalent to all the misery which I had
suffered or could suffer.

i ae i Nas






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































CRUSOE DISCOVERS BONES OF HUMAN BODIES. Lage Gc.
RoBtksoN okUSOE. 194

tn this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle,
and began to be much easier now, as to the safety of my cir-
cumstances, than ever I was before; for I observed that these
wretches never came to this island in-search of what they
could get; perhaps not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting,
anything here, and having often, no doubt, been up in the
covered woody part of it, without finding anything to their
purpose. I knew I had been here now almost eighteen years,
and never saw the least footsteps of human creature there be-
fore; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed
as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I-
had no manner of occasion to do; it being my only business
to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I found
a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known
to. Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the wretched in-
human custom of their devouring and cating one another up,
that I continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own
circle, for almost two years after this; when I say my own circle,
I mean by it my three plantations, viz., my castle, my country
seat, which I called my bower, and my enclosure in the woods ;
nor did I look after this for any other use than as an enclosure
for my goats; for the aversion which nature gave me to these
hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing them
as of secing the Devil himself. Idid not so much as go to
look after my boat all this time, but began rather to think of
making me another ; for I could not think-of ever making any
more attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me,
lest I should meet with some of these creatures at sea; in
which if I had happened to have fallen into their hands, I
knew what would have been my lot.

Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no
danger of being discovered by these people, began to wear off -
my uneasiness about them; and I began to live just in the.
same composed manner as before, only with this difference,
193 ADVENTURES Of

that I used more caution, and kept my eyes more about mé,
than I did before, lest I should happen to be seen by any of
' them; and particularly, I was more cautious of firing my gun,
lest any of them being on the island should happen to hear it.
It was therefore a very good providence to me that I had far-
nished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that I had-no’
need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them;
and if I did catch any of them after this, it was by traps and
snares, as I had done before: so that for two years after this,
I believe I never fired my gun off, though I never went out
without it; and, which was more, as I had saved three pistols
out of the ship, I always carried them out with me, or at least
two of them, sticking them in my goat’s-skin belt. I also fur-
bished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship,
and made me a belt to hang it on also; so that I was now a
most formidable fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you
add to the former description of myself, the particular of two
pistols, and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt,
but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, asI have said, for some time, I
seemed, excepting these cautions, to be reduced to my former
calm sedate way of living. All these things tended to show
me more and more, how far my condition was from being mis-
erable, compared to some others; nay, to many other particu-
lars of life, which it might have pleased God to have made my
lot. It put me upon reflecting bow little repining there would
be among mankind at any condition of life, if people would
rather compare their condition with those that were worse, in
order to be thankful, than be always comparing them with
those which are better, to assist their murmurings and com-
plainings.

Asin my present condition there were not really many
things which I wanted, so indeed, I thought that the frights I
had been in about these savage wretches, and the concern I had
been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of


ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 198

ty invention for my own conveniences; and I had dropped.a
good design, which I had once bent my thoughts too much
upon, and that was, to try if I could not make some of my
barley into malt, and then try to brew myself some beer.
This was really a whimsical thought, and I reproved myself
often for the simplicity of it; for I presently saw there would
be the want of several things necessary to the making my
beer, that it would be impossible for me to supply; as, first,
casks to preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I had ob-
served already, I could never compass; no, though I spent
not only many days, but weeks, nay, months, in attempting
it, but to no purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to
make it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to
make it boil; and yet with all these things wanting, I verily
believe, had not the frights and terrors I was in about the sav-
ages intervened, I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it
to pass too; for I seldom gave anything over without accom-
plishing it, when once I had it in my head to begin it. But
my invention now ran quite another way; for, night and day,
I could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of
these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertainment, and, if
possible, save the victim they should bring hither to destroy.
It would take up a larger volume than this whole work is in-
tended to be, to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or
rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for the destroying these
creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent their
coming hither any more; but all this was abortive; nothing
could be possible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do
it myself; and what could one man do among them, when
perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them together,
with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which they
could shoot as true to a mark as I could with my gun?
Sometimes I thought of digging,a hole under the place
where they made their fire, and putting in five or six pounds
of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would con-
17
194 ADVENTURES OF :

sequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it; but as,
in the first place, I should be unwilling to waste so adel pow-
der upon them, my store being now within the quantity of one
barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any cer- .
tain time, when it might surprise them: and, at best, that it
would do little more than just blow the fire about their ears
and fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake the
place; so I laid it aside: and then proposed that I would
place mysclf in ambush in some convenient place, with my
three guns all double-loaded, and, in the middle of their bloody
ceremony, let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or
wound perhaps two or three at every shot: and then falling in
upon them with my three pistols, and my sword, I made no
doubt but that if there were twenty I should kill them all.
This fancy pleased my thoughts for some wecks; and I was
so full of it, that I often dreamed of it, and sometimes that I
was just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so far
with it in my imagination, that I employed myself several
days to find out proper places to put myself in ambuseade, as
I said, to watch for them ; and I went frequently to the place
itself, which was now grown more familiar to me: but while
my mind was thus filled with thoughts of revenge, and a
bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to the sword, as I
may call it, the horror I had at the place, and at the signals
of the barbarous wretches devouring one another, abetted my
malice. Well, at length, I found a place in the side of the
hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any
of their boats coming; and new then, even before they
would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unscen, into
some thicket of trees, in one of which there was a hollow
large enough to conceal me entirely; and there I might sit
and observe all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at
their heads, when they were so close together, that it would be
next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or that I could
fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In this




NS

place, then, I resolved to fix my design; and, accordingly, I

prepared two muskets and my ordinary fowling-piece. The’

two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, andifour or
five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol-bullets; and the
fowling-piece I loaded with near a handful of swan-shot, of
the largest size: I also loaded my pistols with about four bul-
lets each; and in this posture, well provided with ammunition
for a second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expe-
dition.

After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and, in my
imagination, put it in practice, I continually made my tour
every morning up to the top of. the hill, which was from my

castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I

could observe any boats upon the sea, coming near the island,
or standing over towards it: but I began to tire of this hard
duty, after I had, for two or three months, constantly kept my
watch, but came always back without any discovery: there
having not in all that time, been the least appearance, not only
on and near the shore, but on the whole occan, so far as my
eyes or glasses could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so

long also I kept up the vigor of my design, and my spirits

seemed to be all the while in a suitable form for so outrageous
an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for

an offense, which I had not at all entered into a discussion of -

in my thoughts, any further than my passions were at first
fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the
people of that country; who, it seems, had been suffered by
Providence, in his wise disposition of the world, to have no
other guide than that of their own abominable and vitiated
passions ; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had been
80 for some ages, to act such horrid things, and receive such
dreadful customs, as nothing but nature, entirely abandoned
by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could
have run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began

ROBINSON ORUSOE. f : 198 S

=


496. ADVENTURES OF

to be weary of the fruitless excursion; which I had made s0
“long and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of the
action itself I began to alter; and began, with cooler and calmer
thoughts, to consider what I was going to engage in: what au-
thority or call I had to pretend to be judge and executioner upon
these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thought fit, for so
many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it
were, the executioners of his judgments one upon another.
How far these people were offenders against me, and what
right had I to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they
shed promiscuously one upon another, I debated this very
often with myself, thus: Tow do I know what God himself
judges in this particular case? It is certain these persons do
not commit this asa crime; it is not against their own con-
sciences reproving, or their light reproaching them; they do
not know it to be an offense, and then commit it in defiance
of divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit.
They think it no more a crime to kill a captive taken in war,
than we do to kill an ox; nor to eat human ficsh, than we do
to eat mutton.

When I consider this a little, it followed necessarily that

I was certainly in the wrong in it; that these people were not -

murderers in the sense that I had before condemned them in
my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers
who often put to death the prisoners taken in battle; or more
frequently, upon many occasions put whole troops of men to
the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw down
their arms and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to
me, that although the usage they gave one another was thus
brutish and inhuman, yet it was really nothing to me; these
people had done me no injury : that if they attempted me, or I
saw it necessary, for my immediate preservation, to fall upon
them, something might be said for it; but that I was yet out of
their power, and they really had no knowledge of me, and
consequently no design upon me; and therefore it could not


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 197

be just for me to fall upon them: that this would justify the
conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities practiced in
America, where they destroyed millions of these people: who,
however they were idolaters and barbarians, and had several
bloody and barbarous rites in their customs, such as sacrificing
human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards,
very innocent people; and that the rooting them out of the
country is spoken of with the utmost abhorrence and detesta-
tion by even the Spaniards themselves at this time, and by all
other Christian nations in Europe, as a mere butchery, a bloody
and unnatural piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or
man, and for which the very name of a Spaniard is reckoned
to be frightful and terrible to all people of humanity, or of
Christian compassion, —as if the kingdom of Spain were par-
ticularly eminent for the produce of a race of men who were
without principles of tenderness, or the common bowels of pity
to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of gencrous
temper in the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and toa
kind of a full stop; and I began, by little and little, to be off
my design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in my
resolutions to attack the savages; and that it was not my bus-
‘iness to meddle with them, unless they first attacked me; and
that it was my business, if possible, to prevent; but that if I
were discovered and attacked by them, I knew my duty. On
the other hand, I argued with myself, that this really was the
way not to deliver myself, but entirely to ruin and destroy
myself; for unless I was sure to kill every one that not only
should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on
shore afterwards, if but one of them escaped to tell their
country-people what had happened, they would come over
again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and-
I should only bring upon myself a certain destruction, which,
at present, I had no occasion for. Upon the whole, I con-
cluded that neither in principle nor in ae I ought, one =y

17 *


198 ; ADVENTURES OF

. or other, to concern myself in this affair: that my business
was, by all possible means, to conceal myself from them, and
not leave the least signal to them to guess by that there were
any living creatures upon the island, I mean of human shape.
Religion joined in with this prudential resolution, and I was
convinced now, many ways, that I was perfectly out of my
duty when I was laying all my bloody schemes for the de-
struction of innocent creatures, I mean innocent as to me.
As to the crimes they were guilty of towards one another, I
had nothing to.do with them; they were national, and I ought
to leave them to the justice of God, who is the Governor of
nations, and knows how, by national punishments, to make a
just retribution for national offenses, and to bring public judg-
ments upon those who offend in a public manner, by such ways
as best please him. This appeared so clear to me now, that
nothing was a greater satisfaction to me than that I had been
suffered to do a thing which I now saw so much reason to be-
lieve would have been no less a sinthan that of wilful mur-
der, if I had committed it; and I gave most humble thanks on
my knees to God, that had thus delivered me from blood-
guiltiness; besecching him to grant me the protection of his
providence, that I might not fall into the hands of barbarians,
or that I might not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a

more clear call from Heaven to do it, in defense of my own
hts.


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 199

SECTION XIX.

ROBINSON DISCOVERS A CAVE, WHICIT SERVES I11M AS A RETREAT AGAINST
TUE SAVAGES. -

IN this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and
so far was I from desiring an occasion for falling upon these
wretches, that in all that time I never once went up the hill to
see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know
whether any of them had been on shore there or not, that I
might not be tempted to renew any of my contrivances against
them, or be provoked, by any advantage which might present
itself, to fall upon them: only this I did, I went and removed
my boat, which I had on the other side of my island, and car-
ried it down to the east end of the whole island, where I ran
it into a little cove, which I found under some high rocks, and
where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst
not, at least would not, come with their boats, upon any ac-
count whatever. With my boat I carried away everything
that I had left there belonging to her, though not necessary
for the bare going thither, viz. a mast and sail which I had.
made for her, and a thing like an anchor, but which, indeed, .
could not be called either anchor or grapnel; however, it was ~
the best, I could make of its kind: all these I removed, that
there might not be the least shadow of any discovery, or any”
appearance of any boat, or of any human habitation, upon the
island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired
than ever, and seldom went from my cell, other than upon my
constant employment, viz., to milk my she-goats, and manage
my little flock in the oar which as it was quite on the other
part of the island, was quite out of danger; for certain itis,
that these savage people, who sometimes haunted this island,
never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and.


200 ADVENTURES OF

~eonsequently never wandered off from the coast; and I doubt
not but they might have been several times on shore after my
apprehensions of them had made me cautious, as well as be-
fore. Indeed I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts
of what my condition would have been if I had popped upon
them and been discovered before that, when, naked and un-
armed, except with one gun, and that loaded often only with
- small shot; I walked everywhere, pecping and pecring about
the island to see what I could get; what a surprise should I
have been in, if, when I discovered the print of a man’s foot,
I had, instead of that, seen fifteen or twenty savages, and
found them pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their run-
ning no possibility of my escaping them? The thoughts of
this sometimes sunk my very soul within me, and distressed
my mind so much, that I could not soon recover it, to think
what I should have done, and how I should not only have
been unable to resist them, but even should not have had pres-
- ence of mind enough to do what I might have done, much
less what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I
might be able to do. Indeed, after serious thinking on these
things, I would be very melancholy, and sometimes it would
last a great while; but I resolved it all, at last, into thankful-
ness to that Providence which had delivered me from so many
unscen dangers, and had kept me from those mischiefs which I
could have no way been the agent in delivering myself from,
because I had not the least notion of any such thing depending,
or the least supposition of its being possible. This renewed a
contemplation which often had come to my thoughts in former
time, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of
Heaven, in the dangers we run through in this life; how won-
derfully we are delivered when we know nothing of it; how,
when we are in (a quandary, as we call it) doubt or hesita-
tion, whether to go this way, or that way, a secret hint shall
direct us this way, when ‘we intended to go that way: nay,
when sense, our own inclination, and: perhaps business, has


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 201

called to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the
mind, from we know not what springs, and by we know not
what power, shall overrule us to go this way ; and it shall after-
awards appear, that had we gone that way which we should have
gone, and even to our imagination ought-to have gone, we should
“have been ruined and lost. Upon thesc, and many like reflec-
tions, I afterwards made it a ecrtain rule with me, that when-
ever I found those seerct hints or pressings of mind, to doing
or not doing any thing that presented, or going this way or
that way, I never failed to obey the secret dictate; though I
knew no other reason for it than that such a pressure, or such
a hint hung upon my mind. I could give many examples of
the success of this conduct in the course of my life, but more
especially in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy
island ; besides many oceasions which it is very likely I might
have taken notice of, if I had secn with the same eyes then
that I see with now. But it is never too late to be wise; and
I cannot but advise all considering men, whose lives are at-
tended with such extraordinary incidents as mine, or even
though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret intima-
tions of Providence, let them come from what invisible intelli-
gence they will. That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot
account for; but certainly they are proof of the converse of
spirits, and a secret communication between those embodied
and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never be with-*
stood ; of which I shall have occasion to give some remarkable
instances in the remainder of my solitary residence in this
dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I
confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in,
and the concern that was now upon me, put an end to all in-
vention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my
future accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of
my- safety more now upon my hands than that of my food.
I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for’
202 ADVENTURES OF

fear the noise I might make should be heard; much less would
I fire a gun, for the same reason: and, above all, I was intol-

erably uneasy at making any fire, lest the smoke, which is
visible at a great distance in the day, should betray me. For
this reason I removed that part of my business which required
fire, such as burning of pots and pipes, &c., into my new
apartment in the woods; where, after I had been some time, I
found, to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave in
the earth, which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say,
no savage, had he been at the mouth of it, would be so hardy
as to venture in: nor, indeed, would any man else, but one
who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where by mere accident (I would say, if I did not see
abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to Providence)
I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make char-
coal; and, before I go on, I must observe the reason of my
making this charcoal, which was thus: I was afraid of making
a smoke about my habitation, as I said before; and yet I
could not live there without baking my bread, cooking my
meat, &e.; so I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had ~
seen done in England, under turf, till it became chark, or dry
coal; and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to
carry home, and perform the other services for which fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke. But this is by the by.
While I was cutting down some wood here, I perceived that
behind a very thick branch of low brushwood, or underwood,
there was a kind of hollow place: I was curious to look in it,
and getting with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was
pretty large: that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright
in it, and perhaps another with me: but I must confess to you
that { made more haste out than I did in, when, looking far-
ther into the place, which was perfectly dark, I saw two broad
shining eyes of some creature, whether devil or man I knew
not, which twinkled like two stars, the dim light from the


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 208

7

eave’s mouth shining directly in, and making the: reflection.
However, after some pause, I recovered myself, and began to
call myself a thousand fools, and to think, that he that was
afraid to see the devil was not fit to live twenty years in an
island all alone; and that I might well think there was noth-
ing in this cave that was more frightful than myself. Upon.
this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand, and in I
rushed again, with stick flaming in my hand: I had not gone
three steps in, but I was almost as much frightened as I was
before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like that of a man in
some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words
half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back,
and was indeed struck with such a surprise, that it put me
into a cold sweat; and if I had had a hat on my head, I will
not answer for it, that my hair might not have lifted it off.
But still plucking up my spirits as well as I could, and en-
couraging myself a little with considering that the power and
presence of God was every where, and was able to protect me,
upon this I stepped ferward again, and by the light of. the fire-
brand, holding it up a little over my head, I saw lying on the
ground a most monstrous, frightful, old he-goat, just making
his will, as we say, and grasping for life, and dying, indeed, of
mere old age. I stirred him a little to see if I could get him
out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself;
and I thought with myself he might even lie there; for if he
had frightened me, so he would certainly fright any of the -
savages, if any of them should be so hardy as to come in there
while he had life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to lock
round me, when I found the cave was but very small, that is
to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in no maminer of
shape, neither round nor square no hands having ever been
employed in making it but those of mere Nature. I observed.
also that there was a place at the farther side of it that went:
in further, but it was so low that it required me to creep upon:


» 204 v3 ADVENTURES OF

my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew
not: so having no candle, I gave it over for that time; but
resolved to come again the next day, provided with candles
and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of ‘the
muskets, with some wild-fire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large
candles of my own making (for I made very good candles
new of goat’s tallow, but was hard set for candle-wick, using
sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of
a weed like nettles); and going into this low place, I was
obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said, almost ten
yards; which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold
enough, considering that I knew not how far it might go, nor

~what was beyond it. When I got through the strait, I found
the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty fect; but never
was such a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it
was, to look round the sides and roof of this vault or cave;
the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my
two candles. What it was in the rock, whether diamonds, or
any other precious stones, or gold, which I rather supposed it
to be, I knew not. The place I was in was a most delightful
cavity or grotto of its kind, as could be expected, though per-
fectly dark ; the floor was dry and level, and had a sort of a small
loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venom-
ous creature to be seen, neither was there any damp or wet on
the sides or roof: the only difficulty in it was the entrance;
which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a re-
treat as I wanted, I thought that was a convenience; so that
I was really rejoiced at the discovery, and resolved, without
any delay, to bring some of those things which I was most
anxious about to this place ; particularly, I resolved to bring
hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms, viz.,
two fowling-pieces, for I had three in all, and three muskets,
for of them I had cight in all; so I kept at my castle only five,

Ape
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 205

which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon, on my aut
most fence, and were ready also to take out upon any expedition.
. Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I happened
to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea,
and which had been wet; and I found the water had pene-
trated about three or four inches into the powder on every
side, which caking and growing hard, had preserved the inside
like a kernel in the shell; so that I had near sixty pounds of
very good powder in the center of the cask: this was a very
agreeable discovery to me at that time; so I carried all away
‘thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder
with me in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind: I
also carried thither all the lead I had left for ‘bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants, which
were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks, where none
could come at them: for I persuaded myself, while I was here,
that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could
never find me out; or, if they did, they would not venture to
attack me here. The old goat, whom I found expiring, died
in the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this dis-
covery: and I found it much easicr to dig a great hole there,
and throw him in and cover him with carth, than to drag him
out; so I interred him there, to prevent offense to my nose.

