Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Biographical sketch of Daniel...
 Adventures of Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073586/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner with an introduction, giving a new history of Defoe's masterpiece
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xx, 612 p., <13> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Griset, Ernest Henry, 1844-1907 ( Illustrator )
Richmond & Patten ( Publisher )
Publisher: Richmond & Patten
Place of Publication: New Haven, Conn.
Publication Date: 1874
Copyright Date: 1874
Edition: Correctly repr. from the original ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: fiction   ( marcgt )
Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Connecticut -- New Haven
Statement of Responsibility: with original illustrations by Ernest Griset.
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: The "new history of Defoe's masterpiece" may be a biographical sketch of Defoe, p. ix-xx.
General Note: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 574, matches this description but lists only eight plates.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073586
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 05905373

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Biographical sketch of Daniel Defoe
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 21
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Full Text

I '. ':.






) ~~
~- ~





Correctly Reprinted from the Original Edition.

SillI Rl i nfrttOf ittiofln,

With Original Illustrations by Ernest Griset,



Biographical Sketch of Daniel Defoe, 9
Robinson's Family, etc. His Elopement from his Parents, 21
First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life- -
Voyage to Guinea, 26
Robinson's Captivity at Sallee-Escape with Xury Arrival at
the Brazils, 7
He settles in the Brazils as a Planter-Makes another voyage,
and is shipwrecked, .. 53
Robinson finds himself in a desolate island -Procures a stock
of articles from the wreck-- Constructs his Habitation, 68
Carries all his Riches, Provisions, etc., into his Habitation-
Dreariness of Solitude Consolatory Reflections, 80
Robinson's Mode of Reckoning Time -Difficulties arising from
Want of Tools He arranges his Habitation, .


Robinson's Journal- Details of his Domestic Economy and Con-
trivances-Shock of an Earthquake, 91

Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck His Illness
and Affliction, 105

IIis Recovery Ilis Comfort in Reading the Scriptures Makes
ran Excursion into the Interior of the Island-Forms his
*'Bower," 114

Rebinson makes a Tour to Explore his Island--Employed in
Basket-Making, 28

He returns to his Cave His Agricultural Labors and Success, 134

His Manufacture of Pottery, and contrivance for Baking Bread, 142

Meditates his Escape from the Island--Builds a Canoe Fail-
ure of his Scheme- Resignation to his condition--Makes
himself a new Dress, .. 147

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round
the Island His Perilous Situation at Sea He returns
Home, .159

He Rears a Flock of Goats His Dairy His Domestic Habits
and Style of Living--Increasing Prosperity, 169

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension e Fortifies
his Abode, 178

.' 2 -- .


Precautions against Surprise--Robinson Discovers that his Isl-
and has been Visited by Cannibals, 188

Robinson Discovers a Cave, which serves him as a Retreat
against the Savages, .199

Another Visit of the Savages- Robinson Sees them Dancing -
Perceives the Wreck of a Vessel, . .207

lie Visits the Wreck and obtains many Stores from it-Again
thinks of Quitting the Island--Has a Remarkable Dream, 214

Robinson Rescues one of their Captives from the Savaged, whom
he names Friday, and makes his Servant, .227

Robinson Instructs and Civilizes his Man Friday -Endeavors
to give him an Idea of Christianity, . 237

Robinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry them to Friday's
Country Their Scheme prevented by the arrival of a Party
of Savages, 243


Robinson Releases a Spaniard -Friday Discovers his Father -
Accommodation provided for these New Guests-Who are
afterwards sent to Liberate the other Spaniards Arrival of
an English Vessel, .255

Robinson Discovers Himself to the English Captain-Assists
him in Reducing his Mutinous Crew, who submit to him, 274

vl c~z_ s.--.-


Atkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life The latter Re-
covers his Vessel from the Mutineers And Robinson leaves
the Island, . 289


Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain,
who renders him an Account of his Property in the Brazils -
Sets out on his Return to England by Land, . 300

Friday's Encounter with a Bear-Robinson and his Fellow
Travelers attacked by a Flock of Wolves His Arrangement
of his Affairs, and Marriage after his Return to England, 314


He is seized with a Desire to Revisit his Island-Loses his
Wife-Is Tempted to go to Sea again-Takes out a Cargo
for his Colony, 328


Robinson's Ship Relieves the Crew of a French Vessel that had
caught fire, 338


Relieves'the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving- Arrives
at his Island, 347


Robinson and Friday go Ashore -The Latter meets with his
Father Account of what passed on the Island after Robin-
son's quitting it, . 356


The Account continued-Quarrels between the Englishmen--
A Battle between two Parties of Savages who Visit the Isl-
nd- Fresh Mutiny among the Settler 866



The Mutinous Englishmen are Dismissed from the Island-Re-
turn with Several Captive Savages-Take the Females as
Wives- Arrival of Savages, 389


Several Savages Killed; the remainder leave the Island-A
Fleet of them afterwards arrive- A General Battle-The
Savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored, . 404


Robinson learns from the Spaniards the Difficulties they had to
Encounter Ie furnishes the People with Tools, etc. The
Frenich Ecclesiastic, 125


Rlohinson's Discourse with the Ecclesiastic as to introducing
Marriages among the People- Marriages performed-At-
kins Converts his Wife, 438


Atkins Relates his Conversation with his wife- The latter bap-
tized by the Priest-Account of the starving state of those
on board the rescued vessel -Robinson's departure from the
Island, 461


Encounter with Savages at Sea-Friday's Death-Robinson
finds his former Partner in the Brazils-Sails for the East
Indies, 485

The Vessel touches at Madagascar-Affray with the Natives,
who are Massacred by the Crew-The Sailors afterwards
refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his Nephew, the
Captain, in Bengal, . 97


Meets with an English Merchant with whom he makes some
Trading Voyages They are Mistaken for Pirates -Vanquish
their Pursuers Voyage to China Rencounter with the Co-
chin Chinese Island of Formosa Gulf of Nanquin Ap-
prehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch, . 517

Journey to Peking-Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to
Moscow- Rencounters with the Tartars, 557

Route through Muscovy Robinson and a Scots Merchant de-
stroy an Idol The whole Caravan in great peril from the
pursuit of the Pagans- Tobolski--Muscovite Exiles-De-
parture from Tobolski Encounter with a Troop of Robbers
in the Desert Rol-insn reaches Archangel, and finally ar-
rives in England, 578



;FO E, thoe uth oreoft Robinson
Crus.oe, would be entitled to a
prominent place in the history
S of our literature, even had he
never given to the world that
Struly adhlirabl le production ;
and yet we e may reasonahIly
question whether the nam:lle of
Defoe would not long algo1 have
sunk into oblivion, or at least
have heen known, like those
of most of his contemporaries,
only to the curious student,
Sere it not attached to ta work
Whose popularity has been
rarely equaled -- never, perhaps, ex-
S called. Even as it is, the reputation due
to the writer has been nearly altogether
absorbed in that of i his ero, and in tile
all-enigrossing interest of his adventures:
Sthoustands who have read Robinson rlu-
soe with delight, inc d deriv ed from it a satisfl tion
in no wise diminished by repeated perusal, have
never bestowed a thought on its author, or, indeed,
regarded it in tahe light of a literary performance.
While its fascination has been universally felt, the
genius that conceived it, the talent that perfected it,
have been ... iii overlooked, merely because it is so
full of nature and reality as to exhibit no invention or
exertion on the part of the author, inasmuch as lhe tp-
e/ pears simply to h;ave recorded what actually happened
and consequently only to have committed to paper plain
matter of fact, without study or embellishment. We wonder at and
are struck with admiration by the powers of Shakspeare or Cervantes:
with regard to Defoe we experience no similar feelings; it is not the
skill of the artist that enchants us, but the perfect naturalness of the
picture, which is such that we mistake it for a mirror ; so that every
reader persuades himself that he could write as well, perhaps better,


