Citation
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner

Material Information

Title:
The life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Series Title:
life and strange surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Creator:
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Macquoid, Thomas Robert, 1820-1912
Justyne, Percy William, 1812-1883 ( Illustrator )
Leitch, R. P ( Richard Pettigrew ) ( Illustrator )
Thomas, George Houseman, 1824-1868 ( Illustrator )
Bolton, Thomas, fl. 1851-1893 ( Engraver )
Cooper, J ( Engraver )
Linton, W. J ( William James ), 1812-1897 ( Engraver )
Marriott, R. S ( Engraver )
Morgan ( Engraver )
Pearson ( Engraver )
Thomas, William Luson, 1830-1900 ( Engraver )
Wentworth, Frederick ( Engraver )
Cowper, William, 1731-1800
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Cassell, Petter & Galpin ( Publisher )
Butterworth and Heath ( Engraver )
Place of Publication:
London
Paris
New York
Publisher:
Cassell, Petter & Galpin
Publication Date:
Language:
English
Physical Description:
xiii, 1, 394, 4 p. : ill. ; 27 cm.

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1874 ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1874 ( rbgenr )
Genre:
fiction ( marcgt )
Children's literature ( fast )
Imaginary voyages ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements ( rbgenr )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
France -- Paris
United States -- New York -- New York
Target Audience:
juvenile ( marctarget )

Notes

General Note:
Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe; half title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Date based on imprint information. Cassell Petter & Galpin opened a Paris office in 1871 and the above form of publisher's name was used from 1858 to 1878. Cf. Brit. literary pub. houses, 1820-1880.
General Note:
Some ill. drawn by P. Justyne, R.P. Leitch, T. Macquoid, AP, and GHT George Houseman Thomas; some engraved by T. Bolton, Butterworth & Heath, T. Cobb, J. Cooper, W.J. Linton, R.S. Marriott, Morgan, Pearson, W.L. Thomas, and F. Wentworth.
General Note:
Cowper's verse, p. xiii-xiv.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end.
General Note:
Half title p. and front. included in pre-paging.
General Note:
All pages (1-394) in decorative borders.
General Note:
Parts I and II Robinson Crusoe. Pt. II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility:
as related by himself, by Daniel Defoe ; with upwards of one hundred illustrations.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
This item is presumed to be in the public domain. The University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries respect the intellectual property rights of others and do not claim any copyright interest in this item. Users of this work have responsibility for determining copyright status prior to reusing, publishing or reproducing this item for purposes other than what is allowed by fair use or other copyright exemptions. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions may require permission of the copyright holder. The Smathers Libraries would like to learn more about this item and invite individuals or organizations to contact The Department of Special and Area Studies Collections (special@uflib.ufl.edu) with any additional information they can provide.
Resource Identifier:
28050571 ( oclc )

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Full Text
4



THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

&.







DEFOE

DANIEL





|
|
1









Poe aie

AND

STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Of York, Mariner.

AS RELATED BY HIMSELF.

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

With upwards of One Hundred Illustrations.

CASSELL PETTER & GALPIN:

LONDON, PARIS & NEW YORK.

















LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

—=>>«0<0
CRUSOE ON THE IsLAND ... en x6 nen ee see oes
CrUsoE ADVISED BY HIs FaTHER ... s oo or ea .
Tue Surpwreck IN YarmourH Roaps... ose eee oe oe

Tue ATTack BY THE SALLEE RovER
CrusoE A SLAVE ... Ea

CRUSOE ESCAPES WITH XURY pee
CrusoE PICKED UP BY THE PorTucuEse SHIP
CRUSOE AND THE PLANTERS ...

Tue SHIPWRECK ... oe

Crusoe Loapine HIS Raft ... 5 Soe a
CRUSOE MAKES A LITTLE TENT WITH A SaIL ...
Crusoz writine His JOURNAL ue
Crusor Discovers Goats on THE IsLAND

Crusoe DISCOVERS THE Barter

Tae Wreck a

Crusoe FINDS A TURTLE

CRUSOE ILL READING THE BIBLE

CRUSOE MAKING BasKETS

CrusoE IN HIS Bower ... ae ss

Crusor LEADING THE Youne Kn ...

CRUSOE sowING CoRN Bee ae

CRUSOE TEACHES HIS PARROT TO TALK

CRUSOE MAKES A Boat ...

CRUSOE MAKING A CoaT

CRUSOE SAILS OUT OF HIs CREEK

Crusor at DINNER oe ao ao
Crusor sEES A Foor-PrintT IN THE SAND

CRUSOE MILKING Goats oe a nee
Crusor FENCES A Pappock ror HIs Goats...
Crusoz on THE Look-our on THE Hu ...
Crusoe Fivps A Dyine Goat

CRusoE 1N HIs Fort... , BAS
CrvsoE visits THE SPANISH SHIP
CRUSOE SLEEPING IN HIS Boat

CrusoE AND Frmay oo
Fray Boryine THE Deap ...

Crusor anp Fripay ovr SHoorine
Crusog INSTRUCTING FRAY _

Crusoz AND Frmay oN THE Hitt
Crusoe aND FRipay FELLING Woop
CRUSOE RESCUES THE SPANIARD ae
CRUSOE CONFERRING WITH THE SPANIARD
CrUsoE sEES AN EncuisH SHIP ... ap Es
Crusoz Discovers Himsexr To THE ENGLISH CAPTAIN ...
Tue Morineers ... Be ae

Tae MuriNgers OVERPOWERED

DEATH OF THE REBEL Capraln ... : on eee
Tse CapraIN HUNG AT THE YaRD-ARM Eee
Crusoe arrives aT Lisson es aaa



137
141
145
149
153
157
16L
165
169
173
177
181
185
189









peer Mt a ue ekg i



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



CrusoE’s TROOP ON THE MARCH... oe aoe oo 2

Fariay AND THE BER ... aaa eee oo cn aaa oot eee e
THe WOLVES DRIVEN OFF ... aoe ae pee eee oes eos

CrusoOE Marriep ... oe ase oe pee ox on ct ese ase
Crusor’s Farm aT BEDFORD... a as Bs pes aa eee ees ‘
Tue French Suip on Fire... Pe oe eee ose .

Tue REscuED CREW ON DECK OF Crvsor’s Su ..
DismasTED VESSEL AT SEA

Frmay aND HIS FATHER

OrvusoE WELCOMED BY THE SraxuazD

Tse Pirate Firinc THE Hut

Tue VaGRANTS IN THE Woops ...

SPANIARD PROTECTING THE SavaGe...

THE PriraTES LEAVING THE IsLAND

SpanisH VILLAGE

SEIZURE OF SLEEPING SAVAGES .. 5

THe ENGLISHMEN BIND THE Savage TOA TREE Bes
A Barrie .. ee

Wit ATEING TENT . z
CRUSOE AND THE SPANIARD OONVERSING TOGETHER
Crusoz’s FarewEtL ADVICE...

Group or Hours unDER THE HILL

CRUSOE OONVERSING WITH THE PRIEST

CRUSOE AND THE PRIEST... as ees oo = os aoe
Wu ATKINS AND HIS WIFE... ae eae aa cae ee cee
Wu Artsins, Crusoz, AND PRIEsT

Priest anp Necro Woman ...

Crusor GIVEs ATKINS A BIBLE...

FaREWELL TO THE ISLAND

Freer oF CaNoes...

Tue Bortat or Fray

Tue Care or Goop Hore Pe aaa Fs soe
CRUSOE ARRIVES AT MapaGascaR ... a ant eee ane one
Burying THE VILLAGE

Tae Mommy ... 2 =
SaILING THROUGH THE corer OF pinaeccall
Cuasep By Boats

Stoprinc Leaks IN THE Su

TARRING THE BLAcKs .. oe

CRUSOE ENTERING A Cuixese Port Ee
CrusoE INTRODUCED TO A CHINESE MERCHANT
Tue City oF NaNkIN

Crusoe visits Prniy ... a

Tae Great Watt or Curva

Tue TartaR ARMY ae

FLIGHT OF THE TarrTars...

CRUSOE AND THE Tartar Ipo1

Crusoz anp Party In Tartary

CRUSOE CROSSES THE DESERT IN arene
CRUSOE ARRIVES AT TOBOLSK

Crusoe axD THE Russian Exe

SHIP LEAVING ARCHANGEL

= ‘ a
URE Me <= -

viii

PAGE

193
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293
297
301
308
309
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316
317
321
328
333
336
341
344
348
352
353
360
364
365
369
376
377
380
385
388
393



INTRODUCTION.

aa tng ae

FOE published “ Robinson Crusoe” in 1719, under the
following quaint title: “The Life and Strange Surpris-
® ing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner :
~ who lived eight-and-twenty years all alone in an unin-
habited island on the coast of America, near the mouth

°
of the great River Oroonoque; having been cast on shore



{ Written by himself.”

j Like ‘Paradise Lost,” this romance, destined to so immediate and
lasting a popularity, is said to have been offered to ‘the whole circle
of the trade” before any publisher could be found willing to incur
the risk of producing it. William Taylor, cf the Ship, in Paternoster Row,
finally agreed to purchase it, for, it is believed, a very moderate sum of
money. He is said to have realised £1,000 profit. Its success was so great
that four editions were printed in as many months. It appeared, in the first
instance, with the following preface :—

If ever the story of any private man’s adventures in the world were worth making
public, and were acceptable when published, the Editor cf this account thinks this will
be so.

The wonders of this man’s lifo exceed all that (he thinks) is to be found extant; the
life of one man being scarce capable of a greater variety. ;

The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and with a religious application of
events to the uses to which wise men always apply them; viz., to the instruction of others,
by this example, and to justify and honour the wisdom of Providence in all the variety of
circumstances, let them happen how they will.

The Editor believes the thing to be a just history of fact; neither is there any
appearance of fiction in it: and however thinks, because all such things are disputed, that
the improvement of it, as well to the diversion as to the instruction of the reader, will be the
same; and as such, he thinks, without farther compliment to the world, he does them a
great service in the publication.

There is no truth in the story, so often repeated, that “ Robinson Crusoe”
was the first tale published ina serial form. That it did appear in a journal called ~

b ix







INTRODUCTION.

“The Original London Post, or Heathcote’s Intelligence,” is a fact beyond
dispute. We have, however, carefully compared the tale as it there appears with
the original edition. It is manifestly a pirated copy. Just so much of the work
is printed as contains the story, with all the reflections omitted.. Besides, the date
of publication is subsequent, by a few months, to the time when we know the
complete work appeared.

The great success of the first part induced De Foe to write a second, which
was published in August, 1719; Part I. having appeared in the previous April.
A map of the world accompanied it, to give a greater appearance of truth to the
tale, on which the travels of Crusoe were indicated, and its proper place assigned
to the island.

In the following preface to it the author lashes with deserved severity the

conduct of those who had published pirated and abridged editions of his work :—

The success the former part of this work has met with in the world has yet been no
other than is acknowledged to be due to the surprising variety of the subject, and to the
agreeable manner of the performance.

All the endeavours of enyious people to reproach it with being a romance, to search it
for errors in geography, inconsistency in the relation, and contradictions in the fact, have
proved abortive, and as impotent as malicious.

The just application of every incidext, the religious and useful inferences drawn from
every part, are so many testimonies to the good design of making it public, and must
legitimate all the part that may be called invention or parable in the story.

The second part, if the Editor’s opinion may pass, is (contrary to the usage of second
parts) every way as entertaining as the first; contains as strange and surprising incidents,
and as great a variety of them; nor is the application less serious or suitable; and doubtless
will, to the sober as well as ingenious reader, be every way as profitable and diverting; and
this makes the abridging this work as scandalous as it is knavish and ridiculous; seeing, to
shorten the book, that they may seem to reduce the value, they strip it of all those re-
flections, as well religious as moral, which are not only the greatest beauties of the work,
but are calculated for the infinite advantage of the reader.

By this, they leave the work naked of its brightest ornaments; and yet they would
(at the same time they pretend that the Author has supplied the story out of his in-
vention) take from it the improvement, which alone recommends that invention to wise and
good men.

The injury these men do to the proprietors of works is a practice all honest men
abhor; and they believe they may challenge them to show the difference between that and
robbing on the highway or breaking open a house.

If they can’t show any difference in the crime, they will find it hard to show why
there should be any difference in the punishment.

A few words on the source whence the author derived the idea of his romance
will be appropriate in this place. We can hardly doubt that De Foe conceived
the idea of “ Robinson Crusoe”’ from the story of Alexander Selkirk. This
man’s adventures had been made public, and excited considerable attention, seven

years before the publication of “ Robinson Crusoe.” Wilson, the biographer of
‘ x



INTRODUCTION.

De Foe, says, “His real name was Seleraig, which he changed to that of Selkirk,
when he went to sea. He was born at Largo, in the county of Fife, in 1676,
and, after a common school education, was put to his father’s business, which
was that of a shoemaker. Being a spoiled child, he soon discovered a way ward-
ness of temper that gave much uneasiness to his parents; whilst an early pro-
pensity to the sea rendered his employment irksome. At length an incident
occurred that put him upon indulging his humour ; for, being brought under
church-censure for irregular conduct when he was eighteen years of age, rather
than submit, he suddenly left home, and was never heard of for six years. It
is supposed that he was with the buccaneers in the South Seas. In 1701 we find
him again at Largo, but the same intractable person as ever, being engaged in
constant broils with his family. As the sea was his favourite element, he did not
continue long in Scotland, but, going to London, engaged with Captain Dampier
upon a cruising expedition to the South Seas. This was the voyage that: rendered
his subsequent history so interesting to the lovers of romance.

“Being appointed sailing-master of the Cinque Ports galley, a companion
to the St. George, commanded by Dampier, he left England in the spring of
1703, and, after various adventures, both vessels reached the island of Juan
Fernandez in the following February. After staying some time to re-fit, they
sailed again in quest of booty ; but’a violent quarrel arising between Selki rk and
his commander, Stradling, which settled into a rooted animosity, the former
resolved to take the first opportunity of leaving the vessel. This occurred at the
beginning of September, 1704, when her crazy state obliged Stradling to return
to Juan Fernandez for fresh repairs; which being completed, Selkirk bid a final
adieu to his comrades at the end of the same month. Upon this island he lived
by himself four years and four months, until he was released by Captain Woodes
Rogers, in the month of February, 1709. He was then engaged as a mate on
board of Rogers’ ship, the Duke, and accompanied him during the remainder of
the expedition, conducting himself much to the satisfaction of his employer. At
length, after a long and fatiguing cruise, Selkirk arrived in England, in the
month of October, 1711, with a booty of £800, after an absence of rather more
than eight years.” *

Like Crusoe, Selkirk could not settle to a quiet life on shore; his rest-
less nature drove him again to sea; and he is said to have died on board ship in
1723. On his first appearance in London he attracted a good deal of attention,
and Sir Richard Steele gave an account of his residence on the island, and his

* Wilson’s “ De Foe,” vol. iii., p. 448.
xt





INTRODUCTION.



feelings while there, in a paper published in a journal called “The English-
man.”

We do not attach the slightest importance to a story dictated by the male-
volence of De Foe’s political enemies, that Selkirk placed a manuscript, detailing
his adventures, in De Foe’s hands for publication; but that, instead of doing
justice to him, he applied the materials so obtained to his own use. The best
authorities have deliberately rejected this idle tale.

In so far as Selkirk passed a certain number of years on an uninhabited
island, he may be truly said to have furnished the idea of Crusoe; but if we are
compelled to admit that he is the central figure in the picture, the subordinate
figures, the grouping, and the scenery are altogether due to the genius of
De Foe. Herein he affords an exact parallel to Shakespeare, who derived the
plots of his immortal dramas, now from an Italian romance, now from passing
events,

Whatever may have been the origin of the tale, however virulent may have
been the attacks made against its author, as he himself says, by political enemies
and senseless critics, the judgment of the most enlightened men of all nations
has placed “¢ Robinson Crusoe” upon a height which no sounds of animosity can
now reach: What pleasure has this wonderful tale given, and still gives, to all
readers! Young and old, rich and poor, find in its pages an unfailing source of
pure delight.

It blends instruction with amusement in a way no other production of human
intellect has ever succeeded in doing. While depicting a solitary individual
struggling against misfortune, it indicates the justice and the mercy of Providence ;
and while inculeating the duty of self-help, asserts the complete dependence of
man upon a higher power for all he stands in need of.

If we consider novels in their relation to life, “ Robinson Crusoe ” must win
the prize for truthfulness and reality. How naturally the incidents occur i
There is no deference shown by the author to the exigencies of his story, nor
to dramatic effect. The characters appear as they do in real life—exercise some
influence for good or evil on the principal figure in the tale—and then disappear,
to be seen no more. Take, for instance, Xury. Would not a novelist of less
power have brought him forward, over and over again, after he had once introduced
him as the faithful friend of the hero? But De Foe saw fit to do otherwise.
Xury is brought upon the stage ; assists the escape of the chief personage in the
drama ; and is seen no more. Is not this the way of real life ?

Nor does the effect of reality stop here. So natural are all the characters,

XI



INTRODUCTION.





that we seem to know them personally—to be ourselves assisting at the scenes
recorded in it.

For these excellencies the learned and the good have uniformly persisted in
singling out “Robinson Crusoe” for special commendation. To mention only
two—Ronsseau held that it was the book a boy should read first and read longest.
Dr. Johnson remarked, ‘ Was there ever anything written hy mere man that was
wished longer by its readers, excepting ‘Don Quixote,’ ‘ Robinson Crusoe,’ and
the ‘ Pilgrim’s Progress ?’””

In conclusion, we present to our readers the touching lines in which Cowper

supposes Alexander Selkirk to record his feelings :—

I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute ;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
O Solitude! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face ?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms,
Than reign in this horrible place.

I am out of humanity’s reach,
I must finish my journey alone,

Never hear the sweet music of speech—
I start at the sound of my own.

The beasts, that roam over the plain,
My form with indifference see ;

They are so unacquainted with man,
Their tameness is shocking to me.

Society, friendship, and love,
Divinely bestow’d upon man,
Oh! had I the wings of a dove,
How soon would I taste you again!
My sorrows I then might assuage
In the ways of religion and truth,
Might learn from the wisdom of ago,
And be cheer’d by the sallies of youth.

Religion! what treasure untold
Resides in that heavenly word!
_More precious than silver and gold,
Or all that this earth can afford. ~
But the sound of the church-going bell
These valleys and rocks never heard,
Never sigh’d at the sound of a knell,
Or smiled when a Sabbath appear’d.

Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
Convey to this desolate shore
Some cordial, endearing report
Of a land I shall visit no more.
xiii





INTRODUCTION.

My friends, do they now and then send
A wish or a thought after me ?

Oh! tell me I yet have a friend,
Though a friend I am never to see.

How fleet is a glance of the mind!
Compared with the speed of its flight,
The tempest itself lags behind,
And the swift-wing’d arrows of light.
When I think of my own native land,
In a moment I seem to be there ;
But, alas! recollection at hand
Soon hurries me back to despair.

But the sea fowl is gone to her nest,
The beast is laid down in his lair ;
Even here is a season of rest,
And I to my cabin repuir.
There’s mercy in every place,
And mercy, encouraging thought!
Gives even affliction a grace,
And reconciles man to his lot.

















































































































































































































































































































































































































ORCS

S

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
Th York, of a good family, though not of
that country, my father being a foreigner,
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he
got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York ; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robin-
son, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutz-
naer ; but, by the usual corruption of words \(j
in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; ,
and so my companions always called me. oy
TS
,

















































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.





I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment
of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began
to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country
free-school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me. .

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject :
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving
my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road ;
that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, an
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all other people
envied ; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural
consequences of their way of living ; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune ; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle
station of life ; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and
comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the p.ssion of “y



£. O 4 ost




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= CRUSOE AT HOME. *





‘envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things ; but, in easy circum-
~ stances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, j
without the bitter ; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience §¥
to know it more sensibly, i f
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to play YW
the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which Nature, and the station of \|
life I was born in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity of ]
seeking my bread ; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me; and thatifI was 4
not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; in a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away ; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an HY
example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could net prevail, his young desires prompting him to 3f¥
run into the army, where he was killed ; and though he said he would not cease to bs
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,God
would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected



his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;

Fy and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
5y° so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say
i no more to me,

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be otherwise? and
ey I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of my
father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant
© than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I
was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to
an attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she knew it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she °
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
“sther, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me ;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might









depend I shodld never have their consent to it ; that for her part, she would not have
so much hand in my destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
ice Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
iS reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
| at it, said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born ; I can
give no consent to it.”

Tt was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean time,
I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently
expostulated with my father and mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time ; but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allurement of
a seafaring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it ; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the

a A f = aRS 5 g

= Bey Stee
= ROBINSON CRUSOE. H

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i a Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
Wy, = adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine. The
1 ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began to blow, and the

sea to rise in a most frightful manner ; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to
reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. All
the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of 7
hardness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father. :

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few days after ; but it was
W*) enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything
of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every 4
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we <
should never rise more : in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that
if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot
upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived ; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and indeed
some time after ; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it: however, 1 was very grave for all that day, being also a
BH little sea-sick still ; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, )
and a charming fine evening followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so. \y Y





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CRUSOE ADVISED BY HIS FATHER,



ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the next morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upo:
it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion who had enticed me away comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind ?” ‘

“A capful d’you call it?” said I ; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A sterm, you fool, You !” replies he ; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us buta good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a
squall of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see what charming weather.’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors ; the punch
was made, and I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions _
for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the- vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed,some intervals of reflection ; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them ; and I
had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. -But I was to have another
trial for it still ; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without excuse ; for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to
be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us: would confess both
the danger and the mercy. :

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads ; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz. at-south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships

fe. might wait for a wind for the River.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had Jain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might -
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had eome
home ; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we'rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.









© £3
S f sors

EAS =a aS

CRUSOE’S FIRST VOYAGE.








3



Ja By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and \
7 amazement in ihe faces even of the seamen themselves, The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I al

| a could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall J
Mis be all lost ! we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hmries I was i}
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe NH
my temper. I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled ;

<—

upon, and hardened myself against : I thought the bitterness of death had been past,
and that this would be nothing too, like the first ; but when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got
up out of my cabin, and looked out ; but such a dismal sight I never saw ; the sea ran



mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships that rode near us, we found,
had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not
witha mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea ; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only

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their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do ; but the boatswain protest-
ing to him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented ; and when they had
cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And oxe must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been ir. such # fright before at but a little. Butif I can express at
this distance the thoughts ¥ had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of



mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions J had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these, added
to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the
yeamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We hada good ship,
but she was deep Jaden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and
then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I inquircd. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak ;
another said, there was four fect water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
pump. At that word, my heart, as 1 thought, died within me ; and I fell backwards
upon the side of my.bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me,
aud told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well.able to pump as
another ; at which I stirred up, and wert to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out
the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, )
thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so }



ROBINSON CRUSOE.



surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own
life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead ; and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on ; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder ; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us ; bit it was impossible for us
to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, aftus we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to their own ship ; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat
was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partiy rowing, and
partiy driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton Ness.

‘We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
she was sinking ; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that
T might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us when we
should come near ; but we made but slow way towards the shore ; nor were we able
to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to
carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ; and
though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment,
to go home, yet I had no power to doit. I know not what to call this, nor will I
\ urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against

8 :















































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
- such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden mz before, and who was the master’s son,
was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after-we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ;
and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order

. to go farther abroad : his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea any more ; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “ Why, sir,”
said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he ; “it is my
calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made. this voyage for a trial, you see what
a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this
has all be‘allen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” con-
tinues he, “what are.you ; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I

“told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of

“passion : “ What had I done,” says he, “ that such an unhappy wretch should come into

‘ my ship? I would not set my foot in the same skip with thee again for a thousand
pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet

" ‘agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.

_ However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back. to my
father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand of
Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he, “dépend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little auswer, and I saw him no more ; which
way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with.myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should:go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in
such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only ean make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home ; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little motion I ha.l in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which ¢arried me first away from my father’s house, which
hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, .

"and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father : I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of aii enterprises to my view; and I


















































A253 &> a 2
~ = J = i A PE \ :
= ZN CRUSOE IN LONDON..-
ne =:
Nid went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa ; or, us our sailors vulgarly call
i gary
H iy it, a voyage to Guinea.* ;
fi It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a

sailor ; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
he the same time I should have learnt the duty and office of a foremast man, ard in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it

Wes



was always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman ; and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learnt to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which does

<<

not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was ; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with
me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea ; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again ; this
captain taking a fancy tu my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion ;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit ; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragemeut.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

("|
HI



































This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how
to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to under-
stand some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as he took delight
to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300 ; and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly, that I was con-
tinually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north,
y even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left
which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into

* Guinea.—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due cast and

west. The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone,
Grain Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin,



































































































































































































































































































































knee ode echg aoa

SS) ; —S
Sy =
= —S


terrible misfortunes in this voyage ; and the first was this, viz, our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sullee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also'as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear ; but finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, insteal of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured ina
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pour-
ing in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had nota man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
12











sea
il





















The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ; nor was
I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but
Jwas kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, |
{ being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of HA
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over- Vu)
g&YA\ whelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,. Lyx
that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me; which I thought was AG)
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the 9 Ki
hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption. But (G2
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in Al
\, the sequel of this story. EX
As my new patron por master, had taken me home to his house, so I-was in ~ @
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu- 1B
guese man-of-war ; and that then I should be set at liberfy. But this hope of Pegry,
mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to I,
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his 7)
) house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in 4 S)
Y)\\) the cabin to look after the ship. i)

S35





















F





oer reat 2

ey rap rg Stent

obo

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet
I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very mzrry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Moresco, as they callei him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick, that though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it ; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night ;
and when the morning cane, we found we had pulled out to sea instead of pul’_ag in for
the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger; for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself
for the future ; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and
some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a ‘little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-
sheet ; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed
with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to-lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was most dexterous
to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had ap-
pointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three

Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordi-:

narily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of pro-
visions than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils* with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they designed some spout of fowling
as well as fishing.”

I got all things ready as he had directed ; and waited the next morning with

Hm the boat washed clean, her ancientt and pendants out, and everything to accommo-

date his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his

eee

guests had put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with p~g@g

the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for

34 Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
+ Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseiyne, for a flag, or the man who carries it.