I was now in my twenty-third year of my residence in
this island ; and was so naturalized to the place, and the man-
ner of living, that could I have but enjoyed the certainty that
no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have
been content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my
time there, even to the last moment, till I had laid me down
and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also arrived to
some little diversions and amusements, which made the time
pass a great deal more pleasantly with me than it did before ;
as, first, I had taught my Poll, as noted before, to speak ;
and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain,

18


206 ADVENTURES OF 2

- that it was very pleasant to me: for I believe no bird evér
spoke plainer; and he lived with me no less than six-and-
twenty years; how long he might have lived afterwards I
know not, though I know they have a notion in the’ Brazils
that they live a hundred years. My dog was a very pleasant
and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of
my time, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats,
they multiplied, as I have observed, to that degrce, that I was
obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from
devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the two old”
ones I brought with me were gone, and after some time con-
tinually driving them from me, and letting them have no pro-
vision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two
or three favorites, which I kept tame, and whose young, when
they had any, I always drowned; and these were a part of my
family. Besides these, I always kept two or three household
kids about me, whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I
had two more parrots, which talked pretty well, and would all
call Robin Crusoe, but none like my first; nor, indeed, did I

. take the pains with any of them that I had done with him.

I had also several tame sea-fowls, whose names I knew not,

that I caught upon the shore, and cut their wings; and the

little stakes which I had planted before my castle wall being
now grown up to a good thick grove, these fowls all lived
among these low trees, and bred there, which was very agrec-
able to me: so that, as I said above, I began to be very well
contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured
from the dread of the savages. But it was otherwise directed ;
and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet with my
story, to make this just observation from it, viz., How fre-
quently, in the course of our lives, the evil which in itself we
seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen into, is the
most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of
our deliverance, by which alone we can be raised again from
the affliction we are fallen into. I could give many examples


ROBINSON CRUSOE... 207

of this in the course of my unaccountable life, but in nothing
was it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances.
of my last years of solitary residence in this island.

SECTION XxX.

ANOTHER VISIT OF THE SAVAGES — ROBINSON SEES THEM DANCING —
PERCEIVES THE WRECK OF A VESSEL.

Ir was now the month of December, as I said above, in my ~
twenty-third year; and this being the southern solstice (for
winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of my harvest,
and required my being pretty much abroad in the fields ; when
going out pretty early in the morning, even before it was
thorough daylight, I was surprised with seeing a light of some
fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two miles,
towards the end of the island where I had observed some sav-
ages had been, as before ; and not on the other side, but, to my -
great affliction, it was on my side of the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped
short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I might be
surprised ; and yet I had no more peace within, from the ap-
prehensions I had that if these savages, in fallin over the.
‘ island, should find my corn standing or cut, or any of my
works and improvements, they would immediately conclude
that there were people in the place, and would then never give
over till they had found me out. In this extremity, I went
back directly to my. castle, pulled up the ladder after me, and
made all things without look as wild and natural as I could. _

.Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a pcs-’


208 | ADVENTURES OF -

ture of defense: I loaded all my cannon, as I called them,
that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon my
new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend
myself to the last grasp; not forgetting seriously to commend
myself to the divine protection, and earnestly to pray to God
to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. I continued
In this posture about two hours; and began to be mighty im-
patient for intelligence abroad, for I had no spies to send out.
After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I should do in
this, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so
sitting up my ladder to the side of the hill, where there was a
flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling the ladder up
after me, I sct it up again, and mounted to the top of the
hill; and pulling out my perspective glass, which I had taken
on purpose, I laid me down flat on my belly on the ground,
and began to look for the place. I presently found there was
no less than nine naked savages, sitting round a small fire
they had made, not to warm them, for they had no nced of
that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed,
to dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh, which
they had brought with them, whether alive or dead I could
not tell.
~ They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled
up upon the shore; and as it was then the tide of ebb, they
seemed to me to wait for the return of the flood to go away
again. It was not easy to imagine what confusion this sight
put me into, especially seeing them come on my side of the
island, and so near me too; but when I considered their com-
ing must be always with the current of the ebb, I began, af- °
terwards, to be more sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I
might go abroad with safety all the time of the tide of flood,
if they were not on shore before; and having made this ob--
servation, I went abroad about my harvest work with the more
composure.
As I expected, so it proved; for as soon as the tide made


ROBINSON CRUSOE. - » 208
to the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row (or paddle,
as we call it) away. I should have observed, that for an hour
or more before they went off, they went a dancing; and I
could easily discern their postures and gestures by my glass. .
I could not perceive, by my nicest observation, but that they
were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them ; ~
but whether they were men or women I could not distinguish.

As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns
upon my shoulders, and two pistols in my girdle, and my great
sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with all the speed
I was able to make, went away to the hill where I had discov-
ercd the first appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither
which was not in less than two hours (for I could not go apace,
being so loaden with arms as I was), I perceived there had been
three canoes more of savages at that place; and looking out.
farther, I saw they were all at sea together, making over for
the main. This was a dreadful sight to me, especially as, go-
ing down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror, which
the dismal work they had been about had left behind it, viz.,
the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh, of human bodies,
eaten and devoured by those wretches with merriment and
sport. I was so filled with indignation at the sight, that I .
now began to premeditate the destruction of the next that I
saw there, let them be whom or how many soever. It seemed *
evident to me that the visits which they made thus to this isl-
and were not very frequent, for it was,above fifteen months
before'any more of them came on shore there again; that is
to say, I neither saw them, nor any footsteps or. signals of
them, in all that time; for, as to the rainy seasons, then they
are sure not to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this
while I lived uncomfortably, by reason of the: constant appre-
hensions of their coming upon me by surprise: from whence
I observe, that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the
suffering, especially if there is no room to shake off that-ex-
pectation, or those apprehensions,

15%
210 ADVENTURES OF

During all this time I was in the murdering humor, and '
took up most of my hours, which should have been better em-
ployed, in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon them,
the very next time I should see them; especially if they
should be divided, as they were the last time, into two parties :
nor did I consider at all, that if I killed one party, suppose
ten or a dozen, I was still the next day, or week, or month, to
kill another, and so another, even ad infinitum, till I should
be at length no less a murderer than they were in being man-
eaters, and perhaps much more so. I spent my days now in
great perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should,
one day or other, fall into the hands of these merciless crea-
tures; and if I did, at any time venture abroad, it was not
without looking round me with the greatest care and caution
imaginable. And now I found to my great comfort, how
happy it was that I provided for a tame flock or herd of goats:
for I durst not, upon any account, fire my gun, especially near
that side of the island, where they usually came, lest I should
alarm the savages; and if they had fled from me now, I was
sure to have them come again, with perhaps two or three hun-
dred canoes with them, in a few days, and then I knew what
to expect. However, I wore out a year and three months
more before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I
‘found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true, they
might have been there once or twice, but either they made no
stay, or at least I did not see them: but in the month of May,
as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth
year I had a very strange encounter with them; of which in
its place.

fhe perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or six-
teen months’ interval, was very great ; I slept unquiet, dreamed
always frightful dreams, and often started out of my sleep in
the night: in the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind;
and in the night I dreamed often of killing the savages, and
of the reasons why I might justify the doing of it. But to




ROBINSON CRUSOE. : " Ott

waive all this for a while. It was in the middle of May, on —
"the sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calen-
dar would reckon, for I marked all upon the post still; I say, it
was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great storm of
wind all day, with a great deal of lightening and thunder, and
a very foul night it was after it. I knew not what was the
particular occasion of it, but as I was reading in the Bible,
and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present
condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought,
fired at sca. This was, to be sure, a surprise quite of a differ-
ent nature from any I had met with before; for the notions
this put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I
started up in the greatest haste imaginable, and, in a trice,
clapped my ladder to the middle place of the rock, and pulled
it after me; and mounting it the second time, got to the top
of the hill the very moment that a flash of fire bid me listen
for a second gun, which accordingly, in about half a minute, I
heard; and, by the sound, knew it was from that part of the
sea where I was driven down the current in my boat. I im-
mediately considered that this must be some ship in distress,
and that they had some comrade, or some other ship in com-
pany, and fired these guns for signals of distress, and to obtain
help. I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think
that though I could not help them, it might be they might
help me: so I brought together all the dry wood I could get
at hand, and making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire.
upon tie hill. The wood was dry, and blazed freely; and
though the wind blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly out: so
that I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they
must needs see it; and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever
my fire blazed up I heard another gun, and after that several
others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire all night
long, till day-break ; and when it was broad day, and the air ;
cleared up, I saw something at a great distance at sea, full.
east of the island, whether a sail ora hull I could not dis-




O18 “ADVENTURES OF

tinguish, no, not with my glass; the distance was so great,
and the weather still something hazy also; at least it was so
. out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived
that it did not move; soI presently concluded that it was a
ship at anchor; and being eager, you may be sure, to be satis-
fied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south
side of the island, to the rocks where I had formerly been car-
ried.away with the current; and getting up there, the weather
by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly sec, to my

. great sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon
those concealed rocks which I found when I was out in my
boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of the
stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the
occasion of my recovering from the most desperate, hopeless
condition that ever I had been in, in all my life. Thus, what
is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction; for it seems
these men, whoever they were, being out of their knowledge,
and the rocks being wholly under water, had been driven upon
them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E.N.E. Had
they seen the island, as 1 must necessarily suppose they did
not, they must, as I thought, have endeavored to have saved
themselves on shore by the help of their boats; but their
firing off guns for help, especially when they saw, as I imag-
ined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts: First, I imagined
that upon seeing my light, they might have put themselves
into their boat, and endeavored to make the shore; but that
the sea going very high, they might have been cast away:
other times I imagined that they might have lost their boat
before, as might be the case many ways; as particularly, by
the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times
obliges men to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and some-
times to throw it overboard with their own hands: other times
I imagined they had some other ship or ships in company, who
upon the signals of distress they had made, had taken them





HOBINSON ctitisd#.

tip and carried them off: other times I fancied they were all
gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried away by the
current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into the
great ocean, where there was nothing but misery and ‘perish-
ing; and that, perhaps, they might by this time be starving,
and in a condition to think of eating one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condi-
tion I was in, I could do no more than look on upon the mis-
ery of the-poor men, and pity them; which had still the good
effect on my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give
thanks to God, who had so happily and comfortably provided
for me in my desolate condition; and that of two ship’s com-
panies who were now cast away upon this part of the world,
not onc life should be spared but mine. I learned here again
to observe, that it is very rare that the providence of God
casts us into any condition of life so low, or any misery so ~
great, but we may sce something or other to be thankful for,
and may sce others in worse circumstances than our own.
Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom I could
not so much as sce room to suppose any of them were saved :
nothing could make it rational so much as to wish or expect
that they did not all perish there, except the possibility only
of their being taken up by another ship in company; and this —
was but mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least sign or
appearance of such thing. I cannot explain, by any possible’
energy of words, what a strange longing or hankering of de-
sires I felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes
thus —O that there had been but one or two, nay, or but one
soul saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that I might
but have had one companion, one fellow-creature to have
spoken to me, and to have conversed with! In all the time
of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so strong a desire
after the society of my fcllow-creatures, or so deep a regret at
the want of it.


914 - ADVENTURES OF

SECTION XXI.

NE VISITS THE WRECK AND OBTAINS MANY STORES FROM IT — AGAIN
THINKS OF QUITTING TILE ISLAND — HAS A REMARKABLE DREAM.

THERE are some secret moving springs in the affections, which,
when they are set a going by some object in view, or, though
not in view, yet rendered present to the mind by the power of
imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuos-
ity, to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that the
absence of it is insupportable. Such were these earnest wish-
dings that but one man had been saved. I believe I repeated
the words, “‘O that it had been but one!” a thousand times;
and my desires were so moved by it, that when I spoke the
words my hands would clinch together, and my fingers would
press the palms of my hands so, that if I had had any soft
thing in my hand it would have crushed it involuntarily ; and
the teeth in my head would strike together, and set against
one another so strong, that for some time I could not part
them again. Let the naturalists explain these things, and the
reason and manner of them; all that I can say to them is, to
describe the fact, which was even surprising to me, when I
found it, though I knew not from whence it proceeded: it was
doubtless the effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas
formed in my mind, realizing the comfort which the conversa-
tion of one of my fellow-Christians would have been to me.
But it was not to be; either their fate or mine, or both, for.
bade it: for till the last year of my being on this island, I
never knew whether any were saved out of that ship or no;
and had only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse
of a drowned boy come on shore at the end of the island which
was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a seaman’s
waistcoat, a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen




ROBINSON ORUSOR. . 215

shirt; but nothing to direct me so much as to guess what
nation he was of: he had nothing in his pockets but two pieces-
of-eight and a tobacco-pipe: the last was to me of ten times
more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great: mind to venture out in
my boat to the wreck, not doubting but I might find some-
thing on board that might be useful to me: but that did not
altogether press me so much, as the possibility that there might
be yet some living creature on board, whose life.I might
not only save, but might, by saving that life, comfort my own
to the last degree. And this thought clung so to my heart,
that I could not be quiet night or day, but I must venture out
in my boat on board this wreck; and committing the rest to
God’s providence, I thought the impression was so strong upon
my mind that it could not be resisted, that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting to my-
self if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to
my castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a quantity
of bread, a great pot of fresh water, a compass to steer by, a
bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left), and a
basket of raisins; and thus loading myself with everything
necessary, I went down to my boat, got the water out of her,
put her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My second cargo was a great: bag of rice, the
umbrella to set up over my head for a shade, another ieee pot
of fresh water, and about two dozen of my small loaves, or
barley-cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s milk
and a cheese: all which, with great labor and sweat, I carried
to my bout; and praying to God to direct my voyage, I put
out; and rowing, or paddling, the canoe along the shore, came
at last to the utmost point of the island on the north-east side.
And now I was to launch out into the ocean, and either to
venture or not to yenture. I looked on the rapid currents
which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance,


rs eae eee Sage eS ee oes Be ee, ie

516 . ADVENTURES OF

and which were very terrible to me, from the remembrance of
the hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to fail
me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those
currents, I should be carried a great way out to sea, and per-
haps out of my reach, or sight of the island again; and that,
then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind
should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give
over my enterprise; and having hauled my boat into a little
creck on the shore, I stepped out, and sat me down upon a
rising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear
and desire, about my voyage: when, as I was musing, I could
perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood come on; upon
which my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon
this, presently, it occurred to me that I should go up to the
highest piece of ground I could find, and observe, if I could,
how the sets of the tide, or currents, lay when the flood came
in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out,
I might not expect -to be driven another way home, with the
same rapidness of the currents. This thought was no sooner
in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, which suffi-
ciently overlooked the sca both ways, and from whence I had
a clear view of the currents, or sets of the tide, and which
way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found, that
as the current of the cbb set out close by the south point of
the island, so the current of the flood set in close by the shore
of the north side; and that I had nothing to do but to keep
to the north side of the island in my return, and I should do
well enough.