were he but furnished with the materials for an equally interesting
There are many circumstances in Defoe's own history that would
recommend it to the notice of the biographer, independently of his
claims as the author of Robinson: among which are the variety and
extraordinary number of his literary performances, amounting to no
fewer than two hundred and nine different publications; and the ne
less singular fact that the masterpiece of his genius was not only his
first essay in that species of composition, but was not produced till
he was far advanced in years, he having then arrived at a period of
life when the generality of authors close their literary career, and
when the powers of imagination either lose much of their vigor,
or become altogether torpid. Nor will our surprise at Defoe's indus-
try, and the almost unprecedented fertility of his pen, be at all di-
minished by considering that he was not a recluse student or professed
scholar, but was engaged in trade and various other speculations. In
one respect, however, his mercantile occupations contributed to lay
the foundation to his excellence as a novel-writer, since there can be
little doubt that it is to his actual experience of the sea, and his ac-
quaintance with other countries, we are indebted for that truth and
spirit which animate the more interesting parts of Robinson Crusoe;
while the manly good sense, unaffected earnestness, and fund of native
intelligence, have placed him far above those who presume to under-
value his literary acquirements.
According to the latest and most copious of all his biographers,
Daniel Defoe was born in 1661, two years earlier than the generally
assigned date of his birth. His father was a butcher in the parish of
St. Giles, Cripplegate; and appears to have been a citizen in easy
circumstances, although his trade was one that confers no particular
lustre on a pedigree. It is usual to effect some degree of astonish-
ment when we read of men whose after fame presents a striking con-
trast to the humility of their origin: yet we must recollect that it is
not ancestry and splendid descent, but education and circumstances
which form the man; and in this-respect the middling classes possess
a decided advantage over those either below or above them: for if
the former are precluded from cultivating their talents and abilities,
the latter generally consider themselves exempt from the necessity of
doing so, and accordingly content themselves with cultivating mere
external accomplishments, in preference to exercising their mental
energies. Those on the contrary who are placed in a middle station,
while they are not debarred from the means of application, feel that
stimulus to exertion which arises from the desire of acquiring fortune
or fame. The history of such men as Ximenes, Wolsey, Alberoni,
and Napoleon, may, indeed, justly excite our wonder; -when, too,
we behold unlettered genius emerging, in spite of every obstacle, from
the obscurity to which it seemed condemned, as in a Fergusson, a
Duval, a Burns, and an Opie, we may be permitted to express our as-
tonishment; but as regards his origin, the history of Defoe is that of
thousands who have afterwards raised themselves into comparative
elevation by the display of their powers. The solicitude, therefore, so
generally displayed by biographers, on similar occasions, to trace



some consanguinity with a more dignified branch of their families,
for those whose native obscurity seems to demand some apology, be-
trays a rather mistaken policy. However this may be, it is certain
that it is quite as honorable for Defoe to have ascended from a butcher
as it would have been to have descended from the Conqueror himself.
One undoubted and very great advantage, for which Defoe was in-
debted to his parents, who were Nonconformists, was an education
superior to what it was then usual for persons in their station to be-
stow upon their children; and they were careful also to implant in
his youthful mind that regard for religion, and that strict moral integ-
rity, which afterwards displayed themselves not only in his writings,
but his conduct through life. And this rectitude of principle he most
unequivocally evinced when his misfortunes put it so severely to the
proof. At about the age of fourteen, he was placed under the tuition
of the Rev. Charles Morton, of Newington Green, who was afterwards
vice-president of Harvard College, New England; and from various
incidental remarks in his own works, it appears that young Defoe now
entered upon an extensive course of studies, and made considerable
proficiency in languages, mathematics, philosophy, history, and the-
ology ; although the natural liveliness of his disposition unfitted him
fr that severe application which is necessary to form a profound
scholar in any one of those pursuits.
It was the intention of his parents that he should embrace the -
clerical profession, which their religious feelings, and probably a very
pardonable ambition, induced them to select for him: yet, notwith-
standing his regard for the sacred office, lie was unwilling to embrace
it himself; or events, at least, diverted his talents into another chan-
nel. The political and religious excitements of that period were
contagious for one of Defoe's temper; he assumed the character of
the patriot as soon as lie cast off that of the boy, and espoused the
side of the popular party with all tie ardor of youth; nor was it long
before he had opportunities of distinguishing himself. lie was a
warm advocate for the Bill of Exclusion, passed by the Commons to
prevent the succession of the Duke of York to the trn'one; and re-
garded with abhorrence that spirit of despotism which sentenced
Sydney and so many others to the scaffold. At the age of twenty-one
lre commenced author, which employment lie continued for nearly
half a century, and that, too, almost uninterruptedly, notwithstand-
ing his various speculations of a different nature. It cannot be ex-
pected that in a sketch of this nature we should attempt to give
anything like a connected account of Defoe's various literary perform-
ances, they being too numerous and multifarious for us to advert to them
separately, even if we conceived that by so doing we should greatly
interest the readers of this-the most distinguished of them all.
hut the truth is, the majority of them are of that class which it is
rather thie province of the bibliographer than the critic to describe. We
rmay, however, here mention the first production of his pen, which,
under th6 singular title of Speculum Crape-gownorum," was a reply
to a publication of Roger L'Estrange's, a noted party writer of that
day. In this work Defoe indulged in rather intemperate language,
and while vindicating the dissenters, reflected in too hostile and indis-


criminate a manner upon the established clergy, This was succeeded
by a "Treatise against the Turks," occasioned by the war between
them and the imperialists; and was penned by Defoe for the purpose
of showing his countrymen that, if it was the interest of Protes-
tantism not to increase the influence of a Catholic power, it was
infinitely more so to oppose a Mahommedan one; which, however
debateable it might appear to politicians, was almost too obvious a
truism to be entitled to any merit for its sagacity. It is the fate of
political publications quickly to fall into oblivion after the events
which call them forth have passed away: the reputation derived from
them is as transitory as the events themselves, or if the fame of the
writer occasionally descends to posterity, it is more than can be affirm-
ed of his writings.
Shortly after this, Defoe proved that he was as ready to support the
doctrines he advocated by the sword as by the pen: he accordingly
joined the standard of the Duke of Monmouth, when the latter landed
in England with a view of expelling a Catholic prince from the throne,
and seating himself upon it as the defender of Protestantism. The
issue of that adventure, and the subsequent fate of the unfortunate,
if not perfectly innocent, Monmouth are well known. Happier than
the leader of the enterprise, it was Defoe's better luck to escape: he
returned to the metropolis in safety: and, abandoning politics and
warfare, was content for a while to turn his attention to the more
humble but less stormy pursuits of trade.
He now became a hosier, or rather a hose-factor, that is, a kind of
agent between the manufacturer and retailer; and, according to Mr.
Chalmers, he continued to carry on this concern from 1685 to 1695.
It was about two years after he had thus established himself, that he
was admitted a liveryman of London, on the 26th of January, 1687-8.
Business, however, did not so entirely absorb his attention but that
he found time to engage in the various controversies that agitated the
public mind, and which were occasioned by the arbitrary measures of
James, who, feeling himself secure after the removal of so dangerous
an enemy as Monmouth, began more openly to favor the Catholics, and
to dispense with the tests intended to prevent their accepting commis-
sions in the army. This of course excited both the alarm and indigna-
tion of the Protestants, which were by no means allayed by the tem-
porizing servility of their own clergy, who exerted their eloquence in
favor of the king's prerogative. Among those who attacked the doctrine
of the dispensing power was Defoe; nor, as may well be imagined, was
he afterwards an unconcerned spectator of the Revolution, whose pro-
gress he had minutely watched, and whose anniversary he continued
yearly to celebrate as a day marked by the deliverance of his country
from political and religious tyranny. His attachment to the new sov-
ereign was confirmed by the personal notice shown him both by that
prince and his consort; for the "butcher's son" had the honor of an
early introduction to the royal presence.
At this period Defoe resided at Tooting in Surrey, and he had now
launched out into more extensive commercial speculations, having
embarked in the Spanish an i Portuguese trade, so that he might fairly
claim the title of merchant. The precise time of his going to Spain,


whether before or after the Revolution, cannot be ascertained; but he
aot only made a voyage thither, but stayed some time in the country
and acquired a knowledge of the language. Sincere as was his at-
tachment to the purer tenets of Protestantism, it did not degenerate
into blind prejudice, nor prevent him from doing justice to Catholics:-
he has accordingly, in his Robinson Crusoe, represented the Spanish
character under its most amiable traits, and in a tone that may al-
most pass for panegyric. This voyage as we have already remarked,
doubtlessly contributed to store his observant mind with many materials
for those descriptions of the perils and adventures common to a sea-.
faring life, that so strongly excite the sympathy of those who follow
his hero across the trackless deep. Nor was he without some experi-
ence of shipwreck, if not actually in his own person, by the loss of a
vessel in which he was a shareholder, and which was wrecked in a
violent storm off the coast of Biscay. It was about this period also
that lie traded with Holland; probably for civet, as one of his enemies
has sneeringly styled him a "civet-cat merchant." Besides this he
visited some other parts of the continent, particularly Germany ; he
did not, however, relinquish his hose-agency business in consequence
of his other engagements. But commercial enterprise did not prove
for him the road to wealth; on the contrary, his speculations involved
him in such embarrassments, that, in 1692, lie was obliged to abscond
from his creditors. A commission of bankruptcy was taken out
against him, yet it was afterwards superseded, those to whom he was
most in debt agreeing to accept a composition on his own bond; and
lie not only punctually discharged these claims, but, after he had
somewhat retrieved his circumstances, voluntarily repaid the remain-
der. This is so much the more to his honor, since so far from having
met with many precedents of similar probity in others, his misfortunes
had been in some degree occasioned by the knavery of unprincipled
men, who, availing themselves of the impunity held out to them by
the supineness or the impotency of the law, were then accustomed to
set their creditors at defiance in the most barefaced manner.
It was Defoe himself who first called the attention of the legisla-
ture to the intolerable abuses which arose from those sanctuaries, as
they were termed, for criminals and debtors, which then existed in
the metropolis; and to him, consequently, may we be said to be in-
debted for tie abatement of a nuisance as disgraceful to the national
character, as it was injurious to the industrious and honest portion of
the community.
With a view of assisting him in his distress, some of his friends
now came forward and offered to settle him as a factor at Cadiz: yet,
advantageous as the proposal was, lie declined it, prefering to endeav-
or to retrieve his finances by his pen. The country being then en-
gaged in an expensive war with France, Defoe proposed a scheme
to assist the government in raising the ways and means; and some
time afterwards lie received the appointment of accountant to the
commissioners of the glass duty; but it proved only a temporary one,
as. the duty was repealed in August, 1699. Probably it was also
about the same period that he became secretary to the tile-works at
libury, in which concern he embarked some money, and was again a