; Tee X
CRUSOE MAKES HIS ESCAPE. AN



that his friends were to sup at his house ; he commanded me too, that as soon as I had |
got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command ; and my master being
gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I would steer ; for anywhere
to get ont of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get some-
thing for our subsistence on board ; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron’s bread. He said, that was true ; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit
of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s
case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-
wax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ;
so I called to him :—* Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are all on board the boat ;
can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (2
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I’ll bring some :” accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch,
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ; and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At
the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us ; and we were not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made
/ the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my hook
I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Mvor, “This will
2, not do; our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off” He, think-
, ing no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had
the helm, I ran the boat out-near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I
would fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose im-
mediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which I stepped ,
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,”
said J, “you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is caim; make the





ROBINSON CRUSOE.



best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the
boat, Pll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.” So he
turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the
boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to tke
boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,” that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into the sea too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone
towards the Straits’* mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure
to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I might
keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions
I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till T had sailed in that manner five days ; and then,
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where ; neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired
to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go
on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions” “Then we give them the
shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English KXury spoke
by conversing among us slaves. | However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After
all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little anchor, and lay
\. still all night ; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the

~ Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.









pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings aud yellings
that I never indeed heard the like. Z

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
\ frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming towards our boat ;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge,
and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know ;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury;
} we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.”
, I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two
oars’ length, which something surprised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and howlings
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before. This convinced me that there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were equally appre-

hensive of the danger of it. 17













ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made me love
him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the boat in as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river ; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him ; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs ; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen
no wild mans. -

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the islands of
the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as-
I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness ; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there ; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being :
\ the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind

fk, to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in

again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel ; so I resolved
to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.





OG : £3
SA a Sans
I = ©

SHOOTING A LION.







Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place ; and
once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
\ a farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls vy f
S: softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, j
"yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where VV A\
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay ft!
on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it werea WY
little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked et A
frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. i ,
However, T said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, j \
which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with two bullets ; and the third
(for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay so, with his leg raised



2

}



ae

=

i

yj a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. ®
| He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again ; and then Nt
A got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a Pa
Y little surprised that I had not hit him on the head ; however, I took up the second i
H piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in iw
7

the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and making but little noise, he lay
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore.
“Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking the little gun in
one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature,
put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which

oe
—

—S— SS

vt
DY



















despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him ; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he.
However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days, living
very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make
the River Gambia or Senegal ; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where
I was in hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put
the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.

thn gS

=





ROBINSON CRUSOE.



When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began
to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us ; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gore on shore to them ; but Kury was
my better counsellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer
the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way : I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who hadalong
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great |
way with good aim: so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could ; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me to stop
my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country ; but we neither knew what the one or the other was: how-
ever, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends ; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more
than we could tell whether it was usual or strange: but I believe it was the latter ;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ;
and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of
the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come
for their diversion : at last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expe-
dition, and bade Kury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sank down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for life, and
so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore ; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise and
fire of my gun ; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead
with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water, and
that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water : and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree ; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what
it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to <
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I ,


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
which, when I made signs to them that they might take it, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with
a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give jt them; but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it
was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of
their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

Twas now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till T saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing tomake this point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward ; then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one or other. ‘

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a
sail!”” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some
of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it
was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the shore : upon which
I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them: but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of



UR

their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must 7
belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was Ae
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to \
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me they Sy
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly @
ay








brought to, and lay by for me ; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in Freach, but I
understood none of them ; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called tome: ¥
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape }
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very Y
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

22





i =

=< WN f ——xal = ee = > e — —w es : I
A IN THE BRAZILS. A

N
AY It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus ,
j delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I
was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for it
my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that
f A all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “ For,” says he, !
y “TJ have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself ; }
Ni and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”
4 As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
f| for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I had : then he took
H everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that
I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he would buy
it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have for it. I told him, he
had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note
of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not that I was unwilling to
let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had
i assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
i reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
iy, an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s
skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
. bought of me: such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
bees’-wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
Brazils.









a
Po



eG
et>


















oes
SF

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house), I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar ; and seeing how well the planters lived, and
how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money would



23 as
een ae ey arr
= a aa aes



OT ‘i SS



() +

A LAS
ROBINSON CRUSOE.



reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement ; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents, whose *
name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, Vi
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My ¥ iy
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else, \ if

for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into {i
order ; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large Ad
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted a
HB help ; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy ;
( Xury. Wh }
: | But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder. I had ny

no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote to my genius



. 3 ‘ : . if : , x

|, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s

fH house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I was coming into the very middle oe
y station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if is

{ I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued oN

= 6, ° Ba
A inyself in the world, as I have done ; and I used often to say to myself, “I could have i
Ft done this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to AW

FH. do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to
FL hear from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.”

af] iF In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I had
nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour; no work to be done, but
by the labour of my hands ; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been ;
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly
solitary life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich,

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation, before
my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship
remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months ; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice :—“Seignor Inglese,” says -he (for so he always
called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred
pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.












LMU SEL

ai NE Wi

Mura Sof _

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over not the order only, but a full account
of my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her ; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as the
captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made ; for I was surprised with the \
joy of it; and my good steward the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which WW
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years’ service, and wovld not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would kave him accept, being of my own produce.





ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloth,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them at a very great advantage ; so that I may say, I had more than
four times:the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour
_—I mean in the advancement of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also: I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.

_ But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my plan-
tation : I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed
of for necessaries among my neighbours ; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a
hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as are indeed often the ruin of the
best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to
make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my ¥
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction
to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects

and those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to present me with,

and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the

deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent. J

with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story :—
‘You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning
to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in
wy discourse among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, éc., but
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes ; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not fur entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assiento,
or permission of the King of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so
that few negroes were brought, and those excessively dear. :

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my ac-
quaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next 4







See

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4 en
ES a ©

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a














































eo eek Sy

THE PLANTATION.

morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed

of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants ; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negrues when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations ; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that had
not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that
was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun,
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from
England ; and who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me
to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such
circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer,
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of jt as L
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings,
or covenants, to do so ; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my
plantation, Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving alk
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to ex-
pect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than
my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished,
and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the lst of September, 1659, being the same day eight years
that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
feurteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward







TTS







ez =< = — = CT
ROBINSON CRUSOE. A



“upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when they came

into about ten or twelve degree: of northern latitude ; which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from
whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leav-
ing those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, seudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds dirested ; and during these
twelve days, I need not. si





y that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this

the calenture, and a mun and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day,



‘ss we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men diel of

the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that lhe found he was
gotten upon the cuast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones,
towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River
to consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was le:
disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-coast of
America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to till we came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the
bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was other-
wise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages, than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one
morning cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a
manner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and we were
even driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray
of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to deseribe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances, We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the main,



and now he began
ky, and very much









mye LIPPCOL BP 2S TSTT LN

FT
SRL, ~ (ft

ry

42
SS























































































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.

whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
thinutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should

_ turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world ;
for there was little or- nothing more for us to do in this ; that which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in
a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but che was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea ; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
‘was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold ef the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go,
:nd committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea : for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that the sea
went so high, that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it ;
so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore. she would

i. be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed

eur souls to God in the most earnest manner ; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not ;
the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we. made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and an half, as we reckoned it,
a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly
to say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water : for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on ‘
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my









AFTER THE STORM. q














































feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as T could, before another |
wave should return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid

it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, j
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my |]
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could ; and so by swimming to preserve iF
my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore if possible, my greatest concern now
being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came







































on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep
in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way ; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds
of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and
new courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my fret. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for the sea having
hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock,
and that with such force, as it 1 ft me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it were quite
out of my body ; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in
the water ; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to
, hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so

high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land ; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the

shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of



y
, the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God that my
life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not
wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say, I do
not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and

overwhelm him. 2 H
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may say,
3 aia





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= ag eS ee
ay ~e P a =
SEGRES
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ewe .





wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
i and that there should not be one soul saved but myself ; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea being so
big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I
could get on shore ? é

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began to
() look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done: and
I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance : for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or *
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, a
that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or p F
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In "( zt

:
x





a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision ; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, thet
for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy a
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
ta drink, which I did to my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and being exces-
sively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could
have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think
I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I
had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a

mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
) myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat
which was about half a mile broad ; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where-I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I
could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing:
of my griet; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe:

f ae










b

SS

that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not heen so miserable || { Ss

as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. al h aorcay se

This forced tears to my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that,

I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, tor the weather was

hot to extremity, and took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was

still greater to know how to get on board ; for, as she Jay aground, and high out of the

water, there_was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and

the second time I espied a small piece of ropo, which 1 wondered I-did not see at first,
33





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N HE PAYS A VISIT TO THE WRECK. A
A whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what

it contained. : :

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good | |

fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some ]

powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were }
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them ;
but with much search I found them, two of them:dry and good, the third had taken
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

Thad three encouragements : first, a smooth, calm sea ; secondly, the tide rising, and
setting in to the shore ; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the land.
And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put
to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive
a little distant from the place where I had landed before ; by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As T imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land.
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had liked to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart ; for, kuowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat,
aud so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level ; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river ; hoping,
in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—
there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie
so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that

flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars












































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crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling piece,
with some small quantity of powder more ; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
top sail, a hammock, and some bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brough: them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore ; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor ; only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when T
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great ; how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and
looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to
fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy ;
for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to
to fetch those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or other ; but particularly the third time
I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails
upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the

Wa time as I could, for they were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.
4 But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of all, after I had made five
or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour: this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ; and, in a word, I
got all this safe on shore also, though at several times. <

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what

sails, first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much ata ~

y




together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron 7}



ROBINSON MAKES PROVISION FOR THE FUTURE.



was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable; cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cable and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-
work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away; but my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the
iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me; however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infi-
nite labour ; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very
much, After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

Thad now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing ; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ; but preparing the twelfth time to go
on board, [ found the wind began to rise : however, at low water I went on board, and
though I thought I had rammaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be
found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks ; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud, “what art
thou geod for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground ; one of
those knives is worth all this heap ; I have no manner of use for. thee; e’en remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.”
However, upon second thoughts, I took it away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas,
I began to think of making another raft ; but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore ; and that it was my business to be gone before
the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swani across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the roughness of the water ;. for
» the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with
this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get
everything out of her that.could be useful to me ; and that, indeed, there was little left
in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what might drive on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards .
did ; but those things were of small use to me. P

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either savages,
if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island ; and I had many thoughts

= = 39 eer









a nr Ss ee os et (Oo
A/VY & Ss ate ic
| ROBINSON CRUSOE. ; A\

A\ of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should
| make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon
: both ; the manner and description of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because
it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it ; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me:
first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from the heat of
the sun ; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave ; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door ; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill ; so that it
was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by §, sun, or there-
abouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The tworows did not stand above six inches
from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one ancther, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high
like a spur to a post ; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I
was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and con-
sequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done ; though, as
it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that
I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I
made me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year
are very violent there. I made it double—viz, one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it ; and covered the uppermost part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.











And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by the
wet ; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now
T had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all the
earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in
the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought to

perfection ; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some
of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself, “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one , 5}







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blast, all my powder might be destroyed ; on which not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger ; though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who had
hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that, after the storm was over,I laid aside
all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate my powder, and to keep. it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes,
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart,
that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work,
in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me, viz. that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them ; but.I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had
found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a
terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that by the’ position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them ; so afterwards I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to
get above them, and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure ; upon which, I Jaid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame ; but it-would not eat ; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place ; but IT
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

IT had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was net cast away upon that island
without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, viz, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary






















































CRUSOE’S CALENDAR.



Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections ; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-
side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it
were, put in expostulating with me the other way, thus : “Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?” And then I
pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them and
with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence, and
what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand
to one) that the ship floated from the place where first she struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her? What would have
been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them ?
“ Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “what should T have done without a
gun, Without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with ? with-
out clothes, bedding, a tent, or any mamner of coverings?” and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to
live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I hada tolerable view
of subsisting without any want as long as I lived ; for I considered from the beginning
how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.

TI confess T had not then entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed
at one blast—I mean, my powder being blown up by lightning ; and this made the
thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just
now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,
perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. I was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ; when the sun being
to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head : for I reckoned myself,
hy observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty two minutes north of
the line. :

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I
should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even
forget the Sabbath-day from the working-days ; but to prevent this, I cut it with my
kmife upon a large post, in capital letters ; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where I first landed, viz, “I came on shore here on the 30th of Sep-

} tember, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every daya notch with my knife, and every

seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long





O
> aH :
ae =< aS

ROBINSON -CRUSOE.







again as that long one ; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly ‘iif
reckoning of time. q
In the next place, we are to observe, that among the many things which I brought
i. from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, F got
(i several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before ; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ; several parcels in the captain’s
: mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical

instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I huddled 4
Be together, whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, a
a. which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my i
ft things ; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer- R
1 books, and several other books ; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget my
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have occa-
sion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me ; and as for the i
i, dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself; and swam on shore to me the day after I oi’
‘} went on shore with my first cargo, and wasa trusty servant to me many years; I wanted "(%)
, nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only ~§} oh
\ wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As Lobserved before, I found
y pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost ; and I shall show that while is
ees ink lasied, I kept things very exact ; but after that was gone I could not, for I could e

not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

] And this put me in mind that | wanted many things, notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together ; and of these, ink was one : as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth ; needles, pins, and thread : as for linen, I soon learned to want

'Y that without much difficulty.

Aw This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was near a whole

i year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The

ie piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and

® preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home ; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground ; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to
do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every

day. 5
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was reduced

j to ; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and aftlicting my mind : and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as weil as I could, and to set
| the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish. my case from worse,
and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed, against
the miseries I suffered, thus :—





= EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island ; But I am alive ; and not drowned, as all my ship’s com-
void of all hope of recovery. ~ pany was.









Bos sé CRUSOE DI









ROBINSON CRUSOE.









EVIL. GOOD. i
Tam singled out and separated, as it were, But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be j
from all the world, to be miserable. spared from death ; and He that miraculously saved me |
from death can deliver me from this condition. F
I am divided from mankind, a solitary; But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place,
one banished from human society. affording no sustenance.
Lhave no clothes to cover me, But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
T am without any defence, or means to But Iam cast on an island where I seo no wild beasts to



any violence of man or b hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa ; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

I have no soul to speak to or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out so many necessary things
either supply my wants or enable me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.

as will



Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any con-
dition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it something
to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit
side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving over looking
out to sea, to see if I could




ya ship; Jsay, giving over these things, I began to apply
myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

T have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables ; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two fect thick on the out-
side: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I
could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the
cave which [had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of géods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my piace ;
Thad no room to twn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther
into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I
bestowed on it : and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock ; and then turning to the right



vin, Worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.



This gave me not only egress and regress, as it wa



a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things with
so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,



master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet,
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze









and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on cither side with my axe, till Thad brought
it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. Ié is true, by this
method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for
but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it
took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or Jabour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place ;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
ship. But when I had wrought oué some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the
breadth of a foot and an half, one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, ina word, to separate everything at large into
their places, that I might come easily at them : also I knocked pieces into the wall of the
rock, to hang my guns ani all things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to
be seen, it looked like a g ‘neral magazine of all necessary things ; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it wasa great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's employment ; for,
indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only an hurry as to labour, but in too
much discomposure of mind ; and my journal would have been full of many dull things :
for example, I must have said thus : “ Sept. the 30th.—After I had got to shore, and had
escaped drownirg, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, Tran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my
head and fice, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone! till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep,
for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been 6n board the ship, and had got all I
could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I spied
a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily, till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my house-
hold stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me
as I could, I began I say to keep my journal ; of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted ; for at
last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—T, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during
a dreadful storm, in the ofling, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
Tealled “The Island of Despair 3” all the rest of the ship's company being drowned,
and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day T spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to ; viz, I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in

despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: cither that I should be devoured ,









ROBINSON CRUSOE.



by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though
it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island ; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped,
if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her
for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least,
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing
myself on these things ; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand
as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many several
voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood,
upon rafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather ;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it ; but being in shoal
water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my
habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen ‘with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see for some
food, and dixcover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
. which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night ;
making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which made
my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked
out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz., every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about

eleven o’clock ; then ate what I had to live on ; and from twelve to two I lay down to §

Sami









|

WN

is

ieee GRUS a

sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild
cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing ; every creature I killed,
I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but was surprised, and almost
frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking ; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7-—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and
part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me ; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark for them on
my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the
earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me

49







7



QO
aS

ROBINSON CRUSOE.






dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible
Cn one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make room for
my further conveniency.

Note-—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work ; viz. a pickaxe, a shovel,
and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how
to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ; but the next thing was a shovel,
or spade ; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it ; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or
like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness ; of this,
with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood,
and having no other way, made mea long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade ; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion

or so long making.

i}
H
|
|
I

£

aw
ees

eee es

FZ
4a

I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could
not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker-ware —at least, none yet found out ; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar



in, when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel ; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no le-s than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home
something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.



Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitcaen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As for a lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the



year, it rained so hard, that I could not kee myself dry, which caused me afterwards
to cover all my place within my pale with Tong poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
aginst the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.





December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden





i



CRUSOE FURNISHING HIS HOUSE,



(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side ; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too ; for if I
hal been under it, J had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out ; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more

. would come down.

Dc. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post ; this I
finished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house
and set up some picces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon ; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24,—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day. .

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec, 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it, and led it
home in a string ; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as
ever ; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 80, 31.—Great heats, aud no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food ; this time I spent in putting all my things in

=| order within doors.

Jan. 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though ex-
ceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them. -

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall ; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in the
Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3rd of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock

)\| to another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre

behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, sometimes





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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



weeks together ; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was
finished ; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done with,
especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ; for Ny
I made them much bigger than I needed to have done. tH

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they .
would not perceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the
rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage ; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as
wood pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks ; and taking
some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I
had nothing to give them ; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting
in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make ;
as, indeed, as to some of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask
to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; 1 could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to
make them hold water ; so I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I
remembered the Iump of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had _ was, . that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of: some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for
this voyage, but before, asI suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little re-
inainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and T saw nothing in
the bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to pat powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the
rock. o M yi

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff
away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown
anything there, when, abouta month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant [had not seen ;
vut 1 was surprised, and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind
as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
oceasion ; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all ; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had










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THE WRECK 1228





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ROBINSON CRUSOE.
befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without
so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there in a climate which
I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this
grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my
sustenance in that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began to
bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should happen upon my account ; and this
was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew,
because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support, but not
doubting but that there was more in the place, [went all over that part of the island where
Thad been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but T conld not tind any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shaken the
bag of chickens’ meat out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease ; and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common ; though T ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been
miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence as to me, that should order or
appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ; as also that I should
throw it out into that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it
sprang up immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had
been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which was
about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again,
hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was
not till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for T lost all that I
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time ; for I sowed it just before the
dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done : of which
in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I '
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to vook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. ;

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done ; and
the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a
wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete enclosure to
me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I was busy in the »







KA

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AN EARTHQUAKE IN THE ISLAND,



inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth
came tumbling down from che roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head,
and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared ; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
T got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it
was a terrible earthquake ; for the ground £ stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood upon the earth ; and a great piece of the
top of the rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into a violent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or dis-
coursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied ; and the motion
of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea ; but the noise of the
falling of the rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition
I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once ; and this sunk my
very soul within me a second time. ‘

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do, All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ;
nothing but the common “Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that
went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it would rain ;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; aud a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and
then began to abate ; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very
hard. All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when
on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive ; and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and saé down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go
into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz, to cuta hole through my new fortifi-
cations, like a sink, to let the water_go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum ; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no










































RSs 5
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= ROBINSON CRUSOE.
SS =
a
ih It continued raining all that night, and great part'of the

next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
/ began to think of what I had best to do; concluding, that if the island was subject
to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
2 building me some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a wall, as
T had done here, and so mike myself secure from wild beasts or men ; for I concluded
if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent : and I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my



habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet ;
and yet the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal to it :
but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly
HY, concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove. In the mean-
4 time, it oceurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
{ that I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for
| myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed
myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a
wall with piles acd cables, &e., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it
(EF) owas finished ; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
as fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but
with much chopping and eutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and
dull ; and though Thad a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This



















cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics
witha s

ov a judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel





tring, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
NVote—I had not seen any such thing im England, or at least not to take notice
how it was done, though since I have observed it was very common there ; besides that,
my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s work to
bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my machine



for turning my-grindstone performing very well.




April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I now took a
; Survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking tow



ards the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw
something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when
I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck
itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined
the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ;
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled
it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship, to look for more.

















When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The forecastle,
which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern,
which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon
after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and casé on one side ;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next the stern, that whereas there
was a great place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. 1 was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done
by the earthauaKce; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This whelly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation,
\ and I pusied myself mightily, that day especialiy, in searching whether I could
make ary way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had
F| learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I

? could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together, and when I had cut

57









it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I was
weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin, I had
made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but [had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat ; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought three great
fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore when
the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found the
weight of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being ent ; that several pieces of
the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck
which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and
brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron,

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it
lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—Tt had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck ; and with hard labour I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore
nothing came to land that day but pieces 0. timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this
work every day to the L5th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be vhen the tide was up, that
I might be ready when it was ebbed out ; and by this time T had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how ; and also I got,
at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going dewn to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was
the first I had seen. which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place



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HE SUFFERS FROM AGUE.
or the scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, E might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them. :

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in tuis horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad
condition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm,
off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24,—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it. Es

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak ; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would iain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had
no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither ate nor
drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak I had no strength to stand up,
or to get myselfany water to drink, Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and
when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say ; only I lay and cried,
“Lord, look upon me! Lord pity me! Lord have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours ; till the fit wearing o4, I fell asleep, and did not awake
till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty ; however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie
till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream:
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when
the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, ina bright flame of tire, and light upon the ground : he was all over as bright as
a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most

inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake,
and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forwards towards me, with a long

spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some*
distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice sc terrible that it is impossible to express
the texror of it. All that I can say I understvod was this :—“Seeing all these things
have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die ;’—at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should beable to describe
the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream,
I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

59







Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction of
my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. Ido not remember that I had, in all that time, one
thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards
towards a reflection upon my own ways ; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me ; and I was all that the mest
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed to
le—not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness
to God in deliverances,

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, T never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a
just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behaviour against my father—or my
present sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of
my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, T never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages ; but I
was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea bythe Portugal captain, well used, and dealt
justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, 1 had not the least thankfulness in
my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowaing on
this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to
myself often, that F was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned, and

myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grice of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but it ended
where it. began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was
alive, without the least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had
preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the same
common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they have got safe ashore from a
shipwreck, all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon
as it is over ; and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out
of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon
as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger,
all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afilicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against
me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it ; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even
the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-















































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



diately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
-was the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came
to place itself before me ; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong
distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in
which T had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God today
me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me from the second or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted
some words from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer
attended with desires or with hopes ; it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress.
My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the mere appre-
hensions ; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express.
But it was rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become of me?”
Then, the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction,
which Y mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,”
said I aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken
me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy aad
easy ; but I would neither sce it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly ; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me ; and now I have difficulties
to struggle with too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many -
years. But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then
I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
a\t night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s exes, which I roasted in the ashes,
and eat, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.





= . SlAaRs ee 4 :
tie LEWES
A CURE FOR BODY AND MIND. .


































After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could hardly
earry the gun, for I never went ont without that; so T went out but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth, As I sat here, some thoughts such as these occurred to me:—What
is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am J, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence
are we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God that
has made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly, if God has made all these things,
he guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that
(j could make all thing
i nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works, either without his knowledge or



s must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so,

appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that Tam here, and



a am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without his appointment, he b
YA has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any at
| of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, that it must Ni
A | needs be that God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this al
F miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of me only, but ie

of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed,—Why has God
done this to me? What have I done to be thus used } My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if Thad blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
“Wretch ! dost thow ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent
life, and ask thyself, what thou hast 2of done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the
fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war? devoured by the wild beasts
off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost
thou ask, What have I done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been
going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and # had no inclination to sleep ;
so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the
apprehensions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers,
and T had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.

1 weut, directed by Heaven, no doubt ; for in this chest [ found a cure both for soul
and body. I opened the chest, and found what [looked for, viz., the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there too,-I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned
before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look
into. I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was good
for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hezl
one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed,
at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had
not been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum,
and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as





L ROBINSON CRUSOE.
\ a SS



A\ well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the interval of

} this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too much dis-
turbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only, having opened the
book casually, the words first that occurred to me were these, “Call upon me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words were very
apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being deliverrd, the word had no
sound, as I may say, to me ; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension
of things, that I began to say, as the children of Isracl did when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?” so T began to say, “ Can God
himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that 1 inclined to sleep ; so T let
my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went to
bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life; I kneeled
down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the
day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over,
T drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down ; immediately upon this I went to
bed ; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how
T should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some
years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line, T should
have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and I never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when T awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for T was hungry ; and, in
short, T had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and T went abroad with my gun, but did not
care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home ; but was not very forward to eat them ; so I eat some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
Thad supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I
did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as
I hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not
much.



; July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways ; and dosed myself with it as
at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

| July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full strength

. | for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-

ingly upon this Scripture, “ I will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my

deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it ; but as I was

discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much

















upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz. :
Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
T taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified
him ; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance: and
how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much ; and
immediately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible ; and beginning at tle New Testament,
I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, bat as long as my
thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously +o this work, till
I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickeuness of my past
life. The impression of my dream 1evived ; and the words, “ All these things have
not brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly

begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,
65 .




































fe
GAS
fA SSS

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words : “He is exalted a Prince anda
Saviour, to give repentance and: to give remission. I threw down the book ; and oF
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstacy of joy, 4
T cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou Son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour ! ‘i 1
give me repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the \,
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now T prayed with a sense of my condition, Wf}
and with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of i
God ; and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call on me, and I will
deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before ; for then IT had
no notion of anything heing called deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity



T was in: for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me. and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take
it in another sense : now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins aypeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the
load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing ;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it ; it was all of no
consideration, in comparison of this. And Tadded this part here, to hint to whoever
shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliver-
ance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading
the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, Thad a great deal of
comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as T could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with my
gum in my hand, a little and a little ata time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reducel. The application which T made use of was perfectly new,
and perhaps what had never cured an ague before ; neither can T recommend it to any
one to practise, by this experiment : and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions m my nerves and limbs
for some time ; I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy
season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains

which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind ; for as the rain which came



in a dry season was always most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain
was much more dangerous thin the rain which fetl in September and October.

I had now been in this un'aypy island above ten months ; all possibility of de-
liverance from this condi‘ion seemed to be entircly taken from me ; and I firmly believed
that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, T had a great desire to make a more perfect
discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find, which yet I
knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that [ began to take a more particular survey of the
island itself. I went up the ereek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore.
I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and p

66 ry
Se3 3
a : ae



Ys





A SURVEY OF THE ISLAND.



that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh and good : but

this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it ; at least, not {

i enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, } |

I found many pleasant savannas of meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; |

f and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as it might y
‘i be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a

great and very strong stalk ; there were divers other plants, which I had no notion of
or understanding about, anl might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could
not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that climate
make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not then
understand them. I saw several suzar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, im-
perfect. TI contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to kuow the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits
of plants which I should discover ; but could bring it to no conclusion : for, in short, I
had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants
of the field ; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day betore, I found the brook and savannas cease, and
the country became more woody particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees : the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just
now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was
exceeding glad of them ; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our
Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers, But I
found an excellent use for these grapes ; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun,
and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as
indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I hal lain from home. In the night, I took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south aud north side
of me. At the end of this march I caiae to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it
looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting
thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could-convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange and lemon, and citron trees ; but all wild, and
few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice afterwards
with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now
Thad business enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as

well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season. which I knew
= 67 2





O
— a 2 eas
. Sj 5




ROBINSON CRUSOE.



























was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ;
and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly,
having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and
my cave) ; but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they were good for
: little or nothing : as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring Lut a few.