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next
morning, to sct out with the first of the tide; and reposing
myself for the night in my canoe, under the great watchcoat I
mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out to sea,
full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which
set eastward, and which carried me ata great rate, and yet




ROBINSON CRUSOE. en) \ ae

did not so hurry me as the current on the south side had done
before, so as to take me from all government of the boat; but
having a strong steerage with my paddle, I went at a great rate
directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came up
to it. It was a dismal sight to look at; the ship, which, by
its building, was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two
rocks; all the stern and quarter of her were beaten to pieces
with the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks,
had run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast
were brought by the board, that is to say, broken short off;
but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared
firm. When I came close to her, a dog appeared upon her,
who, sceing me coming, yelped, and cried; and as soon as I
called him, jumped into the sca to come to me. I took him
into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and
thirst. I gave him a cake of my bread, and he devoured it
like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a fortnight in the
snow. I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with
which, if I would have let him, he would have burst himself.
After this, I went on board; but the first sight I met with
was two men drowned in the cook room, or forecastle of the
ship, with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, as
is indeed probable, that when the ship struck, it being ina
storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her, that
the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the
constant rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been
under'water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in the
ship that had life; nor any goods, that I could see, but what
were spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor,
whether wine or brandy I knew not, which lay lower in the
hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could see; but
they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which
I believed belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of
them into the boat, without examining what was in them.
Had the stern of the ship been fixed, and the forepart broken
19










218 ; ’ ADVENTURES OF

off, Iam persuaded I might have made a good voyage: for, »
by what I found. in these two chests, I had room to suppose
the ship had a greqt deal of wealth on board; and, if I may _
guess from the course she steered, she must have been bound
from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata, in the south part
of America, beyond the Brazils, to the Havanna, in the Gulf
of Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a
great treasure in her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody ;
and what became of her crew, I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of
about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with much
difficulty. There were several muskets in the cabin, and a
great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it:
as for the muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them,
but took the powder-horn. I took a fire-shovel and tongs,
which I wanted extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron: and with this
cargo, and the dog, I came away, the tide beginning to make
home again; and the same evening, about an hour within
night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the
last degree. I reposed that night in the boat; and in the
morning I resolved to harbor what I had got in my new cave,
and not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself,
I got all my cargo on shore, and began to examine the partic-
ulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind of rum, but
not such as we had at the Brazils, and, in a word, not at all
good; but when I came to open the chests, I found several
things of great use to me: for example, I found in one a fine
case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled with cor-
dial waters, fine and very good; the bottles held about three
pints each, and were tipped with silver. I found two pots of
very good succades or sweetmeats, so fastened also on the top,
that the salt water had not hurt them; and two more of the
same which the water had spoiled. I found some very good
shirts, which were very welcome to me; and about a dozen and




a half of white linen handkerchiefs and colored neckcloths 3 the
former were also very welcome, being exceeding refreshing to
wipe my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the
till in the chest, I found three great bags of pieces-of-eight,
which held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of
them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold and some
small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they might all weigh
near a pound. In the other chests were some clothes, but of
little value; but by the circumstances, it must have belonged
to the gunner’s mate; though there was no powder in it, ex-
cept two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three small flasks,
kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces on occasion.
Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of
any use to me: for, as to the money, I had no manner of oc
casion for it; it was to me as the dirt under my feet; and I
would have given it all for three or four pair of English shoes
and stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had
none on my feet for many years. I had indeed got two pair
of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two drowned
men whom I saw in the wreck, and I found two pair more in
one of the chests, which were very welcome to me; but they
were not like our English shoes, either for ease or service, be-
ing rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in this
seaman’s chest about fifty pieces-of-eight in rials, but no gold ;
I suppose this belonged to a poorer man than the other, which
seemed to belong to some officer. Well, however, I lugged
this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done
that before which I brought from our own ship; but it was.a
great pity, as I said, that the other part of this ship had: not
come to my share; for I am satisfied I might have loaded my
canoe several times over with money ; and, thought I, if I ever
escape to England, it might lie here safe enone till I may
come again to fetch it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, wa secured
them, I went back to my boat, and rowed or paddled her along

ROBINSON CRUSOR. 219°






990 ADVENTURES Of

the shore, to her old harbor, where I laid her up, and made
the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found every-
thing safe and quict. I began now to repose myself, live after
_my old fashion, and take care of my family affairs; and, for a
while, I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant than
I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so
much; and if at any time I did stir with any freedom, it was
always to the east part of the island, where I was pretty well
satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without
so many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition
as I always carried with me if I went the other way. I lived
in this condition near two years more; but my unlucky head,
that was always to let me know it was born to make my body
miserable, was all these two years filled with projects and de-
signs, how, if it were possible, I might get away from this
island: for sometimes I was for making another voyage to the
wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing left
there worth the hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble
one way, sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I had
had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ven-
tured to sea, bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have
been, in all my circumstances, a memento to those who are
touched with the general plague of mankind, whence, for
aught I know, one-half of their miseries flow; I mean that of
not being satisfied with the station wherein God and nature
hath placed them: for, not to look back upon my primitive
condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the opposition
to which was, as I may call it, my original sin, my subequent
mistakes of the same kind had been the means of my coming
into this miserable condition; for had that Providence, which
had so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me
with confined desires, and I could have been contented to hav
gone on gradually, I might have been, by this time, I mean in
the time of my being in this island, one of the most consider-
able planters in the Brazils; nay, I am persuaded, that by the




“ROBINSON CRUSOE. 221

improvements I had made in that little time I lived there, and
the increase I should probably have made if I remained, I.
might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores. And
_what business had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked
plantation, improving and increasing, to turn supercargo to
Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time would have
so increased our stock at home, that we could have bought
them at our own door from those whose business it was to
fetch them; and though it had cost us something more, yet
the difference of that price was by no means worth saving at
so great a hazard? But as this is usually the fate of young
heads, so reflection upon the folly of it is as commonly the
exercise of more years, or of the dear-bought experience of
time: so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the mis-
take taken root in my temper, that I could not satisfy myself
in my station, but was continually poring upon the means and
possibility of my escape from this place. And that I may,
with the greater pleasure of the reader, bring on the remain-
ing part of my story, it may not be improper to give some
account of my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish
scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what foundation, I
acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my
late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up and secured under
water, as usual, and my condition restored to what it was be-
fore; I had more wealth, indecd, than I had before, but was
not at all the richer: for I had no more use for it than the
Indians of Peru had before the Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the
four-and-twentieth year of my first setting foot in this island
of solitude, I was lying in my bed, or hammock, awake; very
well in health, had no pain, or distemper, no uneasiness of
body, nor any uneasiness of mind, more than ordinary, but.
could by no means close my eyes, that is, so as to sleep; no,
not & wink all night long, otherwise than as follows: — It is

19 *




(922 ADVENTURES OF |

impossible to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that
whirled through that great thoroughfare of the brain, the
memory, in this night’s time: I ran over the whole history of
my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to
_my coming to this island, and also of that part of my life
since I came to this island. In my reflections upon the state
-of my case since I came on shore on this island, I was com-
paring the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my
habitation here, compared to the life of anxiety, fear, and care
which I had lived in, ever since I had seen the print of a foot
in the sand: not that I did not believe the savages had fre-
quented the island even all the while, and might have been,
several. hundreds of them at times on shore there; but I had
never known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about
it; my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the
same, and I was as happy in not knowing my danger, as if I
had never really been exposed to it. This furnished my
_ thoughts with many very profitable reflections, and particularly
this one: How infinitely good that Providence is, which has
provided, in its government of mankind, such narrow bounds
to his sight and knowledge of things; and though he walks in
the midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which,
if discovered to him, would distract his mind and sink his
_ spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having the events of
things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers
which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I
came to reflect. seriously upon the real danger I had been in
for so many years in this very island, and how I had walked
about in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity,
even when perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree,
or the casual approach of night, had been between me and the
worst kind of destruction, viz., that of falling into the hands
of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me with ~
the same view as I would on a goat or a turtle, and have








ROBINSON CRUSOE. * a

thought it no more a crime to kill and devour me, than I did’
a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I.
should say I was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver,
to whose singular protection I acknowledged, with great hu-
mility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and without
which I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some
time taken up in considering the nature of these wretched”
creatures, I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in the
world, that the wise Governor of all things should give up any- ,
_ of his creatures to such inhumanity, nay, to something so
much below even brutality itself, as to devour its own kind;
but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations,
it occurred to me to inquire what part of the world these
wretches lived in? how far off the coast was from whence
they came? what they ventured over so far from home. for ?
what kind of boats they had? and why I might not order my-
self and my business so, that I might be as able to go over
thither as they were to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I
should do with myself when I went thither, what would be-
come of me, if I fell in the hands of the savages; or how I
shculd escape from them, if they attacked me: no, nor so
much as how it was possible for me to reach the coast, and not
be attacked by some or other of them, without any possibility
of delivering myself; and if I should not fall into their hands,
what I should do for provision, or whither I should bend my
course : none of these thoughts, I say, so much as came in
my way; but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of
my passing-over in my boat to the main land. I looked upon
my present condition as the most miserable that could possibly
be; that I was not able to throw myself into anything, but
death, that could be called worse; and if I reached the shore
of the main, I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might
coast along, as I did on the African shore, till I came to some






ee ee ee,”

224 : ADVENTURES OF

inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and.
after all, perhaps, I might fall in with some Christian ship that
might take me in; and if the worst came to the worst, I could
but die, which would put an end to all these miseries at once.
Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an im-
patient temper, made desperate, as it were, by the long con-
tinuance of my troubles,'and the disappointments I had met
in the wreck I had becn on board of, and where I had been so
near obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, viz., somebody
to speak to, and to learn some knowledge from them of the
place where I was, and of the probable means of my deliver-
ance. I was agitated wholly by thése thoughts: all my calm
of mind, in my resignation to Providence, and waiting the
issue in the dispositions of Heaven, seemed to be suspended :
and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to any-
thing but to the project of a voyage to the main, which came
upon me with such force, and such an impetuosity of desire,
that it was not to be resisted.

When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more,
with such violence that it set my very blood into a ferment,
and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever, merely with the
extraordinary fervor of my mind about it, nature, as if I had
been fatigued and exhausted with the very thought of it, threw
me into a sound sleep. One would have thought I should
have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything relating to
it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning, as
usual, from my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and
eleven savages coming to land, and that they brought with
them another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order
to eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were go-
ing to kill jumped away, and ran for his life; and I thought,
in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick grove
before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him
alone, and not perceiving that the others sought him that way,
showed myself to him, and smiling upon him, encouraged





._ ‘ ROBINSON CRUSOE.

him : that he kneeled down to me, seeming to pray me to assist
him; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him go up,
and carried him into my cave, and he became my servant :
and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to myself, Now
I may certainly venture to the main land; for this fellow will
serve me as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither
to go for provisions, and whither not to go for fear of being
devoured ; what places to venture into, and what to shun. I
waked with this thought; and was under such inexpressible
impressions of joy at the prospect of my cscape. in my dream,
that the disappointments which I felt upon coming to myself,
and finding that it was no more than a dream, were equally
extravagant the other way, and threw mg into a very great de-
jection of spirits. :
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion: that my only
way to go about to attempt an escape was, if possible, to get a
savage into my possession ; and, if possible, it should be one
of their prisoners whom they had condemned to be eaten, and
should bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were at-
tended with this difficulty, that it was impossible to effect this
without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing them
all: and this was not only a very desperate attempt, aud might
miscarry : but, on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the
lawfulness of it to myself, and my heart trembled at the
thought of shedding so much blood, though it was for my de-
liverance. I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to
me against this, they being the same mentioned before: but
though I had other reasons to offer now, viz., that those men
were enemies to my life, and would devour me if they could;
that it was self-preservation, in the highest degree, to deliver
myself from this death of a life, and was acting in my own
defense as much as if they were actually assaulting me, and
the like; I say, though these things argued for it, yet the

thoughts of shedding human blood for my deliverance were ~_

very ‘terrible to me, and such as I could by no means reconcile



=






226 ADVENTURES OF

myself to for a gieat while. However, at last, after many
secret disputes with myself, and after great perplexities about
it (for all these arguments, one way and another, struggled in
my head a long time), the eager prevailing desire of deliver-
ance at length mastered all the rest; and I resolved, if possi-
ble, to get one of those savages into my hands, cost what it
would. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this
indeed was very difficult to resolve on: but as I could pitch
upon no probable means for it, so I resolved to put myself upon
the watch, to see them when they came on shore, and leave the
rest to the event, taking such measures as the opportunity
should present, let what would be. c

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon
the scout as often as possible, and indeed so often, that I
was heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and a half
that I waited; and for great part of that time went out to the
west end, and to the south-west corner of the island, almost
every day, to look for canoes, but none appeared. This was
very discouraging, and began to trouble me much, though I
cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done some time
before) wear off the edge of my desire to the thing; but the
longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I was for it: in
a word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of these
savages, and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager to
be upon them. Besides, I fancied myself able to manage one,
nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them
entirely slaves to me, to do whatever I should direct them, and
to prevent their being able at any time to do me any hurt. It
was a great while that I pleased myself with this affair; but
nothing still presented; all my fancies and schemes came to
nothing, for no savages came near me for a great while.
ROBINSON ORUSOE. 227

SECTION XXII.

ROBINSON RESCUES ONE OF THEIR CAPTIVES FROM THE SAVAGES, WHOM
HE NAMES FRIDAY, AND MAKES HIS SERVANT.

ABOUT a year and a half after I entertained these notions (and
by long musing had, as it were, resolved them all into nothing,
for want of an occasion to put them into execution), I was sur-
prised one morning early, with seeing no less than five canoes
all on shore together on my side the island, and the people
who belonged to them all landed, and out of my sight. The
number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many,,
and knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes
more, in a boat, I could not tell what to think of it, or how to
take any measures, to-attack twenty or thirty men single-
handed ; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted :
however, I put myself into all the same postures for an attack
that I had formerly provided, and was just ready for action, if
anything had presented. Having waited a good while, listen-
ing to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very im-
patient, I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and clambered
up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual; stand-
ing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill,
sq that they could not perceive me by any means. Here I
observed, by the help of my perspective glass, that they were
no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled,
and that they had meat dressed. How they had cooked it I
knew not, or what it was; but they were all dancing, in I
know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their ows”
way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived by my per-
spective, two miserable wretches dragged from the boats;
228 . ADVENTURES OF

where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now brought out
for the slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall,
being knocked down, I suppose, with a club or wooden sword,
for that was their way, and two or three others were at work
immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while the
other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be—
ready for him. In that very moment, this poor wretch seeing
himself a little at liberty, and unbound, nature inspired him
with hopes of life, and he started away from them, and ran
with incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me,
I mean towards that part of the coast where my habitation
was. . J was dreadfully frightened, I must acknowledge, when
I perceived him run my way, and especially when, as I thought
IT saw him pursued by the whole body: and now I expected
that part of my dream was coming to pass, and that he would
certainly take shelter in my grove; but I could not depend,
by any means, upon my dream for the rest of it, viz., that the
other savages would not pursue him thither, and find him
there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to
recover, when I found that there was not above three men that
followed him; and still more was I encouraged when I found
- that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained
ground of them, so that if he could but hold it for half an
hour, I saw easily he would fairly get away from them all.
There was between them and my castle the creek, which I
- mentioned often in the first part of my story, where I’ landed
my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw plainly he must
necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken
there: but when the savage escaping came thither, he. made
nothing of it, though the tide was then up; but plunging in,
swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed,
. and ran on with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the
three persons came to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the
other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































THE SAVAGES’ MODE OF LIVING. Page 228.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. . _ 229

soon after went softly back again; which, as it happened, was
very well for him in the end. I observed, that the two who
swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the
creek as the fellow was that fled from them. It came now
very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that
now was the time to get me a servant, and perhaps a compan-
ion or assistant, and that I was called plainly by Providence
to save this poor creature’s life. I immediately ran down the
ladders with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns, for
they were both at the foot of the ladders, as I observed above,
and getting up again, with the same haste, to the top of the
hill, I crossed towards the sea, and having a very short cut,
and all down hill, placed myself in the way between the pur-
suers and the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who,
looking back, was at first, perhaps, as much frightened at me
as at them; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come
back ; and, in the meantime, I slowly advanced towards the
two that followed: then rushing at once upon the foremost, I
knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I was loth to
fire, because I would not have the rest hear; though, at that
distance, it would not have been easily heard, and being out
of sight of the smoke too, they would not have easily known
what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the
other who pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened,
and I advanced apace towards him: but as I came nearer, I
perecived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it
to shoot at me; so I was then necessitated to shoot at him
first, which I did, and killed him at the first shot. The poor
savage who fled but had stopped, though he saw both his enc-
mies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened
with the fire and noise of my piece, that he stood stock still,
and neither went forward nor went backward, though he
seemed rather inclined still to fly than to come on. I hal-
looed again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he
easily understood, and came a little way ; then stopped again,
20




230 ADVENTURES OF:

and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I could then_
perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had been taken pris-
ouer, and had just been to be killed, as his two enemies were.
I beckoned to him again to come to me, and gave him all the
signs of encouragement that I could think of; and he came
nearer and nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in
token of acknowledgment for saving his life. I smiled at
him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still
nearer: at length he came close to me; and then he kneeled
down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the
ground, and taking me.by the foot, set my foot upon his head :
this, it seems, was in token of swearing to be my slave for
ever. I took him up, and made much of him, and encour-
aged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet;
for I perceived the savage whom I knocked down was not
killed but stunned with the blow, and began to come to him-
self; so I pointed to him, and showed him the savage, that he
was not dead: upon this he spoke some words to me, and
though I could not understand them, yet I thought they were
pleasant to hear; for they were the first sound of a man’s
voice that I had heard, my own excepted, for above twenty-
five years. But there was no time for such reflections now ;
the savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far as
to sit up upon the ground, and I perceived that my savage be-
gan to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented my other
piece at the man, as if I would shoot him : upon this my savage,
for so I called him now, made a motion to me to lend him my
sword which hung naked in a belt by my side, which I did.
He no sooner had it, but he runs to his enemy, and, at one
blow, cut off his head so cleverly, no executioner in Germany
could have done it sooner or better; which I thought very
strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never saw a sword
-in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however,
it seems, as I learned afterwards, they make their wooden -
swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, that they


ROBINSON CRUSOE. > 231 ©.

will cut off heads even with them, aye and arms, and that at
one blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing, to
me, in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again, and |
with abundance of gestures, which I did not understand, laid
it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed, just
before me. But that which astonished him most was to know
how I killed the other Indian so far off: so pointing to him, .
he made signs to me to let him go to him; so I bade him go,
as well as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one
amazed, looking at him, turning him first on one side, then on
the other, looked at the wound the bullet had made, which it
seems, was just in his breast where it had made a hole, and no
great quantity of blood had followed, but he had bled inwardly,
for he was quite dead. He took up his bow and arrows, and
came back ; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to fol-
low me, making signs to him that more might come after
them. Upon this, he made signs to me that he should bury
them with sand, that they might not be seen by the rest, if
they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so.
He fell to work; and, in an instant, he had scraped a hole in
the sand with his hands, big enough to bury the first in, and
then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so by the
other also; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of
an hour. Then calling him away, I carried him not to my,
castle, but quite away, to my cave, on the farther part of
the island; soI did not let my dream come to pass in that
part, viz., that he came into my grove for shelter. Here I
gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a draught
of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress for, by
his running ; and having refreshed him, I made signs for him
to go and lie down to sleep, showing him a place where I had
laid some rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to
sleep upon myself sometimes; so the poor creature lay down,
and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made,




232 ADVENTURES OF

- with straight, strong limbs, not too large, tall, and well-shaped,
and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age. He hada
very good countenance, not a fierce and surly aspect; but
seemed to have something very mauly in his face; and yet
he had all the sweetness and softness of an European in his
countenance too, especially when he smiled. His hair was
long and black, not curled like wool; his forehead very high
and large; and a great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his
eyes. The color of his skin was not quite black, but very
tawny; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the
Brazilians and Virginians, and other natives of America are,
bat of a bright kind of a dun olive-color, that had in it some-
thing very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His
face was round and plump; his nose small, not flat like the
Negroes; a very good mouth, thin lips. and his fine teeth well
set, and as white as ivory.