sufferer. His "Essay on Projects," published in January, 1696-7,
shows him to have been, if not a very successful speculator himself, at
least a very ingenious and fertile deviser of theoretical plans, most of
which must be allowed to have the welfare of society in view; nor
have they been without influence in leading to many improvements of
later times: among those which have been practically adopted, we
may mention his scheme for Friendly Societies and Saving Banks.
Were any testimony required in favor of this work, it would be suffi-
cient to quote that of the celebrated Franklin, who confesses that the
impressions he received from it gave a strong bias to his own pursuits.
If not invariably employed in the active defense of public morals,
Defoe's pen was too honest to betray their interests on any occasion:
it was not always that his topics called for, or even admitted, any
direct inculcations of virtue, but whenever they did, lie displayed his
earnestness in its behalf. His publication entitled "The Poor Alan's
Plea" is a very keen piece of satire, with a considerable touch of
humor, leveled against the vices of the upper classes of society, in
which he urges them to discountenance by their own conduct the im-
morality they deem so reprehensible in the vulgar. The stage too
did not escape his castigation ; and really its transgressions were at
tLat period so barefaced and audacious, so offeienive even to common
decency, that, whatever infamy there may have been in either toler-
ating or in attempting to defend such a system of ludencss, there
could be no great triumph in exposing that which did not even attempt
to conceal itself.
We have now to notice our author in a somewhat different charac-
ter-niamely, as a candidate for poetical fame. His satire, entitled
the True-born Englishlman," which was written for the purpose of
averting from the king the abusive reflections cast upon him as a
foreigner, had indeed a very great run at the time-more, however,
on account of the matter than of the manner-since both that and
all Defoe's other attempts of the kind convince us, that, like the great
Roman orator, lie was an intolerably bad poet, and not even a decent
versifier. Yet could gratitude and enthusiastic devotion to his prince
have supplied the inspiration which the muses denied him, Defoe's
poetry would have been of first-rate excellence, so sincere was his
admiration of, so zealous was his devotion to, William III. The va-
rious effusions in rhyme, and the numerous political pamphlets and
tracts which lie published at this interval, we must pass by, aid
come directly to an event that obtained for our author a rather unen-
viable species of distinction. The reign of Anne commenced with
much violence and with cabals between the respective church parties,
leading to controversies that rather fanned than allayed the public
ferment. On such an occasion, it was not to be expected that Defoe
would remain passive: assuming the furious tone of the high-
churchmen of the day against the dissenters, he published a small
pamphlet, which was in reality a satire upon the writings which that
party had issued from the press; but the irony was so fine, and the
imitation so exact, that while it was supposed by them to utter the
real sentiments of the writer, it was also interpreted by those whom
it was intended to serve as coming from a violent enemy. The



"Shortest way with the Dissenters"-such was its title-created an.
amazing sensation:_ and on its real object being exposed, the high-
church party became as fierce in their indignation, as they had before
-been warm in their applause. The author was detected, a. reward
offered for his apprehension, and he himself sentenced to be imprison-
ed in Newgate, and to stand in the pillory; but the attendance of his
friends, and the enthusiasm of the populace in favor of the champion
of religious liberty, converted an ignominious punishment into a
triumph, so that Ids enemies had.as little reason to exalt in their vic-
tory, as to be proud of the sagacity they had displayed. If, however,
this event rather increased than diminished Defoe's reputation, it had
a different effect upon his pecuniary affairs: his confinement in New- -
gate prevented his attending any longer to his concern at Tilbury, the
consequence of which was that it was obliged to be given up; and -
thus Defoe saw himself deprived at once of what had been the source
of a handsome income, for before this affair he was in such thriving -
circumstances as to be able to keep his coach. According to his own-
statement, he lost three thousand five hundred pounds, a far more
considerable sum at that period than it would be now. There was
indeed one way of both speedily and safely repairing his finances,
namely, by accepting the overtures made him by the ministry, who
would gladly have enlisted in their own cause that pen which had
proved so powerful against them: but Defoe was too independent of
soul, and too high principled, to purchase his release upon terms
that would inflict upon him the disgrace the pillory had failed to
Although a prison is not the most congenial place for literary pur-
suits, our author availed himself of the time which the loss of his
liberty afforded him, of occupying his unwelcome leisure from all
other business in writing both in verse and prose. It was here thfat
he published his poem on the Reformation of Manners," a sufficient-
ly copious theme in every age, and aftewards continued the subject in
another, entitled "M'ore Reformation; in which he alludes to his
own situation in the following nervous lines, describing himself as
A modern tool,
To wit, to parties and himself a fool;
Embroil'd with states to do himself no good,
And by his friends themselves misunderstood;
Misconstrued first in every word he said, -
By these unpitied, and by those unpaid."

Here we may truly say facit indignalio versus for the caustic tone and.
antithesis are not unworthy of Pope himself. The political contro-
versial pieces which he sent forth to the world from his "place of
durance vile" were too numerous for us to specify them; we there-
fore prefer speaking of a work of more permanent interest, one in
which he may be regarded as the immediate predecessor of two of the
most popular and admired of our classic writers in the days of Anne
-namely, Steele and Addison. Defoe's "Review," which commenced
Feb. 19, 1704, deserves to be'considered as the prototype of our Tat-

1 -- . .


lers and Spectators; and may earn for its author the appellation of"
the Father of English Essayists: since notwithstanding that political
intelligence and discussion constituted a great portion of its contents,
it touched upon. a, variety of other topics bearing upon literature,
manners, and morals; while it was itself hardly in any degree in-
debted for this part of its plan to proceeding or contemporary publi-
cations. Uniformly assailing vice, or exposing to just ridicule the
follies and foibies of society, Defoe varied his mode of attack, at one
time employing grave reasoning and serious remonstrance; at another,
substituting sarcasm, humor, wit, and pleasantry, for monitory re-
proof. To a modern reader, indeed, many of the topics might seem
to lack invention, and to be rather common-place, merely because they
have been so repeatedly handled by later writers, that both the wit and
argument displayed in them have lost their freshness. This circum-
stance, however, does not detract from Defoe's intrinsic merit, or from
the praise due to him as an originator: on the contrary, he, in this
respect, only shares the fate common to all those who open a new path
in literature or art, inviting imitators whose number oppress, if they
do not overwhelm them: that Defoe has not since been surpassed in
this species of writing is far more than we can venture to assert; yet
it should be recollected that it is the first navigator of the Atlantic,
not those who cross it in a modern steamboat, who claims the homage
of our admiration.
Those who are unacquainted with Defoe the essayist, as well as
Defoe the novelist, will not be able to appreciate the extent of our
author's powers, and the variety of his information. But we have
already dwelt upon the Review at greater length than is consistent
with the brevity we must perforce observe: it is time, therefore, to
proceed with our narrative. Mr. Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford,
happened, by a change in the ministry, to come into power, after
Defoe had been about two years in confinement, and being able to
appreciate his abilities -perhaps anxious to secure them in his own
support, he represented his case to the queen, who generously sent
a sum of money to his wife and f and ily, and another to discharge his
fine and prison expenses. Immediately upon his liberation, Defoe re-
tired to Bury St. Edmund's. It was there that he wrote his masterly
treatise, entitled Giving Alms no Charity," in which lie displays great
practical knowledge, with enlarged and sound views on the causes of
poverty, and on the employment of the poor. In the intervals of
these and other occupations, for it should be observed that he had
been sent in 1705 by Harley on a secret mission to the continent, the
express object of wlich has not transpired, lie fonnd leisure to em-
ploy his pen on other subjects, and anticipating his future character
of a romance writer, he invented the "true narrative" of Mrs. Veal's
apparition, which was prefixed to a translation of Drelincourt on
Death. The supposed stranger from the other world is made to rec-
ommend that performance; and, as such supernatural testimony was
irresistible, the whole impression, which liad before lain on the book-
seller's shelves, was quickly sold, and was succeeded by many others,
the work having since passed through forty different editions. This
stratagem certainly does honor to Defoe's ingenuity and penetration ;