A The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to bring
ay home my harvest ; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were
| so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces,
| and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By
this I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this ; but

what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
f, heaps, and no carrying them away ina sack, but that one way they would be destroyed,
Â¥ and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course ;
| tor I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of
i the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes and lemons, I
carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
GP fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation ; the security from storm

agg on that side of the water, and the wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a place i
’ to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, SRN
-I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally gp

ey

safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the §

‘ of? island,

(G This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
2 ri A ,
She the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it,
& I considered that I was now by the sea side, where it was at least possible that some-

s )

fe thing might happen to my advantage ; and that the same ill fate that brought me hither,
Bis might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place ; and though it was scarce
probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills
and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render
such an affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by
2, any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured with this place, that [+ cat much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July ; and though,
upon second thouglits, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind



A of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
Nas high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood ; and here I
lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea coast
house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ; for though J had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, aud spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to

















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried,
and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun ; so I began to take them down from
the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more cr less, every day till the middle of October, and
sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

“In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August, with three kittens. his was the more strange to me, because,
though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my guy, yet I thought it was a quite
different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed’as the old one ; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange.
But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was
forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be
straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food
was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s
flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no
vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three
hours at enlarging my cave, ana by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or
wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure ; whereas
now, I thought, I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living
thing to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, pros-
trating myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to
God, acknowledging his righteous judgment upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me through Jesus Christ ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch
of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind,
I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were ;
but now, having cast up the days as above, 1 found I had been there a year; so I
divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath ; though I found
at the end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this,
my ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to





fi

STL



write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season bezan now to appear regular to me, and I
learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly ; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I hal so.

surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in his southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it, so [ sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain’ of
that I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop ;
but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but
a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed times and two harvests
every year. While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which was of use to me
afterwards, As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which
was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower,
where, though I had not been some months, I found all things just as I left them.
The circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes
which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping
its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was
surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow : and I pruned them,
and led them up to grow as nfuch alike as I could ; and it is scarcely credible how
beautiful a figure they grew into, in three years ; so that though the hedge made a circle
of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
Thi$ made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a

‘semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing

the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence,
they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into

summer and winter, as in Europe, but intothe rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which
were generally thus :—





| my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work all the summer or dry







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun being
then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the sun
heing then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and the half
ot February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow,
but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with pzovi-ions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and very
suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no
way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application ; particularly, I
tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me
now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-



maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them nmbe their wicker-ware ; and
being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
how they worked those things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials ; when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved
to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could
desire ; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a
quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great plenty of them. These I set up to
dry within my circle or hedges, and when they were fit for use, I earried them to my
cave ; and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well a3 I
g,as T
had occasion ; and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them

could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anythin:

sufficiently serviceable for my purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them ; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass
bottles—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of water, spirits, &e. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except a
great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I
desired it for—viz., to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing
T fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one ;
however, T found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting



season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I could
spare.

72



y B Sa E





I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had’
travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and
a gieat bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When
I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, [ came within view of the sea
to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island
or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew
it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have





D-
& J aks.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.





iyg- ‘dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everything
for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with
HH fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass
one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish
country and the Brazils, which were indeed the worst of savages; for they are canni-
bals, and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considcrations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of
the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the open or savannah fields
sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for
I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home ; but it was

aN
some years before I could make him speak ; however, at last, I tanght him to call me Bn
by my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will ‘©
be very diverting in its place. py
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds hares py
(as I thought them to be) and fox; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds Ry
I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I XY
had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very A
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, br

added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I,
in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.



I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came
weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night ; and then I either
reposed my:



1f in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me, As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see that I had
taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in
a year anda half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some of
which I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.
T could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparimg of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which [ could better
f feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the



Rh

FA) Pe island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country Re

Re\ a : # E Ad

ea A being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills. es

Ne Ef I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had es

PER : . . . : . . : RY
eH not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became [Y
EWA

natural to me, and I seemed a!l the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I
suppose about twelve! miles, and then setting up a great pcle upon the shore for a mark,
) L concluded I would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the







j\ CRUSOE AT HOME AGAIN.



A\ other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post
{ again, of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep all
the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country ; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three
miles, | found myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills,
and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any
direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley, and not being able
to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find out
the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy



IE journeys, I tured homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammu-
nition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I running in
to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to
bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be possible
to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when
my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and
with a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month,

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and
lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of
abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a
perfect settlement to me, compared to that 3 and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should
be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey;
during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage
for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little
circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want
of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did-before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me
like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so
fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the 30th of
September in the same‘solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing
on the island, having now been there two years, and no more prospect of being
delivered than the first day Icame there. I spent the whole day in humble and thankful
acknowledgments of ‘the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave
humble and hearty thanks that God had been Pleased to discover to me that it was

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ROBINSON CRUSOE. ie





possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in My
a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully make
up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by his







presence, and the communication of his grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and
encouraging me to depend upon his providence here, and hope for his eternal presence
hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led
all the past part of my day



3 and now having changed -both my sorrows and my joys;

my very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were per-

fectly new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewirg the country, the



anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in,
and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an
uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures
of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my
hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work,
and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or
two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent
myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very
sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they
be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man 2 “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world
should all forsake me, seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose
the favour and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss ?”







From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to
be more happy in this forsiken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever
have been in any other particular state in the world ; and with this thought I was going
to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but
something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How
canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “ to pretend to be thankful
for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou
wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” So I stopped there; but though I
could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for
opening my eyes, by whatev











: atHicting providences, to see the former condition of my
life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and re;ent. I never opened the Bible, or shut
it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England, without
any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting me afterwards to
save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as
the first ; yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having
regularly divided my time according to several daily employments that were before











iss

CORN.

WaTHOM:

g



SSS











ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day ; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain ;
thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for
my supply : these took up great part of the day ; also, it is to be considered, that in the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, {' 3 violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exeeeding laborious-
ness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything I did took up out of my time: for example, I was full two-and-
forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas
two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same
tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to bea broad one. This tree I was three days a cutting down, aid two

more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inex-
pressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to
be light enough to move ; then I turned it, and made one sile of it smooth and flat as
a board from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one

may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece of work ; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things ; I only observe this in particular, to
show the reason why so much of my time went away with so little work, viz., that what
might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required a pro-
digious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and
labour, I went through many things, and indee] everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great ; for, as I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season : but now my crop promised very well, when on
a sudden I found I was in danzer of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts,
which it was scarcely possible to keep froin it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures
which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,
as soon as it came up, and eat it so close that it could get no tim? to shoot up into
stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making dn inclosure about it with a hedge, which
I cid with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required a great deal of speed ;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was bat small, suited
to my cfop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; aud shooting some
of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long ; so in a little time
the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to
ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds were
78





Q
e aks

x = & a

HIS CORN EATEN BY BIRDS.






as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place to see \t/
how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many {Ry

sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly \
i. among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose \ Wf
| OR up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself. Ny f

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all J i
my hopes ; that I should be starved, and néver be able to raise a crop at all; and what |
vo do I could not tell ; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I i)
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage i
was already done, and fuund they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet

too green for them, the loss was not so great, but the remainder was likely to be a good p
crop, if it could be saved.



I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
} sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and kK)

}, the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out BY
iP of their sight, but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so (F)
f| provoked that I could not have puxtience to stay till more came on, knowing that every RY

| grain that they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck loaf to me in the consequence ; 5
} but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I i
- wished for ; so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in ¥ i

ey England, viz. hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
, f , almost that this should have had such an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only
not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very
glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our second
harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and a'] I could do was to
make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the ship. However, as my crop was but small, T had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off
but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbel it
out with my hands ; an:l at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley ;
that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was’ a great encouragement to me, anl I foresaw that in time it
would please God to supply me with bread: and yet here I was perplexed again, for
I neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and
part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet
I knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this
crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. It is a little wonderful,
and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude of
little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and finish-
ing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-

79 ‘






























ROBINSON CRUSOE.



ment and was made more and more sensible of it every hour, even after I had got the
first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.

First, L had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to dig it. Well,
this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my
work but in a wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and
made it be performed much worse. However, this I bore with too, and was content to
work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When the
corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or har-
row it. When it was growing, or grown, I have observed already how many things
I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it
from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it in; and all these things I did
without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and
advantage to me too. But this, as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to
me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, because,
as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these works; and
as I had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me,
T had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary for making
the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first [ was to prepare more land, for T had now seed enough to sow above an
acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make mea spade,
which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labour to work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in
two large fiat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and
fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, which I knew would grow; so that, in one year’s time, I knew I
should have a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was
not so little as to take me up less than three months, because great part of that time
was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-door, that is when it rained,
and I could not go out, I found employment in the following occupations—always

observing that all the while I was at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot,

and teaching him te speak; and I quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last
to speak it out pretty loud, “ Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. Tunis, therefore, was uot my work, but an assistant to
my work; for now, as [ said, I hala great employment upon my hands, as follows: viz,
LT had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which,
indeed, 1 wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might
botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong
enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so ; and as this was ne y in preparing corn, meal, &e., which was the thing I was
upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold
what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many awkward
80





: a Se ee ee

ic

; ways I took to raise this paste ; what odd, misshapen, ugly SAI
things IT made ; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out—the

clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight ; how many cracked
by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how
many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before as aiter they were
dried ; and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—
to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two
months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which I had
made on purpose for them, that they might not break ; and as between the pot
and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and
barley straw ; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would
hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

81







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ROBINSON CRUSOE. os



Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several
smaller things with better success ; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, and anything my hand turned to ; and the heat of the sun baked them
strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire; which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it ont
after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in
the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see
it, and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would
burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire so as to make it burn me some pots. I had
no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I
had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all; when I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five
or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the
sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began
to abate of the red colour, and watching -them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins,
and two other earthen pots, as hard burut as could be desired, and one of them
perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my



use ; but T must needs say as to the shapes of them they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when T had no way of making them but as the children make dirt
pies, or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I
had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay
till they were cold before T set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me
some meat, which it did adinirably well; and with a piece of a kid [made some very
good broth, though [ wanted oatmeal and several other ingredients requisite to make it
as good as T would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some corn in ; for
as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair
for, of all the trades in the world,



of hands. To supply this want I was at a great los:
I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I
any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find outa great stone big enough
to eut hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in
the solid rock, and which [ had no way to dig or cut out ; nor indeed were the rocks in
the island of hardness sullicient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would
neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with
sand. So, after a grcat deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved
to look out a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier ; and getting



one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it and formed it on the outside with my
axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and intinite labour, made a hollow place
















































~ = = at. =
Sa : x ee
CRUSOE SUCCEEDS AS A BAKER Bs

in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid by
avainst I had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound my corn or meal, to make my bread. t |
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and to part it
from the bran and the husk; without which I did not see it possible I could have any
bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to be sure I had
nothing like the necessary things to make it with ; [ mean fine thin canvas, or stuff,
to sierce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did T
really kuow what to do. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags ; I had goats’- jj



hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it ; and had I known how, here were no
tools to work it with. All the remedy that I round for this was, that at last [did
remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin ; and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves,
but proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did after-
wards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make bread
when I came to have corn ; for, first, I had no yeast ; as to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for anoven, I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two
' feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by ; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon
the hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and burning
also; but I should not call them square.

When the tire-wood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and here I let them lie till the
hearth was very hot ; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves,
and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside
of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat ; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the
world, 1 baked my barley-loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-cook into the
bargain ; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice ; indeed I made no
pies, neither had T anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either
of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the third year
of my abode here ; for, it is to be observed that, in the intervals of these things, I had
my new harvest and husbandry to manage ; for I reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets, till I
had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash
it with. ‘

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns
bigger ; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so
much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more ;
insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely ; for my bread had been quite




gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a




whole year, and to sow but once a year. .



Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more
than I could consume in a year ; soI resolved to sow just the same quantity every year



CS =
ROBINSON CRUSOE. =





ty ‘
We that T sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with W/
WW bread, &e. wy



upon the prospect of land which T had seen from the other side of the island ; and I ¥



All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many times \ f
if y

was not without secret wishes that T was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the \
main-land, an lan inhabited country, [ might find some way or other to convey myself \} if\
farther, and perhaps ‘fat Jast find some means of escape. F
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition, and
how T might fall into the hands of

g think fir worse than the lions and tigers of Att



rages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to





vu: that if I once came into their power

x

I should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of
being eaten ; for I had heard that the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or
men-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore : that
suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had
fallen into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty



siden



together—much more I, that was but one, and could make little or no defence; all these

things, Tsay, which I ought to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my thoughts



afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily

upon the thought of getting over to that shore.
Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-mutton

a

sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa ; but this was in

gs



vain: then I thought E would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said,

ep eee

was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite, and -was turned, by the force of the
waves and the winds, alnost bottom upward, against the high ridge of beachy, rough sand,
but no water about her as before. If I had lad hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have

22

gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough ; but I might have easily foreseen that

soem.

TI could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than TI could remove

ey

the island ; however, I went to the wool, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them

















to the boat, resolved to try what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but
turn her down, I might easily repair the damage she had received, and she would be
a very good boat, and Tinight go to sea in her very easily.

T spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or
four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sud, to undermine it.and so to make it full down, setting
pieces of wood to thrust an] guide it right in the fall.

But when T had done this, Twas unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much
less to move it forward towards the water; so IT was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main in-
ereased, rather than decrease], as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even withou- tools, or, as
Iimight say, without hands—viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
porsible, but e:
with my having much more convenience for it than any of the Negroes or Indians ;



, and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making it, and



but not at all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more than
the Indians did, viz, want of hands to move it into the water when it was made—a

RI





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Bee
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them. For what was it to me, that when I had chosen a vast tree in the
wood, I might with great trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with my tools to
hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside
to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just
there where 1 found it, and was not able to launch it into the water ? .

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my mind of
my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I should have immediately thought
how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over
the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the land: and it was
really, in 1ts own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than
about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came
often into my head; but IT put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other
to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and
to work I went, and felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the building the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the
end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree. I was twenty
days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour ; after this, it cost me a month to
shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it
might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the
inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mullet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a
very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and
consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it. The boat
was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no
question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be
performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost infinite
labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the
first inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity.
This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have
their deliverance in view?) ; but when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe thdn I could
the other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to











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HIS FOURTH ANNIVERSARY. Ee Ry

the water. Well, I began this work ; and when I began to enter into it, and calculate

how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the Stuff was to be thrown out, I found

. that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or

twelve years before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high that
at the upper end it mutt have be n at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though
with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of beginning a
work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to go
through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept my
anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by
a constant study and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of
his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before. I entertained
different notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which
Thad nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a
word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have. So I thought it
looked, as we may perhaps look upon an hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but
was come out of it; and well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “ Between
me and thee is a great gulf fixed.” ; ;

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here ; I had
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. 1 had nothing
to covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole
manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole country
which I had possession of. There were no rivals ; I had no competitor, none to dispute
sovereignty or command with me. I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had
no use for it ; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tor-
toises or turtles enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any use,
T had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have
made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been
built. j

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had enough to eat and to
supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me? If I killed more flesh than I
could eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin ; if I sowed more corm than I could eat, it
must be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground; I could
make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my
food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no further good to us than they are for our
use; anc that, whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy as much as we
can use,and no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed in-
finitely more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was
of things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me.
T had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six
pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay! I had no manner of

_ business for it ; and J often thought with myself that I would have given a handful of it

for a gross of tobacco-pipes : or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have
given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful





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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by 1t,
or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the
cave in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the -
same case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at first.
and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat
with thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and te consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted ;
and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them ; and
which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet something that
he has not given them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to me to
spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to any one that
should fall into such distress as mine was ; and this was, to compare my present condition
with what I at first expected it would be ; nay, with what it would certainly have been,
if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer
to the shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of
her to the shore, for my relief and comfort ; without which, I had wanted for tools to
work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, in the most
lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of theship. How T could
not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles ; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first ; that I should have lived, if 1
had not perished, like a mere savage ; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any con-
trivance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels,
or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to me, and
very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes : and this
part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, “Is any aflliction like mine?” Let them consider how much worse the cases of
some people are, and their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

Thad another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with hopes ;
and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved, and had there-
fure reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful site. perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by father and
mother ; neither had they been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a
religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature and end
of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the scafaring life, which, of
all lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are always before
them ; I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring company, all that
little sense of religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates ;
by a hardened despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me ;
by my long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with anything but

} what was like myself, or ta hear anything of what was good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what I was, or was

to be, that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee ; my
88 ae y





Full Text
4



THE
LIFE AND ADVENTURES
OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

&.




DEFOE

DANIEL


|
|
1









Poe aie

AND

STRANGE SURPRISING ADVENTURES

OF

ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Of York, Mariner.

AS RELATED BY HIMSELF.

BY

DANIEL DEFOE.

With upwards of One Hundred Illustrations.

CASSELL PETTER & GALPIN:

LONDON, PARIS & NEW YORK.











LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

—=>>«0<0
CRUSOE ON THE IsLAND ... en x6 nen ee see oes
CrUsoE ADVISED BY HIs FaTHER ... s oo or ea .
Tue Surpwreck IN YarmourH Roaps... ose eee oe oe

Tue ATTack BY THE SALLEE RovER
CrusoE A SLAVE ... Ea

CRUSOE ESCAPES WITH XURY pee
CrusoE PICKED UP BY THE PorTucuEse SHIP
CRUSOE AND THE PLANTERS ...

Tue SHIPWRECK ... oe

Crusoe Loapine HIS Raft ... 5 Soe a
CRUSOE MAKES A LITTLE TENT WITH A SaIL ...
Crusoz writine His JOURNAL ue
Crusor Discovers Goats on THE IsLAND

Crusoe DISCOVERS THE Barter

Tae Wreck a

Crusoe FINDS A TURTLE

CRUSOE ILL READING THE BIBLE

CRUSOE MAKING BasKETS

CrusoE IN HIS Bower ... ae ss

Crusor LEADING THE Youne Kn ...

CRUSOE sowING CoRN Bee ae

CRUSOE TEACHES HIS PARROT TO TALK

CRUSOE MAKES A Boat ...

CRUSOE MAKING A CoaT

CRUSOE SAILS OUT OF HIs CREEK

Crusor at DINNER oe ao ao
Crusor sEES A Foor-PrintT IN THE SAND

CRUSOE MILKING Goats oe a nee
Crusor FENCES A Pappock ror HIs Goats...
Crusoz on THE Look-our on THE Hu ...
Crusoe Fivps A Dyine Goat

CRusoE 1N HIs Fort... , BAS
CrvsoE visits THE SPANISH SHIP
CRUSOE SLEEPING IN HIS Boat

CrusoE AND Frmay oo
Fray Boryine THE Deap ...

Crusor anp Fripay ovr SHoorine
Crusog INSTRUCTING FRAY _

Crusoz AND Frmay oN THE Hitt
Crusoe aND FRipay FELLING Woop
CRUSOE RESCUES THE SPANIARD ae
CRUSOE CONFERRING WITH THE SPANIARD
CrUsoE sEES AN EncuisH SHIP ... ap Es
Crusoz Discovers Himsexr To THE ENGLISH CAPTAIN ...
Tue Morineers ... Be ae

Tae MuriNgers OVERPOWERED

DEATH OF THE REBEL Capraln ... : on eee
Tse CapraIN HUNG AT THE YaRD-ARM Eee
Crusoe arrives aT Lisson es aaa



137
141
145
149
153
157
16L
165
169
173
177
181
185
189









peer Mt a ue ekg i
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



CrusoE’s TROOP ON THE MARCH... oe aoe oo 2

Fariay AND THE BER ... aaa eee oo cn aaa oot eee e
THe WOLVES DRIVEN OFF ... aoe ae pee eee oes eos

CrusoOE Marriep ... oe ase oe pee ox on ct ese ase
Crusor’s Farm aT BEDFORD... a as Bs pes aa eee ees ‘
Tue French Suip on Fire... Pe oe eee ose .

Tue REscuED CREW ON DECK OF Crvsor’s Su ..
DismasTED VESSEL AT SEA

Frmay aND HIS FATHER

OrvusoE WELCOMED BY THE SraxuazD

Tse Pirate Firinc THE Hut

Tue VaGRANTS IN THE Woops ...

SPANIARD PROTECTING THE SavaGe...

THE PriraTES LEAVING THE IsLAND

SpanisH VILLAGE

SEIZURE OF SLEEPING SAVAGES .. 5

THe ENGLISHMEN BIND THE Savage TOA TREE Bes
A Barrie .. ee

Wit ATEING TENT . z
CRUSOE AND THE SPANIARD OONVERSING TOGETHER
Crusoz’s FarewEtL ADVICE...

Group or Hours unDER THE HILL

CRUSOE OONVERSING WITH THE PRIEST

CRUSOE AND THE PRIEST... as ees oo = os aoe
Wu ATKINS AND HIS WIFE... ae eae aa cae ee cee
Wu Artsins, Crusoz, AND PRIEsT

Priest anp Necro Woman ...

Crusor GIVEs ATKINS A BIBLE...

FaREWELL TO THE ISLAND

Freer oF CaNoes...

Tue Bortat or Fray

Tue Care or Goop Hore Pe aaa Fs soe
CRUSOE ARRIVES AT MapaGascaR ... a ant eee ane one
Burying THE VILLAGE

Tae Mommy ... 2 =
SaILING THROUGH THE corer OF pinaeccall
Cuasep By Boats

Stoprinc Leaks IN THE Su

TARRING THE BLAcKs .. oe

CRUSOE ENTERING A Cuixese Port Ee
CrusoE INTRODUCED TO A CHINESE MERCHANT
Tue City oF NaNkIN

Crusoe visits Prniy ... a

Tae Great Watt or Curva

Tue TartaR ARMY ae

FLIGHT OF THE TarrTars...

CRUSOE AND THE Tartar Ipo1

Crusoz anp Party In Tartary

CRUSOE CROSSES THE DESERT IN arene
CRUSOE ARRIVES AT TOBOLSK

Crusoe axD THE Russian Exe

SHIP LEAVING ARCHANGEL

= ‘ a
URE Me <= -

viii

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393
INTRODUCTION.

aa tng ae

FOE published “ Robinson Crusoe” in 1719, under the
following quaint title: “The Life and Strange Surpris-
® ing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner :
~ who lived eight-and-twenty years all alone in an unin-
habited island on the coast of America, near the mouth

°
of the great River Oroonoque; having been cast on shore



{ Written by himself.”

j Like ‘Paradise Lost,” this romance, destined to so immediate and
lasting a popularity, is said to have been offered to ‘the whole circle
of the trade” before any publisher could be found willing to incur
the risk of producing it. William Taylor, cf the Ship, in Paternoster Row,
finally agreed to purchase it, for, it is believed, a very moderate sum of
money. He is said to have realised £1,000 profit. Its success was so great
that four editions were printed in as many months. It appeared, in the first
instance, with the following preface :—

If ever the story of any private man’s adventures in the world were worth making
public, and were acceptable when published, the Editor cf this account thinks this will
be so.

The wonders of this man’s lifo exceed all that (he thinks) is to be found extant; the
life of one man being scarce capable of a greater variety. ;

The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and with a religious application of
events to the uses to which wise men always apply them; viz., to the instruction of others,
by this example, and to justify and honour the wisdom of Providence in all the variety of
circumstances, let them happen how they will.

The Editor believes the thing to be a just history of fact; neither is there any
appearance of fiction in it: and however thinks, because all such things are disputed, that
the improvement of it, as well to the diversion as to the instruction of the reader, will be the
same; and as such, he thinks, without farther compliment to the world, he does them a
great service in the publication.

There is no truth in the story, so often repeated, that “ Robinson Crusoe”
was the first tale published ina serial form. That it did appear in a journal called ~

b ix




INTRODUCTION.

“The Original London Post, or Heathcote’s Intelligence,” is a fact beyond
dispute. We have, however, carefully compared the tale as it there appears with
the original edition. It is manifestly a pirated copy. Just so much of the work
is printed as contains the story, with all the reflections omitted.. Besides, the date
of publication is subsequent, by a few months, to the time when we know the
complete work appeared.

The great success of the first part induced De Foe to write a second, which
was published in August, 1719; Part I. having appeared in the previous April.
A map of the world accompanied it, to give a greater appearance of truth to the
tale, on which the travels of Crusoe were indicated, and its proper place assigned
to the island.

In the following preface to it the author lashes with deserved severity the

conduct of those who had published pirated and abridged editions of his work :—

The success the former part of this work has met with in the world has yet been no
other than is acknowledged to be due to the surprising variety of the subject, and to the
agreeable manner of the performance.

All the endeavours of enyious people to reproach it with being a romance, to search it
for errors in geography, inconsistency in the relation, and contradictions in the fact, have
proved abortive, and as impotent as malicious.

The just application of every incidext, the religious and useful inferences drawn from
every part, are so many testimonies to the good design of making it public, and must
legitimate all the part that may be called invention or parable in the story.

The second part, if the Editor’s opinion may pass, is (contrary to the usage of second
parts) every way as entertaining as the first; contains as strange and surprising incidents,
and as great a variety of them; nor is the application less serious or suitable; and doubtless
will, to the sober as well as ingenious reader, be every way as profitable and diverting; and
this makes the abridging this work as scandalous as it is knavish and ridiculous; seeing, to
shorten the book, that they may seem to reduce the value, they strip it of all those re-
flections, as well religious as moral, which are not only the greatest beauties of the work,
but are calculated for the infinite advantage of the reader.

By this, they leave the work naked of its brightest ornaments; and yet they would
(at the same time they pretend that the Author has supplied the story out of his in-
vention) take from it the improvement, which alone recommends that invention to wise and
good men.

The injury these men do to the proprietors of works is a practice all honest men
abhor; and they believe they may challenge them to show the difference between that and
robbing on the highway or breaking open a house.

If they can’t show any difference in the crime, they will find it hard to show why
there should be any difference in the punishment.

A few words on the source whence the author derived the idea of his romance
will be appropriate in this place. We can hardly doubt that De Foe conceived
the idea of “ Robinson Crusoe”’ from the story of Alexander Selkirk. This
man’s adventures had been made public, and excited considerable attention, seven

years before the publication of “ Robinson Crusoe.” Wilson, the biographer of
‘ x
INTRODUCTION.