After he had slumbered rather than slept, about half an

_. hour he awoke again, and came out of the cave to me, for I
had been milking my goats, which I had in the enclosure just
by; when he espied me, he came ruaning to me, laying hin-
self down again upon the ground, with all the possible signs
of an humble, thankful disposition, making a great many antic
gestures to show it. At last, he lays his head flat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my fuot upon his head, as
he had done before; and after this made all the signs to me
of subjection, servitude, and submission imaginable, to let me
know he would serve me as long as he lived. I understood

him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased
with him. In a little time I began to speak to him and teach
him to speak to me; and, first, I let him know his name should
be Fripay, which was the day I saved his life: I called him
so for the memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say
Master; and then let him know that was to be my name: I
likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the mean-
ing of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and




ROBINSON CRUSOE.

let him see me drink it before him, and sop my bread in its

_-and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he quickly
complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him.
I kept there with him all that night; but as soon as it was day,

I beckoned to him to come with me, and let him know I would.

give him some clothes: at which he seemed very glad, for he
was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had
buried the two men, he pointed exactly to the place, and
showed me the marks that he had made to find them again,
making signs to me that we should dig them up again, and eat
them. At this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhor-
rence of it, made as if I would vomit at the thoughts of ‘it,
and beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he
did immediately, with great submission. [I then led him up
to the top of the hill, to see if his enemies were gone; and
pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place
where they had been, but no appearance of them or their
canoes: so that it was plain that they were gone, and had left
their two comrades behind them, without any search after them.

But I was not content with this discovery ; but having now
more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I took my
man Friday with me, giving him the sword in the hand, with
the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use
very dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I
two for mysclf; and away we marched to the place where
these creatures had been, for I had a mind now to get some
fuller intelligence of them. When I came to the place, my
very blood ran chill in my veins, and my heart sunk within
me, at the horror of the spectacle: indeed it was a dreadful

sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing

of it. ‘The place was covered with human bones, the ground
dyed with their blood, and great pieces of flesh, left here and
there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all
the tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making there,
after a victory over their enemies. I saw three skulls, five

20 *



te




234 ADVENTURES OF

hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and abund-
ance of other parts of the bodies; and Friday, by his signs,
made me understand that they brought over four prisoners to
feast upon; that three of them were eaten up, and that he,
pointing to himself, was the fourth; that there had been a
great battle between them and their next king, whose subjects,
it seems, he had been one of, and that they had taken a great
number of prisoners; all which were carried to several places.
by those who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast
upon them, as was donc here by these wretches upon those
they brought hither.

T caused Friday to gather up all the skulls, bones, flesh,
and whatever remained, and lay them together in a heap, and
make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes. I found
Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh,
and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I discovered so
much abhorrence, at the very thoughts of it, and at the least
appearance of it, that he durst not discover it; for I had,
by some means, let him know that I would kill him if he of-
fered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our eastle ; and
there I fell to work for my man Friday: and, first of all, I
gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the poor
gunner’s chest I mentioned which I found in the wreck; and
which, with a little alteration, fitted him very well, and then I
made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as my skin would
allow (for I was now grown a tolerable good tailor); and I
gave him a cap, which 1 made of hare’s skin, very convenient
and fashionable enough; and thus he was clothed for the pres-
ent, tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see him-
self almost as well clothed as his master. _ It is true, he went
awkwardly in those clothes at first; wearing the drawers was
very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled
his shoulders, and the inside of his arms; but after a little




ROBINSON CRUSOE. 235°

easing them where he complained they hurt him, and using
himself to them, he took to them at length very well.

The next day after I came home to my hutch with him, I
began to consider where I should lodge him ; and that I might
do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself, made a little
tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications,
in the inside of the last and in the outside of the first. As
there was a door or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal
framed doorease, and a door to it of boards, and set it up in
the passage, a little within the entrance ; and causing the door
to open in the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in
my ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me in
the inside of my innermost wall, without making so much
noise in getting over that it must needs waken me: for my
first wall had now a complete roof over it of long poles, cov-
ering all my tent, and leaning up to the side of the hill;
which was again laid across with smaller sticks, instead of
laths, and then thatched over a great thickness with the rice-
straw, which was strong, like reeds; and at the hole or place
which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed a
kind of trap door, which, if it had been attempted on the out-
side, would not have opened at all, but would have fallen down,
and made a gyeat noise: as to weapons, I took them all into
my side every night. But I needed none of all this pre-
caution; for never man had a more faithful, loving, sincere
servant than Friday was to me; without passions, sullenness,
or designs, perfectly obliged and engaged — his very affections
were tied to me, like those of a child to a father; and I dare
say, he would have sacrificed his life for the saving mine upon
any occasion whatsoever: the many testimonies he gave me of
this put it out of doubt, and.soon convinced me that I needed
to use no precautions, as to my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with
wonder, that however it had pleased God, in his providence,






. +936 : ADVENTURES OF

and in the government of the works of his hands, to take from
so great a part of the world of his creatures the best uses to
which their faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted,
‘yet that he has bestowed upon them the same powers, the
same reason, the same affections, the same sentiments of kind-
ness and obligation, the same passions and resentments of
wrongs, the same sense of grattitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all
the capacities of doing good, and receiving good, that he has
given to us; and that when he pleases to offer them occasions
of exerting these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply
them to the right uses for which they were bestowed, than we
are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting,
as the several occasions presented, how mean a use we make
of all these, even though we have these powers enlightened
by the great lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God, and by
the knowledge of his word added to our understanding; and
why it has pleased God to hide the like saving knowledge from
so many millions of souls, who, if I might judge by this poor
savage, would make a much better use of it than we did.
From hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the sov-
ereignty of Providence, and as it were arraign the justice of
so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that light
from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty
from both; but I shut it up, and checked my thoughts with
this conclusion; first, That we did not know by what light
and law these should be condemned: but that as God was ne-
cessarily, and, by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and
just, so it could not be, but if these creatures were all sen-
tenced to absence from himself, it was on account of sinning
against that light, which, as the Scripture says, was a law to
themselves, and by such rules as their consciences would ac-
knowledge to be just, though the foundation was not discovered
to us; and, secondly, That still, as we all are. the clay in the
hand of the potter, no vessel could say to him, Why hast thou
formed me thus?


ROBINSON ontson. 987.

But to return to my new companion; —I was greatly de
lighted with him, and made it my business to teach him every-
thing that was proper to make him useful, handy, and helpful ;
but especially to make him speak, and daderstadtl me when I
spoke; and he was the aptest scholar that ever was; and par-
ticularly was so merry, so constantly diligent, and so pleased
when he could but understand me, or make me understand
him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. Now my
life began to be so easy, that I began to say to myself, that
could I but have been safe from more savages, I cared not if I
was never to remove from the place where I lived.

SECTION XXIII.

ROBINSON INSTRUCTS AND CIVILIZES HIS MAN FRIDAY — ENDEAVORS TO
GIVE HIM AN IDEA OF CHRISTIANITY.

Arter I had been two or three days returned to my castle, I”
thought that, in order to bring Friday off from his horrid way
of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s stomach, I
ought to let him taste other flesh; so I took him out with me
one morning to the woods. I went, indeed, intending to kill
a kid out of my own flock, and bring it home and dress it, but
as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and
two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday ; —
Hold, said I; stand still; and made signs to him not to stir:
immediately I presented my.piece, shot, and killed one of the
kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen
me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not know, nor could
imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised, trembled and
shook, and looked so amazed, that I thought he would have
938 ADVENTURES OF

sunk down. He did not see the kid I shot at, or perceive I

had killed it, but ripped up his waistcoat to feel whether he.

was not wounded, and, as I found presently, thought I was re-
solved to kill him: for he came and kneeled down to me, and
embraced my knees, said a great many things I did not under-
stand; but I could easily sce the meaning was, to pray me not
to kill him.

~ I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him
no harm; and taking him up by the hand, laughed at him,
and pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned to him to
run and fetch it, which he did; and while he was wondering,
and looking to see how the creature was killed, I loaded my
gun again. By and by, I saw a great fowl, like a hawk, sit-
ting upon a tree, within shot; so, to let Friday understand a
little what I would do, I called to him again, pointed at the
fowl], which was indecd a parrot, though I thought it had been
a hawk; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my gun, and to
the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it
fall, I made him understand that I would shoot and kill that
bird: accordingly, I fired, and bade him look, and immedi-
ately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened
again, notwithstanding all I had said to him; and I found he
was the more amazed, because he did not sce me put anything
into the gun, but thought that there must be some wonderful
fund of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man,
beast or bird, or anything near or far off; and the astonish-
ment this created in him was such, as could not wear off for a
long time ; and I believe, if I would have let him, he would have
worshiped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would
not so much as touch it for sevéral days after; but he would
speak to it, and talk to it, as if it had answered him, when he
was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to
desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a
little over at this, I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird
I had shot, which he did, but stayed some time; for the pa.


ch ROBINSON CRUSOE. 939° *-

rot, not being quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance
from the place where she fell: however, he found her, took
her up, and brought her to me, and as I had perceived his i ig-
norance about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge .
the gun again, and not to let him see me do it, that I might
. be ready for any other mark that might present; but nothing
more offered at that time; so I brought home the kid, and the
same evening I took the skin off, and cut it off as well as I
could ; and having a pot fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed
some of the flesh, and made some very good broth. After I
had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed
very glad of it, and liked it very well; but that which was
strangest to him, was to see me eat salt with it. He made a
sign to me that the salt was not good to eat; and putting a
little into his mouth, he seemed to nauscate it, and would spit
and sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after it;
on the other hand, I took some meat into my mouth without
salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as
fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would
never care for salt with his meat or in his broth; at least not
for a great while, and then but very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was re-
solved to feast him the next day with roasting a piece of the
kid: this I did, by hanging it before the fire on a string, as I
had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up,
one on each side of the fire, and one across on the top, and
tying the string to the cross-stick, letting the meat turn con-
tinually. This, Friday admired very much; but when he
came to taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how
well he liked it, that I could not understand him; and at last
he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat man’s
flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out,
and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I observed before;
and’ he soon understood how to do it as well as I, especially


~

a ADVENTURES OF = *

after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was
to make bread of it: for after that I let him see me make my
bread, and bake it too; and in a little time Friday was able to
do all the work for me, as well as I could do it myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed

‘instead of one, I must provide more ground for my harvest,

and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used to do: so I
marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the
same manner as before, in which Friday worked not only very

willingly and very hard, but did it very cheerfully : and I told
him what it was for; that it was for corn to make more bread,

because he was now with me, and that I might have enougli for

* him and myself too. He appeared very sensible of that part,

and let me know that he thought I had much more labor upon
me on his account than I had for myself; and that he would
work the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this

; place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand the

names of almost everything I had occasion to call for, and of
every place I had to send him to, and talked a great deal to
me; so that, in short, I now began to have some use for my
tongue again, which, indeed, I had very little occasion for be-
fore, that is to say, about speech. Besides the pleasure of
talking to him, I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow him-
self: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared to me more and
more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and,
on his side, I believe he loved me more than it was possible
for him ever to love anything before.

I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclina-
tion to his own country again; and having taught hin Eng-
lish so well that he could answer me almost any question, I
asked him whether the nation that he belonged to, never con-
quered in battle? At which he smiled, and said, Yes, yes, we
always fight the better: that is, he meant, always get the bet-
ter in fight; and so we began the following discourse : —


“ROBINSON CRUSOE. a

Master. You always fight the better? how came .you to
be taken prisoner then, Friday ?

Fripay. My nation beat much, for all that.

Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how came”
you to be taken ?

Fripay. They more many than my nation in the place
where me was; they take one, two, three, and me ; my nation _
overbeat them in the yonder place, where me no was; there .
my nation take one, two, great thousand.

Master. But why did not your s pide recover you from the
hands of your enemies, then?

Fripay. They run one, two, threc, and me, and make go
in the canoe; my nation have no canoe that time.

Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with
the men they take? Do they carry them away and eat them
as these did ?

Fripay. Yes, my nation eat mans too; cat all up. ~

Master. Where do they carry them?

Fripay. Go to other place, where they think.

Master. Do they come hither.

Fripay. Yes, yes, they come hither; some other else
place.

Master. Have you been here with them?

Fripay. Yes, I have been here; (points to the N. w. side
of the island, which, it seems, was their side.)

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly
been among the savages who used to come on shore on the
farther part of the island, on the same man-eating occasions
he was now brought for: and some time after, when I took
the courage to carry him to that side, being the same I for-
merly mentioned, he presently knew the place, and told me
he was there once when they eat up twenty men, two women,
and one child: he could not tell twenty in English, but he
numbered them, by laying so many stones in a row, and par
ing to me to tell them over.

21
242 _ADVENTURES OF

I have told this passage, because it introduces what fol
lows; that after I had this discourse with him, I asked him
how far it was from our island to the shore, and whether the
canoes were not often lost. He told me there was no dan-
ger, no canoes ever lost; but that, after a little way out to-.
sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in the
morning, the other in the afternoon. This I understood to be
‘no more than the sets of the tide, as going out or coming in;
but I afterwards understood it was occasioned by the great
draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth
or gulf of which river, as I found afterwards, our island lay ;
and that this land which I perceived to the W. and N.W. was
the great island of Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. LI asked Friday a thousand questions about the
country, the inhabitants, the sca, the coast, and what nations
were near: he told me all he knew, with the greatest openness
imaginable. I asked him the names of the several nations of
his sort of people, but could get no other name than Caribs:
from whence he understood, that these were the Caribbees,
which our maps place on the part of America which reaches
from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards
to St. Martha. He told me that up a great way beyond the

moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which must.

be west from their country, there dwelt white bearded men,
like me, and pointed to my great whiskers, which I mentioned
before; and that they had killed much mans, that was his
word; by all which I understood, he meant the Spaniards,
whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole
country, and were remembered by all the nations, from father
to son. ;

I inquired if he could tell me how I might go from this

island and get among those white men: he told me, Yes, yes, 5

you may go in two canoe. I could not understand what he
meant, or make him describe to me what he meant by two



canoe; till, at last, with great difficulty, I found he meant it


“ROBINSON cRUSO#. 248
must be in a large boat, as big as two canoes. This part of
Friday’s discourse began to relish with me very well; and from
this time I entertained some hopes that, one time or other, I
might find an opportunity to make my escape from this place,
and that this poor savage might be a mcans to help me.

SECTION XXIV.

ROBINSON AND FRIDAY BUILD A CANOE TO CARRY THEM TO FRIDAY’S
COUNTRY — THEIR SCHEME PREVENTED BY TIIE ARRIVAL OF A PARTY
OF SAVAGES.

\

Arter Friday and I became more intimately a¢quainted, and
that he could understand almost all I said to him, and speak
pretty fluently, though in broken English, to me, I acquainted
him with my own history, or at least so much of it as. related
to my coming to this place; how I had lived here, and how.
long: I let him into the mystery, for such it was to him, of
gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. I gave
him a knife, which he was wonderfully delighted with; and I
made him a belt with a frog hanging to it, such as in England
we wear hangers in; and in the frog, instead of a hanger, I
gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon, in
some cases, but much more useful upon other occasions.

I described to him the country of Europe, particularly
England, which I came from; how we lived, how we wor-
shiped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we
traded in ships to all ‘parts of the world. I gave him an ac-
count of the wreck which I had been on board of, and showed
him, as near as I could, the place where she lay; but she was
all beaten in pieces before, and gone. I showed him the ruins




o44. ADVENTURES OF

of our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which I
could not stir with my whole strength then; but was now fall-
en almost all to pieces. Upon sceing this boat, Friday stood
musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it
was he studied upon? At last, says he, Me sce such boat like
come to place at my nation. I did not understand him a good
while; but, at last, when I had examined farther into it, Lun
derstood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on
shore upon the country where he lived : that is, as he explained
it, was driven thither by stress of weather. I presently imag-
ined that some European ship must have been cast away upon
their coast, and the boat might get loose, and drive ashore ;
but was so dull, that I never once thought of men making
their escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they
might come: so I only inquired after a description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough ; but brought
me better to understand him when he added, with some warmth,
We save the white mans from drown. Then I presently asked
him, if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat?
Yes, he said; the boat full of white mans. TI asked him how
many? He told upon his fingers seventeen. [asked him then
what became of them? Ie told me, They live, they dwell at
my nation.