yet whether it be entirely justifiable, considering the tendency of the
deception, may be doubted.
Leaving for a while the account of his literary career, we must now .
briefly notice a very important national subject, namely, the Union
with Scotland, in which, besides warmly advocating the measure with
his pen, Defoe was personally employed. At the recommendation of
Harley and Lord Godolphin, by whom he had been recommended to
the queen, he was sent on a mission to Edinburgh, in which city he
arrived in October, 1706. Here,.it should seem, he was chiefly em-
ployed in making calculations relating to trade and taxes, for the
information of the committees of parliament; he also occupied hini-
self in collecting those documents relative to the Union which he
afterwards published. Besides this, he proposed several plans for en-
couraging the manufactures, and for promoting the trade, wealth, and
maritime resources of Scotland. After an absence of about sixteen .
months, he returned to England in 1708, when his services obtained
for him, from the ministry, an appointment with a fixed salary; and
as it does not appear what was tile nature of the office he held, we
may conclude it to have been merely a sinecure. Almost immediately
afterwards, his patron Harley was dismissed from office, through the
persevering intrigues of the duchess of Malborough, whom he had sup-
planted in the queen's favor, an event that suddenly overclouded De-
foe's political prospects. Without compromising his principles, how-
ever, he espoused the interest of the succeeding ministry; but although
Godolphin treated him with consideration, he suffered his pension to fall
into arrears, perhaps in consequence of Defoe's long absence in Scot-
land, whither he was again despatched a few months afterwards, upon
some secret business. In the following year, 1709, Defoe published a
work which, to use the words of an eminent living critic, "places
him amongst the soundest historians of the day; and which, accord-
ing to the testimony of another, would have handed down his name to
posterity, even had he not immortalized himself by Robinson Crusoe.
This was his History of the Union," which is as interesting for the
minute descriptions it gives of the actors and incidents in that impor-
tant event, as for the documents it furnishes.
Still engaged in politics, Defoe's continued and severe attacks
against the Tories and high-church party so exasperated them, that
they attempted to suppress his writings, and even threatened him
with prosecutions: their animosity, however, did not procure for him,
from those whose cause he defended, a degree of favor and support at
all. commensurate with his long and able services. He had also to
contend with fresh pecuniary losses in some concern in which he was
engaged (1712) with Mr. Wood, a mercer of Coleshill in Warwickshire,-
and with the personal abuse with which his character was assailed by
writers who reflected upon him as being a knavish bankrupt. But
his political career was now drawing to its close: having carried on his
" Review for more than nine years, he finally relinquished it in May,
1713, when he was again a prisoner in Newgate upon an indictment
preferred against him by his friends the Whigs, as the author of three
treasonable Jacobitical pamphlets; whereas the publications in ques-
tion were of a directly opposite tendency. The queen once more


bestowed a free pardon on him, and the malice of his numerous
enemies was defeated. From this time he employed his pen only
occasionally on political subjects. By the accession of George I. to
the throne, Defoe gained nothing, although his writings had strenu-
ously pleaded the cause of the House of Hanover during the late
reign; and although he had superior claims upon public gratitude for
the zeal with which, during nearly thirty years, he had not only advo-
cated religious and political independence, but endeavored to call,
attention to subjects of paramount importance to the national pros-
perity. That this neglect should, in spite of all his philosophy, have
occasioned him considerable mortification, is not much to be won-
dered at; and to the effect it had upon his health was attributed an
apoplectic attack in the year 1715, from which he continued to suffer
for six months.
After so serious a blow to his constitution, and at his advanced
period of life, it might have been expected that he would now lay aside
his pen, -at least remit his exertions. Yet it was subsequently to
this apparently cloudy epoch of his career that the brightest and most
durable of his literary wreaths was won. Great versatility of talent
is not often accompanied by an equal degree of vigor and raciness of
intellect: when, however, such docs happen to be the case, it should
seem that the former is rather beneficial than otherwise to its posses-
sor, and that change of subject serves to recruit the ,mental energies.
Defoe at least may be quoted as an extraordinary instance of rejuvenes-
ceecy of mind in the decline of years. We do not here allude to his
" Family Instructor," although that performance is one of the most
valuable and useful systems of practical morality in our language,
and has, doubtless, been far more beneficial to society than many works
of even splendid celebrity. It is the series of novels which now appear
in quick succession from his pen, that have won for him an imperishable'
reputation among the worthies of English literature ; nor will his
claims upon our admiration be diminished by considering the extrava-
gant, unnatural system of romance-writing which had till then pre-
vailed, where everything was either so artificial or so shadowy, that not
a glimpse of real life was to be discerned. In Defoe's narratives, on
the contrary, there is such an air of downright matter-of-fact and un-
adorned truth, as to amount to actual deception; thereby prevent-
ing us from crediting the author with any merit on the score of
imagination, contrivance, or invention. Of this the reader will be
amply convinced by the perusal of the present work, on which it is
not necessary that we should expatiate, and we shall therefore merely
S advert to the circumstances connected with its origin and publication.
The history of Robinson Crusoe was first published in the year 171).
and its popularity may be said to have been established immediately,
since four editions were called for in about as many months, a circum-
stance at tlihat time almost unprecedented in the annals of literature.
It rarely happens that an author's expectations are surpassed by the
success of his work, however astonishing it may seem to others: yet
perhaps even Defoe himself did not venture to look forward to such a
welcome on the part of the public, after the repulses he had experi-
I49W I on that of the booksellers; for incredible as it now appears, the


manuscript of the work had been offered to, and rejected by, every
one in the trade, in which respect its destiny was not only similar to
that of Paradise Lost, but two of the most celebrated literary pro-
ductions of the present day, namely, Waverly and Child Harold; the
former of which remained in manuscript ten years, without any proba-
bility of ever seeing the light, although its fame has since extended .
itself wherever the English language is known-nay more, has even
penetrated the wilds of Siberia.
Astonishing as was the success of Defoe's romance, it did not deter
the envious from attempting to disparage it. The materials, it was
said, were either furnished by, or surreptitiously obtained from,
Alexander Selkirk, a mariner who had resided for four years in the
desert island of Juan Fernandez, and returned to England in 1711.
Very probably, his story, which then excited considerable interest and
attention, did suggest to Defoe the idea of writing his romance; but
all the details and incidents are entirely his own. Most certainly
Defoe had obtained no papers or written documents from Selkirk, as
the latter had none to communicate. So far, however, have others
been from taxing our author with plagiarism, that they have, on the.
contrary, charged him with putting on paper a heap of chimeras, to
impose upon public credulity. Thus these two contradictory charges
reciprocally destroy each other. An attempt has also been made to
rob him entirely of the brightest jewel in his literary crown, by deny-
ing him to have been the author of Robinson Crusoe, which has been
ascribed, by. some, to Arbuthnot; by others, to Defoe's patron, the
first earl of Oxford. Those who have wished to gain credit for the
latter opinion, assert that it was composed by that nobleman during
his imprisonment in the Tower, in 1715, on a charge of high treason;
and they have urged that the whole tone of the work, especially of
that part towards the conclusion where an account is given of the
exiled nobles of Muscovy, is what would naturally be suggested by
the solitude of a prison. Yet as far as internal evidence is con-
cerned, that is, indisputably, much stronger in favor of Defoe; for
he had not only been familiar with imprisonment, but was also by his
acquaintance with foreign countries, and his experience in business
and traffic, much better qualified to produce a work which displays so
much practical knowledge of things, as well as of man. Indeed,
nothing short of the most conclusive and undeniable testimony of
facts to the contrary can at all invalidate the claims to be considered
as the real author. Had Robinson Crusoe been the only production
of the kind that proceeded from his pen, there might be better reason
for doubting whether he wrote it; but the various other novels, or
rather pieces of fictitious biography, which he produced form an ad-
ditional reason for attributing it to him.
Of these latter we must here speak far more briefly than they de-
serve: the "History of Moll Flanders," which was published in
1721, is an admirably drawn picture of life, and contains an excellent
moral lesson, although many of the scenes it necessarily discloses are
coarse and revolting. The "Life of Colonel Jaque" contains almost
as much able delineation of real life ; and in that part of the narrative
which givvs account of the hero's residence in Virginia, Defoe hia