De Foe, says, “His real name was Seleraig, which he changed to that of Selkirk,
when he went to sea. He was born at Largo, in the county of Fife, in 1676,
and, after a common school education, was put to his father’s business, which
was that of a shoemaker. Being a spoiled child, he soon discovered a way ward-
ness of temper that gave much uneasiness to his parents; whilst an early pro-
pensity to the sea rendered his employment irksome. At length an incident
occurred that put him upon indulging his humour ; for, being brought under
church-censure for irregular conduct when he was eighteen years of age, rather
than submit, he suddenly left home, and was never heard of for six years. It
is supposed that he was with the buccaneers in the South Seas. In 1701 we find
him again at Largo, but the same intractable person as ever, being engaged in
constant broils with his family. As the sea was his favourite element, he did not
continue long in Scotland, but, going to London, engaged with Captain Dampier
upon a cruising expedition to the South Seas. This was the voyage that: rendered
his subsequent history so interesting to the lovers of romance.

“Being appointed sailing-master of the Cinque Ports galley, a companion
to the St. George, commanded by Dampier, he left England in the spring of
1703, and, after various adventures, both vessels reached the island of Juan
Fernandez in the following February. After staying some time to re-fit, they
sailed again in quest of booty ; but’a violent quarrel arising between Selki rk and
his commander, Stradling, which settled into a rooted animosity, the former
resolved to take the first opportunity of leaving the vessel. This occurred at the
beginning of September, 1704, when her crazy state obliged Stradling to return
to Juan Fernandez for fresh repairs; which being completed, Selkirk bid a final
adieu to his comrades at the end of the same month. Upon this island he lived
by himself four years and four months, until he was released by Captain Woodes
Rogers, in the month of February, 1709. He was then engaged as a mate on
board of Rogers’ ship, the Duke, and accompanied him during the remainder of
the expedition, conducting himself much to the satisfaction of his employer. At
length, after a long and fatiguing cruise, Selkirk arrived in England, in the
month of October, 1711, with a booty of £800, after an absence of rather more
than eight years.” *

Like Crusoe, Selkirk could not settle to a quiet life on shore; his rest-
less nature drove him again to sea; and he is said to have died on board ship in
1723. On his first appearance in London he attracted a good deal of attention,
and Sir Richard Steele gave an account of his residence on the island, and his

* Wilson’s “ De Foe,” vol. iii., p. 448.
xt


INTRODUCTION.



feelings while there, in a paper published in a journal called “The English-
man.”

We do not attach the slightest importance to a story dictated by the male-
volence of De Foe’s political enemies, that Selkirk placed a manuscript, detailing
his adventures, in De Foe’s hands for publication; but that, instead of doing
justice to him, he applied the materials so obtained to his own use. The best
authorities have deliberately rejected this idle tale.

In so far as Selkirk passed a certain number of years on an uninhabited
island, he may be truly said to have furnished the idea of Crusoe; but if we are
compelled to admit that he is the central figure in the picture, the subordinate
figures, the grouping, and the scenery are altogether due to the genius of
De Foe. Herein he affords an exact parallel to Shakespeare, who derived the
plots of his immortal dramas, now from an Italian romance, now from passing
events,

Whatever may have been the origin of the tale, however virulent may have
been the attacks made against its author, as he himself says, by political enemies
and senseless critics, the judgment of the most enlightened men of all nations
has placed “¢ Robinson Crusoe” upon a height which no sounds of animosity can
now reach: What pleasure has this wonderful tale given, and still gives, to all
readers! Young and old, rich and poor, find in its pages an unfailing source of
pure delight.

It blends instruction with amusement in a way no other production of human
intellect has ever succeeded in doing. While depicting a solitary individual
struggling against misfortune, it indicates the justice and the mercy of Providence ;
and while inculeating the duty of self-help, asserts the complete dependence of
man upon a higher power for all he stands in need of.

If we consider novels in their relation to life, “ Robinson Crusoe ” must win
the prize for truthfulness and reality. How naturally the incidents occur i
There is no deference shown by the author to the exigencies of his story, nor
to dramatic effect. The characters appear as they do in real life—exercise some
influence for good or evil on the principal figure in the tale—and then disappear,
to be seen no more. Take, for instance, Xury. Would not a novelist of less
power have brought him forward, over and over again, after he had once introduced
him as the faithful friend of the hero? But De Foe saw fit to do otherwise.
Xury is brought upon the stage ; assists the escape of the chief personage in the
drama ; and is seen no more. Is not this the way of real life ?

Nor does the effect of reality stop here. So natural are all the characters,

XI
INTRODUCTION.





that we seem to know them personally—to be ourselves assisting at the scenes
recorded in it.

For these excellencies the learned and the good have uniformly persisted in
singling out “Robinson Crusoe” for special commendation. To mention only
two—Ronsseau held that it was the book a boy should read first and read longest.
Dr. Johnson remarked, ‘ Was there ever anything written hy mere man that was
wished longer by its readers, excepting ‘Don Quixote,’ ‘ Robinson Crusoe,’ and
the ‘ Pilgrim’s Progress ?’””

In conclusion, we present to our readers the touching lines in which Cowper

supposes Alexander Selkirk to record his feelings :—

I am monarch of all I survey,
My right there is none to dispute ;
From the centre all round to the sea,
I am lord of the fowl and the brute.
O Solitude! where are the charms
That sages have seen in thy face ?
Better dwell in the midst of alarms,
Than reign in this horrible place.

I am out of humanity’s reach,
I must finish my journey alone,

Never hear the sweet music of speech—
I start at the sound of my own.

The beasts, that roam over the plain,
My form with indifference see ;

They are so unacquainted with man,
Their tameness is shocking to me.

Society, friendship, and love,
Divinely bestow’d upon man,
Oh! had I the wings of a dove,
How soon would I taste you again!
My sorrows I then might assuage
In the ways of religion and truth,
Might learn from the wisdom of ago,
And be cheer’d by the sallies of youth.

Religion! what treasure untold
Resides in that heavenly word!
_More precious than silver and gold,
Or all that this earth can afford. ~
But the sound of the church-going bell
These valleys and rocks never heard,
Never sigh’d at the sound of a knell,
Or smiled when a Sabbath appear’d.

Ye winds, that have made me your sport,
Convey to this desolate shore
Some cordial, endearing report
Of a land I shall visit no more.
xiii


INTRODUCTION.

My friends, do they now and then send
A wish or a thought after me ?

Oh! tell me I yet have a friend,
Though a friend I am never to see.

How fleet is a glance of the mind!
Compared with the speed of its flight,
The tempest itself lags behind,
And the swift-wing’d arrows of light.
When I think of my own native land,
In a moment I seem to be there ;
But, alas! recollection at hand
Soon hurries me back to despair.

But the sea fowl is gone to her nest,
The beast is laid down in his lair ;
Even here is a season of rest,
And I to my cabin repuir.
There’s mercy in every place,
And mercy, encouraging thought!
Gives even affliction a grace,
And reconciles man to his lot.














































































































































































































































































































































































































ORCS

S

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of
Th York, of a good family, though not of
that country, my father being a foreigner,
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he
got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York ; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robin-
son, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was called Robinson Kreutz-
naer ; but, by the usual corruption of words \(j
in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; ,
and so my companions always called me. oy
TS
,














































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.





I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment
of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what was become of me.

Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my head began
to be filled very early with rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as house-education and a country
free-school generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied
with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly
against the will, nay, the commands, of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befall me. .

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent counsel against
what he foresaw was my design. He called me one morning into his chamber, where
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject :
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving
my father’s house and my native country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring,
superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road ;
that these things were all either too far above me or too far below me; that mine was
the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the world, the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, an
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the happiness of
this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of life which all other people
envied ; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable consequence of being born
to great things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes,
between the mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.

He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities of life
were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the middle station
had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean or
insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the natural
consequences of their way of living ; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments ; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune ; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the middle
station of life ; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and
comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the head, not
sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances,
, which rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the p.ssion of “y
£. O 4 ost




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SOON ee Ge
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= CRUSOE AT HOME. *





‘envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things ; but, in easy circum-
~ stances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, j
without the bitter ; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day’s experience §¥
to know it more sensibly, i f
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate manner, not to play YW
the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries which Nature, and the station of \|
life I was born in, seemed to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity of ]
seeking my bread ; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me; and thatifI was 4
not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or fault that must
hinder it ; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty in warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt ; in a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed, so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away ; and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an HY
example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could net prevail, his young desires prompting him to 3f¥
run into the army, where he was killed ; and though he said he would not cease to bs
pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,God
would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected



his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.

I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly prophetic, though I
suppose my father did not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the tears run
down his face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;

Fy and that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
5y° so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could say
i no more to me,

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be otherwise? and
ey I resolved not to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father’s desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of my
father’s further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily neither as the first heat of my resolution
prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought her a little more pleasant
© than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with
it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I
was now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to
an attorney ; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time, but I should
certainly run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.

This put my mother into a great passion ; she told me she knew it would be to no
purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject ; that he knew too well what was
my interest to give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she °
wondered how I could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
“sther, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me ;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might






depend I shodld never have their consent to it ; that for her part, she would not have
so much hand in my destruction ; and I should never have it to say that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
ice Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard afterwards that she
iS reported all the discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a great concern
| at it, said to her with a sigh: “That boy might be happy if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born ; I can
give no consent to it.”

Tt was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in the mean time,
I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently
expostulated with my father and mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time ; but I say, being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London
in his father’s ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the common allurement of
a seafaring man, that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it ; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God’s blessing, or my father’s, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the

a A f = aRS 5 g

= Bey Stee
= ROBINSON CRUSOE. H

rd



G

a

ee —__
——F A

i a Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
Wy, = adventurer’s misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer than mine. The
1 ship was no sooner got out of the Humber than the wind began to blow, and the

sea to rise in a most frightful manner ; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to
reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father’s house, and abandoning my duty. All
the good counsels of my parents, my father’s tears and my mother’s entreaties, came
now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of 7
hardness to which it has come since, reproached me with the contempt of advice, and
the breach of my duty to God and my father. :

All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few days after ; but it was
W*) enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything
of the matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every 4
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we <
should never rise more : in this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that
if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot
upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into a
ship again while I lived ; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and, in short, I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm lasted, and indeed
some time after ; but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began
to be a little inured to it: however, 1 was very grave for all that day, being also a
BH little sea-sick still ; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, )
and a charming fine evening followed ; the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so. \y Y





me eR
< :

S



\

a.
—







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CRUSOE ADVISED BY HIS FATHER,
ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the next morning ; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upo:
it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.

I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very cheerful,
looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion who had enticed me away comes to me.

“Well, Bob,” says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, “how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n’t you, last night, when it blew but a capful of
wind ?” ‘

“A capful d’you call it?” said I ; “’twas a terrible storm.”

“A sterm, you fool, You !” replies he ; “do you call that a storm? why, it was
nothing at all; give us buta good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a
squall of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a
bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d’ye see what charming weather.’tis now ?”

To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors ; the punch
was made, and I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night’s wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, all my resolutions _
for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the- vows and promises that
I made in my distress. I found, indeed,some intervals of reflection ; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook them off,
and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying myself to drink-
ing and company, soon mastered the return of those fits, for so I called them ; and I
had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over my conscience as any young
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. -But I was to have another
trial for it still ; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me
entirely without excuse ; for if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to
be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch among us: would confess both
the danger and the mercy. :

The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads ; the wind having
been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing
contrary, viz. at-south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads, as the common harbour where the ships

fe. might wait for a wind for the River.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up the river,
but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had Jain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as an harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-masts, and make everything snug and close, that the ship might -
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had eome
home ; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we'rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.






© £3
S f sors

EAS =a aS

CRUSOE’S FIRST VOYAGE.








3



Ja By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see terror and \
7 amazement in ihe faces even of the seamen themselves, The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I al

| a could hear him softly to himself say, several times, “ Lord, be merciful to us! we shall J
Mis be all lost ! we shall be all undone!” and the like. During these first hmries I was i}
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe NH
my temper. I could ill resume the first penitence which I had so apparently trampled ;

<—

upon, and hardened myself against : I thought the bitterness of death had been past,
and that this would be nothing too, like the first ; but when the master himself came by
me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got
up out of my cabin, and looked out ; but such a dismal sight I never saw ; the sea ran



mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships that rode near us, we found,
had cut their masts by the board, being deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship
which rode about a mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not
witha mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in the
sea ; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away with only

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their spritsail out before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to let them
cut away the fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do ; but the boatswain protest-
ing to him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented ; and when they had
cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut that away also, and make a clear deck.

And oxe must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who was but a young
sailor, and who had been ir. such # fright before at but a little. Butif I can express at
this distance the thoughts ¥ had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of



mind upon account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions J had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself ; and these, added
to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the
yeamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We hada good ship,
but she was deep Jaden, and wallowed in the sea, so that the seamen every now and
then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not
know what they meant by founder, till I inquircd. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw, what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak ;
another said, there was four fect water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
pump. At that word, my heart, as 1 thought, died within me ; and I fell backwards
upon the side of my.bed, where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me,
aud told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well.able to pump as
another ; at which I stirred up, and wert to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out
the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, )
thought the ship had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so }
ROBINSON CRUSOE.



surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his own
life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had
been dead ; and it was a great while before I came to myself.

We worked on ; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent that the ship
would founder ; and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for
help ; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us ; bit it was impossible for us
to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship’s side, till at last the men rowing
very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after much
labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got all
into their boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, aftus we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to their own ship ; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
in towards shore as much as we could; and our master promised them, that if the boat
was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master: so partiy rowing, and
partiy driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost
as far as Winterton Ness.

‘We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till we saw her
sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant by a ship foundering in
the sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me
she was sinking ; for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than that
T might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.

While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to bring the
boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the waves, we were able to
see the shore) a great many people running along the strand, to assist us when we
should come near ; but we made but slow way towards the shore ; nor were we able
to reach the shore till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and
walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us sufficient to
carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.

Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone home, I had
been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour’s parable, had even killed
the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away in
Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any assurances that I was not
drowned.

But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could resist ; and
though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment,
to go home, yet I had no power to doit. I know not what to call this, nor will I
\ urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against

8 :









































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



the calm reasonings and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
- such visible obstructions as I had met with in my first attempt.

My comrade, who had helped to harden mz before, and who was the master’s son,
was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke to me after-we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters ; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ;
and looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did, and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order

. to go farther abroad : his father turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
“Young man,” says he, “ you ought never to go to sea any more ; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man.” “ Why, sir,”
said I, “will you go to sea no more?” “That is another case,” said he ; “it is my
calling, and therefore my duty ; but as you made. this voyage for a trial, you see what
a taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this
has all be‘allen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,” con-
tinues he, “what are.you ; and on what account did you go to sea?” Upon that I

“told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out into a strange kind of

“passion : “ What had I done,” says he, “ that such an unhappy wretch should come into

‘ my ship? I would not set my foot in the same skip with thee again for a thousand
pounds.” This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet

" ‘agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.

_ However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back. to my
father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible hand of
Heaven against me. “And, young man,” said he, “dépend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father’s words are fulfilled upon you.”

We parted soon after, for I made him little auswer, and I saw him no more ; which
way he went I know not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to
London by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with.myself
what course of life I should take, and whether I should:go home or go to sea.

As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts ;
and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even everybody else ;
from whence I have often since observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in
such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent ; not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only ean make them be esteemed wise men.

In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what measures to
take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home ; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little motion I ha.l in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.

That evil influence which ¢arried me first away from my father’s house, which
hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune ; and that
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, .

"and to the entreaties and even the commands of my father : I say, the same influence,
whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate of aii enterprises to my view; and I















































A253 &> a 2
~ = J = i A PE \ :
= ZN CRUSOE IN LONDON..-
ne =:
Nid went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa ; or, us our sailors vulgarly call
i gary
H iy it, a voyage to Guinea.* ;
fi It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship myself as a

sailor ; when, though I might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at
he the same time I should have learnt the duty and office of a foremast man, ard in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it

Wes



was always my fate to choose for the worst, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman ; and so I neither had any business in the ship nor learnt to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London, which does

<<

not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was ; the devil
generally not omitting to lay some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with
me. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Guinea ; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved to go again ; this
captain taking a fancy tu my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that
time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion ;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of it that the
trade would admit ; and perhaps I might meet with some encouragemeut.

I embraced the offer ; and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who
was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I
increased very considerably ; for I carried about £40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This £40 I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.

("|
HI



































This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my adventures, and
which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain ; under whom also I
got a competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how
to keep an account of the ship’s course, take an observation, and, in short, to under-
stand some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor ; for, as he took delight
to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant ; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost £300 ; and this filled me
with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin.

Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too ; particularly, that I was con-
tinually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the climate;
our principal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north,
y even to the line itself.

I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great misfortune,
dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in
the same vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the
command of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite £100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had £200 left
which I had lodged with my friend’s widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into

* Guinea.—A district of that part of the West Coast of Africa where the land runs nearly due cast and

west. The six countries into which it is divided are known to sailors under the names of Sierra Leone,
Grain Coast, Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Slave Coast, and Benin,
































































































































































































































































































































knee ode echg aoa

SS) ; —S
Sy =
= —S


terrible misfortunes in this voyage ; and the first was this, viz, our ship making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African
shore, was surprised in the grey of the morning by a Moorish rover of Sullee, who gave
chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also'as much canvas as our
yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear ; but finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, insteal of athwart our
stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured ina
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pour-
ing in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board. However,
we had nota man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again,
and we to defend ourselves ; but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and
hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this
melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men killed, and
eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
12








sea
il





















The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended ; nor was
I carried up the country to the Emperor’s court, as the rest of our men were, but
Jwas kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, |
{ being young and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change of HA
my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over- Vu)
g&YA\ whelmed ; and now I looked back upon my father’s prophetic discourse to me,. Lyx
that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me; which I thought was AG)
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse; for now the 9 Ki
hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption. But (G2
alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in Al
\, the sequel of this story. EX
As my new patron por master, had taken me home to his house, so I-was in ~ @
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portu- 1B
guese man-of-war ; and that then I should be set at liberfy. But this hope of Pegry,
mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to I,
look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his 7)
) house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in 4 S)
Y)\\) the cabin to look after the ship. i)

S35





















F


oer reat 2

ey rap rg Stent

obo

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take to
effect it; but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational ; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but
myself; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet
I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.

After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put the old
thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at
home longer than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used, constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing ; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very mzrry, and
I proved very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Moresco, as they callei him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.

It happened one time, that going a-fishing with him in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick, that though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it ; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night ;
and when the morning cane, we found we had pulled out to sea instead of pul’_ag in for
the shore ; and that we were at least two leagues from the land. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger; for the wind
began to blow pretty fresh in the morning ; but particularly we were all very hungry.

But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of himself
for the future ; and having lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and
some provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a ‘little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-
sheet ; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed
with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top of
the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to-lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink ; and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.

We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing ; and as I was most dexterous
to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened that he had ap-
pointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three

Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordi-:

narily, and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of pro-
visions than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils* with powder
and shot, which were on board his ship, for that they designed some spout of fowling
as well as fishing.”

I got all things ready as he had directed ; and waited the next morning with

Hm the boat washed clean, her ancientt and pendants out, and everything to accommo-

date his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board alone, and told me his

eee

guests had put off going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with p~g@g

the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for

34 Fusil, a French word, meaning a light musket or firelock.
+ Ancient, the old word, derived from the French enseiyne, for a flag, or the man who carries it.




; Tee X
CRUSOE MAKES HIS ESCAPE. AN



that his friends were to sup at his house ; he commanded me too, that as soon as I had |
got some fish, I should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.

This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts, for now
I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command ; and my master being
gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though
I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I would steer ; for anywhere
to get ont of that place was my desire.

My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor, to get some-
thing for our subsistence on board ; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron’s bread. He said, that was true ; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit
of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron’s
case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore,
as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-
wax into the boat, which weighed about half an hundredweight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us after-
wards, especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which
he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ;
so I called to him :—* Moely,” said I, “our patron’s guns are all on board the boat ;
can you not get a little powder and shot? It may be we may kill some alcamies (2
fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner’s stores in the
ship.” “Yes,” says he, “I’ll bring some :” accordingly, he brought a great leather pouch,
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more ; and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat. At
the same time, I had found some powder of my master’s in the great cabin, with which
I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another ; and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of
the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us ; and we were not above a mile out of the port before we
hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E., which
was contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made
/ the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.

After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had fish on my hook
I would not pull them up, that he might not see them, I said to the Mvor, “This will
2, not do; our master will not be thus served ; we must stand farther off” He, think-
, ing no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had
the helm, I ran the boat out-near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I
would fish ; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was,
and making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose im-
mediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, telling me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but little wind ; upon which I stepped ,
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told
him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: “But,”
said J, “you swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is caim; make the


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you come near the
boat, Pll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty.” So he
turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it
with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and have drowned the
boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned to tke
boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him, “ Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I’ll
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,” that
is, swear by Mahomet and his father’s beard, “I must throw you into the sea too.”
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.

While I was in the view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out directly
to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they might think me gone
towards the Straits’* mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do): for who would have supposed we were sailing on to the
southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure
to surround us with their canoes, and destroy us ; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of
human kind ?

But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course, and steered
directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards the east, that I might
keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea,
I made such sail that I believe by the next day at three o’clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of
Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts, for we saw no people.

Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful apprehensions
I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an
anchor, the wind continuing fair, till T had sailed in that manner five days ; and then,
the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and
came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what nor where ; neither
what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired
to see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country ; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go
on shore till day. “Well, Xury,” said I, “then I won’t; but it may be we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions” “Then we give them the
shoot gun,” says Xury, laughing, “make them run wey.” Such English KXury spoke
by conversing among us slaves. | However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful,
and I gave him a dram (out of our patron’s case of bottles) to cheer him up. After
all, Xury’s advice was good, and I took it: we dropped our little anchor, and lay
\. still all night ; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the

~ Straits, the Straits of Gibraltar.






pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings aud yellings
that I never indeed heard the like. Z

Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were both more
\ frighted when we heard one mighty creature come swimming towards our boat ;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge,
and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know ;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. “No,” says I, “ Xury;
} we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far.”
, I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature, whatever it was, within two
oars’ length, which something surprised me ; however, I immediately stepped to the
cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned
about, and swam towards the shore again.

But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries and howlings
that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country, upon
the noise or report of a gun, a thing I have some reason to believe those creatures
had never heard before. This convinced me that there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad
as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at least we were equally appre-

hensive of the danger of it. 17










ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or other for water,
for we had not a pint left in the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said, if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so much affection, that made me love
him ever after. Says he, “If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey.” “Well,
Xury,” said I, “we will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us.” So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram out
of our patron’s case of bottles which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the boat in as
near the shore as we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing but
our arms, and two jars for water.

I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of canoes with
savages down the river ; but the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was
pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him ; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs ; however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the
great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen
no wild mans. -

But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water, for a little
higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature
in that part of the country.

As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well that the islands of
the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as-
I had no instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least not remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ; otherwise I might
now easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.

By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must be that country
which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco’s dominions and the negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness ; and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there ; so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.

Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe, being :
\ the high top of the mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind

fk, to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither ; but having tried twice, I was forced in

again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my little vessel ; so I resolved
to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.


OG : £3
SA a Sans
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SHOOTING A LION.







Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left this place ; and
once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little point
of land, which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
\ a farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls vy f
S: softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; “for,” says he, “look, j
"yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep.” I looked where VV A\
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay ft!
on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it werea WY
little over him. “Xury,” says I, “you shall go on shore and kill him.” Xury looked et A
frighted, and said, “Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;” one mouthful he meant. i ,
However, T said no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, j \
which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with
two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another gun with two bullets ; and the third
(for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I
could with the first piece to have shot him in the head, but he lay so, with his leg raised



2

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i

yj a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone. ®
| He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down again ; and then Nt
A got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a Pa
Y little surprised that I had not hit him on the head ; however, I took up the second i
H piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and shot him in iw
7

the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop; and making but little noise, he lay
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore.
“Well, go,” said I; so the boy jumped into the water, and taking the little gun in
one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature,
put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again, which

oe
—

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despatched him quite.

This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very sorry to lose
three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to us.
However, Xury said he would have some of him ; so he comes on board, and asked me
to give him the hatchet. “For what, Xury?” said I. “Me cut off his head,” said he.
However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.

I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or
other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us up both the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days’ time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve days, living
very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very much, and going no oftener
into the shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make
the River Gambia or Senegal ; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where
I was in hopes to meet with some European ship ; and if I did not, I knew not what
course I had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put
the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.

thn gS

=


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have said, I began
to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us ; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gore on shore to them ; but Kury was
my better counsellor, and said to me, “No go, no go.” However, I hauled in nearer
the shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way : I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who hadalong
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could throw them a great |
way with good aim: so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could ; and particularly made signs for something to eat: they beckoned to me to stop
my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country ; but we neither knew what the one or the other was: how-
ever, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
would not venture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.

We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them amends ; but
an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were
lying on the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it)
with great fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more
than we could tell whether it was usual or strange: but I believe it was the latter ;
because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night ;
and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the women.
The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did ; however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not offer to fall upon any of
the negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come
for their diversion : at last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible expe-
dition, and bade Kury load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sank down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for life, and
so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore ; but between the wound, which
was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the
shore.

It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at the noise and
fire of my gun ; some of them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as dead
with the very terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water, and
that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water : and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an
admirable degree ; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what
it was I killed him with.

The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the gun, swam to <
the shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor could I ,












































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



at that distance know what it was. I found quickly the negroes were for eating the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
which, when I made signs to them that they might take it, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and though they had no knife, yet, with
a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we would have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I
declined, making as if I would give jt them; but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to show that it
was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately to some of
their friends, and there came two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as stark
naked as the men.

Twas now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving
my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to
go near the shore, till T saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the
distance of four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large
offing tomake this point. At length, doubling the point at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward ; then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best do; for if I should be taken with a fresh gale of wind, I
might neither reach one or other. ‘

In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury
having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, “ Master, master, a ship with a
sail!”” and the foolish boy was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some
of his master’s ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it
was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to go any nearer the shore : upon which
I stretched out to the sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.

With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in their way,
but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal to them: but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of



UR

their perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must 7
belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was Ae
encouraged with this, and as I had my patron’s ancient on board, I made a waft of it to \
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me they Sy
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly @
ay








brought to, and lay by for me ; and in about three hours’ time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in Freach, but I
understood none of them ; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board, called tome: ¥
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman, that had made my escape }
out of slavery from the Moors at Sallee ; they then bade me come on board, and very Y
kindly took me in, and all my goods.