This put new thoughts into my head; for I presently im-
agined that these might be the men belonging to the ship that
was cast away in the sight of my island, as I now called it:
and who, after the ship was struck on the rock, and they saw
her inevitably lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and
‘ were landed upon that wild shore among the savages. Upon
this, I inquired of him more critically ah was become of
them; he assured me they still lived there; that they had
been thee about four years; that the savages let them alone,
and gave them victuals to live on. I asked him how it came
to pass they did not kill them, and eat them? He said, No,
they make brother with them ; that is, as I understood him, a




PS ea ee



oe ROBINSON CRUSOE. 245

truce; and then he added, They no eat mans but when the
war fight ; that is to say, they never cat any mon but such as
come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that, being upon
the top of the hill, at the cast side of the island, from whence,
as I have said, I had, in a clear day, discovercd the main or
continent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene,
looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in a kind of
surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls out to me, for
-T was at some distance from him. Tasked him what was the
matter? O joy! says he; O glad! there see my country,
there my nation! I observed an extraordinary sense of pleas-
ure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his counte-
nance discovered a strange cagerness, as if he had a mind to
be in his own country again. This observation of mine put a
great many thoughts into me, which made me at first not so
easy about my new man, Friday, as I was before; and I made
no doubt but that if Friday could get back to his own nation
again, he would not only forget all his religion, but all his ob-
ligation to me, and would be forward enough to give his coun-
trymen un account of me, and come back perhaps with a hun-
dred or two of them, and make a feast upon me, at which he
might be as merry as he used to be with those of his enemies,
when they were taken in wer. But I wronged the poor honest
creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards.
However, as my jealousy increased, and held me some weeks, I
was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar and kind to
him as before; in which I was certainly in the wrong too; the
honest grateful creature having no thought about it, but what
consisted with the best principles, both as a religious Christian,
and as a grateful friend, as appeared afterwards to my full sat-
isfuction,

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was
every day pumping him, to sec if he would discover any of the
new thoughts which I suspected were in him: but I found

21 *










246 ADVENTURES OF : -

every thing he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could
find nothing to nourish my suspicion; and in spite of all my
- uneasiness, he made me at last entirely his own again; nor
did he, in the least, perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I
could not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being
hazy at sca, so that we could not see the continent, I called to
him, and said, Friday, do not you wish yourself in your own
country, your own nation? Yes, he said, I be much O glad
to be af my own nation. What would you do there? said I:
would you turn wild again, cat men’s flesh again, and be a
savage, as you were before? He looked full of concern, and
shaking his head, said, No, no; Friday tell them to live good,
tell them to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh,
milk; no eat man again. Why, then, said I to him, they will
kill you. He looked grave at that, and then said, No, no; they
no kill me, they willing love learn. He meant by this, they
would be willing to learn. He added, they learned much of
the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I asked him
if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told me
he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe
for hin. He told me he would go, if I would go with him.
I go? says I; why, they will eat me, if I come there. No,
no, says he; me make them no eat you; me make them much
love you. He meant, he would tell them how I had killed his
enemies, and saved his life, and so he would make them love
me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how kind they were
to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them,
who came on shore there in distress.

From this time, I confess I had a mind to venture over,
and sec if I could possibly join with those bearded men, who,
I made no doubt, were Spaniards and Portuguese: not doubt-
ing but if I could, we might find some method to escape from
thence, being upon the continent, and a good company together,
.better than I could from an island forty miles off the shore,


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 247

and alone, without help. So, after some days, I took Friday
to work again, by way of discourse; and told him I would
give him a boat to go back to his own nation; and accordingly
I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the
island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk
in water) I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went
into it. I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing
it, and would make it go almost as swift again as I could. So
when he was in, I said to him, Well, now, Friday, shall we go
to your nation? He looked very dull at my saying so; which,
it seems, was because he thought the boat too small to go so
far; I then told him I had a bigger; so the next day I went
to the place where the first boat lay which I had made, but
which I could not get into the water. Ile said that was big
enough: but then, as I had taken no care of it, and it had
lain two or three-and-twenty years there, the sun had split and
dried it, that it was in a manner rotten. Friday told me such
a boat would do very well, and would carry much cnough
vittle, drink, bread; that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my de-
sign of going over with him to the continent, that I told him
we would go and make one as big as that, and he should go
home in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave
and sad. I asked him what was the matter with him? He
asked me again, Why you angry mad with Friday 2? What me
done? Tasked him what he meant? I told him I was not
angry with him at all. No angry? says he, repeating the
words several times ; Why send Friday home away to my na-
tion ? — Why, says I, Friday, did not you say you wished you
were there ?— Yes, yes, says he, wish be both there; no wish
Friday there, no master there. In a word, he would not think
of going there without me. I go there, Friday? saysI; what
shall Ido there? He returned very quick upon me at this-
You do great deal much good, says he; you teach wild mans
be good, sober tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God.




QA8 ADVENTURES OF

and live new life. Alas! Friday, says I, thou knowest not.
what thou sayest; Iam but an ignorant man myself. — Yes,
yes, says he, you teachee me good, you teachee them good. —
No, no, Friday, says I, you shall go without me, leave me here
to live by myself, as I did before. He looked confused again
at that word, and running to one of the hatchets which he used
to wear, he takes it up hastily, and gives it tome. What must I
do with this? says I to him. You take kill Friday, says he.
What must I kill you for? said I again. He returns very _
quick, What you send Friday away for? Take kill Friday, no
send Friday away. This he spoke so earnestly, that I saw
tears stand in his eyes: in a word, I so plainly discovered the
utmost affection in him to me, and a firm resolution in hin,
that I told him then, and often after, that I would never send
him away from me, if he was willing to stay with me. 1
Upon the whole, as I found, by all his discourse, a settled af-
fection to me, and that nothing should part him from me, so 1
found all the foundation of his desire to go to his own country
was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my
doing them good; a thing, which as I had no notion of myself,
so I had not the least thought, or intention, or desire of under-
taking it. But still I found a strong inclination to my attempt-
ing an escape, as above, founded on the supposition gathered
from the discourse, viz.: that there were seventeen bearded
men there; and, therefore, without any more delay, 1 went to
work with Friday, to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make
a large periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were
trees enough in the island to have built a little fleet, not of
periaguas, or canoes, but even of good large vesscls; but the
main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water that
we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mistake I
committed at first. At last, Friday pitched upon a tree; for
I found he knew much better than I what kind of wood was
fittest for it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the
tree we cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call fus-




“ROBINSON CRUSOE. a)

‘tic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was much
of the same color and smell. Friday was for burning the hol-
low or cavity of this tree out, to make it for a boat, but I
showed him how to cut it with tools; which, after I had showed
him how to use, he did very handily: and in about a month’s
hard labor we finished it, and made it very handsome ; espe-
cially when, with our axes, which I showed him how to han-
dle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of -a
boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time
to gct her along, as it were inch by inch, upon great rollers,
into the water, but when she was in, she would have carried
twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, and though she was so big,
it amazed me to see with what dexterity, and how swift my
man Friday would manage her, turn her, and paddle her along.
So I asked him if he would, and if we might, venture over in
her. Yes, he said; we venture over in her very well, though
great blow wind. However, I had a further design, that he
knew nothing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and
to fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was
easy enough to get: so I pitched upon a straight young cedar’
tree, which I found near the place, and which there’ were
a great plenty of in the island; and I set Friday to work to
cut it down, and gave him directions how to shape and order it.
But as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had
old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough: but as I had
had them now six-and-twenty years by me, and not been very
careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should ever
have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but they
were all rotten, and, indeed, most of them were so. How-
ever, I found two pieces, which appeared pretty good, and
with these I went to work; and with a great deal of pains
and awkward stitching, you may be sure, for want of needles,
I, at length, made a three-cornered ugly thing like what we call
in England a shoulder-of mutton sail, to go with a boom -at




7250 : ADVENTURES OF -

bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually our
ship’s long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how tc
manage, as it was such a one I had to the boat in which I
made my escape from Barbary, as related in the first part of
my story. ,

I was near two months performing this last work, viz: rig-
ging and fitting my mast and sails; for I finished them very
complete, making a small stay, and a sail, or foresail, to it, to
assist, if we should turn to windward ; and, which was more ;
than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern of her to steer with. I
was but a bungling shipwright, yet, as I knew the usefulness,
and even necessity of such a thing, I applied niyself with so
much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to pass ; though
considering the many dull contrivances I had for it that failed,
I think it cost me almost as much labor as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as
to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for, though he
knew very well how to paddle a canoe, he knew nothing what
belonged to a sail and a rudder; and was the most amazed
when he saw me work the boat to and again in the sea by the
rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and filled this way or that
way, as the course we sailed changed; I say, when he saw this,
he stood like one astonished and amazed. However, with a
little use, I made all these things familiar to him, and he be-
came an expert sailor, except that, as to the compass T could
make him understand very little of that. On the other hand,
as there was very little cloudy weather, and scldom or never
any fogs in those parts, there was the less occasion for a com-
pass, seeing the stars were always to be seen by night, and the
shore by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then nobody
cared to stir abroad, either by land or sea.

T was now entered on the seven-and-twenticth year of my
captivity in this place; though the three last years that I had

- this creature with me ought rather to be left out of the account,
my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest




ROBINSON CRUSOE. 251

of the time: I kept the anniversary of my landing here with
the same thankfulness to God for ‘his mercies as at first; and
if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had much
more so now, having such additional testimonies of the eare of
Providence over me, and the great hupes I had of being effect-
ually and speedily delivered; for I had an invincible impres-
sion upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and’
that I should not be another year jn this place. I went on,
however, with my husbandry ; digging, plinting, and fencing,
as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did every
necessary thing as before. -

The rainy season was, in the mean time, upon me, when I
kept more within doors than at other times. We had stowed
our own vessel as secure as we could, bringing her up into the
creck, where, as I said in the begining, I landed. my rafts
from the ship; and hauling her up ta the shore, at high-water
mark, I made my man Friday dig a little dock, just big enough
to hold her, and just deep enough to yive her water enough to.
float in; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong
dam across the end of it, to keep the water out; and so she
lay dry, as to the tide, from the sea; ard to keep the rain off,
we laid a great many boughs of trees, s) thick, that she was.
as well thatched as a house ; and thus we waited for the months
of November and December, in which I designed to make my
adventure.

When the settled scason began to come in, ag the thought
of my design returned with the fair weather, F was preparing
Jaily for the voyage, and the first thing I did 14s to lay by a
sertain quantity of provisions, being the stores f.r our voyage ;
and intended, in a weck or a fortnight’s time, to open the
dock, and launch out our boat. I was busy one morning upon
something of this kind, when I called to Friday, ard bid hinr
go to the sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle, or tor-
toise, a thing which we generally got once a week, for the sake

of the eggs as wellas the flesh. Friday had not heen long.




252 ADVENTURES OF

- gone, when he came running back, and flew over my outer
wall, or fence, like one that felt not the ground, or the steps
he set his feet on; and before I had time to speak to him, he
cries out to me, O master! O master! O sorrow! O bad!—
What’s the matter, Friday? says I. O yonder, there, says
he, one, two, three canoe; one, two, three! By this way of
speaking, I concluded there were six; but, on inquiry, I found
it was but three. Well, Friday, says I, do not be frightened !
So I heartened him up as well as I could; however, I saw the
poor fellow was most terribly scared; for nothing ran in his
head but that they were come to look for him, and would cut
him in pieces, and eat him; and the poor fellow trembled so,
that I scarce knew what to do with him. I comforted him as
well as I could, and told him I was in as much danger as he,
and that they would eat me as well as him. But, says I, Fri-
day, we must resolve to fight them. Can you fight, Friday ?
— Me shoot, says he; but there come many great number. —
No matter for that, said I, again; our guns will fright them
that we do not kill. So I asked him whether, if I resolved to
defend him he would defend me, and stand by me; and do
just as I bid him. He said, Me die, when you bid dic, mas-
ter. So I went and fetched a good dram of rum and gave
him; for I had been so good a husband of my rum, that I hada
great deal left. When he drank it, I made him take the two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and loaded them with
large swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets; then I took
four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs, and five sinall
bullets cach ; and my two pistols I loaded with a brace of
bullets cach; I hung my great sword, as usual, naked by my
side; and gave Friday his hatchet. When I had thus pre-
pared myself, I took my perspective glass, and went up to the
side of the hill, to see what I could discover; and I found
quickly, by my glass, that there was one-and-twenty savages,
three prisoners, and three canoes; and that their whole busi-
ness scemed to be the triumphant banquet upon these three








ROBINSON CRUSOE. 258

human bodies ; a barbarous feast indeed! but nothing more a

than, as I had observed, was usual with them. I observed
also, that they were landed, not where they had done when
Friday made his escape, but nearer to my creek; where the
shore was low, and where a thick wood came almost close down

to the sea, This, with the abhorrence of the inhuman errand ~

these wretches came about, filled me with such indignation,
that I came down again to Friday, and told him I was resolved

to go down to them and kill them all; and asked him if he ~

would stand by me. He had now got over his fright, and his
spirits being a little raised with the dram I had given him, he
was very cheerful, and told me, as before, he would die when
I bid die.

In this fit of fury, I took and divided the arms which I
had charged, as before, between us; I gave Friday one pistol
to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his shoulder; and
I took one pistol, and the other three guns myself; and in
this posture we marched out. I took a small bottle of rum in
my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag with more powder and
bullets ; and, as to orders, I charged him to keep close behind
me, and not to stir, or shoot, or do anything, till I bid. him ;
and, in the mean time, not to speak a word. In this posture,
I fetched a compass to my right hand of near a mile, as well
to get over the creek as to get into the wood, so that L might
come within shot of them before I should be discovered, which
TI had'seen by my glass, it was easy to do.

While I was making this march, my former thong

turning, I began to abate my resolution: I do not mean that
I entertained any fear of their number; for, as they were
naked, unarmed wretches, it was certain I was superior to them;
nay, though I had been alone. But it occurred to my thoughts,
what call, what occasion, much less what necessity I was in, to
go and dip my hands in blood, to attack people who had

neither done nor intended me any wrong? Who, as to me,

were innocent, and whose barbarous customs were their own

22










“O54 _ ADVENTURES OF ee

ceactee: being, in them, a token indeed of God’s ee eft
them, mil the other nations of that part of the world, to anh
stupidity, and to such inhuman courses; but did not call me
to take upon me to bea judge of their actions, much less an _
executioner of his justice; that, whenever he thought fit, he
would take the cause into his own hands, and, by national
vengeance, punish them, as a people, for ational crimes; but
that, in the mean time, it was none of my business; that, it
was true, Friday might justify it, because he was a declared
enemy, and in a state of war with those very particular pco-
ple, and it was lawful for him to attack them; but I could not
say the same with respect to myself. These things were so
warmly pressed upon my thoughts all the way as I went, that

-I resolved I would only go and place myself near them, that I
might observe their barbarous feast, and that I would act then
as God should dircet: but that, unless something offered that
was more a call to me than yet I knew of, I would not meddle
with them.

With this resolution I entered the wood; and, with all
possible wariness and silence, Friday followed close at my
heels, I marched till I came to the skirt of the wood, on the
side which’ was next to them, only that one corner of the wood
lay between me and them. Here I called softly to Friday,
and showing him a great tree, which was just at the corner of
the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word if he
could sce there plainly what they were doing. He did so;
and came immediately back to me, and told me they might be
plainly viewed there; that they were all about their fire, cat-
ing the flesh of one of their prisoners, and that another lay
bound upon the sand, a little from them, which, he said, they

- ywould kill next, and which fired all the very soul within me.



He told me it was not one of their nation, but one of the
bearded men he had told me of, that came to their country in
the boat. I was filled with horror at the very naming the
white bearded man; and going to the tree, I saw plainly, by


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 255

my glass, a white man, who lay upon the beach of the sea,
- ‘with his hands and feet tied with flags, or things like PUR;
and that he was an European, and had clothes on.

There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I was,
which, by going a little way about, I saw I might come at un-
discovered, and that then I should be within half a shot of
‘them ; so I withheld my passion, though I was indeed enraged
to the highest degree; and going back about twenty paces, I

' got behind some bushes, which held all the way till I came to’
the other tree; and then came to a little rising ground, which
gave me a full view of them, at the distance of about cighty
yards.

SECTION XXV.

ROBINSON RELEASES A SPANIARD— FRIDAY DISCOVERS HIS FATHER—
ACCOMMODATION PROVIDED FOR THESE NEW GUESTS — WHO ARE’ AFTER-
WARDS SENT TO LIBERATE THE OTHER SPANIARDS — ARRIVAL OF AN °
ENGLISH VESSEL.

I wap now-not a moment to lose, for nineteen of the dreadful
wretches sat upon the ground, all close-huddled together, and
had just sent the other two to butcher the poor Christian, and-
bring him, perhaps limb by limb, to their fire; and they. were~
stooping down to untie the bands at his feet. I turned ‘to
Friday — Now, Friday, said I, do as I bid thee. Friday said
he would. Then, Friday, says I, do exactly as you see me do;
-fail in nothing. So I set down one of the muskets and the
fowling-piece upon the ground, and Friday did the like by
his; and with my other musket I took my aim at the savages,
bidding him to do the like; then asking him if he was ready, -
Poe



256 ADVENTURES OF

he said, Yes. Then fire at them, said I; and the same mo-
ment [ fired also.

Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the side
that he shot, he killed two of them, and wounded three more ;
and on my side, I killed one, and wounded two. They were,
you may be sure, in a dreadful consternation ; and all of them
who were not hurt jumped upon their fect, but did not imme-
diately know which way to run, or which way to look, for they
knew not from whence their destruction came. Friday kept
his eyes close upon me that, as I had bid him, he might ob-
serve what I did; so, as soon as the first shot was made, I
threw down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Fri-
day did the like: he saw me cock and present; he did the
same again. Are you ready, Friday? said I. Yes, says he.
Let fly, then, says I, in the name of God! And with that, I
fired again among the amazed wretches, and so did Friday ;
and as our pieces were now loaded with what I call swan-shot,
or small pistol-bullets, we found only two drop, but so many
were wounded, that they ran about yelling and screaming like
mad creatures, all bloody, and most miserably wounded, whereof
three more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.

Now, Friday, says I, laying down the discharged picces,
and taking up the musket which was yet loaded, follow me;
which he did, with a great deal of courage; upon which I
rushed out of the wood, and showed myself, and Friday close
at my foot. As soon as I perceived they saw me, I shouted
as loud as I could, and bade Friday do so too; and running as
fast as I could, which, by the way, was not very fast, being
loaded with arms as I was, I made directly towards the poor
victim, who was, as I said, lying upon the beach, or shore, be-
tween the place where they sat and the sea. The two butch-
ers, who were just going to work with him, had left him at
the surprise of our first fire, and fled at a terrible fright to the
sea-side, and jumped into a canoe, and three more of the rest
made the same way. I turned to Friday, and bade him step








ROBINSON ORUSOE. _

forwards, and fire at them; he understood me immediately, ~

and running about forty yards, to be nearer them, he shot at
- them, and I thought he had killed them all, for I saw them all
fall of a heap into the boat, though I saw two of them up
again quickly: however, he killed two of them, and wounded
the third, so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat as if
he had been dead.