humanely advocated the cause of the negro slaves. His "Memoirs
of a Cavalier," which work is supposed to have been written about
the same time, is rather history attired in the form of an imaginary
piece of biography, than a romance. Indeed, all the details are so
circumstantial and accurate, that it has been mistaken for a genuine
narrative of the events of the civil wars in England and Germany;
and it was actually recommended as the very best account of them by
the great Lord Chatham, with whom it was a favorite book. In like
manner our author's "History of the Plague" imposed upon Dr
Mead, and since upon others, who have referred to it as an authentic
document, and a true recital of that great national calamity. Here
he is the rival of Thucydides and Boccacia; and depicts the horrors
of pestilence as vividly and as masterly as Poussin. It may, how-
ever, be imagined by some that this is rather suspicious praise, and
that the work of fiction which can pass as true history must be cold,
matter-of-fact, and tame- repulsive and dry. It is not, however, in
the formal gravity of style that these works resemble history; but
they imitate and reflect the features of the past in their most inter-
esting, if not their most engaging aspect.
Besides the preceding, and one or two other productions of a simi-
lr cast, Defoe produced that very excellent and popular work entitled
"Religious Courtship," which was first published in 1722, and after-
wards went through numerous editions. This and his "Family Instruc-
tor are replete with lessons of the soundest practical wisdom, and place
their author among the most extensively useful of our hEglish mor-
Here, however, we must terminate our sketch, having barely left
ourselves room to mention a few particulars relative to the close of
his life. Although the profits accruing from his publications had of
late been considerable, and he had been able to give a portion to his
daughter Sophia, who married Mr. Baker, the celebrated natural
philosopher, in 1729, yet lie was still doomed to contend with misfor-
tune. In addition to the affliction of bodily infirmity and severe pain,
lie again fell into great pecuniary difficulties, and was even arrested.
lie appears, however, to have recovered his liberty within a short
time; but the unnatural conduct of his son, who refused to give up the
property that had been intrusted to him, with a view of securing a
provision to his mother and two unmarried sisters, was a heavier blow
than any he had before experienced; and the mental anguish it occa-
sioned doubtless accelerated his death, which occurred on the 24th of
April, 1731. Since that period more than a century has elapsed; and
in that interval many names of considerable eminence in their day
have sunk into irretrievable oblivion; Defoe, also, has lost some por-
tion of the celebrity he enjoyed with his contemporaries: yet, after
deduction, enough remains to entitle him to a place among the wor-
thies of English literature, for should all his other productions be
forgotten, his Robinsoa Crusoe must remain inmperishable,

F .- W




I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of -
famiy, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, named Kreutznaer, who settled first at Hull.
He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and after whom I was so called,
that is to say, Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual cor-
ruption of words in England, we. are now called, nay, we call.
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel, to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed-
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What
became of my second brother, I never knew, any more than
my father and mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very aged, had given me
a competent share of learning, as far as house education and,
a country free school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but goine to sea;


and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propension of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. IIe
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was confined
by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this
subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wander-
ing inclination, I had for leaving his house, and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a prospect
of raising my fortune, by application and industry, with a life
of case and pleasure. IIe told me it was men of desperate
fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road ; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle
state, or what might be called the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in
the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed
to the miseries and hardships, the labor and sufferings, of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the
pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part of man-
kind: he told me, I might judge of the happiness of this
state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which
all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things,,and
wished they had been placed in the middle of two extremes,
between the mean and the great; that the wise man gave his
testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity, when he
Sprayed to have "neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part

ItofiNSON Ctjs6E. 281

of mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest dis-
asters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the
higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind,
as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagan-
cies, on the one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries, and
mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,bring distempers
upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all -
kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temper-
ance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable di-
versions, and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending
the middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out of it, ,
not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the head,
not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, -
or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feel-
ing that they are happy, and learning, by every day's experience,
to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was
under no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do-
well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station-
of life which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must
be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his- -
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would


be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at home, as he direct-
ed; so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as
to give me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all,
lie told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom
he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though, lie said, he would not cease to pray
for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take
this foolish step, God would not bless me; and I would have
leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neglected his counsel,
when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in the last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose, my father didlnot know it
to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his
face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother
who was killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure
to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved that he
broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full, he
could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home, according to my
father's desire. But, alas a few days wore it all off; and, in
short, to prevent any of my father's farther importunities in a
few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him. How-
ever, I did not act so hastily neither, as my first heat of reso-
lution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world that
I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go
through with it, and my father had better give me his consent,
than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen years
9ld, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to

26. I


an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, and I should certainly run away from my mas-
ter before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would
speak to my father to let me make but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a- double diligence, to recover the
time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me, she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such a subject; that he knew too well what was my inter-
est, to give his consent to anything so much to my hurt; and
that she wondered how I could think of any such thing, after
the discourse I had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions, as she knew my father had used to me; and that
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it:
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my
destruction; and I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards, that she reported all the discourse to him;
and that my father, after showing great concern at it, said to
her, with a sigh, "That boy might be happy, if he would
stay at-home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born : I can give no consent
to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose,
though in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively
determined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time, and one of my companions then going to London by
sea in his father's ship, and prompting me to go -with them


by the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it
should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word
of it; but left them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any considera-
tion of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God



ON the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's misfor-
tunes, I believe, began younger, or continued longer than
mine. The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber, than
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most fright-
ful manner; and as I had never been at sea before, I was most
inexpressible sick in body, and terrified in mind: I began
now seriously to reflect-upon what I had done, and how justly
I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father's house. All the good counsels of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not
yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the abandon-
ment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, whivh I
had never been upon before, went very high, though nothing
like what I have seen many times since; no,-nor what 1 saw.
a few days after; but, such as it was, enough to affect me,

then) who was but a young sailor, and had never known any
thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have'
swallowed us up, and at every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, into the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life this
voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again,
while I liv3d; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plainly the goodness of his observations about the middle sta-
tion of life; how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his'
days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or troubles
on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and indeed some time after; but the next-day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured
to it. However, I was very grave that day, being also a little
sea-sick still: but towards night the weather cleared up, the
wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-
ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that
was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolution should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and
said, Well, Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, how do you do
after it? I warrant you were frightened, wasn't you, last
night, when it blew but a cap-full of wind ?-A cap-full, do
you call it ? said I; 'twas a terrible storm.- A storm, you

AbiVwNtrtit Of

Sfool! replies he, do you call that a storm ? Why, it was noth-
ing at all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room, and we
think nothing of such a squall of wind as that: you are but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what charming weather
'tis now? To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made
drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned
all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea
was returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness
by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had made
in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection;
and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to return again
sometimes; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to
drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits -
for so I called them; and had in five or six days got as com-
plete a vict ry over conscience as any young sinner, that
resolved not to be troubled with it, could desire. But as I
was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
sueh cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely with-
out excuse: for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the
next was to be such a one as the worse and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy
of. The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ships


might wait for a wind for the River Thames. We had not,
however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our
ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest
and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon
the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our an-
chor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and
the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces of even the
seamen themselves. The master was vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship; but, as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several
times, Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shall
be all undone and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first
penitence, which I had so trampled upon, and hardened my-
self against; I thought that the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would have been nothing too, like the first:
but when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should all be lost, I was dreadfully frightened.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke
upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress around us; two ships,
that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the boar


being deeply laden; and our men cried out that a ship, which
rid about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more
ships being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast stand-
ing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring
in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close to
us, running away, with 'only their spritsails out, before the
wind. Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast, which
he was very loath to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a
fright before at but a little. But if I can express, at this dis-
tance, the thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in
tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former con-
victions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions
I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it; but the worst
was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
swallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by founder, till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and ex-
pecting every moment the ship would go to the bottom. In
the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-
rsses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,



- `


cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
pump. At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within
me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I
stt in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told-me
that I, who was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another: at which I stirred up and went to the pump,
and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master'
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I,
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I
thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had hap-
pened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own life
to think of, no one minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and thrust me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was
a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard that the boat came near us, but it was impossi-
ble for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after great labor and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, ant got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,
to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to le4 her
drive, and only to pull her towards shore as much as we could;



and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so partly
rowing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the north-
ward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winterton-
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the
sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when
the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that moment,
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to
go in. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand, to assist us
when we should come near; but we made slow way towards
the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the
lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot
to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry
us either to London or back to Hull, as we saw fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy: and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me: for, hearing the ship I went in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any as.
surance that I was not drowned.