22


i =

=< WN f ——xal = ee = > e — —w es : I
A IN THE BRAZILS. A

N
AY It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was thus ,
j delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I
was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for it
my deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that
f A all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. “ For,” says he, !
y “TJ have saved your life on no other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself ; }
Ni and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides,” said he, “when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and then
I only take away that life I have given. No, no,” says he; “Seignor Inglese” (Mr.
Englishman), “I will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again.”
4 As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the performance to a tittle ;
f| for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to touch anything I had : then he took
H everything into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that
I might have them, even to my three earthen jars.

As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me he would buy
it of me for the ship’s use; and asked me what I would have for it. I told him, he
had been so generous to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he would give me a note
of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil ; and when it came there, if
any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight more for my boy Xury, which I was loth to take ; not that I was unwilling to
let the captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy’s liberty, who had
i assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let him know my
i reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
iy, an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian : upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.

We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de Todos los
Santos, or All Saints Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with
myself I was to consider.

The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough remember:
he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard’s
skin, and forty for the lion’s skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I
had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
. bought of me: such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
bees’-wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the
Brazils.









a
Po



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et>


















oes
SF

I had not been long here, but being recommended to the house of a good, honest
man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-
house), I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the
manner of their planting and making of sugar ; and seeing how well the planters lived, and
how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would
turn planter among them ; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of
letter of naturalisation, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money would



23 as
een ae ey arr
= a aa aes



OT ‘i SS
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A LAS
ROBINSON CRUSOE.



reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement ; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.

Thad a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents, whose *
name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, Vi
because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably together. My ¥ iy
stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else, \ if

for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come into {i
order ; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large Ad
piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted a
HB help ; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy ;
( Xury. Wh }
: | But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder. I had ny

no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote to my genius



. 3 ‘ : . if : , x

|, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father’s

fH house, and broke through all his good advice ; nay, I was coming into the very middle oe
y station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to before, and which, if is

{ I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed at home, and never fatigued oN

= 6, ° Ba
A inyself in the world, as I have done ; and I used often to say to myself, “I could have i
Ft done this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to AW

FH. do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a distance as never to
FL hear from any part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.”

af] iF In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost regret. I had
nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour; no work to be done, but
by the labour of my hands ; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon
some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been ;
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly
solitary life I reflected on, in an island, or mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in which, had I continued, I
had, in all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich,

I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the plantation, before
my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back ; for the ship
remained there, in providing her lading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months ; when, telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice :—“Seignor Inglese,” says -he (for so he always
called me), “if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with orders
to the person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such
persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them, God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred
pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first ; so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way ; and if it miscarry,
you may have the other half to have recourse to for your supply.”

This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but be
convinced it was the best course I could take ; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired.









LMU SEL

ai NE Wi

Mura Sof _

I wrote the English captain’s widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over not the order only, but a full account
of my story, to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her ; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the Portugal captain
a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.

The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English goods, such as the
captain had written for, sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all
safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made ; for I was surprised with the \
joy of it; and my good steward the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which WW
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years’ service, and wovld not accept of any consideration,
except a little tobacco, which I would kave him accept, being of my own produce.


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such as cloth,
stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them at a very great advantage ; so that I may say, I had more than
four times:the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour
_—I mean in the advancement of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I bought me
a negro slave, and an European servant also: I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.

_ But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our greatest
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great success in my plan-
tation : I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed
of for necessaries among my neighbours ; and these fifty rolls, being each of above a
hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the fleet from
Lisbon. And now increasing in business and wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as are indeed often the ruin of the
best heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for
all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly recom-
mended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of; but other things attended me, and I was still to be
the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to
make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my ¥
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction
to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects

and those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred to present me with,

and to make my duty.

As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could not be
content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriving
man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the

deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent. J

with life, and a state of health in the world.

To come then by just degrees to the particulars of this part of my story :—
‘You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning
to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the
language, but had contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvadore, which was our port; and that, in
wy discourse among them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages
to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase upon the coast for trifles—such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets,
bits of glass, and the like—not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephants’ teeth, éc., but
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads, but especially
to that part which related to the buying negroes ; which was a trade, at that time, not
only not fur entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assiento,
or permission of the King of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so
that few negroes were brought, and those excessively dear. :

It happened, being in company one day with some merchants and planters of my ac-
quaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next 4




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eo eek Sy

THE PLANTATION.

morning, and told me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed

of with them the last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing so
much as servants ; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negrues when they came home, so they desired to make but
one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own
plantations ; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in
the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ; and they offered me that
I should have my equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.

This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any one that had
not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair way
of coming to be very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that
was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had begun,
for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from
England ; and who in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed
of being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too—for me
to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in such
circumstances could be guilty of.

But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the offer,
than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my father’s good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would
undertake to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of jt as L
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings,
or covenants, to do so ; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped to England.

In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep up my
plantation, Had I used half as much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving alk
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to sea,
attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to ex-
pect particular misfortunes to myself.

But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy rather than
my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo finished,
and all things done as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the lst of September, 1659, being the same day eight years
that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.

Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six guns, and
feurteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the northward




TTS







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ROBINSON CRUSOE. A



“upon our own coasts, with design to stretch over for the African coast, when they came

into about ten or twelve degree: of northern latitude ; which, it seems, was the manner
of their course in those days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; from
whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N.E. by N., and leav-
ing those isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days
time, and were, by our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge. It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west, and then
settled into the north-east ; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, seudding away before it,
let it carry us wherever fate and the fury of the winds dirested ; and during these
twelve days, I need not. si





y that I expected every day to be swallowed up; nor
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this

the calenture, and a mun and a boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day,



‘ss we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our men diel of

the weather abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was in about eleven degrees of north latitude, but that he was twenty-two
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that lhe found he was
gotten upon the cuast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones,
towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River
to consult with me what course he should take ; for the ship was le:
disabled, and he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.

I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-coast of
America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to till we came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore resolved
to stand away for Barbadoes ; which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the
bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days sail ;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.

With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W. by W., in order to
reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief ; but our voyage was other-
wise determined ; for, being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages, than ever
returning to our own country.

In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early one
morning cried out, “ Land!” and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand,
and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a
manner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and we were
even driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray
of the sea.

It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to deseribe
or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances, We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven; whether an island or the main,



and now he began
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the rage of the wind was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
thinutes without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should

_ turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another world ;
for there was little or- nothing more for us to do in this ; that which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship having thus
struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in
a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but che was first
staved by dashing against the ship’s rudder, and in the next place she broke away, and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea ; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
‘was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.

In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold ef the boat, and with the help of
the rest of the men, they got her flung over the ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go,
:nd committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God’s mercy and the wild sea : for
though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.

And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly, that the sea
went so high, that the boat could not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we have done anything with it ;
so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution; for we all knew that when the boat came near the shore. she would

i. be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed

eur souls to God in the most earnest manner ; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could
towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we knew not ;
the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we
might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we. made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.

After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and an half, as we reckoned it,
a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the
coup de grace. Ina word, it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ;
and separating us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly
to say, “O God!” for we were all swallowed up in a moment.

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sank into the
water : for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so
as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on ‘
towards the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my






AFTER THE STORM. q














































feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as T could, before another |
wave should return and take me up again ; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid

it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy, j
which I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my |]
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could ; and so by swimming to preserve iF
my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore if possible, my greatest concern now
being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it came







































on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.

The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep
in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness
towards the shore a very great way ; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to
swim still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds
of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and
new courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my fret. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the waters went from me, and then
took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had, farther towards the shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.

The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for the sea having
hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock,
and that with such force, as it 1 ft me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own
deliverance ; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath as it were quite
out of my body ; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in
the water ; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should
be covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to
, hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so

high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched
another run, which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went
over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to carry me away ; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land ; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the

shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of



y
, the water.

I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank God that my
life was saved, in a case wherein there was some minutes before scarce any room to
hope. I believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports
of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I do not
wonder now at that custom, when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him—I say, I do
not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they
tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and

overwhelm him. 2 H
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole being, as I may say,
3 aia


O Lz
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ay ~e P a =
SEGRES
ROBINSON CRUSOE. ewe .





wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and
motions, which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned,
i and that there should not be one soul saved but myself ; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the sea being so
big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I
could get on shore ? é

After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition, I began to
() look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be done: and
I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance : for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or *
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly afflicting to me was, a
that I had no weapon, either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or p F
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In "( zt

:
x





a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a
box. This was all my provision ; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, thet
for a while I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy a
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their prey.

All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get up into a thick
bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all
night, and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect
of life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water
ta drink, which I did to my great joy ; and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in
my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut me a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and being exces-
sively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could
have done in my condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I think
I ever was on such an occasion.

When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm abated, so that
the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I
had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a

mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
) myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.

When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me again, and
the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and sea had tossed her up,
upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat
which was about half a mile broad ; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where-I hoped to find something for my present subsistence.

A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so far out, that I
could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing:
of my griet; for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe:

f ae







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that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not heen so miserable || { Ss

as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. al h aorcay se

This forced tears to my eyes again ; but as there was little relief in that,

I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, tor the weather was

hot to extremity, and took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was

still greater to know how to get on board ; for, as she Jay aground, and high out of the

water, there_was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and

the second time I espied a small piece of ropo, which 1 wondered I-did not see at first,
33





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N HE PAYS A VISIT TO THE WRECK. A
A whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what

it contained. : :

My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two very good | |

fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I secured first, with some ]

powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were }
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them ;
but with much search I found them, two of them:dry and good, the third had taken
water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.

Thad three encouragements : first, a smooth, calm sea ; secondly, the tide rising, and
setting in to the shore ; thirdly, what little wind there was blew me towards the land.
And thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the
tools which were in the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put
to sea. Fora mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive
a little distant from the place where I had landed before ; by which I perceived that
there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.

As T imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of the land.
I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided my raft as well as I
could, to keep in the middle of the stream.

But here I had liked to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think
verily would have broken my heart ; for, kuowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was afloat,
aud so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength ;
neither durst I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level ; and, a little after, the water still rising, my raft
floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for a proper
place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river ; hoping,
in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast
as I could.

At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which, with great
pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got so near, that reaching ground with
my oar, I could thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep—that is to say, sloping—
there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie
so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that

flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars









































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crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling piece,
with some small quantity of powder more ; a large bag-full of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet lead ; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship’s side.

Besides these things, I took all the men’s clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-
top sail, a hammock, and some bedding ; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brough: them all safe on shore, to my very great comfort.

I was under some apprehension during my absence from the land, that at least my
provisions might be devoured on shore ; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor ; only there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when T
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was perfectly
unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of
biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great ; how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it, and
looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.

Having got my second cargo on shore—though I was obliged to open the barrels of
powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks—I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that
purpose ; and into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun ; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to
fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or beast.

When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some boards within,
and an empty chest set up on end without ; and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night. I was very weary and heavy ;
for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well to
to fetch those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I believe, for one
man; but still I was not satisfied, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get everything out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or other ; but particularly the third time
I went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the sails
upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the

Wa time as I could, for they were no more useful to me for sails, but as mere canvas only.
4 But that which comforted me more still, was, that at last of all, after I had made five
or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with—I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of fine sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour: this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out ; and, in a word, I
got all this safe on shore also, though at several times. <

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the ship of what

sails, first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much ata ~

y




together with several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron 7}
ROBINSON MAKES PROVISION FOR THE FUTURE.



was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cable; cutting the great cable into
pieces such as I could move, I got two cable and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-
work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and
came away; but my good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water ; as for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, especially the
iron, which I expected would have been of great use to me; however, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infi-
nite labour ; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very
much, After this, I went every day on board, and brought away what I could get.

Thad now been thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on board the
ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of hands could well be sup-
posed capable of bringing ; though I verily believe, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece ; but preparing the twelfth time to go
on board, [ found the wind began to rise : however, at low water I went on board, and
though I thought I had rammaged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be
found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or
three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks ; in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money—some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.

I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. “Oh, drug!” said I aloud, “what art
thou geod for? Thou art not worth to me—no, not the taking off the ground ; one of
those knives is worth all this heap ; I have no manner of use for. thee; e’en remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving.”
However, upon second thoughts, I took it away ; and wrapping all in a piece of canvas,
I began to think of making another raft ; but while I was preparing this, I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh
gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore ; and that it was my business to be gone before
the tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swani across the channel which lay
between the ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the roughness of the water ;. for
» the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth about me
very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with
this satisfactory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get
everything out of her that.could be useful to me ; and that, indeed, there was little left
in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of her, except
what might drive on shore from her wreck ; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards .
did ; but those things were of small use to me. P

My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against either savages,
if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island ; and I had many thoughts

= = 39 eer






a nr Ss ee os et (Oo
A/VY & Ss ate ic
| ROBINSON CRUSOE. ; A\

A\ of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make—whether I should
| make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved upon
: both ; the manner and description of which it may not be improper to give an account of.

I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement, particularly because
it was upon a low moorish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh water near it ; so I resolved to
find a more healthy and more convenient spot of ground.

I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be proper for me:
first, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned ; secondly, shelter from the heat of
the sun ; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether man or beast ; fourthly, a
view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for
my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish my expectation yet.

In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side of a rising hill,
whose front towards this little plain was steep as a house side, so that nothing could
come down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave ; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock, at all.

On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I resolved to pitch my tent.
This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like
a green before my door ; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down
into the low ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill ; so that it
was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to the W. and by §, sun, or there-
abouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow place, which took in
about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter
from its beginning and ending.

In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into the ground
till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground above five
feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The tworows did not stand above six inches
from one another.

Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid them in rows,
upon one ancther, within the circle, between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high
like a spur to a post ; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.

The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short ladder to
go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I
was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and con-
sequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done ; though, as
it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that
I apprehended danger from.

Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my riches, all my
provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account above; and I
made me a large tent also, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year
are very violent there. I made it double—viz, one smaller tent within, and one larger
tent above it ; and covered the uppermost part of it with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.








And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought on shore, but
in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.

Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would spoil by the
wet ; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till now
T had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.

When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and bringing all the
earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in
the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and
thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my
house.

It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were brought to

perfection ; and therefore I must go back to some other things which took up some
of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up the tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great clap of
thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself, “Oh, my powder!” My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one , 5}




a TiaE
tA



y
= THT A

Mu

blast, all my powder might be destroyed ; on which not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger ; though, had the powder took fire, I had never known who had
hurt me.

Such impression did this make upon me, that, after the storm was over,I laid aside
all my work, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes
to separate my powder, and to keep. it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes,
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart,
that it should not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work,
in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred and
forty pounds weight, was divided into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my
new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.

In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once every
day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill anything fit for
food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were goats in the island,
which was a great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me, viz. that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them ; but.I was not discouraged at this, not
doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had
found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a
terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me; from whence I concluded, that by the’ position of their optics,
their sight was so directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them ; so afterwards I took this method—I always climbed the rocks first, to
get above them, and then had frequently a fair mark.

The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little
kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but
when I carried the old one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure ; upon which, I Jaid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame ; but it-would not eat ; so I
was forced to kill it and eat it myself These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I eat sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
I possibly could.

Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to provide a place
to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in its place ; but IT
must now give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it
may well be supposed, were not a few.

IT had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was net cast away upon that island
without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the course of our
intended voyage, and a great way, viz, some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary



















































CRUSOE’S CALENDAR.



Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections ; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its
creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable, so without help abandoned, and so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.

But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts, and to
reprove me; and particularly one day walking with my gun in my hand by the sea-
side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when Reason, as it
were, put in expostulating with me the other way, thus : “Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why are you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?” And then I
pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them and
with what worse attended them.

Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my subsistence, and
what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was a hundred thousand
to one) that the ship floated from the place where first she struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her? What would have
been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition in which I at first
came on shore, without necessaries of life, or any means to supply and procure them ?
“ Particularly,” said I aloud (though to myself), “what should T have done without a
gun, Without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with ? with-
out clothes, bedding, a tent, or any mamner of coverings?” and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to
live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent: so that I hada tolerable view
of subsisting without any want as long as I lived ; for I considered from the beginning
how I would provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my health
and strength should decay.

TI confess T had not then entertained any notion of my ammunition being destroyed
at one blast—I mean, my powder being blown up by lightning ; and this made the
thoughts of it surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just
now.

And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of silent life, such,
perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its beginning,
and continue it in its order. I was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ; when the sun being
to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head : for I reckoned myself,
hy observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty two minutes north of
the line. :

After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my thoughts that I
should lose my reckoning of time for want of books, and pen, and ink, and should even
forget the Sabbath-day from the working-days ; but to prevent this, I cut it with my
kmife upon a large post, in capital letters ; and making it into a great cross, I set it up
on the shore where I first landed, viz, “I came on shore here on the 30th of Sep-

} tember, 1659.”

Upon the sides of this square post I cut every daya notch with my knife, and every

seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as long


O
> aH :
ae =< aS

ROBINSON -CRUSOE.







again as that long one ; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly ‘iif
reckoning of time. q
In the next place, we are to observe, that among the many things which I brought
i. from the ship in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I made to it, F got
(i several things of less value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before ; as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper ; several parcels in the captain’s
: mate’s, gunner’s, and carpenter’s keeping ; three or four compasses, some mathematical

instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation ; all which I huddled 4
Be together, whether I might want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, a
a. which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my i
ft things ; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three Popish prayer- R
1 books, and several other books ; all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget my
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent history I must have occa-
sion to say something in its place, for I carried both the cats with me ; and as for the i
i, dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself; and swam on shore to me the day after I oi’
‘} went on shore with my first cargo, and wasa trusty servant to me many years; I wanted "(%)
, nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only ~§} oh
\ wanted to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As Lobserved before, I found
y pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost ; and I shall show that while is
ees ink lasied, I kept things very exact ; but after that was gone I could not, for I could e

not make any ink by any means that I could devise.

] And this put me in mind that | wanted many things, notwithstanding all that I had
amassed together ; and of these, ink was one : as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth ; needles, pins, and thread : as for linen, I soon learned to want

'Y that without much difficulty.

Aw This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was near a whole

i year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation. The

ie piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and

® preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bringing home ; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground ; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found it, yet made
driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do, seeing I had time enough to
do it in? nor had I any other employment, if that had been over, at least that I could
foresee, except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every

day. 5
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances I was reduced

j to ; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and aftlicting my mind : and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as weil as I could, and to set
| the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish. my case from worse,
and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comfort I enjoyed, against
the miseries I suffered, thus :—





= EVIL. GOOD.
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate island ; But I am alive ; and not drowned, as all my ship’s com-
void of all hope of recovery. ~ pany was.






Bos sé CRUSOE DI






ROBINSON CRUSOE.









EVIL. GOOD. i
Tam singled out and separated, as it were, But I am singled out, too, from all the ship's crew, to be j
from all the world, to be miserable. spared from death ; and He that miraculously saved me |
from death can deliver me from this condition. F
I am divided from mankind, a solitary; But I am not starved, and perishing on a barren place,
one banished from human society. affording no sustenance.
Lhave no clothes to cover me, But I am in a hot climate, where if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
T am without any defence, or means to But Iam cast on an island where I seo no wild beasts to



any violence of man or b hurt me, as I saw on the coast of Africa ; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?

I have no soul to speak to or relieve me. But God wonderfully sent the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out so many necessary things
either supply my wants or enable me to supply myself, even
as long as I live.

as will



Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony that there was scarce any con-
dition in the world so miserable, but there was something negative, or something positive,
to be thankful for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience of the
most miserable of all conditions in this world—that we may always find in it something
to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit
side of the account.

Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and giving over looking
out to sea, to see if I could




ya ship; Jsay, giving over these things, I began to apply
myself to accommodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

T have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side of a rock,
surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables ; but I might now rather call it a
wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two fect thick on the out-
side: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I
could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some times of the year very violent.

T have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and into the
cave which [had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that at first this was a
confused heap of géods, which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my piace ;
Thad no room to twn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and worked farther
into the earth; for it was a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I
bestowed on it : and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock ; and then turning to the right



vin, Worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.



This gave me not only egress and regress, as it wa



a back way to my tent and to
my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods,

And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I found I most
wanted, particularly a chair and a table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things with
so much pleasure without a table.

So I went to work ; and here I must needs observe that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,



master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet,
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools; and some with no more tools than an adze






and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way before, and that with infinite
labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on cither side with my axe, till Thad brought
it to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. Ié is true, by this
method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for
but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it
took me up to make a plank or board: but my time or Jabour was little worth, and so
it was as well employed one way as another.

However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first place ;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
ship. But when I had wrought oué some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the
breadth of a foot and an half, one over another, all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, ina word, to separate everything at large into
their places, that I might come easily at them : also I knocked pieces into the wall of the
rock, to hang my guns ani all things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to
be seen, it looked like a g ‘neral magazine of all necessary things ; and I had everything
so ready at my hand, that it wasa great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order,
and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.

And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's employment ; for,
indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only an hurry as to labour, but in too
much discomposure of mind ; and my journal would have been full of many dull things :
for example, I must have said thus : “ Sept. the 30th.—After I had got to shore, and had
escaped drownirg, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
recovering myself a little, Tran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my
head and fice, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out I was undone, undone! till,
tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep,
for fear of being devoured.”

Some days after this, and after I had been 6n board the ship, and had got all I
could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and
looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship: then fancy at a vast distance I spied
a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after looking steadily, till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my
misery by my folly.

But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled my house-
hold stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me
as I could, I began I say to keep my journal ; of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over again), as long as it lasted ; for at
last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

THE JOURNAL.

September 30, 1659.—T, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked, during
a dreadful storm, in the ofling, came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
Tealled “The Island of Despair 3” all the rest of the ship's company being drowned,
and myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day T spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circumstances I was
brought to ; viz, I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in

despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me: cither that I should be devoured ,






ROBINSON CRUSOE.



by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though
it rained all night.

October 1.—In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated with
the high tide, and was driven on shore again, much nearer the island ; which, as it was
some comfort, on one hand (for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped,
if the wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her
for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least,
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of this day in perplexing
myself on these things ; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand
as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.

From the 1st of October to the 24th.—All these days entirely spent in many several
voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood,
upon rafts. Much rain also, in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather ;
but it seems this was the rainy season.

Oct. 24.—I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it ; but being in shoal
water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide
was out.

Oct. 25.—It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind; during which
time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.

Oct. 26.—I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to fix my
habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen ‘with a
work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and without
with turf.

From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to my new
habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceeding hard.

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to see for some
food, and dixcover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
. which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.

November 1.—I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first night ;
making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.

Nov. 2.—I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber which made
my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had marked
out for my fortification.

Nov. 3.—I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which were very
good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.—This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out with my
gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion ; viz., every morning I walked out with my
gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about

eleven o’clock ; then ate what I had to live on ; and from twelve to two I lay down to §

Sami






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sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in making this
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.

Nov. 5.—This day I went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a wild
cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing ; every creature I killed,
I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand ; but was surprised, and almost
frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.

Nov. 6.—After my morning walk, I went to work with my table again, and
finished it, though not to my liking ; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.

Nov. 7-—Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and
part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday according to my reckoning), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape,
but never to please me ; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces several times.

Note.—I soon neglected keeping Sundays ; for, omitting my mark for them on
my post, I forgot which was which.

Nov. 13.—This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled the
earth ; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me

49







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QO
aS

ROBINSON CRUSOE.






dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my
stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.

Nov. 14, 15, 16.—These three days I spent in making little square chests, or boxes,
which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder ; and so, putting
the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one another as possible
Cn one of these three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.

Nov. 17.—This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to make room for
my further conveniency.

Note-—Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work ; viz. a pickaxe, a shovel,
and a wheelbarrow, or basket ; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how
to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy ; but the next thing was a shovel,
or spade ; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it ; but what kind of one to make I knew not.

Nov. 18.—The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that wood, or
like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness ; of this,
with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home,
with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood,
and having no other way, made mea long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade ; the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, it would not last me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion

or so long making.

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I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket I could
not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would bend to make
wicker-ware —at least, none yet found out ; and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel ; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar



in, when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel ; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no le-s than four days, I mean always excepting my morning’s
walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very seldom failed also of bringing home
something fit to eat.

Nov. 23.—My other work having stood still, because of my making these tools,
when they were finished I went on, and working every day, as my strength and time
allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.



Note.—During all this time I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious enough
to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitcaen, a dining-room, and a cellar.
As for a lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the



year, it rained so hard, that I could not kee myself dry, which caused me afterwards
to cover all my place within my pale with Tong poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
aginst the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.





December 10.—I began now to think my cave or vault finished, when on a sudden





i
CRUSOE FURNISHING HIS HOUSE,



(it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and
one side ; so much that, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too ; for if I
hal been under it, J had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out ; and, which
was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more

. would come down.

Dc. 11.—This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two shores or posts
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board across over each post ; this I
finished the next day, and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more
I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to
part off my house.

Dec. 17.—From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up nails on the
posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up ; and now I began to be in some
order within doors.

Dec. 20.—Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish my house
and set up some picces of board like a dresser, to order my victuals upon ; but board
began to be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.

Dec. 24,—Much rain all night and all day ; no stirring out.

Dec. 25.—Rain all day. .

Dec. 26.—No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and pleasanter.

Dec, 27.—Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I catched it, and led it
home in a string ; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
broke.

N.B.—I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as
ever ; but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot
were all spent.

Dec. 28, 29, 80, 31.—Great heats, aud no breeze, so that there was no stirring
abroad, except in the evening, for food ; this time I spent in putting all my things in

=| order within doors.

Jan. 1.—Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with my gun, and
lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though ex-
ceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.

Jan. 2.—Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set him upon the
goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them. -

Jan. 3.—I began my fence, or wall ; which, being still jealous of my being attacked
by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.

N.B.—This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said in the
Journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time than from the 3rd of January
to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no more
than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle, from one place in the rock

)\| to another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre

behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days, nay, sometimes


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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



weeks together ; but I thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall was
finished ; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was done with,
especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ; for Ny
I made them much bigger than I needed to have done. tH

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf wall raised
up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to come on shore there, they .
would not perceive anything like a habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may
be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.

During this time I made rounds in the woods for game every day, when the
rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other
to my advantage ; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as
wood pigeons in a tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks ; and taking
some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they
grew older they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I
had nothing to give them ; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat.

And now, in the managing my household affairs, I found myself wanting
in many things, which I thought at first it was impossible for me to make ;
as, indeed, as to some of them it was: for instance, I could never make a cask
to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before ; but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; 1 could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to
make them hold water ; so I gave that also over.

In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as it
was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I
remembered the Iump of bees’-wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure; but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had _ was, . that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of: some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for the feeding of poultry—not for
this voyage, but before, asI suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little re-
inainder of corn had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and T saw nothing in
the bag but husks and dust ; and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I
think it was to pat powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification, under the
rock. o M yi

It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw this stuff
away, taking no notice of anything, and not so much as remembering that I had thrown
anything there, when, abouta month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting upon the ground, which I fancied might be some plant [had not seen ;
vut 1 was surprised, and perfectly astonished when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind
as our European—nay, as our English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my thoughts on this
oceasion ; I had hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all ; indeed, I had very
few notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had










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ROBINSON CRUSOE.
befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God, without
so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things, or his order in
governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there in a climate which
I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it
startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused this
grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my
sustenance in that wild, miserable place.