While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my knife,
and cut the flags that bound the poor victim ; and loosiag his

hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked him in the Portu- ;

guese tonguc, what he was. He answered in Latin, Christi-
anus; but was so weak and faint that he could scarce stand or
speak. I took my bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him,
making signs that he should drink, which he did; and I gave
him a piece of bread, which he ate. Then I asked him what
countryman he was: and. he said, Espagniole; and being a
little recovered, let me know, by all the signs he could possibly
make, how much he was in my debt for his deliverance. Sig-
nor, said I, with as much Spanish as I could make up, wé will
talk afterwards, but we must fight now: if you have any
strength left, take this pistol and sword, and lay about you.

He took them very thankfully; and no sooner had he the arms ~

in his hands, but, as if they had put new vigor into him, he
flew upon his murderers like a fury, and had cut two of them
in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole was a
surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so much fright-
ened with the noise of our pieces, that they fell down for mere
amazement and fear, and had no more power to attempt their

own escape, than their flesh had to resist our shot; and that,

was the case of those five that Friday shot at in the boat; for
as three of them fell with the hurt they received, so the other
two fell with the fright.

I kept my picce in my hand still without firing, being will-
ing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the Span-
iard my pistol and sword: so I called to Friday, and bade him

22 * + Sees







258 a ADVENTURES OF

run up to the tree from whence we first fired, and fetch the
arms which lay there that had been discharged, which he did
with great swiftness; and then giving him my musket, I sat
down myself to load all the rest again, and bade them come to
me when they wanted. While I was loading these pieces,
there happened a fierce engagement between the Spaniard and
one of the savages, who made at him with one of their great
wooden swords, the same-like weapon that was to have killed
him before, if I had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was
as bold and brave as could be imagined, though weak, had
fought this Indian a good while, and had cut him two good
wounds on his head; but the savage being a stout, lusty fel-
low, closing in with him, had thrown him down, being faint,
and was wringing my sword out of his hand; when the Span- _
iard though undermost wiscly quitting the sword, drew the ,
pistol from his girdle, shot the savage through the body, and
killed him upon the spot, before I, who was running to help
him, could come near him.

Friday being now left to his liberty, pursued the flying
wretches, with no weapon in his hand but his hatchet; and
with that he dispatched those three, who, as I said before, were
wounded at first, and fallen, and all the rest he could come up
with: ‘and the Spaniard coming to me for a gun, I gave him
one of the fowling pieces, with which he pursued two of the
savages, and wounded them both; but, as he was not able to
run, they both got from him into the wood, where Friday pur-
sued them, and killed one of them, but the other was too nim-
ble for hin; and though he was wounded, yet he plunged
himself into the sea, and swam, with all his might, off to
those two who were left in the canoe, which three in the canoe,
with one wounded, that we knew not whether he died or no,
were all that escaped our hands of onc-and-twenty. The ac-
count of the whole is as follows: three killed at our first shot
from the tree; two killed at the next shot: two killed by Fri-
day in the boat; two killed by Friday of those at first wounded ;






ROBINSON CRUSOE. - 959°

- one killed by Friday in the wood; three killed by the Span-

iard; four killed, being found dropped here and there of their

wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them; four escaped _
in the boat whereof one wounded, if not dead. —Twenty-one~. -.»

in all.

Those that were in their canoe worked hard to get out of

gunshot, and though Friday made two or three shots at them,

I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday would fain |

have had me take one of their canoes, and pursue them; and
indeed, I was very auxious about their escape, lest, carrying
the news home to their people, they should come back perhaps
with two or three hundred of the canoes, and devour us by mere
multitude ; so I consented to pursue them by sea, and running

to one of their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow —
me}; but when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find an- -

other poor creature lie there, bound hand and foot, as the
Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost dead with fear, not

knowing what was the matter; for he had not been able to look ©

over the side of the boat, he was tied so hard neck and heels,

and had been ticd so long, that he had really but little life in_

him. :

I immediately cut the twisted flags or rushes, which they
had bound him with, and would have helped iin up; but he
could not stand or speak, but groaned most piteously, believing,
- it seems, still, that he was only unbound in order to be killed.
When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him, and tell him
of his deliverance; and, pulling out my bottle, made him give
the poor wretch a dram; which, with the news of. his being
delivered, revived him, and he sat up in the boat. But when

Friday came to hear him speak, and look in his face, it would :

have moved any one into tears to have seen how Friday kissed

him, embraced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,.

jumped about, danced, sung; then cried again, wrung his
hands, beat his own face and head; and then sung and jumped

about again, like 4 distracted creature. It was a good while _ -

a.




260- ADVENTURES OF

before I could make him speak to me, or tell me what was the
matter; but when he came a little to himself, he told me that
it was his father.

It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to see
what ecstacy and filial affection had worked in this poor savage
at the sight of his father, and on his being delivered from
death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the extravagancies of
his affection after this; for he went into the boat, and out of
the boat, a great many times: when he went into him, he
would sit down by him, open his breast, and hold his father’s
head close to his bosom for many minutes together, to nourish
it; then he took his arms and ancles, which were numbed and
stiff with the binding, and chafed and rubbed them with his
hands; and I, perceiving what the case was, gave him some
rum out of my bottle to rub them with, which did them a great
deal of good.

This affair put an end to our pursuit of the canoe with the
other savages, who were got now almost out of sight; and it
was happy for us that we did not, for it blew so hard within
two hours after, and before they could be got a quarter of their
way, and continued blowing so hard all night, and that from
the north-west, which was agaiust them, that I could not sup-
pose their boat could live, or that they ever reached. their own
coast.

But, to return to Friday ; he was so busy about his father,
that I could not find in my heart to take him off for some
time: but after I thought he could leave him a little, I called
him to me,.and he came jumping and laughing, and pleased
tu the highest extreme; then I asked him if he had given his
futher any bread. He shook his head, and said, None; ugly
dog eat all up self. I then gave him a cake of bread, out of a
little pouch I carried on purpose: I also gave him a dram for
hinself, but he would not taste it, but carried it to his father.
Thad in my pocket two or three bunches of raisins, so I gave -
him a handful of them for his father. He had no sooner








“ROBINSON CRUSOR. | -

given his father these raisins, but I saw him come out of the.

boat, and run away, as if he had been bewitched, he ran at
such a rate: for he was the swiftest fellow on his feet that ever
I saw: I say, he ran at such a rate, that he was out of sight,
as it were, in an instant; and though I called, and hallooed
out too, after him, it was all one way, away he went; and in a
quarter of an hour, I saw him come back again, though not so
fast as he went; and as he came nearer, I found his pace
slacker, because he had something in his hand. When he
came up to me, I found he had been quite home for an earthen
jug, or pot, to bring his father some fresh water, and that he had
two more cakes or loaves of bread ; the bread he gave me, but
the water he carried to ‘his father; however, as I was very
thirsty too, I took a little sup of it. The water revived his
father more than all the rum or spirits I had given him, for he
was just fainting with thirst.

When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if there
was any water left; he said, Yes; and I bade him give it to
the poor Spaniard, who was in as much want of it as his fa-
ther: and I sent one of the cakes that Friday brought to the
Spaniard too, who was indeed very weak, and was reposing
himself upon a green place under the shade of a tree; and
whose limbs were also very stiff, and very much swelled with

the rude bandage he had been tied with. When I saw that,

upon Friday’s coming to him with the water, he sat up and
drank, and took the bread, and began to eat, I went to him
and gave him a handful of raisins: he looked up in my face
with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that could
appear in any countenance; but was so weak, notwithstanding
he had so exerted himself in the fight, that he could not stand
upon his feet; he tried to do it two or three times, but was
really not able, his ankles were so swelled and so painful to

him; so I bade him sit still, and. caused Friday to rub his ~

ancies, and bathe them with rum, as he had done his father’s.
I observed the poor affectionate creature, every two minutes,













ADVENTURES of

‘or perhaps less, all the while he was here, turn his head about ©
to see if his father was in the same place and posture as he
left him sitting; and at last he found he was not to be seen ;
at which he started up, and, without speaking a word, flew with
that swiftness to him, that one could scarce perceive his feet to
touch the ground as he went: but when he came, he only
found he had laid himself down to ease his limbs, so Friday
came back to me presently ; and then I spoke to the Spaniard
to let Friday help him up if he could, and lead hin to the
boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where |
would take care of him: but Friday, a lusty strong fellow, took
the Spaniard quite upon his back, and carried him away to the
boat, and set him down softly upon the side or gunnel of the
canoe, with his feet in the inside of it; and then, lifting him
quite in, he set himself close to his father; and presently step-
ping out again, launched the boat off, and paddled it along the
shore faster than I could walk, though the wind blew pretty -
hard too; so he brought them both safe into our creek, and
_ leaving them in the boat, ran away to fetch the other canoe.
As he passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him whither he
went. He told me, Go fetch more boat: so away he went like
the wind, for sure never man or horse ran like him; and he had
the other canoe in the creek almost as soon as I got to it by
land; so he. wafted me over, and then went to help our new
guests out of the boat, which he did; but they were neither
of them able to walk, so that poor Friday knew not what
to do.

To remedy this, I went to work in my thoughts, and call-
ing to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while he came
to me, I soon made a kind of a hand-barrow to lay them on,
and Friday and I carricd them both up together upon it, be-
tween us. But when we got them to the outside of our wall, or
fortification, we were at a worse loss than before, for it was impo °
sible to get them over, and I was resolved not to break it dows






ROBINSON CRUSOE. = = > 268° ~

so I set to work again; and Friday and I, in about two hours’

“time, made a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and es
above that with boughs of trees, ae in the space without
our outward fence, and between that and the grove of young
wood which I had planted: and here we made them two beds
of such things as I had, viz., of good rice straw, with blankets
laid upon it, to lie on, aad another to cover them, on each
bed.

My island was now peopled, and I thought myself rich in
subjects: and it was a merry reflection, which I frequently
made, how like a king I looked. First of all, the whole coun-
try was my own mere property, so that I had an undoubted
right of dominion. Secondly, my people were perfectly sub-
jected; I was absolutely lord and lawgiver; they all owed
their lives to me, and were ready to lay down their lives, if
there had been occasion for it, for me. It was remarkable,
too, I had but three subjects, and they were of three different
religions: my man Friday was a Protestant, his father was a
Pagan and a cannibal, and the Spaniard was a Papist: how-
ever, I allowed liberty of conscience throughout my domin-
ions. — But this is by the way.

As soon as I had secured my two weak rescued prisoners,
and given taem shelter, and a place to rest them upon, I began
to think ot making some provision for them: and the first
thing I did, [ ordered Friday to take a yearling goat, betwixt.
a kid and 1 goat, out of my particular flock, to be killed ;
when I cut 4 the hinder quarter, and chopping it into small
pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling and stewing, and made
them a very zood dish, I assure you, of flesh and broth, hav-._
ing put some barley and rice also into the broth; and as I
cooked it without doors, for I made no fire within my inner
wall, so I carried it all into the new tent, and having set a
table there for them, I sat down, and ate my dinner also with
them, and, as well as I could, cheered them, and encouraged








264 i ADVENTURES Of

them. Friday-was my interpreter, especially to his father,
and, indeed, to the Spaniard too; for the Spaniard spoke the
language of the savages pretty well.

After we had dined, or rather supped, I ordered Friday to
take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets and
other fire arms, which, for want of time, we had left upon the
place of battle: and, the next day, I ordered him to go and
bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay open to the
sun, and would presently be offensive. I also ordered him to
bury the horrid remains of their barbarous feast, which I knew
were pretty much, and which I could not think of doing my-
self; nay, I could ndt bear to see them, if I went that way ;
all which he punctually performed, and effaced the very ap-
pearance of the savages being there; so that when I went
again, I could scarce know where it was, otherwise than by the
corner of the wood pointing to the place.

I then began to enter into a little conversation with my
two new subjects: and, first, I set Friday to inquire of his
father what he thought of the escape of the savages in that ca-
noe, and whether we might expecta return of them, with a power
too great for us to resist. His first opinion was, that the sav-
ages in the boat could never live out the storm which blew
that night they went off, but must of necessity be drowned, or
driven south to those other shores, where they were as sure to
be devoured as they were to be drowned, if they were cast
away; but, as to what they would do, if they came safe on
shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion, that they
were so dreadfully frightened with the manner of their being
attacked, the noise, and the fire, that he believed they would
tell the people they were all killed by thunder and lightning,
not by the hand of man; and that the two which appeared,
viz., Friday and I, were two heavenly spirits, or furies, come
down to destroy them, and not men with weapons. This, he
said, he knew; because he heard them all cry out so, in their
language one to another; for it was impossible for them to


‘ROBINSON CRUSOE. - ~~ ° 965

conceive that a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and

kill at a distance, without lifting up the hand, as was done
now: and this old savage was in the right; for, as I under-
stood since, by other hands, the savages never attempted to go
over to the island afterwards, they were so terrified with the
accounts given by those four men (for, it seems, they did es-
cape the sea), that they believed whoever went to that en-
chanted island would be destroyed by fire from the gods. This,
however, I knew not; and therefore was under continual ap-
prehensions for a good while, and kept always upon my guard,
with all my army; for, as there were now four of us, I would
have ventured upon a hundred of them, fairly in the open
field, at any time.

In a little time, however, no more canoes appearing, the
fear of their comirig wore off; and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration; being
likewise assured, by Friday’s father, that I might depend upon
good usage from their nation, on his account, if I would go.
But my thoughts were a little suspended when I had a serious
discourse with the Spaniard, and when I understood that there
were sixteen more of his countrymen and Portugese, who,
having been cast away, and made their escape to ‘that side,
lived there at peace, indeed, with the savages, but were very
sore put to it for necessaries, and indeed for life. I asked him
all the particulars of their voyage, and found they were a
Spanish ship, bound from the Rio de la Plata, to the Havana,

being directed to leave their loading there, which was chiefly -

hides and silver,.and to bring back what European goods they
could meet with there; that they had five Portugese seamen
on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that five of
their own men were drowned, when first the ship was lost, and
that these escaped through infinite dangers and hazards, and
arrived, almost starved, on the cannibal coast, where they ex-
pected to have been devoured every moment. He told me they

had some arms with them, but they were perfectly useless, for _

23




266 ADVENTURES OF

that they had. neither powder nor ball, the washing of the sea °
having spoiled all their powder, but a little, which they used
at their first landing, to provide themselves some food.

I asked him what he thought would become of them there,
and if they had formed no design of making any escape.
He said they had many consultations about it; but that hav-
ing neither vessel, nor tools to build one, nor provisions of any
kind, their councils always ended in tears and despair. I
asked him how he thought they would receive a proposal from
me, which might tend towards an escape; and whether, if
they were all here, it might not be done. I told him with
frecdom, I feared mostly their treachery and ill usage of me,
if I put my life in their hands, for that gratitude was no inher-
ent virtue in the nature of man, nor did men always square -
their dealings by the obligations they had received, so much
.as they did by the advantages they expected. I told him it
would be very hard that I should be the instrument of their
deliverance, and that they should afterwards make me their
prisoner in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to
be made a sacrifice, what. necessity, or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered up to

savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into the merciless
claws of the pricsts, and be carried into the Inquisition. I
added, that otherwise I was persuaded, if they were all here,
we might, with so many hands, build a bark large enough to,
carry us all away, either to the Brazils, southward, or to the
islands, or Spanish coast, northward; but that if, in requital,
they should, when I had put weapons into their hands, carry
me by force among their own people, I might be ill used. for
my kindness to them, and make my case worse than it was
before. :

He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuous-

ness, that their condition was so miserable, and they were so
sensible of it, that he believed they would abhor the thought
of using any man unkindly that should contribute to their






















































































































WRECK OF THE SPANISH VESSEL. Page 266.
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 267

deliverance ; and that, if I pleased, he would go to them with
the old man, and discourse with them about it, and return
again, and bring me their answer; that he would make condi-
tions with them upon their solemn oath, that they should be
absolutely under my leading, as their commander and captain ;
and that they should swear upon the holy sacraments and gos-
pel, to be true to me, and go to such Christian country as T
should agree to, and no other, and to be directed wholly and
absolutely by my orders, till they were landed safely in such
_ country as I intended; and that he would bring a contract
from them, under their hands, for that purpose. Then he told
me he would first swear to me himself, that he would never
stir from me as long as he lived, till I gave him orders; and
that he would take my side to the last drop of his blood, if
there should happen the least breach of faith among his coun-
trymen. He told me they were all very civil, honest men,
and they were under the greatest distress imaginable, having
neither weapons, nor clothes, nor any food, but at the mercy
and discretion of the savages; out of all hopes of ever return-
ing to their own country; and that he was sure, if I would
undertake their relief, they would live and die by me.

Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve
them, if possible, and to send the old savage and this Spaniard
over to them to treat. But when we got all things in readi-
ness to go, the Spaniard himself started an objection, which
had so much prudence in it, on one hand, and so much sincer-
ity, on the other hand, that I could not be very well satisfied
in it; and, by his advice, put off the deliverance of his com-
rades for at least half a year. The case was thus: He had
been with us now about a month, during which time, I had
let him see in what manner I had provided, with the assistance
of Providence, for my support; and he saw evidently what
stock of corn and rice I had laid up; which, though it was
more than sufficient for myself, yet it was not sufficient, with-
out good husbandry, for my family, now it was increased to

.


“268 ADVENTURES Of

four; but much less would it be sufficient if his countrymen,
who were, as he said, sixteen, still alive, should come over;
and least of all would it be sufficient to victual our vessel, if
we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian col-
onies of America; so he told me he thought it would be more
advisable to let him and the other two dig and cultivate more
land, as much as I could spare seed to sew, and that we should
wait another harvest, that we should have a supply of corn for
his countrymen, when they should come; for want might be a
temptation to them to disagree, or not to think themselves
delivered, otherwise than out of one difficulty into another.
You know, says he, the children of Israel, though they rejoiced
at first for their being delivered out of Egypt, yet rebelled
even against God himself, that delivered them, when they
came to want bread in the Wilderness.