But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that noth-
ing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls
from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. -I know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling decree, that
hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoid-
able misery attending, and which it was impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm rea-
sonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I: the
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters; I say, the first time. he saw me, it
appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did; telling his
father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for
a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father, turr:ng to
me, with a grave and concerned tone, Young man, says he,
you had never ought to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token, that you are not to be a sea-
faring man. Why, sir ? said I; will you go to sea no more ?
That is another case, said he; it is my calling, and there-
fore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to ex-
pect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of the Tarshish. Pray, con-
tinues he, what are you, and on what account did you go to
sea ? Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion. What had
I done, said he, that such an unhappy wretch should have


come into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds. This indeed was, as
I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by
the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely
to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand
of Heaven against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon
it, if you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you.
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more: which way he went, I know not: as for
me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it
immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among
the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father
and mother only, but even every body else. From whence I
have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the
common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they
are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not
ashamed of the action, for which they ought justly to be es-
teemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which only
can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained-some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I
stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my
desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid
aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage. That

- .-^ - .** ^ . ,r '~, l *?-" '. ty .^ ,.S TTi. .... .



evil influence which carried me first away from my father's '- -a
house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forci-
bly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to
the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I say,
the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly
call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at that time, I
had learned the duty and office of a foremastman, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not a
master: but as it was always my fate to choose for the worse,
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good
clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall
into pretty good company in London; which does not always
happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some snare for
them very early. But it was not so with me: I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship, who had been on the coast
of Guinea, and who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me
say I had a mind to see the world, told me, that if I would go
the voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his
messmate and his companion; and if I could carry anything
with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the trade
would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some encour-,
agement. I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small


adventure with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of
my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I
carried about forty pounds of such toys and trifles as the cap-
tain directed me to buy. This forty pounds I had mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom I
corresponded with : and who, I believe, got my father, or, at
least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first
adventure. This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integ-
rity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom I
also got a competent knowledge of mathematics and the rules
of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; "for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and,
in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly, that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen de-
grees north, even to the Line itself.




I WAS now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my
great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same vessel
with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
got the command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage
that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite a hun-
dred pounds of my new-gained wealth, so that I had two hun-
dred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage: and the first was this, viz. our ship, making
her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the gray of
the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to
us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as
much canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight,
our ship having twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to,
by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear
on that side, and poured in a broad side upon him, which made
him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in
also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men
keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon
our quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi-

/---* /i
*:**-.* <. -*:---;..^^**^*i^''^Jl2;i


ately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such
like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we
were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallce,
a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I ap-
prehended: nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the cap-
tain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now looked back upon
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miser-
able, and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now
so effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that
now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was un-
done, without redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he
went to sea again, believing that it would, some time or other,
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war,
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of
mine was soon taken away, for when he went to sea, he left
me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the com-
mon drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin,
to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that


QoE. I

would embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irish.
man, or Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home longer
than usual, without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he used constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnacle, and go out into the road a fishing; and as he al-
ways took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat,
we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as
they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we
knew not whither, or which way, we labored all day, and all
the next night, and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that
we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morn-
ing; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the longboat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and
some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who
was an English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in
the middle of the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it, to steer and haul home the main sheet, and




ii L- li~


room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails.
She sailed with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and
particularly his bread, rice and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of
some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided
extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, over-
night, a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had or-
dered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out, and or-
dered me with a man and boy, as usual, to go out with the
boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup
at his house; and commanded, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship
at my command; and my master being gone, I prepared to
furnish myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was
my way.
SMy first contrivance was to make a pretense to speak to

~ .,-- -- m '* ;


this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread:
he said that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or
biscuit, of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which
it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I
conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which
weighed about half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of_
great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also: his name was Ishmael, whom they call Muley, or
Moley: so I called to him; Moley, said I, our patron's guns
are on board the boat, can you get a little powder and shot ?-
it may be we may kill some alcamies (fowls like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the
ship. Yes, says he, I will bring some; and accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and
a half of powder, or rather more, and another of shot, that
had five -or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the
boat: at the same time I found some powder of my master's
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles
in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the en-
trance of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of
as; and we were not above a mile out of the port, before we
hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for had it
blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached the bay of Cadiz: but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the
horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.


After we had fished some time and watched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.
He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat near
a league farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor
was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm under his waist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with
me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon
which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
ing-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done
him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would do him none:
But, said I, you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the
sea is calmn; make the best of your way to shore, and I will
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I will shoot
you through the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty.
So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore; and I
make no doubt but he reached it with case, for he was an ex-
cellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faith-
ful to me I will make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard), I must throw you into the sea too.
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I


stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to
windward, that they might think me gone towards the Strait's
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
Shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the
shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth
quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could
not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee,
quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
SI would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the
Swind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days;
-a and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
That if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
: would now give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not
what or where, neither what latitude, what country, what na-
- tion, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any
People; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country : but as so-n
as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
: barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear,
S-d begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,


said I, then I will not; but it may be, we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then we may
give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make them
run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night. I
say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures swimming towards our boat: we could not
see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a mon-
strous, huge, and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be so, for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury; we
can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they
cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said so, but I perceived
the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
But it was impossible to describe the horrible noises, and
hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the
edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me there was no going on
shore for us in the night upon that coast: and how to venture
on shore in the day, was another question too for to haye

* /*

-MioilratiN dattsok. 4. 46 )

fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least,
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for'we had not a pint left in the boat;
when and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I
would let him go on shoe with one of the jars, he would find
if there was any water, and bring some to me. I asked him
why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in the
boat. The boy answered with so much affection, that he
made me love him ever after. Says he, if wild mans come,
they eat me, you go away. -Well, Zury, said I, we will both
go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us. So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I
mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as near the shore
as we thought proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing
but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
and, by and by, I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frightened by some
wild beast, and I therefore ran forward to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare
but different in color, and longer legs: however, we were very
glad of it, and it was very good meat: but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted
on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our way,


having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part
of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de
Verd Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had
no instruments to take an observation, to find what latitude we
were in; and did not exactly know, or at least remember,
what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for them,
or when to standoff to sea towards them, otherwise I might
now have easily found some of these islands. But my hope
was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels
upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take
us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was,
must be that country which, lying between the Emperor of
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned
it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the
Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness; and, indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigi-
ous numbers of tigers, lions, leopards and other furious crea-
tures which harbor there: so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three thou-
sand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the
Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of
reaching thither; but having tried'twice, I was forced in again
by contrary winds; the sea also going too high for my little
'essel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.

OBtisol Cktfs7 4?

Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after
we had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in
the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me,
that we had best go further off the shore; for, says he, Look,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast
asleep. I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful mon-
ster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung,
as it were, over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and
kill him. Xury looked frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth: one mouthful he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still; and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets: and a third, for
we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him in
the head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone: he started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again and then got up on three legs, and gave
the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little sur-
prised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move
off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure
to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him
go on shore. Well, go, said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with
the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.


This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I
was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury
said he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet: for what, Xury? said I.
Me cut off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, how-
ever, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other,
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him: but Xury
was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to
do it. Indeed, it took us both up the whole day; but at last
we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it
afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually,
for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal: that is to
say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands or
perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Bra-
zil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands:
and in a word I put the whole of my fortune upon this single
point, either that I must meet with some ship, 8r must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us: we could also perceive
they were quite black and stark naked. I was once inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but as Xury was my better


counselor, and said to 'me, No go, no go. However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found
they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a
distance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and
particularly made signs for something to eat. They beckoned
to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat:
upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country; and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, such as the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we
were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very
instant to oblige them wonderfully : for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the
other (as we took it) with great fury, from the mountains to-
wards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female,
or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange;
but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frightened,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or dart,'
did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer
to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into


the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diver-
sion; at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than
I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly in the head : immediately he sunk
down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and
down, as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was:
he immediately made to the shore; but between the wound
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water,
he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk
in the water, and that I made signs to them to come to the
shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on
shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted,
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed
him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thank-
ful for. Immediately they fell to work with him: and though
they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they
took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the

6i'fhsok catsoi. "

fesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but
made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upwards, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea,
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to sea-
ward : then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking
it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their'reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound for the coast of Guinea, for

* :--. -'. '.'.-, . .. .* -._ ... ~ .' i .r fJ i \'


Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I wa
soon convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them,
if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone by be-
fore I could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded
to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me,
by the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost: so they shortened sail, to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's
ensign on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told
me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun.
Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them ; but, at last,
a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee : they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable, and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I
imnuediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return to my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would
take nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For, says he, I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be
taken up in the same condition. Besides, said he, when I


carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own coun-
try, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I had given.
No, no, Senhor Ingles (Mr. Englishman), says he, I will carry
you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again.