This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I began to
bless myself that such a prodigy of Nature should happen upon my account ; and this
was the more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew,
because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.

I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my support, but not
doubting but that there was more in the place, [went all over that part of the island where
Thad been before, peering in every corner and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but T conld not tind any. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shaken the
bag of chickens’ meat out in that place ; and the wonder began to cease ; and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God’s providence began to abate too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common ; though T ought to have
been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been
miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence as to me, that should order or
appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven ; as also that I should
throw it out into that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it
sprang up immediately ; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that time, it had
been burnt up and destroyed.

I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season, which was
about the end of June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again,
hoping in time to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was
not till the fourth year that I would allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for T lost all that I
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time ; for I sowed it just before the
dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done : of which
in its place.

Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice, which I '
preserved with the same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the same
purpose, viz, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to vook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time. ;

But to return to my Journal :—

I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall done ; and
the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over a
wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.

April 16.—I finished the ladder ; so I went up the ladder to the top, and then
pulled it up after me, and let it down on the inside: this was a complete enclosure to
me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.

The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all my labour
overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was thus:—As I was busy in the »







KA

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AN EARTHQUAKE IN THE ISLAND,



inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth
came tumbling down from che roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head,
and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared ; but thought nothing of what really was the cause, only thinking that
the top of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forwards to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
T got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it
was a terrible earthquake ; for the ground £ stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes’ distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood upon the earth ; and a great piece of the
top of the rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell down with
such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the very sea
was put into a violent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.

I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the like, or dis-
coursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead or stupefied ; and the motion
of the earth made my stomach sick like one that was tossed at sea ; but the noise of the
falling of the rock awaked me as it were, and rousing me from the stupefied condition
I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling
upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once ; and this sunk my
very soul within me a second time. ‘

After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time, I began to take
courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground, greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do, All this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ;
nothing but the common “Lord, have mercy upon me!” and when it was over, that
went away too.

While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it grew cloudy, as if it would rain ;
soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour it
blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with
foam and froth ; the shore was covered with the breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; aud a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and
then began to abate ; and then in two hours more it was calm, and began to rain very
hard. All this while I sat upon the ground very much terrified and dejected ; when
on a sudden it came into my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences
of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to revive ; and the rain also
helping to persuade me, I went in and saé down in my tent; but the rain was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it ; and I was forced to go
into my cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz, to cuta hole through my new fortifi-
cations, like a sink, to let the water_go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and found still no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my spirits,
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup of
rum ; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have no







































RSs 5
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= ROBINSON CRUSOE.
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a
ih It continued raining all that night, and great part'of the

next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I
/ began to think of what I had best to do; concluding, that if the island was subject
to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of
2 building me some little hut in an open place which I might surround with a wall, as
T had done here, and so mike myself secure from wild beasts or men ; for I concluded
if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.

With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent from the place where it now
stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the hill; and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent : and I spent the two next days,
being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my



habitation. The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet ;
and yet the apprehensions of lying abroad without any fence were almost equal to it :
but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything was put in order, how pleasantly
HY, concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me loth to remove. In the mean-
4 time, it oceurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
{ that I must be contented to run the venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for
| myself, and had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed
myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a
wall with piles acd cables, &e., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it
(EF) owas finished ; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
as fit to remove to. This was the 21st.

April 22.—The next morning I began to consider of means to put this resolve in
execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but
with much chopping and eutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and
dull ; and though Thad a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This



















cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand point of
politics
witha s

ov a judge upon the life and death ofa man. At length, I contrived a wheel





tring, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
NVote—I had not seen any such thing im England, or at least not to take notice
how it was done, though since I have observed it was very common there ; besides that,
my grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week’s work to
bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.—These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools, my machine



for turning my-grindstone performing very well.




April 30.—Having perceived my bread had been low a great while, I now took a
; Survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very
heavy.

May 1.—In the morning, looking tow



ards the sea-side, the tide being low, I saw
something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when
I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck
itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined
the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ;
but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: however, I rolled
it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship, to look for more.














When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The forecastle,
which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six feet, and the stern,
which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by the force of the sea soon
after I had left rummaging of her, was tossed, as it were, up, and casé on one side ;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next the stern, that whereas there
was a great place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when the
tide was out. 1 was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done
by the earthauaKce; and as by this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This whelly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my habitation,
\ and I pusied myself mightily, that day especialiy, in searching whether I could
make ary way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for that all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had
F| learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I

? could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.

May 3.—I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through, which I
thought held some of the upper part or quarter deck together, and when I had cut

57






it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest ;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.

May 4.—I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat of, till I was
weary of my sport; when, just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin, I had
made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but [had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat ; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.

May5.—Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder, and brought three great
fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on shore when
the tide of flood came on.

May 6.—Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of her, and other pieces
of iron-work ; worked very hard, and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.

May 7.—Went to the wreck again, with an intent not to work, but found the
weight of the wreck had broken itself down, the beams being ent ; that several pieces of
the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into
it; but it was almost full of water and sand.

May 8.—Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench up the deck
which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and
brought them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
day.

May 9.—Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the body of the
wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up. I felt also a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy to
move.

May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14—Went every day to the wreck; and got a great deal of
pieces of timber, and boards, or planks, and two or three hundredweight of iron,

May 15.—I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off the roll of
lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it
lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
hatchet.

May 16.—Tt had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared more broken by
the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.

May 17.—I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great distance, near
two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and found they were pieces of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.

May 24.—Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck ; and with hard labour I
loosened some things so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks
floated out, and two of the seamen’s chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore
nothing came to land that day but pieces 0. timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this
work every day to the L5th of June, except the time necessary to get food, which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be vhen the tide was up, that
I might be ready when it was ebbed out ; and by this time T had gotten timber, and plank,
and iron-work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how ; and also I got,
at several times, and in several pieces, near one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.

June 16.—Going dewn to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or turtle. This was
the first I had seen. which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place



ee

ae

og

SI

ose






HE SUFFERS FROM AGUE.
or the scarcity ; for had I happened to be on the other side of the island, E might have
had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them. :

June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore eggs; and her
flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in tuis horrible place.

June 18.—Rained all the day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this time, the rain
felt cold, and I was something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.

June 19.—Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.

June 20.—No rest all night ; violent pains in my head, and feverish.

June 21.—Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehensions of my sad
condition—to be sick, and no help: prayed to God, for the first time since the storm,
off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said or why ; my thoughts being all confused.

June 22.—A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions of sickness.

June 23.—Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent headache.

June 24,—Much better.

June 25.—An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold fit, and hot
with faint sweats after it. Es

June 26.—Better ; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but found myself
very weak ; however, I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate. I would iain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had
no pot.

June 27.—The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and neither ate nor
drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak I had no strength to stand up,
or to get myselfany water to drink, Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and
when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say ; only I lay and cried,
“Lord, look upon me! Lord pity me! Lord have mercy upon me!” I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours ; till the fit wearing o4, I fell asleep, and did not awake
till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty ; however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie
till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream:
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when
the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, ina bright flame of tire, and light upon the ground : he was all over as bright as
a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his countenance was most

inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for words to describe ; when he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake,
and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forwards towards me, with a long

spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some*
distance, he spoke to me—or I heard a voice sc terrible that it is impossible to express
the texror of it. All that I can say I understvod was this :—“Seeing all these things
have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die ;’—at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.

No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should beable to describe
the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream,
I even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.

59




Thad, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the good instruction of
my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. Ido not remember that I had, in all that time, one
thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards
towards a reflection upon my own ways ; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire
of good, or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me ; and I was all that the mest
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be supposed to
le—not having the least sense, either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thankfulness
to God in deliverances,

In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the more easily believed
when I shall add, that through all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen
me, T never had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a
just punishment for my sins—my rebellious behaviour against my father—or my
present sins, which were great—or so much as a punishment for the general course of
my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of
Africa, T never had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one wish
to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages ; but I
was merely thoughtless of God or a Providence—I acted like a mere brute, from the
principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea bythe Portugal captain, well used, and dealt
justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, 1 had not the least thankfulness in
my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowaing on
this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only said to
myself often, that F was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.

It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship’s crew drowned, and

myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which,
had the grice of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but it ended
where it. began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I was
alive, without the least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of the Hand which had
preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful to me. Even just the same
common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they have got safe ashore from a
shipwreck, all which they drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon
as it is over ; and all the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place, out
of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon
as I saw a probability of living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger,
all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afilicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God against
me: these were thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.

The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my journal, had, at first, some little
influence upon me, and began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it had
something miraculous in it ; but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed,
all the impression which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already. Even
the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-









































ROBINSON CRUSOE.



diately directing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet no sooner
-was the first fright over, but the impression it had made went off also. I had no more
sense of God, or His judgments—much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from His hand—than if I had been in the most prosperous condition of life.
But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely view of the miseries of death came
to place itself before me ; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong
distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever, conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself with my past life, in
which T had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God today
me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These
reflections oppressed me from the second or third day of my distemper; and in the
violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience, extorted
some words from me like praying to God, though I cannot say they were either a prayer
attended with desires or with hopes ; it was rather the voice of mere fright and distress.
My thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon my mind, and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition raised vapours into my head with the mere appre-
hensions ; and in these hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express.
But it was rather exclamation, such as, “ Lord, what a miserable creature am I! If I
should be sick, I shall certainly die for want of help, and what will become of me?”
Then, the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his prediction,
which Y mentioned at the beginning of this story, viz, that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having
neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist me in my recovery. “ Now,”
said I aloud, “my dear father’s words are come to pass; God’s justice has overtaken
me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have been happy aad
easy ; but I would neither sce it myself, nor learn to know the blessing of it from my
parents. I left them to mourn over my folly ; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me into
the world, and would have made everything easy to me ; and now I have difficulties
to struggle with too great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice.” Then I cried out, “Lord, be my help, for I am in great
distress.” This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had made for many -
years. But I return to my Journal :—

June 28.—Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had had, and the fit
being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright and terror of my dream was very
great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then
I got me a piece of the goat’s flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little.
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the
sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
a\t night, I made my supper of three of the turtle’s exes, which I roasted in the ashes,
and eat, as we call it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God’s blessing to, even, as I could remember, in my whole life.


= . SlAaRs ee 4 :
tie LEWES
A CURE FOR BODY AND MIND. .


































After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could hardly
earry the gun, for I never went ont without that; so T went out but a little way, and
sat down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth, As I sat here, some thoughts such as these occurred to me:—What
is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so much? Whence is it produced? And
what am J, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence
are we? Sure we are all made by some secret Power, who formed the earth and sea,
the air and sky. And who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God that
has made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly, if God has made all these things,
he guides and governs them all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that
(j could make all thing
i nothing can happen in the great circuit of his works, either without his knowledge or



s must certainly have power to guide and direct them. If so,

appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that Tam here, and



a am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens without his appointment, he b
YA has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any at
| of these conclusions, and therefore it rested upon me with the greater force, that it must Ni
A | needs be that God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to this al
F miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of me only, but ie

of everything that happened in the world. Immediately it followed,—Why has God
done this to me? What have I done to be thus used } My conscience presently checked
me in that inquiry, as if Thad blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
“Wretch ! dost thow ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful misspent
life, and ask thyself, what thou hast 2of done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads? killed in the
fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war? devoured by the wild beasts
off the coast of Africa? or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost
thou ask, What have I done?” I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say,—no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been
going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and # had no inclination to sleep ;
so I sat down in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the
apprehensions of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers,
and T had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.

1 weut, directed by Heaven, no doubt ; for in this chest [ found a cure both for soul
and body. I opened the chest, and found what [looked for, viz., the tobacco ; and as the
few books I had saved lay there too,-I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned
before, and which to this time I had not found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look
into. I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, or whether it was good
for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hezl
one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed,
at first, almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong, and that I had
not been much used to it. Then I took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum,
and resolved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it, as


L ROBINSON CRUSOE.
\ a SS



A\ well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffocation. In the interval of

} this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read; but my head was too much dis-
turbed with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time ; only, having opened the
book casually, the words first that occurred to me were these, “Call upon me in the day
of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me.” These words were very
apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards ; for, as for being deliverrd, the word had no
sound, as I may say, to me ; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension
of things, that I began to say, as the children of Isracl did when they were promised
flesh to eat, “Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?” so T began to say, “ Can God
himself deliver me from this place?” And as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts ; but, however, the words made
a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and
the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that 1 inclined to sleep ; so T let
my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went to
bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life; I kneeled
down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the
day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over,
T drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of
the tobacco, that indeed I could scarcely get it down ; immediately upon this I went to
bed ; and I found presently it flew up into my head violently ; but I fell into a sound
sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the
next day and night, and till almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how
T should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some
years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and re-crossing the line, T should
have lost more than one day; but in my account it was lost, and I never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or other, when T awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up I was
stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach better, for T was hungry ; and, in
short, T had no fit the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.

The 30th was my well day, of course, and T went abroad with my gun, but did not
care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home ; but was not very forward to eat them ; so I eat some more of
the turtle’s eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
Thad supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped in rum ; only I
did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke; however, I was not so well the next day, which was the Ist of July, as
I hoped I should have been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not
much.



; July 2.—I renewed the medicine all the three ways ; and dosed myself with it as
at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.

| July 3.—I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover my full strength

. | for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-

ingly upon this Scripture, “ I will deliver thee;” and the impossibility of my

deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it ; but as I was

discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much














upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had
received, and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions as these, viz. :
Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
T taken of it? Had I done my part? God had delivered me, but I had not glorified
him ; that is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance: and
how could I expect greater deliverance? This touched my heart very much ; and
immediately I kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
sickness.

July 4.—In the morning, I took the Bible ; and beginning at tle New Testament,
I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning
and every night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, bat as long as my
thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously +o this work, till
I found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickeuness of my past
life. The impression of my dream 1evived ; and the words, “ All these things have
not brought thee to repentance,” ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly

begging of God to give me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day,
65 .

































fe
GAS
fA SSS

ROBINSON CRUSOE.




that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words : “He is exalted a Prince anda
Saviour, to give repentance and: to give remission. I threw down the book ; and oF
with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstacy of joy, 4
T cried out aloud, “ Jesus, thou Son of David! Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour ! ‘i 1
give me repentance!” This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the \,
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now T prayed with a sense of my condition, Wf}
and with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the word of i
God ; and from this time, I may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, “Call on me, and I will
deliver thee,” in a different sense from what I had ever done before ; for then IT had
no notion of anything heing called deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity



T was in: for though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me. and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take
it in another sense : now I looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins aypeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the
load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing ;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think of it ; it was all of no
consideration, in comparison of this. And Tadded this part here, to hint to whoever
shall read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliver-
ance from sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.

But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal :—

My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my way of living,
yet much easier to my mind: and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading
the Scripture and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, Thad a great deal of
comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, my health and strength
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with everything that I wanted, and make
my way of living as regular as T could.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking about with my
gum in my hand, a little and a little ata time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to
what weakness I was reducel. The application which T made use of was perfectly new,
and perhaps what had never cured an ague before ; neither can T recommend it to any
one to practise, by this experiment : and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather
contributed to weaken me; for I had frequent convulsions m my nerves and limbs
for some time ; I learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy
season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be, especially in those rains

which came attended with storms and hurricanes of wind ; for as the rain which came



in a dry season was always most accompanied with such storms, so I found this rain
was much more dangerous thin the rain which fetl in September and October.

I had now been in this un'aypy island above ten months ; all possibility of de-
liverance from this condi‘ion seemed to be entircly taken from me ; and I firmly believed
that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured my
habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, T had a great desire to make a more perfect
discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find, which yet I
knew nothing of.

It was the 15th of July that [ began to take a more particular survey of the
island itself. I went up the ereek first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore.
I found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and p

66 ry
Se3 3
a : ae



Ys


A SURVEY OF THE ISLAND.



that it was no more than a little brook of running water, and very fresh and good : but

this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it ; at least, not {

i enough to run in any stream, so as it could be perceived. On the banks of this brook, } |

I found many pleasant savannas of meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; |

f and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as it might y
‘i be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a

great and very strong stalk ; there were divers other plants, which I had no notion of
or understanding about, anl might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could
not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians in all that climate
make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not then
understand them. I saw several suzar-canes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, im-
perfect. TI contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing
with myself what course I might take to kuow the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits
of plants which I should discover ; but could bring it to no conclusion : for, in short, I
had made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the plants
of the field ; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after going something
further than I had gone the day betore, I found the brook and savannas cease, and
the country became more woody particularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees : the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just
now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was
exceeding glad of them ; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that, when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our
Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers, But I
found an excellent use for these grapes ; and that was, to cure or dry them in the sun,
and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as
indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation, which, by the
way, was the first night, as I might say, I hal lain from home. In the night, I took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next morning
proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the south aud north side
of me. At the end of this march I caiae to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to the west ; and a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east ; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or flourish of spring, that it
looked like a planted garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious valley,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure, though mixed with other afflicting
thoughts, to think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession ; and, if I could-convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange and lemon, and citron trees ; but all wild, and
few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice afterwards
with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now
Thad business enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as

well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season. which I knew
= 67 2


O
— a 2 eas
. Sj 5




ROBINSON CRUSOE.



























was approaching. In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place,
a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another place ;
and taking a few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make to carry the rest home. Accordingly,
having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I must now call my tent and
my cave) ; but before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruit,
and the weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them, they were good for
: little or nothing : as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring Lut a few.

A The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two small bags to bring
ay home my harvest ; but I was surprised when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were
| so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread abroad, trodden to pieces,
| and dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured. By
this I concluded there were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this ; but

what they were I knew not. However, as I found there was no laying them up on
f, heaps, and no carrying them away ina sack, but that one way they would be destroyed,
Â¥ and the other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took another course ;
| tor I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of
i the trees, that they might cure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes and lemons, I
carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great pleasure the fruit-
GP fulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the situation ; the security from storm

agg on that side of the water, and the wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a place i
’ to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole, SRN
-I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a place equally gp

ey

safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant, fruitful part of the §

‘ of? island,

(G This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it for some time,
2 ri A ,
She the pleasantness of the place tempting me; but when I came to a nearer view of it,
& I considered that I was now by the sea side, where it was at least possible that some-

s )

fe thing might happen to my advantage ; and that the same ill fate that brought me hither,
Bis might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place ; and though it was scarce
probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills
and woods in the centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render
such an affair not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not by
2, any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured with this place, that [+ cat much
of my time there for the whole remaining part of the month of July ; and though,
upon second thouglits, I resolved as above not to remove, yet I built me a little kind



A of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
Nas high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood ; and here I
lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights together, always going over it with a
ladder as before; so that I fancied now I had my country house and my sea coast
house ; and this work took me up to the beginning of August.

I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour, but the rains
came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ; for though J had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, aud spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when
the rains were extraordinary.

About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower, and began to











ROBINSON CRUSOE.



enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly dried,
and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun ; so I began to take them down from
the trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed would have
spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter food ; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more cr less, every day till the middle of October, and
sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.

“In this season I was much surprised with the increase of my family; I had been
concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead, and I heard no more tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home
about the end of August, with three kittens. his was the more strange to me, because,
though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my guy, yet I thought it was a quite
different kind from our European cats; but the young cats were the same kind of
house-breed’as the old one ; and both my cats being females, I thought it very strange.
But from these three cats I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was
forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to drive them from my house as
much as possible.

From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could not stir, and
was now very careful not to be much wet. In this confinement, I began to be
straitened for food: but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day,
which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food
was regulated thus:—I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat’s
flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had no
vessel to boil or stew anything), and two or three of the turtle’s eggs for supper.

During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily two or three
hours at enlarging my cave, ana by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I came
to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or
wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure ; whereas
now, I thought, I lay exposed, and yet I could not perceive that there was any living
thing to fear; the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the island being a
goat.

Sept. 30.—I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my landing. I cast up
the notches on my post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five
days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, pros-
trating myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins to
God, acknowledging his righteous judgment upon me, and praying to him to have
mercy on me through Jesus Christ ; and having not tasted the least refreshment for
twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch
of grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time
observed no Sabbath-day ; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my mind,
I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch than
ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days were ;
but now, having cast up the days as above, 1 found I had been there a year; so I
divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath ; though I found
at the end of my account I had lost a day or two in my reckoning. A little after this,
my ink began to fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparingly, and to


fi

STL



write down only the most remarkable events of my life, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.

The rainy season and the dry season bezan now to appear regular to me, and I
learned to divide them so as to provide for them accordingly ; but I bought all my
experience before I had it, and this I am going to relate was one of the most dis-
couraging experiments that I made at all.

I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice which I hal so.

surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of themselves; and I believe there were
about thirty stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought it a proper
time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in his southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain ; but as I was sowing, it casually occurred
to my thoughts that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was
the proper time for it, so [ sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for not one grain’ of
that I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and
never came up at all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of ground to make another trial in,
and I dug up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprang up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop ;
but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had got, I had but
a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind.
But by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed times and two harvests
every year. While this corn was growing I made a little discovery, which was of use to me
afterwards, As soon as the rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which
was about the month of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower,
where, though I had not been some months, I found all things just as I left them.
The circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes
which I had cut off of some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out and grown
with long branches, as much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping
its head. I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was
surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow : and I pruned them,
and led them up to grow as nfuch alike as I could ; and it is scarcely credible how
beautiful a figure they grew into, in three years ; so that though the hedge made a circle
of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now call them, soon
covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
Thi$ made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a

‘semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing

the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence,
they grew presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.

I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided, not into

summer and winter, as in Europe, but intothe rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which
were generally thus :—


| my second row of stakes or piles, and in this wicker-work all the summer or dry







ROBINSON CRUSOE.

The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April—rainy, the sun being
then on or near the equinox.

The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August—dry,
the sun being then to the north of the line.

The half of August, the whole of September, and the half of October—rainy, the sun
heing then come back.

The half of October, the whole of November, December, and January, and the half
ot February—dry, the sun being then to the south of the line.

The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow,
but this was the general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill
consequence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with pzovi-ions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out, and I sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months. In this time I found much employment, and very
suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion of many things which I had no
way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant application ; particularly, I
tried many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me
now that when I was a boy I used to take great delight in standing at a basket-



maker’s, in the town where my father lived, to see them nmbe their wicker-ware ; and
being, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
how they worked those things, and sometimes lent a hand, I had by this means so
full knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the materials ; when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved
to try. Accordingly, the next day I went to my country-house, as I called it, and
cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could
desire ; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a
quantity, which I soon found, for there was a great plenty of them. These I set up to
dry within my circle or hedges, and when they were fit for use, I earried them to my
cave ; and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well a3 I
g,as T
had occasion ; and though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made them

could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry or lay up anythin:

sufficiently serviceable for my purpose ; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them ; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong, deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come to have any
quantity of it.

Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about it, I bestirred
myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything
that was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass
bottles—some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of water, spirits, &e. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything in, except a
great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too big for such uses as I
desired it for—viz., to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing
T fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to make one ;
however, T found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting



season, when another business took me up more time than it could be imagined I could
spare.

72



y B Sa E


I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island, and that I had’
travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to travel
quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and
a gieat bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey. When
I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, [ came within view of the sea
to the west, and it being a very clear day, I fairly descried land—whether an island
or a continent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise than that I knew
it must be part of America, and, as I concluded, by all my observations, must be near the
Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I should have


D-
& J aks.

ROBINSON CRUSOE.





iyg- ‘dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered everything
for the best; I say I quieted my mind with this, and left afflicting myself with
HH fruitless wishes of being there.

Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered that if this land was the
Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass
one way or other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish
country and the Brazils, which were indeed the worst of savages; for they are canni-
bals, and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.

With these considcrations, I walked very leisurely forward. I found that side of
the island where I now was much pleasanter than mine—the open or savannah fields
sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance
of parrots, and fain would I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young parrot, for
I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home ; but it was

aN
some years before I could make him speak ; however, at last, I tanght him to call me Bn
by my name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, will ‘©
be very diverting in its place. py
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low grounds hares py
(as I thought them to be) and fox; but they differed greatly from all the other kinds Ry
I had met with, nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I XY
had no need to be venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very A
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which, br

added to my grapes, Leadenhall Market could not have furnished a table better than I,
in proportion to the company; and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but had
rather plenty, even to dainties.



I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day, or thereabouts ;
but I took so many turns and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I came
weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit down for all night ; and then I either
reposed my:



1f in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could come at me
without waking me, As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see that I had
taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed, the shore was
covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other side I had found but three in
a year anda half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some of
which I had not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.
T could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparimg of my powder and
shot, and therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which [ could better
f feed on; and though there were many goats here, more than on the other side of the



Rh

FA) Pe island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come near them, the country Re

Re\ a : # E Ad

ea A being flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills. es

Ne Ef I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine; but yet I had es

PER : . . . : . . : RY
eH not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed in my habitation it became [Y
EWA

natural to me, and I seemed a!l the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I
suppose about twelve! miles, and then setting up a great pcle upon the shore for a mark,
) L concluded I would go home again, and that the next journey I took should be on the




j\ CRUSOE AT HOME AGAIN.



A\ other side of the island east from my dwelling, and so round till I came to my post
{ again, of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could easily keep all
the island so much in my view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling by
viewing the country ; but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three
miles, | found myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills,
and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which was my way by any
direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position of
the sun at that time of the day. It happened, to my further misfortune, that the
weather proved hazy for three or four days while I was in this valley, and not being able
to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to find out
the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I went: and then, by easy



IE journeys, I tured homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammu-
nition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.

In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it, and I running in
to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to
bring it home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might not be possible
to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when
my powder and shot should be spent. I made a collar to this little creature, and
with a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me, I led
him along, though with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month,

I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my old hutch, and
lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering journey, without settled place of
abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a
perfect settlement to me, compared to that 3 and it rendered everything about me so
comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great way from it again, while it should
be my lot to stay on the island.

I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my long journey;
during which, most of the time was taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage
for my Poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be mighty well acquainted
with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid which I had pent in within my little
circle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for want
of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw them over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did-before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me
like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so
fond, that it became from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave
me afterwards.