His caution was so seasonable, and his voice so good, that
I could not but be very well pleased with his proposal, as well
as I was satisfied with his fidelity; so we fell to digging all
four of us, as well as the wooden tools permitted; and in
about a month’s time, by the end of which it was seed-time,
we had got as much land cured and trimmed up as we sowed
two-and-twenty bushels of barley on, and sixteen jars of rice;
which was, in short, all the seed we had to spare; nor, indeed,
did we leave ourselves barley sufficient for our own food, for
the six months that we had to expect our crop; that is to say,

_reckoning from the time we set our seed aside for sowing;
4or it is not to be supposed it is six months in the ground in
that country.

Having now society enough, and our number being sufli-
cient to put us out of fear of the savages if they had come,
unless their number had been very great, we went freely all
over the island, whenever we found occasion: and as here we
had our escape or deliverance upon our thoughts, it was im-—
possible, at least for me, to have the means of it out of mine.
For this purpose, I marked out several trees which I thought
ROBINSON CRUSOE. 269

fit for our work, and I set Friday and his father to cutting them
down; and then I caused the Spaniard, to whom I imparted
my thought on that affair, to oversee and direct their work. - I
showel them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large
tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the like, till
they had made about a dozen large planks of good oak, near..
two fect broad, thirty-five feet long, and from two inches to»
fuur inches thick: what prodigious labor it took up, any one
may imagine.

At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock of
tame goats as much as I could; and, for this purpose, I made
Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and myself with Fri-
day the next day (for we took our turns), and by this means
we got about twenty young kids to breed up with the rest:
for whenever we shot the dam, we saved the kids, and- added
them to our flock. But, above all, the season for curing the
grapes coming on, I caused such a prodigious quantity to be
hung up in the sun, that, I believe, had we been at Alicant,
where the raisins of the sun are cured, we could have filled-
sixty or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, was a great
part of our food, and was a very good living, too, I assure you,
for it is exceedingly nourishing.

It was now harvest, and our crop in good order: it was
not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the island, but’
however, it was enough to answer our end; for from twenty-
two bushels of barley we brought in and threshed out above
two hundred and twenty bushels, and the like in proportion of
the rice; which was store enough for our food to the next har-
vest, though all the sixteen Spaniards had been on shore with
me; or if we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plen-
tifully have victualed our ship to have carried us to any part
of the world, that is to say, any part of America. When we
had thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to
work to make more wickerware, viz., great baskets, in which
we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and dexterous

23 *




270 : ADVENTURES OF

at this part, and often blamed me that I did not make some
things for defense of this kind of work; but I saw no need
of it.

And now, having a full supply of food for all the guests I
expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the main, to see
what he could do with those he had left behind him there. I
gave him a strict charge not to bring any man with him who
would not first swear in the presence of himself and the old
savage, that he would no way injure, fight with, or attack the,
person he should find in the island, who was so kind as to send
for them in order to their deliverance; but that they would
stand by him, and defend him against all such attempts, and
wherever they went, would be entirely under and subjected to
‘his command; and that this should be put in writing, and
signed with their hands. How they were to have done this,
when -I knew they had neither pen nor ink, was a question
which we never asked. Under these instructions, the Span-
iard and the old savage, the father of Friday, went away in
one of the canoes which they might be said to come in, or
rather were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be
devoured by the savages. I gave each of them a musket, with
a firelock on it, and about cight charges of powder and ball,
charging them to be very good husbands of both, and not to
use either of them but upon urgent occasions.

This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used by
me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven years
and some days. I gave them provisions of bread, and of
dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many days, and suf-
ficient for all the Spaniards for about eight days’ time; and
wishing them a good voyage, I saw them go; agreéing with
them about a signal that they should hang cut at their return,
by which I should know them again, when they came back, at
a distance, before they came on shore. They went away with
a fair gale, on the day that the moon was at full, by my account
in the month of October; but as for an cxact reckoning of




ROBINSON CRUSOE. , 271

days, after I had once lost it, I could never recover it again; ~~.

nor had I kept even the number of years so punctyally as to
be sure I was right; though, as it proved, when I afterwards
examined my account, I found I had kept a true reckoning of
years.

Tt was no less than cight days I had waited for them when”
a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which the
like has not perhaps been heard of in history. I was fast ~
asleep in my hutch, one morning, when my man Friday came
running in to me, and called aloud, master, master, they are
come, they are come! I jumped up, and, regardless of dan-
ger, I went out as soon as I could get my clothes on, through
my little grove, which by the way, was by this time grown to
be a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went
without my arms, which it was not my custom to do; but I
was surprised, when turning my eyes to the sea, I presently
saw a boat about a league and a half distance, standing in for
the shore, with a enouiieeee mutton sail, as they call it, and
the wind blowing pretty fair to bring them in: also I observed
presently, that they did not come from that side which the shore
lay on, but from the southernmost end of the island. Upon
this, I called Friday in, and bade him lie close, for these were
not the people we looked for, and that we might not know yet —
whether they were friends or enemies. In the next place, I
went in to fetch my perspective glass, to see what I could make
of them; and having taken the ladder out, I climbed to the top
of the hill, as I used to do when I was apprehensive of any
thing, and to take my view the plainer without being discov-
ered. I had scarce set my foot upon the hill, when my eye .
plainly discovered a ship lying at anchor, at about two leagues
and a half distance from me, 8.8.E., but not above a league
and a half from the shore. By my observation, it appeared
plainly to be an English ship, and the boat appeared to be an
English long-boat. E

I cannot express the confusion I was in; though the joy










272 ADVENTURES OF

of seeing a ship, and one that I had reason to believe was man- :
ned by my own countrymen, and, consequently, friends, was -
such as I cannot describe; but yet I had some secret doubts
hang about me—I cannot tell from whence they came, bid-
ding me keep upon my guard. In the first place it occurred ° ;
to me to consider what business an English ship could have in
that part of the world, since it was not the way to or from any
part of the world where the English had any traffic; and I
knew there had been no storms to drive them in there, as in
distress; and that if they were really English, it was most
probable that they were here upon no good design; and that I
had better continue as I was, than fall into the hands of thieves
and murderers.

Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of danger,
which sometimes are given him when he may think there is
no possibility of its being real. That such hints and notices
are given us, I believe few that have made any observation of
. things can deny; that they are certain discoveries of an invis-
ible world, and a converse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if
the tendency of them seems to be to warn us of danger, why
should we not suppose they are from some friendly agent
(whether supreme or inferior and subordinate, is not the ques-
tion), and that they are given for our good ?

The present question abundantly confirms me in the justice
of this reasoning; for had I not been made cautious by this
secret admonition, come it from whence. it will, I had been
undone inevitably, and in a far worse condition than before, as
you will see presently. I had not kept myself long in this
posture, but I saw the boat draw near the shore, as if they
looked for a creek to thrust in at, for the convenience of land-
ing; however, as they did not come quite far enough,-they did
not sce the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts, but
run their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile from
me, which was very happy for me; for otherwise they would
have landed just at my door, as I may say, and would soon


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 278

have beaten me out of my castle, and perhaps have plundered
me of all I had. When they were on shore, I was fully satis-_
fied they were Englishmen, at least most of them; one or two
I thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so; they were in
all eleven men, whereof three of them I found were unarmed, and--
as I thought, bound ; and when the first four or five of them were -
jumped on shore, they took those three out of the boat as pris-
oners; one of the three I could perceive using the most pas-
sionate gestures of entreaty, affliction, and despair, even toa .
kind of extravagance; the other two I could perceive lifted
up their hands sometimes, and appeared concerned, indeed, but

~ not to such a degree as‘the first. I was perfectly confounded
at the sight, and knew not what the meaning of it should be.
Friday called out to me in English, as well as he could, 0 mas-
ter! you see English mans eat prisoner as well as savage mans.
Why, Friday, says I, do you think they are going to eat them
then? Yes, says Friday, they will eat them. No, no, says I, _
Friday ; Iam afraid they will murder them, indeed, but you
may be sure they will not eat them.

All this while I had no thought of what the matter really —
was, but stood trembling with the horror of the sight, expect-
ing every moment when the three prisoners should be killed;
nay, once I saw one of the villains lift up his arm with a great
cutlass, as the seamen call it, or sword, to strike one of the”
poor men; and I expected to see him fall every moment; at
which all the blood in my body seemed to run chill in my
veins. I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage ©
that was gone with him, or that I had any way to have come un-
discovered within shot of them, that I might have rescued the ©
three men, for I saw no fire-arms they had among them; but it
fell out to my mind another way. After I had observed the
outrageous usage of the three men by the insolent seamen, I
observed the fellows run scattering’ about the island, as if they
wanted to see the country. I observed that the three other
men had liberty to go also where they pleased: but they sat
274 ADVENTURES OF

down all three upon the ground, very pensive, and looked like
men in despair. This put me in mind of the first time when
“I came on shore, and began to look about me: how I gave my-
self over for lost; how wildly I looked around me; what
dreadful apprehensions I-had; and how I lodged in the tree all
night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts.) As I knew
nothing that night of the supply I was to receive by the prov-
idential driving of the ship nearer the land by the storms and
tide, by which I have since been so long nourished and sup-
ported ; so these three poor desolate men knew nothing how
certain of deliverance and supply they were, how near it was
to them, and how effectually and really they were in a condi-
tion of safety, at the same time that they thought themselves
lost, and their case desperate. So little do we see before us in
the world, and so much reason have we to depend cheerfully
upon the great Maker of the world, that he does not leave his
creatures so absolutely destitute, but that, in the worst circum-
stances, they have always something to be thankful for, and
sometimes are nearer their deliverance than they imagine;
nay, are even brought to their deliverance by the means by
which they seem to be brought to their destruction.

SECTION XXVI.

ROBINSON DISCOVERS HIMSELF TO THE ENGLISH CAPTAIN — ASSISTS HIM
IN REDUCING HIS MUTINOUS CREW, WHO SUBMIT TO HIM.

Tr was just at the top of high water when these people came

on shore; and partly while they rambled about to see what

kind of a place they were in, they had carelessly stayed till the

tide was spent, and the water was ebbed considerably away,

Â¥




ROBINSON CRUSOE. 275

leaving their boat aground. They had left two men in the
boat, who, as I found afterwards, having drunk a little too |
much brandy, fell asleep; however, one of them waking a lit- ©
tle sooner than the other, and finding the boat too fast aground —

for him to stir it, hallooed out to the rest, who were straggling
about; upon which they all soon came to the boat; but it wis

past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very heavy, ~

and the shore on that side being a soft oozy sand, almost like a
quicksand. In this cendition, like true seamen, who are per-
haps the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave
it over, and away they strolled about the country again; and I
heard one of them say aloud to another, calling them off from
the boat, Why, let her alone, Jack, can’t you? she’ll float next
tide: by which I was fully confirmed in the main inquiry of
what countrymen they were. All this while I kept myself very
close, not once daring to stir out of my castle, any further than
to my place of observation near the top of the hill; and very
glad I was to think how well it was fortified. I knew it was
no less than ten hours before the boat could float again, and by

that time it would be dark, and I might be at more liberty

to sce their motions, and to hear their discourse, if they had
any. In the mean time, I fitted myself up for a battle, as be-
fore, though with more caution, knowing I had to do with an-
other kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered Friday

also, whom I had made an excellent marksman with his gun, ~

to load himself with arms. I took myself two fowling-pieces,
and I gave him three muskets. My figure, indeed, was very
fierce; I had my formidable goats’ skin coat on, with the great

cap I have mentioned, a naked sword by my side, two pistols _

in my belt, and a gun upon each shoulder. -
It was my design, as I said above, not to have made any



attempt till it was dark : but about two o’clock, being the heat - “

of the day, I found that, in short, they were all gone strag-
gling into the woods, and as I thought, laid down to sleep.
The three poor distressed men, too anxious for their condition




276 ADVENTURES OF

‘to get any sleep, were, however, sat down under the shelter of -
a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and, as I
thought, out of sight of any of the rest. Upon this I resolved
to discover myself to them, and learn something of their con-
dition; immediately I marched in the figure: as above, my

* man Friday at a good distance behind me, as formidable for
his arms as I, but not making quite so staring a spectre-like
figure as I did. I came as near them undiscovered as I could,
and then, before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them
in Spanish, What are ye, gentlemen? they started up at the
noise ; but were ten times more confounded when they saw
me, and the uncouth figure that I made. They made no an- -
swer at all, but I thought I perceived them just going to fly
from me, when I spoke to them in English: Gentlemen, said
“I, do not be surprised at me: perhaps you may have a friend
near, when you did not expect it. He must be sent directly
from Heaven then, said one of them very gravely to me, and
pulling off his hat at the same time to me; for our condition
is past the help of man. All help is from Heaven, sir, said
I: but can you put astranger in the way how to help you?
for you secm to be in some great distress. I saw you when
you landed ; and when you seemed to make supplication to the
brutes that came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword
to kill you.

The poor man, with tears running down his face, and trem-
bling, looking like one astonished, returned, Am I talking to
God or man? Is it areal man or an angel? ‘Be in no fear
about that, sir, said I; if God has sent an angel to relieve you, ~
he would have come better clothed, and armed after another
manner than you see me: pray lay aside your fears; I ama
man, an Englishman, and disposed to assist you: you sec I
have one servant only; we have arms and ammunition; tell
us freely, can we serve you? What is your case? Our case,
said he, sir, is too long to tell you, while our murderers are so

- hear us; but, in short, sir, I was commander of that ship, my
ROBINSON CRUSOE. Qi7

men have mutinied against me; they have been hardly pre-
vailed on not to murder me; and at last have set me> on
shore in this desolate place, with these two men with me, one
my mate, the other a passenger, where we expected to perish, |
believing the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what
to think of it. Where are these brutes, your enemies? said
I: do you know where they are gone? There they lie, sir,
said he, pointing to a thicket of trees; my heart trembles for-
fear they have seen us, and heard you speak; if they have, ©
they will certainly murder us all. Have they any fire-arms? .
said I. He answered they had only two pieces, one of which
they left in the boat. Well then, said I, leave the rest to
me; I sce they are all asleep, it is an casy thing to kill them ,
all: but shall we rather take them prisoners? He told me
there were two desperate villains among them, that it was
scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were secured, ©
he believed all the rest would return to their duty. I asked
him which they were? He told me he could not at that dis-
tance distinguish them, but he would obey my orders in any-
thing I would direct. Well, says I, let us retreat out of. their
view or hearing, lest they awake, and we will resolve further.
So they willingly went back with me, till the woods covered
us from them.

Look you, sir, said I, if I venture upon your deliverance,
are you willing to make two conditions with me? He antici- ~
pated my proposals, by telling me, that both he and the ship,
if recovered, should be wholly directed and commanded by me _
in everything; and, if the ship was not recovered, he would:
live and die with me in what part of the world soever I would
send him; and the two other men said the same. Well, says
I, my conditions are but two: first, That while you stay in
this island with me, you will not pretend to any authority
here ; and if I put arms in your hands, you will, upcn all oc-

' easions, give them up to me, and do no prejudice to me or _
mine upon this island; and, in the mean time, be governed by
- 24 ‘ : "


278 ADVENTURES OF

my orders: secondly, That if the ship is, or may be recovered,
you will carry me and my man to England passage free.

He gave me all the assurances that the invention or faith
of man could devise, that he would comply with these most
reasonable demands; and, besides, would owe his life to me,
and acknowledge it upon all occasions, as long as he lived.
Well then, said I, here are three muskets for you, with pow-
der and ball: tell me next what you think proper to be done.
IIe showed me all the testimonies of his gratitude that he
was able, but offered to be wholly guided by me. I told him
I thought it was hard venturing anything ; but the best method
I could think of was to fire upon them at once, as they lay,
and if any was not killed at the first volley, and offered to
submit, we might save them, and so put it wholly upon God’s
providence to direct the shot. He said very modestly, that he
was loath to kill them, if he could help it; but that those two
were incorrigible villains, and had been the authors of all the
mutiny in the ship, and if they escaped, we should be undone
still; for they would go on board and bring the whole ship’s
company, and destroy us all. Well then, says I, necessity ”
legitimates my advice, for it is the only way to save our lives.
Ilowever, secing him still cautious of shedding blood, I told
him they should go themselves and manage as they found con-
venient.

In the middle of this discourse we heard some of them
awake, and soon after we saw two of them on their fect. I
asked him if either of them were the heads of the mutiny ?
He said no. Well, then, said I, you may let them escape;
atid Providence seems to have awakened them on purpose to
save themselves. Now, says I, if the rest escape you, it is
your fault. Animated with this, he took the musket I had
given him in his hand, and a pistel in his belt, and his two
comrades with him, with each a piece in his hand; the two
men who were with him going first, made some noise, at which
one of the seamen who was awake turned about, and secing
ROBINSON: CRUSOE. 279

them coming, cried out to the rest; but it was too late then,
for the moment he cried out they fired; I mean the two men,
the captain wisely reserving his own piece. They had so well
aimed their shot at the men they knew, that one of them was
‘killed on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but
not being dead, he started up on his fect, and called eagerly
for help to the others; but the captain stepping to him, told_
him it was too late to cry for help, he should call upon God
to forgive his villany; and with that word knocked him down
with the stock of his musket, so that he never spoke more;
there were three more in the company, and one of them
was also slightly wounded. By this time I was come; and |
when they saw their danger, and that it was in vain to resist,
they begged for mercy. The captain told them he would spare
their lives, if they would give him any assurance of their ab-
horrence of the treachery they had been guilty of, and would
swear to be faithful to him in recovering the ship, and after-
wards in carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they
came. They gave him all the protestations of their sincerity
that could be desired, and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which I was not against, only that I obliged
him to keep them bound hand and foot while they were on the
island.

While this was doing, I sent Friday with the captain’s
mate to the boat, with orders to sccure her, and bring away
the oars and sails, which they did: and by and by three
straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted from the
rest, came back upon hearing the guns fired, and seeing the
captain, who before was their prisoner, now their conqueror, |
they submitted to be bound also; and so our victory was com-
plete.