As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle : for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything I had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw,
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it? I told him, he had been
so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make
any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him : upon which,
he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He of-
fered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let
the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring
my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would


give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he
turned Christian; upon this, and Xury saying he was willing
to go with him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pas-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused every-
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bces-
wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to
the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house).
I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar;
and seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them: endeavoring in the meadi-
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because h i


plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years.,
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come in
order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting
canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and now
I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with
my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on : I had got
into an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly
contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done :
and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
tlfen this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands : and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself. But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life


-which I then led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich!
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the
ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained
there, in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage,
near three months; when telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sin-
cere advice; Senhor Inglez, says he (for so he always called
me), if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I
shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my re-
turn : but since human affairs are all subject to changes and
disasters, I would have you give orders for but one hundred
pounds sterling, which you say, is half your stock, and let the
hazard be run for the first, so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may have
the other half to have recourse to for your supply. This was so
wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accord-
ingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I left
my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with
the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior,
and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary di-
rections for my supply; and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectu-
ally to her: whereupon she not only delivered the money, but,


South of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
Landsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me at the Brazils : among which, without my direction (for I
was too young in my business to think of them), he had taken
care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, neces-
sary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not ac-
Scept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce. Neither
wads this all: but my goods being all English manufactures,
Such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable
and desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a
S very great advantage; so that I might say, I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my
-plantation: for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro
slave, and a European servant also: I mean another besides
that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
SBut as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
With great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbors : and these fifty rolls, be-
ing each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured,
and laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon : and
now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to
be full of projects and undertakings 'beyond my reach; such


as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my
father so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which
he had so sensibly described the middle station of life to
be full of: but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the willful agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to
increase my fault, and double the reflections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make all
these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and
pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views
of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those pros-
pects, and those measures of life, which nature and Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human mis-
ery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story. You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and friend-
ship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
of St. Salvador, which was our port: and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an account
of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of
trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to pur-
chase on the coast for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold

,--*--;.;.- --t-' ---.--J-- --;- ,,g^g ,,. -,i la gi j g


dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the'
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses-on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Por-
tugal, and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me: and, after enjoining me to se-
crecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that it was a.
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired
to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore pri-
vately, and divide them among their own plantations; and, in
a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo
in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of
Guinea; and they offered me that I should have an equal share
of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for
me, that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to
do but go on as I begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could scarce-
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-

- V,''


ling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voy-
age, was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such
circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling
designs, when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In
a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they
would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,
and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I mis-
carried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
or covenants to do so: and I made a formal will, disposing of
my plantation and effects, in case of my death; making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my uni-
versal heir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England. In short, I took all
possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my
plantation : had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving
all the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone
a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes
to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship,
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done:
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, be-
ing the same day eight years that I went from my parents at
Hull, in order to act the rebel to. their authority, and the fool
to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his

.. ... ,.. .. : . .


.boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,; "
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Ne-
groes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little, looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and
the like.
The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design to
stretch over for the African coast. When they came about
ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems,
was the manner of their course in those days, we had very
good weather, only excessively hot all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha,
holding our coast N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the Line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twen-
ty-two-minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began from
the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in
the north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but drive,
and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whithersoever fite
and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be swal-
lowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm,
one of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy,
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abat-
ing a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude,
but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference,
west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was got
upon the cost of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond


the river Amazons, toward that of the river Oronoco, cor
only called the Great River; and began to consult with
me what course he should take, for the ship was leaky and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Carribee islands, and'therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to
avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa
without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise deter-
mined; for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen
minutes a second storm came upon us, which carried us away
with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of
the very way of all human commerce, that had all our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of
our men early in the morning, cried out, Land and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea
broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were immediately
driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam
and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like
condition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon

- 7:z4~~a~~ti&?W.+Ct-

, r.

what land it was we were driven, whether an island of th .
main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage
of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind
of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every mo-
ment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for an
other world; for there was little or nothing more for us to do
in this: that which was our present comfort, and all the com-
fort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the ship
did not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of sav-
ing our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern
just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her : we had another boat on board, but 1ow to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break-
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually-
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her
flung over the ship's side; and getting all into her, we let her
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's
mercy, and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated
considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore,
and might be well called den will ee, as the Dutch call the
sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw

- '. .' C. .,' "^

OBINS.ON CRUsoE. 68 'i




plaihly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making
sail, we had none; nor, if we, had, could we have done any-
thing with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for
we all knew that when the boat came nearer to the shore, she
would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we has-
tened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as
we could towards land.
What the shore was -whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
nothing of this appeared;, and as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and
a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de
grace. In a word, It took us with such fury, that it overset
the boat at once; and separating us, as well from the boat as
from one another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God!"
* for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt, when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
%. 11, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to
;draw my breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence
of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeav-


PaIe 64.

-, ~t~'a ij






ored to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come
after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my busi-
ness was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing,
and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my greatest
concern now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great
way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it-when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel
myself carried with mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore, a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and be-
gan to return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a
few moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me;
for the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me,
or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, that it left nWe senseless, and indeed helpless, as to



my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water : but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and, seeing I should again be covered with the water, I re-
solved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my
'breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so : il.v me up as to carry me
away; and the next run I took, I got to the main land; where
to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite
out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there were, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope.
I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecsta-
cies and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I
may say, out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the
custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about
his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has
a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they
bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment
they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal
spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.

For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation
of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but
myself; for, as for them, I never sawothem afterwards, or any

Th ,v *a '. -. -

BOBINSON- UsoB. 67 1 ;.

sign of them, except three of their hats, one'cap and two shi'. '
that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off- and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore? -
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind of
a place I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dread-
ful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger,
or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was partic-
ularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance or to defend my-
self against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a to-
bacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming
upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night-
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the_
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I
did, to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little to-
bacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I
should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheons for my defense, I took up my lodging -


and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition; and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.



WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save
some necessary things for my use.
Whcn I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again, and the first thing I found was the
boat; which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked
as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but found
a neck, or inlet of water, between me and the boat, which was
about half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, be-
ing more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to
find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
9bbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile

fottbsitr (iAtsot. 409

of the ship: and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, ahd I
had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in this, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water: but
when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I spied
a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great diffi-
culty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that
her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, al-
most to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
Smy first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and
what was free; and, first, I found that all the ship's provision,
were dry and untouched by the water : and, being very well
disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pock-
ets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I
wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had several
spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare
topmast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with

r "- *1' "

o0 ADVETi kkRS OPi

these, and flung as many overboard as I could manage lot
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down to the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and
laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was
not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; .
so I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare
topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing
myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go beyond what I
should have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered well
what I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which
I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived *
much upon), and a little remainder, of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some bar-
ley and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I
found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chests, nor any room
for them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to
flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to see my
coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,

tiftfmsNdSORM tsOE. 4i*-

and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings;
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which "
I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present c-
use, for I had other things which my eye was more upon: as,
first, tools to work with on shore: and it was after long search-
ing that I found the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very
useful prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-lading
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my
raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there-
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think-how
I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all
my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, What
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two" :
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea.
For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to -
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little-

- '- ~- '


opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily would
have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back
against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir
from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a
level; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the chan-
nel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself in
the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides, and a
strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to see some
ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my
oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have
dipped all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying
pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so
high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endan-
ger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait till the
tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and


ROBnSibO oMtsOE. 78.

bo it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and
one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay till
the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and-which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols,
and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I traveled for discov-
ery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with great
labor and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, viz., that I was in an island, environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which
lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe,-uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun
that had been fired there since the creation of the world : I had
no sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the





creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colot
and beak resembling it, but it had no tallons or claws more
than common. Its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me
up the rest of the day: what to do with myself at night I
knew not, nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie
down on the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me; though, as I afterwards found, there was really no
need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I barrica-
doed myself round with chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging.
As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of
the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet gdt a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and I resolved to make another voy-
age on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart, till I got everything
out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council,
that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I
stripped before I went to my hut; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away
several things very useful to me: as, first, in the carpenter's
stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great
screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that

ktoSWaos darttsM -

most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured 1
together, with several things belonging to the gunner;, partic-
ularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bul-
lets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small
quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these
things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a
spare fore-topsail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on
shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence -
from the land, my provisions might be devoured on shore : but
when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there
sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which-,
when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not un-
derstand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as pleased)
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore- though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large casks--I went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I brought everything
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or

't.. ~.lhP~~ls

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent
with some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end
without; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, lay-
ing my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by
me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all
night, for I was very weary and heavy; for the night before
I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well
to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still;
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I
ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, andbrought away something
or other: but particularly the third time I went, I brought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small '
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first
and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
though I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel
by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces

o0B!NSoN RuBoR. 77 -

such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser onshore, ..
with all the iron work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, npt being able to guide it so handily as I did the other'-
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as
for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore;
but as to my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially
the iron, which I expected would have been of great use
to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most of the
pieces of cable ashore, aed some of the iron, though with in-
finite labor; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day
on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece, but
preparing, the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise: however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually
as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of
eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; 0 drug r I
exclaimed, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to
me, no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is .
worth all this heap : I have no manner of use for thee; e'ea

78 AbvENTUEs or

remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving. However, upon second
thoughts, 1 took it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide or flood be-
gan, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of
the things I had about me, and patly the roughness of the
water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with
all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all
that night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no
more ship was to be seen I was a little surprised, but recov-
ered myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had
lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of
her, that would be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was
little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had more
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck; as indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island: and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make, whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a
tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved on both; the

-' '

manner and description of which, it may not be improper to-
give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I
resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now
mentioned: secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which
I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come
down upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into
the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diame-
ter from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its
beginning and ending.
In this hbf-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,


driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
piles, the biggest end being out of the ground, about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two tows did not
stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and lab6r, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door,
but by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely
fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and
consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could-
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution against the enemies that I appre-
hended danger from.