The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I kept the 30th of
September in the same‘solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing
on the island, having now been there two years, and no more prospect of being
delivered than the first day Icame there. I spent the whole day in humble and thankful
acknowledgments of ‘the many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was
attended with, and without which it might have been infinitely more miserable. I gave
humble and hearty thanks that God had been Pleased to discover to me that it was

<= = 75 =



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ROBINSON CRUSOE. ie





possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition than I should have been in My
a liberty of society, and in all the pleasures of the world: that He could fully make
up to me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human society, by his







presence, and the communication of his grace to my soul; supporting, comforting, and
encouraging me to depend upon his providence here, and hope for his eternal presence
hereafter.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the life I now led
was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led
all the past part of my day



3 and now having changed -both my sorrows and my joys;

my very desires altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were per-

fectly new from what they were at first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewirg the country, the



anguish of my soul at my condition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very
heart would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in,
and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an
uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest composures
of my mind, this would break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my
hands, and weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work,
and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an hour or
two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could burst out into tears, or vent
myself by words, it would go off, and the grief having exhausted itself would abate.

But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts. I daily read the Word of
God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present state. One morning, being very
sad, I opened the Bible upon these words, “I will never leave thee, nor forsake
thee.” Immediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else should they
be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when I was mourning over my con-
dition, as one forsaken of God and man 2 “Well, then,” said I, “if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what matters it, though the world
should all forsake me, seeing, on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose
the favour and blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss ?”







From this moment I began to conclude in my mind that it was possible for me to
be more happy in this forsiken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should ever
have been in any other particular state in the world ; and with this thought I was going
to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but
something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words. “How
canst thou become such a hypocrite,” said I, even audibly, “ to pretend to be thankful
for a condition, which, however thou mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou
wouldst rather pray heartily to be delivered from?” So I stopped there; but though I
could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave thanks to God for
opening my eyes, by whatev











: atHicting providences, to see the former condition of my
life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and re;ent. I never opened the Bible, or shut
it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in England, without
any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assisting me afterwards to
save it out of the wreck of the ship.

Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and though I have
not given the reader the trouble of so particular an account of my works this year as
the first ; yet in general it may be observed that I was very seldom idle, but having
regularly divided my time according to several daily employments that were before








iss

CORN.

WaTHOM:

g



SSS








ROBINSON CRUSOE.

me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly
set apart some time for, thrice every day ; secondly, the going abroad with my gun for
food, which generally took up three hours in every morning, when it did not rain ;
thirdly, the ordering, curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or caught for
my supply : these took up great part of the day ; also, it is to be considered, that in the
middle of the day, when the sun was in the zenith, {' 3 violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be
supposed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of
hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with my gun in
the afternoon.

To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the exeeeding laborious-
ness of my work; the many hours which for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything I did took up out of my time: for example, I was full two-and-
forty days in making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas
two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out of the same
tree in half a day.

My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut down, because my
board was to bea broad one. This tree I was three days a cutting down, aid two

more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inex-
pressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to
be light enough to move ; then I turned it, and made one sile of it smooth and flat as
a board from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the other side till I
brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one

may judge the labour of my hands in such a piece of work ; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things ; I only observe this in particular, to
show the reason why so much of my time went away with so little work, viz., that what
might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast labour and required a pro-
digious time to do alone, and by hand. But notwithstanding this, with patience and
labour, I went through many things, and indee] everything that my circumstances made
necessary to me to do, as will appear by what follows.

I was now in the months of November and December, expecting my crop of barley
and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up for them was not great ; for, as I
observed, my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one
whole crop by sowing in the dry season : but now my crop promised very well, when on
a sudden I found I was in danzer of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts,
which it was scarcely possible to keep froin it; as, first, the goats, and wild creatures
which I called hares, which, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day,
as soon as it came up, and eat it so close that it could get no tim? to shoot up into
stalk.

This I saw no remedy for, but by making dn inclosure about it with a hedge, which
I cid with a great deal of toil, and the more, because it required a great deal of speed ;
the creatures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was bat small, suited
to my cfop, I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks’ time ; aud shooting some
of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying him up to
a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long ; so in a little time
the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to
ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade, so the birds were
78


Q
e aks

x = & a

HIS CORN EATEN BY BIRDS.






as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear; for going along by the place to see \t/
how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many {Ry

sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly \
i. among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose \ Wf
| OR up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself. Ny f

This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they would devour all J i
my hopes ; that I should be starved, and néver be able to raise a crop at all; and what |
vo do I could not tell ; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I i)
should watch it night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage i
was already done, and fuund they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it was yet

too green for them, the loss was not so great, but the remainder was likely to be a good p
crop, if it could be saved.



I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could easily see the thieves
} sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away, and kK)

}, the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out BY
iP of their sight, but they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I was so (F)
f| provoked that I could not have puxtience to stay till more came on, knowing that every RY

| grain that they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck loaf to me in the consequence ; 5
} but coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I i
- wished for ; so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious thieves in ¥ i

ey England, viz. hanged them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to imagine
, f , almost that this should have had such an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only
not come at the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I could
never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very
glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our second
harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.

I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and a'] I could do was to
make one, as well as I could, out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved
among the arms out of the ship. However, as my crop was but small, T had no
great difficulty to cut it down; in short, I reaped it in my way, for I cut nothing off
but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so rubbel it
out with my hands ; an:l at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half
peck of seed I had near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley ;
that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.

However, this was’ a great encouragement to me, anl I foresaw that in time it
would please God to supply me with bread: and yet here I was perplexed again, for
I neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and
part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet
I knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my desire of having a good
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this
crop, but to preserve it all for seed against the next season; and, in the mean time, to
employ all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.

It might be truly said that now I worked for my bread. It is a little wonderful,
and what I believe few people have thought much upon, viz., the strange multitude of
little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and finish-
ing this one article of bread.

I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my daily discourage-

79 ‘



























ROBINSON CRUSOE.



ment and was made more and more sensible of it every hour, even after I had got the
first handful of seed-corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.

First, L had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel to dig it. Well,
this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I observed before; but this did my
work but in a wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to make it,
yet for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner, but made my work the harder, and
made it be performed much worse. However, this I bore with too, and was content to
work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance. When the
corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great
heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than rake or har-
row it. When it was growing, or grown, I have observed already how many things
I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it
from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it in; and all these things I did
without, as shall be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort and
advantage to me too. But this, as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to
me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time so much loss to me, because,
as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every day appointed to these works; and
as I had resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me,
T had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all the operations necessary for making
the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.

But first [ was to prepare more land, for T had now seed enough to sow above an
acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week’s work at least to make mea spade,
which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required
double labour to work with it. However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in
two large fiat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind, and
fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, which I knew would grow; so that, in one year’s time, I knew I
should have a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work was
not so little as to take me up less than three months, because great part of that time
was of the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within-door, that is when it rained,
and I could not go out, I found employment in the following occupations—always

observing that all the while I was at work I diverted myself with talking to my parrot,

and teaching him te speak; and I quickly learnt him to know his own name, and at last
to speak it out pretty loud, “ Poll,” which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. Tunis, therefore, was uot my work, but an assistant to
my work; for now, as [ said, I hala great employment upon my hands, as follows: viz,
LT had long studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which,
indeed, 1 wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them. However, considering
the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might
botch up some such pot as might, being dried by the sun, be hard enough and strong
enough to bear handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so ; and as this was ne y in preparing corn, meal, &e., which was the thing I was
upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold
what should be put into them.

It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell how many awkward
80


: a Se ee ee

ic

; ways I took to raise this paste ; what odd, misshapen, ugly SAI
things IT made ; how many of them fell in, and how many fell out—the

clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight ; how many cracked
by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too hastily ; and how
many fell to pieces with only removing, as well before as aiter they were
dried ; and, in a word, how, after having laboured hard to find the clay—
to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work it—I could not make
above two large earthen ugly things (I cannot call them jars) in about two
months’ labour.

However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very
gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker baskets, which I had
made on purpose for them, that they might not break ; and as between the pot
and the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and
barley straw ; and these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would
hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.

81




a

tae eee

G
Pade — 5

il

7)

&> “
eS

nt



















ROBINSON CRUSOE. os



Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I made several
smaller things with better success ; such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers,
and pipkins, and anything my hand turned to ; and the heat of the sun baked them
strangely hard.

But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire; which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it ont
after I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in
the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see
it, and said to myself that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they would
burn broken.

This set me to study how to order my fire so as to make it burn me some pots. I had
no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I
had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in
a pile, one upon another, and placed my firewood all round it, with a great heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the outside, and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all; when I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five
or six hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the
sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence of the heat, and would
have run into glass if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began
to abate of the red colour, and watching -them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say handsome) pipkins,
and two other earthen pots, as hard burut as could be desired, and one of them
perfectly glazed with the running of the sand.

After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of earthenware for my



use ; but T must needs say as to the shapes of them they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when T had no way of making them but as the children make dirt
pies, or as a woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste.

No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine, when I found I
had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay
till they were cold before T set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me
some meat, which it did adinirably well; and with a piece of a kid [made some very
good broth, though [ wanted oatmeal and several other ingredients requisite to make it
as good as T would have had it.

My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat some corn in ; for
as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair
for, of all the trades in the world,



of hands. To supply this want I was at a great los:
I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I
any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find outa great stone big enough
to eut hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in
the solid rock, and which [ had no way to dig or cut out ; nor indeed were the rocks in
the island of hardness sullicient, but were all of a sandy, crumbling stone, which would
neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the corn without filling it with
sand. So, after a grcat deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved
to look out a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier ; and getting



one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it and formed it on the outside with my
axe and hatchet, and then, with the help of fire and intinite labour, made a hollow place













































~ = = at. =
Sa : x ee
CRUSOE SUCCEEDS AS A BAKER Bs

in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great heavy
pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood ; and this I prepared and laid by
avainst I had my next crop of corn, which I proposed to myself to grind, or rather
pound my corn or meal, to make my bread. t |
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or sierce, to dress my meal, and to part it
from the bran and the husk; without which I did not see it possible I could have any
bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to think on, for to be sure I had
nothing like the necessary things to make it with ; [ mean fine thin canvas, or stuff,
to sierce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did T
really kuow what to do. Linen I had none left but what was mere rags ; I had goats’- jj



hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it ; and had I known how, here were no
tools to work it with. All the remedy that I round for this was, that at last [did
remember I had, among the seamen’s clothes which were saved out of the ship, some
neckcloths of calico or muslin ; and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves,
but proper enough for the work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did after-
wards, I shall show in its place.

The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should make bread
when I came to have corn ; for, first, I had no yeast ; as to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much about it. But for anoven, I was
indeed in great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two
' feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I burned in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by ; and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon
the hearth, which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and burning
also; but I should not call them square.

When the tire-wood was burned pretty much into embers, or live coals, I drew them
forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all over, and here I let them lie till the
hearth was very hot ; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves,
and whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside
of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat ; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the
world, 1 baked my barley-loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-cook into the
bargain ; for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice ; indeed I made no
pies, neither had T anything to put into them, supposing I had, except the flesh either
of fowls or goats.

It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most part of the third year
of my abode here ; for, it is to be observed that, in the intervals of these things, I had
my new harvest and husbandry to manage ; for I reaped my corn in its season, and
carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets, till I
had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it on, or instrument to thrash
it with. ‘

And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to build my barns
bigger ; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the increase of the corn now yielded me so
much, that I had of the barley about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more ;
insomuch that I now resolved to begin to use it freely ; for my bread had been quite




gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would be sufficient for me a




whole year, and to sow but once a year. .



Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much more
than I could consume in a year ; soI resolved to sow just the same quantity every year
CS =
ROBINSON CRUSOE. =





ty ‘
We that T sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with W/
WW bread, &e. wy



upon the prospect of land which T had seen from the other side of the island ; and I ¥



All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts ran many times \ f
if y

was not without secret wishes that T was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the \
main-land, an lan inhabited country, [ might find some way or other to convey myself \} if\
farther, and perhaps ‘fat Jast find some means of escape. F
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of such a condition, and
how T might fall into the hands of

g think fir worse than the lions and tigers of Att



rages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to





vu: that if I once came into their power

x

I should run a hazard more than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of
being eaten ; for I had heard that the people of the Caribbean coasts were cannibals, or
men-eaters, and I knew by the latitude that I could not be far off from that shore : that
suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had
fallen into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty



siden



together—much more I, that was but one, and could make little or no defence; all these

things, Tsay, which I ought to have considered well of, and I did cast up in my thoughts



afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehensions at first, and my head ran mightily

upon the thought of getting over to that shore.
Now, I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-of-mutton

a

sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the coast of Africa ; but this was in

gs



vain: then I thought E would go and look at our ship’s boat, which, as I have said,

ep eee

was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite, and -was turned, by the force of the
waves and the winds, alnost bottom upward, against the high ridge of beachy, rough sand,
but no water about her as before. If I had lad hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough, and I might have

22

gone back into the Brazils with her easily enough ; but I might have easily foreseen that

soem.

TI could no more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than TI could remove

ey

the island ; however, I went to the wool, and cut levers and rollers, and brought them

















to the boat, resolved to try what I could do; suggesting to myself, that if I could but
turn her down, I might easily repair the damage she had received, and she would be
a very good boat, and Tinight go to sea in her very easily.

T spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent, I think, three or
four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sud, to undermine it.and so to make it full down, setting
pieces of wood to thrust an] guide it right in the fall.

But when T had done this, Twas unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much
less to move it forward towards the water; so IT was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over for the main in-
ereased, rather than decrease], as the means for it seemed impossible.

This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible to make myself a
canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates make, even withou- tools, or, as
Iimight say, without hands—viz., of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought
porsible, but e:
with my having much more convenience for it than any of the Negroes or Indians ;



, and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making it, and



but not at all considering the particular inconveniences which I lay under more than
the Indians did, viz, want of hands to move it into the water when it was made—a

RI


WL THOMAS.Sc

ed i g
Bee
Nop
[Zz

SS

NI


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



difficulty much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them. For what was it to me, that when I had chosen a vast tree in the
wood, I might with great trouble cut it down, if after I might be able with my tools to
hew and dub the outside into the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside
to make it hollow, so as to make a boat of it—if, after all this, I must leave it just
there where 1 found it, and was not able to launch it into the water ? .

One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection upon my mind of
my circumstances while I was making this boat, but I should have immediately thought
how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over
the sea in it, that I never once considered how I should get it off the land: and it was
really, in 1ts own nature, more easy for me to guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than
about forty-five fathoms of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man did, who had any
of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the design, without determining whether I
was ever able to undertake it; not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came
often into my head; but IT put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
which I gave myself: “ Let me first make it; I warrant I shall find some way or other
to get it along when it is done.”

This was a most preposterous method ; but the eagerness of my fancy prevailed, and
to work I went, and felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the building the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches
diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the
end of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted into
branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this tree. I was twenty
days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches
and limbs and the vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour ; after this, it cost me a month to
shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it
might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the
inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, without fire,
by mere mullet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had brought it to be a
very handsome periagua, and big enough to have carried six-and-twenty men, and
consequently big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.

When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted with it. The boat
was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure—for there remained
nothing but to get it into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I make no
question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be
performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they cost infinite
labour too. It lay about one hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the
first inconvenience was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this
discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity.
This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who grudge pains that have
their deliverance in view?) ; but when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much at one, for I could no more stir the canoe thdn I could
the other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock or
canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring the canoe down to








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the water. Well, I began this work ; and when I began to enter into it, and calculate

how deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the Stuff was to be thrown out, I found

. that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been ten or

twelve years before I could have gone through with it; for the shore lay so high that
at the upper end it mutt have be n at least twenty feet deep; so at length, though
with great reluctancy, I gave this attempt over also.

This grieved me heartily ; and now I saw, though too late, the folly of beginning a
work before we count the cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to go
through with it.

In the middle of this work I finished my fourth year in this place, and kept my
anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much comfort as ever before; for, by
a constant study and serious application of the Word of God, and by the assistance of
his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had before. I entertained
different notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing remote, which
Thad nothing to do with, no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a
word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was ever likely to have. So I thought it
looked, as we may perhaps look upon an hereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but
was come out of it; and well might I say, as Father Abraham to Dives, “ Between
me and thee is a great gulf fixed.” ; ;

In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the world here ; I had
neither the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life. 1 had nothing
to covet, for I had all I was now capable of enjoying; I was lord of the whole
manor; or, if I pleased, I might call myself king or emperor over the whole country
which I had possession of. There were no rivals ; I had no competitor, none to dispute
sovereignty or command with me. I might have raised ship-loadings of corn, but I had
no use for it ; so I let as little grow as I thought enough for my occasion. I had tor-
toises or turtles enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any use,
T had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had grapes enough to have
made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been
built. j

But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had enough to eat and to
supply my wants, and what was all the rest to me? If I killed more flesh than I
could eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin ; if I sowed more corm than I could eat, it
must be spoiled ; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground; I could
make no more use of them than for fuel, and that I had no occasion for but to dress my
food.

In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon just reflection,
that all the good things of this world are no further good to us than they are for our
use; anc that, whatever we may heap up indeed to give others, we enjoy as much as we
can use,and no more. The most covetous, griping miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed in-
finitely more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire, except it was
of things which I had not, and they were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me.
T had, as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-six
pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, useless stuff lay! I had no manner of

_ business for it ; and J often thought with myself that I would have given a handful of it

for a gross of tobacco-pipes : or for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have
given it all for sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a handful





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ROBINSON CRUSOE.



of peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least advantage by 1t,
or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer, and grew mouldy with the damp of the
cave in the wet seasons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been the -
same case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.

I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than it was at first.
and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat
with thankfulness, and admired the hand of God’s providence, which had thus spread
my table in the wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and te consider what I enjoyed rather than what I wanted ;
and this gave me sometimes such secret comforts, that I cannot express them ; and
which I take notice of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and covet something that
he has not given them. All our discontents about what we want appeared to me to
spring from the want of thankfulness for what we have.

Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless would be so to any one that
should fall into such distress as mine was ; and this was, to compare my present condition
with what I at first expected it would be ; nay, with what it would certainly have been,
if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship to be cast up nearer
to the shore, where I not only could come at her, but could bring what I got out of
her to the shore, for my relief and comfort ; without which, I had wanted for tools to
work, weapons for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to myself, in the most
lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got nothing out of theship. How T could
not have so much as got any food, except fish and turtles ; and that, as it was long
before I found any of them, I must have perished first ; that I should have lived, if 1
had not perished, like a mere savage ; that if I had killed a goat or a fowl, by any con-
trivance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels,
or to cut it up; but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.

These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Providence to me, and
very thankful for my present condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes : and this
part also I cannot but recommend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery,
to say, “Is any aflliction like mine?” Let them consider how much worse the cases of
some people are, and their case might have been, if Providence had thought fit.

Thad another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind with hopes ;
and this was comparing my present situation with what I had deserved, and had there-
fure reason to expect from the hand of Providence. I had lived a dreadful site. perfectly
destitute of the knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by father and
mother ; neither had they been wanting to me, in their early endeavours to infuse a
religious awe of God into my mind, a sense of my duty, and what the nature and end
of my being required of me. But, alas! falling early into the scafaring life, which, of
all lives, is the most destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are always before
them ; I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into seafaring company, all that
little sense of religion which I had entertained was laughed out of me by my messmates ;
by a hardened despising of dangers, and the views of death, which grew habitual to me ;
by my long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with anything but

} what was like myself, or ta hear anything of what was good, or tended towards it.

So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of what I was, or was

to be, that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed—such as my escape from Sallee ; my
88 ae y




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being taken up by the Portuguese master of the ship; my being planted so well in the
Brazils ; my receiving the cargo from England, and the like—I never once had the
words, “Thank God!” so much as on my mind, or in my mouth; nor in the greatest
distress had I so much thoughts as to pray to him, or so much as to say, “ Lord, have
mercy upon me!” no, not to mention the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and
blaspheme it.

J had terrible reflections upon my mind for many months, as I have already observed,
on the account of my wicked and hardened life past ; and when I looked about me, and
considered what particular providences had attended me since my coming int: this place,
and how God had dealt bountifully with me—had not only punished me less than my
iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me—this gave me great hopes
that my repentance was accepted, and that God had yet mercies in store for me.

With these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to resignation to the will of
God in the present disposition of my circumstances, but even to a sincere thankfulness
for my condition ; and that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, seeing I
had not the due punishment of my sins. That I enjoyed so many mercies which I had
no reason to have expected in that place. That I ought never more to repine at my con-
dition, but to rejoice, and to give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a
crowd of wonders could have brought. That I ought to consider I had been fed even by
a miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a long series of
miracles. And that I could hardly have named a place in the uninhabited part of the
world where I could have been cast more to my advantage ; a place where, as I had no
society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious







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have fed on to my hurt; no savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life
was a life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another ; and T wanted nothing
to make it a life of comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God’s goodness to me,
and care over me in this condition, be my daily consolation ; and after I made a just
improvement of these things, I went away, and was no more sad. I had now been here
so long, that many things which I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone
or very much wasted and near spent.

My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time, all but a very little, which I eked
out with water, a little and a little, till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of
black upon the paper. As long as it lasted T made use of it to minute down the days
of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me ; and first, by casting up
times past, I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of days in the various
providences which befell me, and which, if T had been superstitiously inclined to observe
days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a great
deal of curiosity.

First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from my father and my
friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was
taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made a slave ; the same day of the year that I
escaped out of the wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day‘of the year
afterwards I made my escape from Sallee in a boat; the same day of the year I was
born on, viz. the 20th of September, the same day T had my life so miraculously saved
twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island ; so that my wicked life
and solitary life began both on a day.

The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread—I mean, the biscuit
which I brought out of the ship ; this I had husbanded to the last degree, allowing
myself but one cake of bread a day for above a year ; and yet I was quite without bread
for a year before I got any corn of my own ; and great reason I had to be thankful
that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed, next to
miraculous.

My clothes, too, began to decay mightily ; as to linen, I had had none a good while,
except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I
carefully preserved ; because many times I could bear no other clothes on butva shirt ; and
it was a very great help to me that I had, among all the men’s clothes of the ship, almost
three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick watch-coats of the seamen’s which
were left behind, but they were too hot to wear: and though it is true that the weather
was s0 violently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked—
no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not ; nor could I abide the thoughts of
it, though I was all alone. One reason why I could not go naked was, I could not bear
the heat of the sun so well when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very
heat frequently blistered my skin ; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some
motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No more
could I ever bring myself to go out in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat ; the
heat of the sun, beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me the
headache presently, by darting so directly on my head, without a cap or hat on, so that
I could not bear it ; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go away.

Upon these views, I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I
called clothes, into some order ; I had worn out all the waistcoats I had, and my busi-












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CRUSOE’S UMBRELLA. A
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iN ness was now to try if I could not make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I

; had by me, and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work, tailoring, or
rather, indeed, botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made shift to
make two or three waistcoats, which I hoped would serve me a great while ; as for
breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards,

I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I killed, I mean
four-footed ones, and I had them hung up stretched out with sticks in the sun, by which
means some of them were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others, it seems,
were very useful, The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my head, with
the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain ; and this I performed so well, that after, I
made me a suit of clothes wholly of those skins—that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches
open at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanting to keep me cool than to
keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made ; for











































if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were such as I made a
very good shift with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of the
waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept very dry.

After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an umbrella. I was in- |
deed in great want of one, and had a great mind to make one. I had seen them made in
the Brazils, where they are very useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt the
heats every jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox ; besides, as Iwas
obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to me, as well for the rains as the
heats. I took a world of pains at it, and was a great while before I could make any-
thing likely to hold; nay, after I thought I had hit the way, T spoiled two or three be-
fore I made one to my mind. Butat last I made one that answered indifferently well ;
the main difficulty I found was to make it to let down, I could make it spread, but if it
did not let down too, and draw in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over
my head, which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to answer. I
covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off the-rain like a pent-house, and
kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather with
greater advantage than I could before in the coolest, and when I had no need of it, I
could close it, and carry it under my arm. '

Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed by resigning
to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of his providence.
This made my life better than sociable, for when T began to regret the want of conver-
sation, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutually with my own thoughts,
and (as I hope I may say) with even my Maker, by ejaculations and petitions, was not
better than the utmost enjoyment of human society in the world ?

I cannot say thas, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing happened to me,
but I lived on in the same course, in the same posture and place, just as before. The chief
thing I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice, and
curing my raisins—of both which I always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of
the year’s provision beforehand—I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily labour of
going out with my gun, I had one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I finished ;
so that, by digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it into the
creek, almost half'a mile. As for the first, which was so vastly big, as I made it with-
out considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how I should be able tolaunch it, so, never
being able to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie
where it was, as a memorandum to teach me to be wiserthe nexttime, Indeed, the next

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time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a place where I could not
get the water to it at any less distance than, as I have said, of near half a mile, yet, as
I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was near two years
about it, yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to sea at

= last.

_ However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it was not at all
answerable to the design which I had in view when I made the first ; I mean of ventur-
ing over to the ¢erra firma, where it was above forty miles broad ; accordingly, the
smallness of my boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more
of it. As I had a boat, my next design was to make a tour round the island ; for as I
had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as I have already described it, over
the land, so the discoveries I made in that journey made me very eager to see other
parts of the coast ; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round the
island.

For this purpose, and that I might do everything with discretion and consideration, I
fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces of the
ship’s sails which lay in store, and of which I had a great store by me. Having fitted
my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well ; then I made
little lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions, necessaries, ammunition,
&e., into, to be kept dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea; and a little, long,
hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, making a flap
to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to stand over my head,
and keep the heat of the sun off of me, likean awning. And thus I every now and then
took a little voyage upon the sea; but never went far out, nor far from the little creek.
At last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon my
tour ; and accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of

¢- loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched

rice (a food I ate a great deal of),a little bottle of rum, half a goat, aud powder with shot
for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which, as I mentioned before, I had

wed out of the seamen’s chests ; these I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover
me in the night.

It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my captivity, which
you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer than I expected ;
for though the island itself was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it,
I found a great ledge of rocks-lie out about two leagues into the sea, some above water,
some under it ; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying dry half.a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double that point.

When I first discovered them, I was going to give over my enterprise, and come back
again, not knowing how far it might oblige me to go out to sea; and, above all, doubt-
ing how I should get back again ; so I came to an anchor ; for I had madea kind of an

gh 2vehor with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out of the ship.

Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climbing up a hill, which
seemed to overlook that point where I saw the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a strong and, in-
deed, a most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to the point ;
and I took the more notice of it, because I saw there might be some danger, that when
I came into it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to


make the island again. And, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill, I believe it
would have been so; for there was the same current on the other side of the island,
only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the
shore ; so T had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should presently be
in an eddy.

I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty fresh at E.S.E., and
that being just contrary to the current, made a great breach of the sea upon*the point ; so
that it was not safe for me too keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too far
off, because of the stream.