It now remained that the captain and I should inquire into
one another’s circumstances: I began first, and told him my
whole history, which he heard with an attention even to amaze-
ment; and particularly at the wonderful manner of my being




280 ADVENTURES OF

furnished with provisions and ammunition; and, indeed, as
my story is a whole collection of wonders, it affected him
deeply. But when he reflected from thence upon himself, and
how I seemed to have been preserved there on purpose to save
his life, the tears ran down his face, and he could not speak a
word more. After this communication was at an end, I car-
ried him and his two men into my apartment, leading them in
just where I came out, viz., at the top of the house, where I
refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and showed them
all the contrivances I had made, during my long, long inhabit-
ing that place.

All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly amaz-
ing; but, above all, the captain admired my fortification, and
how perfectly I had concealed my retreat with a grove of trees,
which, having now been planted near twenty years, and the
trees growing much faster than in England, was become a lit-
tle wood, and so thick, that it was impassible in any part of
it, but at that one side where I had reserved my little winding
passage into it. I told him this was my castle and my resi-
dence, but that I had a seat in the country, as most princes
have, whither I could retreat upon occasion, and I would show
him that too another time; but at present our business was to
consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with me as to
that; but told me he was perfectly at a loss what measures to
take, for that there were still six-and-twenty hands on board,
who having entered into a cursed conspiracy, by which they
had forfeited their lives to the law, would be hardened in it
now by desperation, and would carry it on, knowing that, if
they were subdued, they would be brought to the gallows, as
_ soon as they came to England, or to any of the English colo-
nies; and that, therefore, there would be no attacking them
~ with so small a number as we were.

I mused for some time upon what he had said, and found
it was a very rational conclusion, and that, therefore, some-
thing was to be resolved on speedily, as well to draw the men


\

ROBINSON CRUSOE. 281

on board into some snare for their surprise, as to prevent their
landing upon us, and destroying us. Upon this, it presently
occurred to me, that in a little while the ship’s crew, wonder-
ing what was become of their comrades, and of the boat, would
certainly come on shore in their other boat to look for them ;
and that then, perhaps, they might come armed, and be too
strong for us: this he allowed to be rational. Upon this, I
told him the first thing we had to do was to stave the boat,
which Jay upon the beach, so that they might not carry her
off; and taking everything out of her, leave her so far useless
as not to be fit to swim: accordingly we went on board, took
the arms which were left on board out of her, and whatever else
we found there, which was a bottle of brandy, and another of
rum, a few biscuit-cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump
of sugar in a piece of canvass (the sugar was five or six
pounds) ; all which was very welcome to me, especially the
brandy and sugar, of which I had none left for many years.

When we had carried all these things on shore (the oars,
mast, sail and rudder of the boat was carried away before, as
above), we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if they
had come strong enough to master us, yet they could not carry
off the boat. Indeed it was not much in my thoughts that we
could be able to recover the ship; but my view was, that if
they went away without a boat, I did not much question to
make her fit again to carry us to the Leeward Islands, and call
upon our friends the Spaniards in my way; for I had them
still in my thoughts.

While we were thus preparing our designs, and had first,
by main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach so high,
that the tide would not float her off at high-water mark, and
besides, had broke a hole in her bottom too big to be quickly
stopped, and were set down musing what we should do, we

heard the ship fire.a gun, and saw her make a waft with her -

ensign as a signal for the boat to come on board: but no boat
stirred; and they fired several times, making other signals for
24








282 ADVENTURES OF

the boat. At last, when all their signals and firing proved
fruitless, and they found the boat did not stir, we saw them, by
the help of my glasses, hoist another boat out, and row towards
the shore; and we found, as they approached, that there were
no less than ten men in her, and that they had fire-arms with
them.

As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we had
a full view of them as they came, and a plain sight even of
their faces; because the tide having set them a little to the
east of the other boat, they rowed up under shore, to come to
the same place where the other had landed, and where the boat
lay; by this means, I say, we had a full view of them, and the
captain knew the persons and characters of all the men in the
boat, of whom, he said, there were three very honest fellows,
who, he was sure, were led into this conspiracy by the rest, be-
ing overpowered and frightened ; but that as for the boatswain,
who, it seems, was the chicf officer among them, and all the
rest, they were as outragcous as any of the ship’s crew, and
were no doubt made desperate in their new enterprise ; and ter-
ribly apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful for
us. I smiled at him, and told him that men in our circum-
stances were past the operation of fear; that secing almost ev-
ery condition that could be was better than that which we were
supposed to be in, we ought to expect that the consequence,
whether death or life, would be sure to be a deliverance. I
asked him what he thought of the circumstances of my life,
and whether a deliverance were not worth venturing for? And
where, sir, said I, is your belicf of my being preserved here on
purpose to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago ;
for my part, said I, there secins to me but one thing amiss in
all the prospect of it. What is that? says he. Why, says I,
it is, that as you say there are three or four honest fellows
among them, which should be spared, had they been all of the
wicked part of the crew, I should have thought God’s provi-
dence had singled them out to deliver them into your hands ;




ROBINSON CRUSOE. “99g! >

for, depend upon it, every man that comes ashore are our ‘own,
and shall die or live as they behave tous. As I spoke this with
a raised voice and cheerful countenance, I found it greatly -
encouraged him ; so we set vigorously to our business.

We had, upon the first appearance of the boat’s coming
from the ship, considered of separating our prisoners; and we
had, indeed, secured them effectually. Two of them, of whom
the captain was less assured than ordinary, I sent with Friday,
and one of the three delivered men, to my cave, where they
were remote enough, and out of danger of being heard or dis-
covered, or of finding their way out of the woods if they
could have delivered themselves; here they left them bound,
but gave them provisions; and promised them if they contin-
ued there quietly, to give them their liberty in a day or two:
but that if they attempted their escape, they should be put to
death without merey. They promised faithfully to bear their
confinement with patience, and were very thankful that they”
had such good usage as to have provisions and light left them ;
for Friday gave them candles (such as we made ourselves) for
their comfort ; and they did not know but that he stood senti-
nel over them at the entrance. f

The other prisoners- had better usage; two of them were
kept pinioned, indecd, because the captain was not free to trust
them; but the other two were taken into my service, upon the
captai’s recommendation, and upon their solemnly engaging
te live and die with us; so with them and the three honest
men we were seven men well armed; and I made no doubt we
should be able to deal well enough with the ten that were com-
ing, considering that the captain had said that there were three
or four honest men among them also. As soon as they got to
the place where their other boat lay, they ran their boat into the
beach,.and came on shore, hauling the boat up after them,
which I was glad to see; for I was afraid they would rather
have left the boat at an anchor, some distance from the shore,
with some hands in her to guard her, and so we should not be




284 ADVENTURES OF

able to seize the boat. Being on shore, the first thing they did,
they ran all to their other boat; and it was easy to see they
were under a great surprise to find her stripped, as above, of
all that was in her, and a great hole in her bottom. After they
had mused awhile upon this, they set up two or three great
shouts, hallooing with all their might, to try if they could
make their companions hear; but all was to no purpose; then
they came all close in a ring, and fired a volley of their small
arms, which, indeed, we heard, and the echoes made the woods.
ring; but it was all one: those in the cave we were sure could
not hear ; and those in our keeping, though they heard it well
enough, yet durst give no answer to them. They were so as-
tonished at the surprise of this, that, as they told afterwards,
they resolved to go all on board again to their ship, and let them
know that the men were all murdered, and the long-boat staved ;
accordingly, they immediately launched their boat again, and
got all of them on board.

The captain was terribly amazed and even confounded at
this, believing they would go on board the ship again, and set
sail, giving thcir comrades over for lost, and so he should still
lose the ship, which he was in hopes we should have recov-
ered; but he was quickly as much frightened the other way.

They had not been long put off with the boat, but we per-
cecived them all coming on shore again; but with this new
measure in their conduct, which it seems they consulted to-
gether upon, viz., to leave three men in the boat, and the rest
to goon shore, and go up into the country to look for their
fellows. This was a great disappointment to us, for now we
were at a loss what to do; as our seizing those seven men on
shore would be no advantage to us, if we let the boat escape ;
because they would then row away to the ship, and then the
rest of them would be sure to weigh and set sail, and so our’
recovering the ship would be lost. However, we had no rem-
edy but to wait, and see what the issue of things might pre-
sent, The seven men came on shore, and the three who re-
“ROBINSON Ontisot. 285

mained in the boat put her off to a good distance from the
shore, and came to an anchor to wait for them; so that it was
impossible for us to come at them in the boat. Those that
came on shore kept close together, marching towards the top
of the little hill under which my habitation lay; and we could
see them plainly, though they could not perceive us. We
could have been very glad they would have come nearer to us,
so that we might have fired at them, or that they would have
gone further off, that we might have come abroad. But when
they were come to the brow of the hill, where they could see a
great way into the valleys and woods, which lay towards the
north-east part, and where the island lay lowest, they shouted
and hallooed till they were weary; and not caring, it seems, to
venture far from the shore, nor far from one another, they sat
down together under a tree, to consider of it. Had they thought
fit to have gone to sleep there, as the other part of them had
done, they had done the job for us; but they were too full of
apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though they
could not tell what the danger was they had to fear neither.
The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this con-
sultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all fire a vol-
ley again, to endeavor to make their fellows hear, and that we
should all sally upon them, just at the juncture, when their
pieces were all discharged, and they would certainly yield, and
we should have them without bloodshed. I liked this propo-
sal, provided it was done while we were near enough to come
up to them before they could load their pieces again ; but this
event did not happen ; and we lay still a long while, very ir-
resolute what course fo take. At length I told them that there
would be nothing done, in my opinion, till night; and then,
if they did not return to the boat, perhaps we might find a
way to get between them and the shore, and so we might use
some stratagem with them in the boat to get them on shore.
We waited a great while, though very impatient for their re-_
moving ; and were very uneasy, when, after long consultations,


286 ADVENTURES Of a

we saw them all start up and march down towards the sea; it
seems they had such dreadful apprehensions upon them of the
danger of the place, that they resolved to go on board the ship
again, give their companions over for lost, and so go on with
their intended voyage with the ship. :

As soon as I perceived them to go towards the shore, I im-
agined it to be, as it really was, that they had given over their
search, and were for going back again ; and the captain, as soon
as I told him my thoughts, was ready to sink at the apprehen-
sions of it: but I presently thought of a stratagem to fetch
them back again, and which answered my end toa title. I
ordered Friday and the eaptain’s mate to go over the little
creck westward, towards the place where the savages came on
shore when Friday was reseued, and as they came to a little
rising ground, at about a half a mile distance, I bade them
halloo out, as loud as they could, and wait till they found the
seamen heard them; that as soon as they heard the seamen an-
swer them, they should return it again; and then keeping out
of sight, take a round, always answering when the others hal-
looed, to draw them as far into the island, and among the woods,
as possible, and then wheel about again to me, by such ways as
I directed them.

They were just going into the boat when Friday and the
mate hallooed; and they presently heard them, and answering,
run along the shore westward, towards the voice they heard,
when they were presently stopped by the creek, where the wa-
ter being up, they could not get over, and called for the boat
to come up and set them over; as, indeed, I expected. When
they had set themselves over, I observed that the boat being
gone a good way into the ercek, and, as it were, in a harbor
within the land, they took one of the three men out of her, to
go along with them, and left only two in the boat, having fas-
tened her to the stump of a little tree on the shore. This was
what I wished for; and immediately leaving Friday and the
captain’s mate to their business, I took the rest with me, and
ROBINSON cRiSOE. 287

crossing the creek out of their sight, we surprised the two men
before they were aware; one of them lying on the shore, and
the other being in the boat. The fellow on the shore was be-
tween sleeping and waking, and going to start up; the cap-
tain, who was foremost, ran in upon him, and knocked him
down; and then called out to him in the boat to yield, or he
was a dead man. There needed very few arguments to pur-
suade a single man to yield, when -he saw five men upon him,
and his comrade knocked down; besides, this was, it seems,
one of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the
rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded, not only
to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with us. In the
mean time, Friday and the captain’s mate so well managed
their business with the rest, that they drew them, by hallooing
and answering, from one hill to another, and from one wood to
another, till they not only heartily tired them, but left them
where they were very sure they could not reach back to the
boat before it was dark; and, indeed, they were heartily tired
themselves also, by the time they came back to us.

We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in the
dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work with
them. It was several hours after Friday came back to me be-
fore they came back to their boat; and we could hear the fore-
most of them, long before they came quite up, calling to those
behind to come along; and could also hear them answer and
complain how lame and tired they were, and not able to come
any faster, which was very welcome news tous. At length
they came up to the boat; but it is impossible to express their
confusion when they found the boat fast aground in the creek,
the tide ebbed out, and their two men gone. We could hear
them call to one another in a most lamentuble manner, telling -
one another they were got into an enchanted island: that
either there were inhabitants in it, and they-should all be mur-
dered, or else there were devils and spirits in it, and they
should be all carried away and devoured. They hallooed agaix,


288 - * ADVENTURES OF

and called their two comrades by their names a great many
times; but no answer. After some time, we could: see them,
by the little light there was, run about, wringing their hands
like men in despair; and that sometimes they would go and
sit down in the boat, to rest themselves; then come ashore
again, and walk about again, and so the same thing over again.
My men would fain have had me give them leave to fall upon
them at once in the dark; but I was willing to take them at
some advantage, so to spare them, and kill as few of them as I
could; and especially I was unwilling to hazard the killing
any of our men, knowing the others were very well armed.
T resolved to wait, to sce if they did not separate; and, there-
fore, to'make sure of them, I drew my ambuscade nearer, and
ordered Friday and the captain to creep upon their hands and
fect, as close to the ground as they could, that they might not
be discovered, and get as near them as they could possibly, be-
fore they offered to fire.

They had not been long in that posture, when the boat-
swain, who was the principal ringleader of the mutiny, and had
now shown himself the most dejected and dispirited of all the
rest, came walking towards them, with two more of the crew:
the captain was so eager at having this principal rogue so much
in his power, that he could hardly have patience to let him
come so near as to be sure of him, for they only heard his
tongue before: but when they came nearer, the captain and
Friday, starting up on their feet, let fly at them. The boat-
swain was killed upon the spot; the next man was shot in the
body, and fell just by him, though he did not die but an hour
or two after; and the third ran for it. At the noise of the
fire I immediately advanced with my whole army, which was
now eight men, viz., myself, generalissimo ; Friday, my lieu-
tenant-general; the captain and his two men, and the three
prisoners of war, whom we had trusted with arms. We came’
upon them, indeed, in the dark, so that they could not see our



. number; and I made the man they had left in the boat, whe


ROBINSON CRUSOE. 289

was now one of us, to call them by name, to-try if I could
bring them to a parley, and so might perhaps reduce them to
terms ; which fell out just as we desired: for, indeed, it was
easy to think, as their condition then was, they would be will ©
ing to capitulate. So he calls out, as loud as he could, to oné,.
of them, Tom Smith! Tom Smith! Tom Smith answered
immediately, Is that Robinson? For it seems, he knew “the
voice. The other answered, Ay, ay; for God’s sake, Tom
Smith, throw down your arms and yield, or you are all dead
men this moment. Who must we yield to? Where are they?
says Smith again. Here they are, says he: here’s our captain _
and fifty men with him, have been hunting you these two
hours: the boatswain is killed, Will Fry is wounded, and I am
a prisoner; and if you do not yield, you are all lost. Will
they give us quarter then? says Tom Smith, and we will yield.”
I will go ask, if you promise to yield, says Robinson: so he
asked the captain; and the captain himself then calls out, You
Smith, you know my voice; if you Jay down you arms imme-
diately, and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will
Atkins.

SECTION XXVII.

ATKINS ENTREATS THE CAPTAIN TO SPARE HIS LIFE—-THE LATTER RE-
COVERS HIS VESSEL FROM THE MUTINEERS — AND ROBINSON LEAVES
THE ISLAND.

Upon this Will Atkins cried out, For God’s sake, captain, give

me quarter: what have I done? They have all been as bad

is I: which, by the way, was not true neither; for, it seems,

this Will Atkins was the first. man that laid hold of the cap-

tain when they first mutinied, and used him barbarously, in
28
290 ADVENTURES of

tying his hands, and giving him injurious language. How-
ever, the captain told him he must lay down his arms at dis-
cretion, and trust to the governor’s mercy : by which he meant
me, for they all called me governor. In a word, they all laid
down their arms, and begged their lives; and I sent the
man that had parlicd with them, and two more, who bound
them all; and then my great army of fifty men, which par-
ticularly with those three, were in all but eight, came up and
seized upon them, and upon their boat; only that I kept my-
self and one more out of sight for reasons of state.

Our next work was to repair the boat, and think of seizing -
the ship: and as for the captain, now he had leisure to parley
with them, he expostulated with them upon the villainy of
their practices with him, and at length upon the further wick-
edness of their design, and how certainly it must bring them
to misery and distress in the end, and perhaps to the gallows.
They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for their
lives. As for that, he told them they were none of his pris-
oners, but the commander’s of the island; that they thought
they had set him on shore on a barren, uninhabited island ;
but it had pleased God so to direct them, that it was inhabited,
and that the governor was an Englishman; that he might
hang them all there, if he pleased; but as he had given them
all quarter, he supposed he would send them to England, to
be dealt with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom
he was commanded by the governor to advise to prepare for
death, for that he would be hanged in the morning.

Though all this was but a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect: Atkins fell upon his knees, to beg the captain
to intercede with the governor for his life; and all the rest
begged of him, for God’s sake, that they might not be sent to

* England. : a

It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance
was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring
these fellows in to be hearty in getting possession of the ship; _


ROBINSON CRUSOE. sot

so I retired in the dark from them, that they might not see
what kind of a governor they had, and called the captain to
me; when I called, as at a good distance, one of the men was
ordered to speak again, and say to the captain, Captain, the
commander calls for you; and presently the captain replied,
Tell his excellency Iam just a-coming. This more perfectly
amused them, and they all believed that the commander was
just b