INTO this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are

ii :



very violent there, I made double, viz., one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with :
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the-bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods; I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down -
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labor and many days before all these things were brought
to perfection; and therefore I must' go back to some other
things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting
up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling
from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning hap-
pened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind as
swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder My very heart
sank within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my pow-
der might be destroyed; on which, not my defense only, but
the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was
nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though, had
the powder taken fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to-


separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a
parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not
be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all
was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided
into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that;
so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called
my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in holes among
the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very care-
fully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
-me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it
was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them: but
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now
and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them; I
observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they were
upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright,
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were above
them : so afterwards, I took this method -I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a
fair mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I
killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell,



the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up;
and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure;
upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my
arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and
eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I eat sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread
especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn,
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its
proper place : but I must first give some little account of my-
;elf, and of my thoughts about living, which it may well be
supposed, were not few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voy-
age; and a great way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of
the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great'rea.
son to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my
life. The tears would run plentifully down my face when I
made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable; so aban-
doned without help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day
walking with my gun in my hand, by the seaside, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son, as it were, expostulated with me the other way, thus:
Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray


remember, where are the rest of you ? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why
were they not saved, and you lost? Why were you singled
out ? Is it better to be here or there? And then I pointed
to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that
is in them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it
had not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one)
that the ship floated from the place where she first struck, and
was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply
and procure them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to my-
self), what should I have done without a gun, without ammu-
nition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was in
a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live without
my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long as I
lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would pro-
vide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that
was to come, not only after my ammunition should be spent,
but even after my health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammu-
nition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It was, by my acountt, the 30th of September,



when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island; when the sun being to us in its autumnal equi-
nox, was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by
observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two
minutes north of the Line.



AFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sab-
bath days from the working days: but to prevent this I cut it
with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and mak-
ing it into a great cross, I set it.up on the shore where I first
landed, viz., I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
1659." Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long
again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or
weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages, which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I found, some
time after, in rummaging the chests: as, in particular, pens,
ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gun-
ner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses, some
mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation; all of which I huddled -together, whethe J


- ~m~-b~

85 ',


might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I
had packed up among my things; some Portuguese books also,
and, among them, two or three popish prayer-books, and sev-
eral other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats,
of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing, in its place : for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam
on shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first
cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many years: I
wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to
me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost;
and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very
exact, but after that was gone, I could not; for I could not
make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving
it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one c the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it answer, made driv-
ing these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any-


thing I hadtodo; seeing ad time enough to do it in nor ,
had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek
for food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that-
were to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
as to deliver my thoughts from daily pouring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a
solitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defense, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

But I am alive; and not drown-
ed, as all my ship's company were.

But I am singled out too from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and per-
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
If I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af-
rica: and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there 2


I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully Eent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shcre,
that I have got out so many neces-
sary things, as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an unbounded testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condi-
tion, and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a
ship; I say, given over these things, I began to apply myself
to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy
to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick
on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a year ind
a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and
thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all
my place; I had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was
loose sandy rock which yielded easily to the labor I bestowed

rOBINsoN ClusoE. 89 :

on it: and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of
prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and
then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made -
me'a door to come out in the outside of my pale or fortifi-
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back
way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make'such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chairand a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few com-
forts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do sev-
eral things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I went-
to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is
the substance and original of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, mas-
ter of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance, I
found at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made,
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if I
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method, 1
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or
board: but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces


of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of
the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron fork
on; and in a word, to separate everything at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces
into the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up : so that had my cave been seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had every-
thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my
stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only as to labor, but in much discomposure of
.mind; and my journal would, too, have been full of many
dull things: for example, I must have said thus-" Sept.
30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drowning,
instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with a great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and
face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone,
undone till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose; but durst not sleep, for fear of being de-
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy that, at a vast dis-
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my folly.
nut, having gotten over these things in some measure, and

aeBIN~s ON asoE. 91

having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome stuff about me as I
could, I began to keep my journal: of which I'ehall here give
you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars
over again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.




SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the
ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to : and in de-
spair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me : that I
should either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by sav-
ages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach
of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept
soundly, though it rained all night.
OCTOBER 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island; which, as it was some
Womfort on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken


ib pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief),
so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might
have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were : and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon
.the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days en-
tirely spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of
the ship; which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon
rafts. Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
OUT. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
OCT. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the
wind blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to
be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water.
I spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I
had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
OcT. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification,
made of double piles lined within with cables, and without
with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying

koitsot tsi. ts

all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country
when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which
I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
NOVEMBER 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night; making it as large as I could, with
stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a
fence round me, a little within the place I had marked out for
my fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls
like ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I
went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz., every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to
work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live on;
and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next was wholly employed in
making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman:
though time and necessity made me a complete natural me-
chanic soon after, as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand: but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which
while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were)
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

A)VkEMit s 01

Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with
my table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor
was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday, according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make
me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it
to pieces several times.
NOTE. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for,
omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me ex-
ceedingly, cooled the earth : but it was accompanied with ter-
rible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as pos-
sible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound,
or two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one an-
other as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large
bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into
the rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy: but the next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectu-
ally without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found

kflbtexo o0ttso. i

s free of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
tre iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine: for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in Eng
land, only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long: however, it served well
enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so
long in making.
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware;
at least, none yet found out: and as to the wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to get about it: besides, I
had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and, for carrying
away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing
like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in for the brick-
layers. This was not so difficult for me as the making the
shovel: and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than
four days: I mean, always excepting my morning walk with
my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also
bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and. deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time, I worked to make this room

ADVEk!tfi O*

or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse,
or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept the tent: except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, and in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.
DECEMBER 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side;
so much, that in short, it frightened me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I should never have wanted
a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up,
so that I might be sure no more would come down.
DEC. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly;
and got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with
two pieces of board across over each post: this I finished
the next day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about
a week more I had the roof secured; and the posts standing
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
DEC. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order within
DEC. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I made me another table.
DEC. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
DEc. 25. Rain all day.
DEC. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than Ibo
fore, and pleasanter.


DEc. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so
that I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it
home, I bound, and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg
grew well, and as strong as ever : but, by nursing it so long,
it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
DEC. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze : so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food;
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within
JANUARY 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day.
This evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards
the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats,
though exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, I re-
solved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced
about upon the dog: and he knew his danger too well, for he
would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing and perfecting this wall; though it
was no more than about twenty-five yards in length, being a
half circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the center,
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me


many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought t
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor everything
was done with, especially the bringing of piles out of the
woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them
much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not per-
ceive anything like a habitation: and it was very well I did
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my ad-
vantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who
build, not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pig-
eons, in the holes of the rocks : and, taking some young ones,
I endeavored to breed them up tame, and did so; but when
they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps, was, at
first, for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the manag-
ing my household affairs, I found myself wanting in many
things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to
make; as indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet
or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks
about it: I could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave
that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for a
candle; so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remember the
lump of beeswax with which I made candles in my African

F!*" 4 -

kI~Dxft`aoN dRtfsttP.

* *J

fiventure; but I had none of that now: the only remedy I
had was, that when I killed a goat, I saved the tallow; and
with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to
which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labors it happened, that in
rummaging my things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted
before, had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry;
not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship
came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been
in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in
the bag but husks and dust: and being willing to have the
bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortifica-
tion, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown anything
there: when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our Eng-
lish barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts-on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
things that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God : without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, a -

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