The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight, the sea was calm,
and I ventured. But I am a warning-piece to all rash and ignorant pilots ; for no sooner
was I come to the point, when I was not even my boat’s length from the shore, but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill It carried my


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



boat along with it with such violence that all I could do could not keep her so much as
on the edge of it; but I found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which
was on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all that I could do with
my paddles signified nothing. And now I began to give myself over for lost ; for as the
current was on both sides of the island, I knew in a few leagues’ distance they must join
again, and then I was irrecoverable gone ; nor did I see any possibility of avoiding it ;
so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was calm
enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as
big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it into th. boat ; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots ; but what was all this to being driven into
the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no mainland or island, for a
thousand leagues at least ?

And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make the most
miserable condition that mankind could be in worse. Now I looked back upon my
desolate, solitary island as the most pleasant place in the world, and all the happiness
my heart could wish for was to be there again. I stretched out my hands to it, with
eager wishes. “O happy desert!” said I, “I shall never see thee more. O miserable
creature! whither am I going?” Then I reproached myself with my unthankful tem-
per, and how I had repined at my solitary condition ; and now what would I give to
be on shore there again! Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is
illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by the
want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I was now in, being
driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean,
almost two leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I
worked hard till, indeed, my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as much
to the northward—that is, towards the side of the current which the eddy Jay on—as
possibly I could ; when about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a
little breeze of wind in my face, springing up from the S.S.E. This cheered my heart a
little, and especially when, in about half an hour more, it blew a pretty small, gentle gale.
By this time, I had got at a frightfJ distance from the island ; and had the least cloudy
or hazy weather intervened, I had been undone another way, too ; for I had no compass
on board, and should never have known how to have steered towards the island, if I
had but once lost sight of it. But the weather continuing clear, I applied myself to get
up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away to the nofth as much as possible,
to get out of the current.

Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch away, I saw even
by the clearness of the water some alteration of the current was near ; for where the
current was so strong, the water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found:
the current abate; and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach
of the sea upon some rocks. These rocks I found caused the current to part again, and
as the main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so
the other returned by the repulse of the rock, and made a strong eddy, which ran back
again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream. :

They who know what it is to have a reprieve brought to them upon the ladder, or
to be rescued from thieves just going to murder them, or who have been in such ex-
tremities, may guess what my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat
into the stream of this eddy ; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I spread my sail
to it, running cheerfully before the wind, and with a strong tide or eddy under foot.”






This eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly towards
the island, but about two leagues more towards the northward than the current lay
which carried me away at first ; so that when I came near the island, I found myself
open to the northern shore of it, that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to
that which I went out from.

When TI had made something more than a league of way by help of this current
or eddy, I found it was spent, and saved me no farther. However, I found that being
between two great currents, viz. that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and
that on the north, which lay about two leagues on the other side ; I say, between these
two, in the wake of the island, I found the water at least still, and running no way ;
and having still a breeze of wind fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island,
though not making such fresh way as I did before.

About four o’clock in the evening, being then within about a league of the island, I
found the point of the rocks which occasioned this disaster stretching out, as is described
before, to the southward, and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course,
made another eddy to the north ; and this I found very strong, but directly setting
the way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full north. However, having a
fresh gale, I stretched across this eddy, slanting north-west ; and in about an hour came
within about a mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to land.

When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for my deliverance,
resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance by my boat; and refreshing myself
with such things as I had, I brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I
had spied under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with the labour
and fatigue of the voyage.

Iwas now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat! I had run so
much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of attempting it by the way I
went out ; and what might be at the other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor
had T any mind to run any more ventures. So I resolved on the next morning to make
my way westward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek where I might lay
up my frigate in safety, so as to have her again, if I wanted her. In about three miles,
or thereabouts, coasting the shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile over,
which narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found a very
convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she had been in a little dock
made on purpose for her. Here I put in, and having stowed my boat very safe, I went
on shore to look about me, and see where I was.

I soon found I had but a little passed by the place where I had been before, when I
travelled on foot to that shore; so, taking nothing out of my boat but my gun and
unbrella, for it was exceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable
enough after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old bower in
the evening, where I found everything standing as I left it; for I always kept it in
good order, being, as I said before, my country-house.

I got over the fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my limbs, for I was very
weary, and fell asleep. But judge you, if you can, that read my story, what a surprise
I must have been in when I was awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me by
my name several times: “Robin, Robin, Robin Crusoe! poor Robin Crusoe! Where
are you, Robin Crusoe? Where are you? Where have you been?”

I was so dead asleep at first, being fatigued with rowing, or paddling, as it is called,


ROBINSON CRUSOE.

and dozing between sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me ;
but as the voice continued to repeat, “ Robin Crusoe! Robin Crusoe !” at last I began to
awake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully frightened, and started up in the utmost
consternation. But no sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the top
of the hedge, and immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for just in such
bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and teach him; and he had learned it
so perfectly, that he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and
ery, “ Poor Robin Crusoe! Where are you? Where have you been? How came
you here?” and such things as I had taught him.

However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed it could be nobody
else, it was a good while before I could compose myself. First, I was amazed how the
creature got thither ; and then, how he should just keep about the place, and nowhere
else ; but as I was well satistied it could be nobody but honest Poll, I got over it ; and
holding out my hand, and calling him by his name, “ Poll,” the sociable creature came
to me, and sat upon my thumb, as he used to do, and continued talking to me, “ Poor
Robin Crusoe ! and how did I come here? and where had I been?” just as if he had
been overjoyed to see me again ; and so I carried him home along with me.

I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had enough to do for
many days, to sit still, and reflect upon the danger I had been in. I would have been
very glad to have had my boat again on my side of the island ; but I knew not how it
was practicable to get it about. As to the east side of the island, which I had gone
round, I knew well enough there was no venturing that way ; my very heart would
shrink, and my very blood run chill, but to think of it; and as to the other side of the
island, T did not know how it might be there. But supposing the current ran with the
same force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I might run
the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried by the island, as T had been
before of being carried away from it. So with these thoughts I contented myself to be
without any boat, though it had been the product of so many months’ labour to make
it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.

In this government of my temper, I remained near a year ; lived a very sedate,
retired life, as you may well suppose ; and my thoughts being very much composed
as to my condition, and fully comforted in resigning myself to the dispositions of
Providence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that of
society.

Timproved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which my necessities
put me upon applying myself to; and I believe I should, upon occasion, have made a
very good carpenter, especially considering how few tools I had.

Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthenware, and contrived
well enough to make them with a wheel, which I found infinitely easier and better ;
because I made things round and shaped, which before were filthy things indeed to look
on. But I think I was never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful for
anything I found out, than for my being able to make a tobacco-pipe ; and though it
was a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was done, and only burnt red, like other earthen-
ware, yet us it was hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly com-
forted with it, for I had been always used to smoke ; and there were pipes in the ship,
but I forgot them at first, not thinking that there was tobacco in the island ; and after-
wards, when I searched the ship again, I could not come at my pipes.

In my wickerware also I improved much, and made abundance of necessary baskets,


















































RS

ph
i

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



as well as my invention showed me; though not very handsome, yet they were such as
were very handy and convenient for laying things up in, or fetching things home. For
example, if I killed a goat abroad, I could hang it up in a tree, flay it, and dress it, and
cut it in pieces, and bring it home in a basket : and the like by a turtle ; I could cut it
up, take out the eggs, anda piece or two of the flesh, which was enongh for me, and bring
them home in a basket, and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were
my receivers for my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was dry, and cured ;
and kept it in great baskets, instead of a granary.

I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably ; and this was a want which
it was impossible for me to supply, and I began seriously to consider what I must do
when I should have no more powder ; that is to say, how I should do to kill any goats.
I had, as I observed in the third year of my being here, kept a young kid, and bred her
up tame; I was in hopes of getting a he-kid: but I could not by any means bring
it to pass, till my kid grew an old goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill
her, she died at last of mere age.

But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have said, my
ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap and snare the goats, to
see whether I could not catch some of them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-
goat great with young. To this purpose, I made snares to hamper them ; and I
believe they were more than once taken in them; but my tackle was not good, for I
had no wire, and always found them broken, and my bait devoured. At length, I
resolved to try a pitfall : so I dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I had
observed the goats used to feed, and over these pits I placed hurdles, of my own making
too, with a great weight upon them ; and several times I put ears of barley and dry
rice, without setting the trap ; and I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in
and eaten up the corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three
traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found them all standing, and yet the
bait eaten and gone: this was very discouraging. However, I altered my traps; and,
not to trouble you with particulars, going one morning to see my traps, I found in one
of them a large old he-goat; and in one of the others, three kids, a male and two
females.

As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him ; he was so fierce, I durst not
go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about to bring him away alive, which
was what I wanted. I could have killed him, but that was not my business, nor would
it answer my end; so I even let him out, and he ran away as if he had been frighted
out of his wits ; but I had forgot then what I learned afterwards, that hunger will tame
alion. If L had let him stay there three or four days without food, and then have
carried him some water to drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame as
one of the kids; for they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where they are
well used.

However, for the present I let him go, knowing no better at that time : then I went
to the three kids, and, taking them one by one, I tied them with strings together, and
with some difficulty brought them all home.

It was a good while before they would feed ; but throwing them some sweet corn, it
tempted them, and they began to be tame. And now I found that if I expected to
supply myself with goats’ flesh, when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up
tame was my only way; when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a flock

H S of sheep. But, then, it occurred to me that I must keep the tame from the wild, or else
ch




’ ,
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pee

HE MAINTAINS A FLOCK OF GOATS. pN
A \y



\ they would always run wild when they grew up ; and the only way for this was to have
some inclosed piece of ground, well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them up so ;
effectually, that those within might not break out, or those without break in. |
This was a great undertaking for one pair of hands; yet as I saw there was an |
absolute necessity for doing it, my first piece of work was to find out a proper piece of y
. i ground ; viz, where there was likely to be herbage for them to eat, water for them i
f to drink, and cover to keep them from the sun.
| \ Those who understand such inclosures will think I had very little contrivance, when |
J I pitched upon a place very proper for all these, being a plain, open piece of meadow i
; land, or savanna (as our people call it in the western colonies), which had two or three {|B
Tay ‘little drills of fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody ; I say, they will smile [if
| i at my forecast, when I shall tell them I began by inclosing of this piece of ground in such |
If a manner, that my hedge or pale must have been at least two miles about. Nor was |
i the madness of it so great as to the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to | HY
Jf} | have time enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would be as wild | Ni
in so much compass as if they had had the whole island, and I should have so much : H
room to chase them in that I should never catch them.

My hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards, when this thought
occurred to me ; so I presently stopped short, and, for the first beginning, I resolved to
inclose a piece of about one hundred and fifty yards in length, and one hundred yards
in breadth, which, as it would maintain as many as I should have in any reasonable
time, so, as my flock increased, I could add more ground to my inclosure.

This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with courage. I was
about three months hedging in the first piece ; and, till I had done it, I tethered the
Ha Ih three kids in the best part of it, and used them to feed as near me as possible, to make
| Hi them familiar ; and very often I would go and carry them some ears of barley, or a

1 handful of rice, and feed them out of my hand ; so that, after my inclosure was finished,
and I let them loose, they would follow me up and down, bleating after me for a hand-
ful of corn.

This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock of about twelve
goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-and-forty, besides several that I
took and killed for my food ; and after that, I inclosed five several pieces of ground to
feed them in, with little pens to drive them into, to take them as I wanted them, and
gates out of one pisce of ground into another.

But this was not all; for now I not only had goats’ flesh to feed on when I pleased,
fay = but milk too—a thing which indeed in my beginning I did not so much as think of,
fe, and which, when it came into my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise ; for now
I set up my dairy, and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as j
Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally howto {i N\
make use of it, so I, that never milked a cow, much less a goat, or saw butter or cheese J y
made, very readily and handily, though after a great many essays and miscarriages, made
me both butter and cheese at last, and never wanted it afterwards. How mercifully
\ can our Creator treat His creatures, even in those conditions in which they seemed
to be overwhelmed in destruction! How can He sweeten the bitterest providences,
ll \ and give us cause to praise Him for dungeons and prisons! What a table was here

ii } spread for me in a wilderness, where I saw nothing at first but to perish for hunger!

It would have made a Stoic smile to have seen me and my little family sit down to

dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and lord of the whole island; I had the





Sh




























ROBINSON CRUSOF.

lives of all my subjects at absolute command ; I could hang, draw, give life and liberty
and take it away, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then to see how like a king I
dined too, all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, as if he had been my favourite,
was the only person permitted to talk to me; my dog, who was now grown very old
and erazy, and had feund no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand ; and two cats, one on one side the table, and one on the other, expecting now
and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of special favour.

But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first, for they were
both of them dead, and had been interred near my habitation by my own hand ; but
one of them having multiplied by I know not what kind of creature, these were two
which I preserved tame ; whereas the rest ran wild in the woods, and became
indeed troublesome to me at last ; for they would often come into my housé, and plunder
me too, till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did killa great many; at length
they left me. With this attendance and in this plentiful manner I lived ; neither
could I be said to want anything but society; and of that, in some time after this, I
was likely to have too much.

I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of my boat, though
very loth to ran any more hazard ; and therefore sometimes I sat contriving ways to
get her about the island, and at other times I sat myself down contented enough with-
out her. But I had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point of the
island where, as I have said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see how the shore
lay, and how the current set, that I might see what I had to do: this inclination in-
creased upon me every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by land ; and follow-
ing the edge of the shore, I did so; but had any one in England met such a man as I
was, it must either have frighted them, or raised a great deal of laughter: and as I
frequently stood still to look at myself, I could not but smile at the notion of my





















travelling through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a dress. Be pleased
to take a sketch of my figure, as follows :—

I had a great high shapeless cap, made of goat’s skin, with a flap hanging down
behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon the flesh under
the clothes. :

T had a short jacket of goat’s skin, the skirts coming down to about the middle of
the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of the same ; the breeches were made of
the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like
pantaloons, it reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes I had none, but
had made me a pair of somethings, I scarce knew what to call them, like buskins, to
flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous
shape, as indeed were all the rest of my clothes.

I had on a broad belt of goat’s skin dried, which I drew together with two thongs
of the same, instead of buckles ; and in a kind of a frog on either side of this, instead of
a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one on one side, one on the
other. I had another belt not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung
over my shoulder ; and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung two pouches, both made
of goat’s skin too, in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my
Lack I carried my basket, on my shoulder my gun, and over my head a great clumsy,
ugly, goat-skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing I

had about me next to my gun, As for my face, the colour of it was really not so



Sa a SE









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oh,
N

ROBINSON CRUSOE.





mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living within
nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow till it was
about a quarter of a yard long ; but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient, I had
cut it pretty short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a
large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee,
for the Moors did not wear such, though the Turks did; of these moustachios, or
whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, kut they
were ofa length and shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would have
passed for frightful.

But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to observe me, that it
was of no manner of consequence, so I say no more to that part. In this kind of dress I
went my new journey, and was out five or six days. I travelled first along the sea-
i shore, directly to the place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get up upon
" the rocks; and having no boat now to take care of, I went over the Jand a nearer way

fg to the same height that I was upon before, when, looking forward to the point of the
a rock which lay out, and which I was obliged to double with my boat, as I said above,
{| I was surprised to see the sea all smooth and quiet—no rippling, no motion, no current,
x any more there than in other places. I was at a strange loss to understand this,
fl and resolved to spend some time in the observing it, to see if nothing from the sets of
a the tide had occasioned it ; but I was presently convinced how it was, viz. that the tide
of ebb setting from the west, and joining with the current of waters from some great
alfia river on the shore, must be the occasion of this current ; and that according as the
wind blew more forcible from the west or from the north, this current came near, or
went farther from the shore ; for, waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the
F) rock again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current again as
before, only that it ran farther off, being near half a league from the shore, whereas in
my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me in my canoe along with it, which
at another time it would not have done.

This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to observe the ebbing
and the flowing of the tide, and I might very easily bring my boat about the island
again ; but when I began to think about putting it in practice, I had such terror upon
my spirits at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I could not think of it
again with any patience ; but, on the contrary, I took up another resolution, which was
more safe, though more laborious—and_ this was, that I would build, or rather make



me another periagua or canoe; aud so have one for one side of the island, and one



for the other.

You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plantations in the
island; one my little fortification or tent, with the wall about it, under the rock, with
® the cave behind me, which by this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or
caves, one within another. One of these, which was the driest and largest, and had a
door out beyond my wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond where my wall joined
to the rock, was all filled up with the large earthen pots, of which I have given an
account, and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels











each, where I laid up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in the ear, cut
off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with my hand.

As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those piles grew all like
trees, and were by this time grown so big, and spread so very much, that there was not
the least appearance, to any one’s view, of any habitation behind them.

102







AV aaa ee eee a s T
A

CRUSOE’S COUNTRY HOUSE AND PLANTATION.
i



\ Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and upon lower i
} ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed, and
/ which duly yielded me their harvest in its season ; and whenever I had occasion for
| more corn, I had more land adjoining, as fit as that.

Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable plantation there
also ; for first, I had my little bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair—that is to
say, I kept the hedge, which circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usual height, the
ladder standing always in the inside ; I kept the trees, which at first were no more
than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, always so cut, that they might
spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, which they did
effectually to my mind. In the middle of this I had my tent always standing, being a
piece of a sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and which never wanted
any repair or renewing ; and under this I had made me a squab or couch, with the skins
of the creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a blanket laid on them,
such as belonged to our sea-bedding, which I had saved ; anda great watch-coat to cover
me ; and here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat, I took up my
country habitation.

Adjoining to this, I had my inclosures for my cattle, that is to say, my goats; and
as I had taken an inconceivable deal of pains to fence and inclose this ground, I was so
anxious to see it kept entire, lest the goats should break through, that I never left off
till, with infinite labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes,
and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce
room to put a hand through between them ; which afterwards, when those stakes grew,
as they all did in the next rainy season, made the inclosure strong like a wall, indeed
stronger than any wall.

This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no pains to bring to
pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable support ; for I considered the
keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my hand would be a living magazine
of flesh, milk, butter, and cheese for me as long as I lived in the place, if it were to be
forty years ; and that keeping them in my reach depended entirely upon my perfecting
my inclosures to such a degree, that I might be sure of keeping them together ; which,
by this method, indeed, I so effectually secured, that when these little stakes began
to grow, I had planted them so very thick, I was forced to pull some of them _ }
up again.

In this place also I had my grapes growing, which I principally depended on for my
winter store of raisins, and which I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the best
and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet ; and, indeed, they were not agreeable only,
but physical, wholesome, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree.

As this was also about half-way between my other habitation and the place where I
had laid up my boat, I generally stayed and lay here in my way thither, for I used
frequently to visit my boat ; and I kept all things about, or belonging to her, in very
good order. Sometimes I went out in her to divert myself, but no more hazardous
voyages would I go, scarcely ever above a stone’s cast or two from the shore, I was so
apprehensive of being hurried out of my knowledge again by the currents or winds,
or any other accident. But now I come to a new scene of my life.

It happened one day, about noon, going towards my boat, I was exceedingly surprised
with the print of a man’s naked foot on the shore, which was very plain to be seen on
the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or as if I had seen an apparition. I listened,

: 103




ATR

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2 ae eee
y ei a @ <<

ROBINSON CRUSOE,



Es I looked round me, but I could hear nothing, nor see anything ; I went up to a rising
a, ground, to look farther ; I went up the shore, and down the shore, but it was all one:
# = I could see no other impression but that one. I went to it again to see if there were
any more, and to observe if it might not be my fancy ; but there was no room for that,
for there was exactly the print of a foot—toes, heel, and every part of a foot. How it
came thither I knew not, nor could in the least imagine. But after innumerable
fluttering thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself, I came home to my



fortification, not feeling, as we say, the ground I went on, but territied to the last degree,
looking behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking every bush and tree, and
fancying every stump at a distance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe how

i

as

many various shapes my affrighted imagination represented things .o me in ; how many
wild ideas were formed every moment in my fancy, and what strange unaccountable
whimseys came into my thoughts by the way.

When I came to my castle (for so I think I called it ever after this), I fled into it
like one pursued. Whether I went over by the ladder, as first, contrived, or went in at
the hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot remember ; for never frighted
hare fled to cover, or fox to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.

SS

sb

I had no sleep that night; the farther I was from the oceasion of my fright, the greater
my apprehensions were, which is something contrary to the nature of such things, and
especially to the usual practice of all creatures in fear ; but I was so embarrassed with
my own frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but dismal imaginations to
all myself, even though I was now a great way off it. Sometimes I fancied it must be the
devil ; and reason joined in with me upon this supposition : for how should any other thing §
in human shape come into the place? Where was the vessel that brought them? What
marks were there of any other footsteps? And how was it possible a man should come



there? But then to think that Satan should take human shape upon him in such a



place, where there could be no manner of occasion for it, but to leave the print of his



foot behind him, and that even for no purpose too, for he could not be sure I should



sec it—this was an amazement the other way. I considered that the devil might have



found out abundance of other ways to have terrified me than this of the single print of a



foot ; that as I lived quite on the other side of the island, he would never have been so



simple as to leave a mark in a place where it was ten thousand to one whether I should



ever see it or not, and in the sand too, which the first surge of the sea, upon a high wind,



would have defaced entirely. All this seemed inconsistent with the thing itself, and



with all the notions we usually entertain of the subtlety of the devil.



Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue me out of all apprehensions of



its being the devil; and I presently concluded then, that it must be some more



dangerous creature ; viz. that it must be some of the savages of the mainland over



against me, who had wandered out to sea in their canoes, and either driven by the



currents or by contrary winds, had made the island, and had been on shore, but were



gone away again to sea ; being as loth, perhaps, to have stayed in this desolate island
as [ would have been to have had them.
While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I was very thankful in my thought,



that I was so happy as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not see my



boat, by which they would have concluded that some inhabitants had been in the place,
and perhaps have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts racked my imagi-
nation about their having found my boat, and that there were people here ; and that,
if so, I should certainly have them come again in greater numbers, and devour me ;

















that if it should happen that they should not find me, yet they would find my
enclosure, destroy all my corn, and carry away all my flock of tame goats, and I
should perish at last for mere want.

Thus my fear banished all my religious hope; all that former confidence
in God, which was founded upon such wonderful experience as [ had had of his
goodness, now vanished ; as if He that had fed me by miracle hitherto, could not
preserve by His power the provision which He had made for me by His goodness.
I reproached myself with my laziness, that would not sow any more corn one
year than would just serve me till the next season, as if no accident could inter-
vene to prevent my enjoying the crop that was upon the ground ; and this I thought
so just a reproof, that I resolved for the future to have two or three years’
corn beforehand, so that, whatever might come, I might not perish for want
of bread.

How strange a chequer-work of Providence is the life of man! and by what
secret differing springs are the affections hurried about, as differing circumstances
present! To-day we love what to-morrow we hate ; to-day we seek what to-morrow
105




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ROBINSON CRUSOE,



weshun ; to-day we desire what to-morrow we fear, nay, even tremble at the apprehen-

sions of. This was exemplified in me at this time in the most lively manner imaginable ;
for I, whose only afiliction was, that I seemed banished from human society, that I
was alone, circumscribed by the boundless ocean, cut off from mankind, and condemned
to what I call silent life; that I was as one whom Heaven thought not worthy to be
numbered among the living, or to appear amongst the rest of his creatures ; that to have
seen one of my own species would have seemed to me a raising me from death to life,
and the greatest blessing that Heaven itself, next to the supreme blessing of salvation,
could bestow ; I say, that I should now tremble at the very apprehensions of seeing a
man, and was ready to sink into the ground at but the shadow or silent appearance of a
man haying set his foot on the island.

Such is the uneven state of human life ; and it afforded me a great many curious
speculations afterwards, when I had a little recovered my first surprise. I considered
that this was the station of life the infinitely wise and good providence of God had
determined for me ; that as I could not foresee what the end of Divine wisdom might
be in all this, so I was not to dispute His sovereignty, who, as I was His creature, had
an undoubted right by creation to govern and dispose of me absolutely as He thought
fit ; and who, as I was a creature who had offended Him, had likewise a judicial right to
condemn me to what punishment He thought fit ; and that it was my part to submit to
bear His indignation, because I had sinned against Him. I then reflected, that God, who
was not only righteous, but omnipotent, as He had thought fit thus to punish and afflict
me, so He was able to deliver me; that if He did not think fit to do it, it was my
unquestioned duty to resign myself absolutely and entirely to His will ; and, on the other
hand, it was my duty also to hope in Him, pray to Him, and quietly to attend the dictates
and directions of His daily providence.

These thoughts took me up many hours, days, nay, I may say weeks and months ; and
one particular effect of my cogitations on this occasion I cannot omit ; viz., one morning
early, lying in my bed, and filled with thoughts about my danger from the appearance
of savages, I found it discomposed me very much; upon which those words of the
Scripture came into my thoughts: “Call upon me in the day of trouble: I will
deliver theo, and thou shalt glorify me.” | Upon this, rising cheerfully out of bed, my
heart was not only comforted, but I was guided and encouraged to pray earnestly to God
for deliverance: when I had done praying, I took up my Bible, and opening it to read,
the first words that presented to me were, “ Wait on the Lord: be of good courage,
and He shall strengthen thy heart; wait, I say, on the Lord.” It is impossible to
express the comfort this gave me, and in return I thankfully laid down the book, and was
no more sad, at least, not on that occasion.

In the middle of these cogitations, apprehensions, and reflections, it came into my
thoughts one day, that all this might be a mere chimera of my own, and that this foot
might be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from my boat : this cheered
me up a little, too, and I began to persuade myself it was all a delusion ; that it was
nothing else but my own foot ; and why might I not come that way from the boat, as
well as I was going that way to the boat? Again I considered also, that I could by no
means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had not; and that if, at last, this
was only the print of my own foot, I had played the part of those fools who try to make
stories of spectres and apparitions, and then are themselves frighted at them more than
anybody else.

Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again, for I had not stirred out of

106



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ANOTHER VISIT TO THE SHORE.



my castle for three days and nights, so that I began to starve for provision ; for I had
little or nothing within doors but some barley-cakes and water. Then I knew that my
goats wanted to be milked too, which usually was my evening diversion; and the
poor creatures were in great pain and inconvenience for want of it ; and, indeed, it
almost spoiled some of them, and almost dried up their milk.

Heartening myself, therefore, with the belief that this was nothing but the print
of one of my own feet, and so I might be truly said to start at my own shadow, I began to
go abroad again, and went to my country-house to milk my flock ; but to see with what
fear I went forward, how often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every now and
then, to lay down my basket, and run for my life, it would have made any one have
thought I was haunted with an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most terribly
frighted ; and so, indeed, I had. However, as IT went down thus two or three days, and
having seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think there was really nothing
in it but my own imagination ; but I could not persuade myself fully of this till I should
go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot, and measure it by my own, and see
if there was any similitude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my own foot. But
when T came to the place—first, it appeared evidently to me, that when I laid up my
boat, I could not possibly be on shore anywhere thereabouts : secondly, when I came to
measure the mark with my own foot, I found my foot not so large by a great deal.
Both these things filled my head with new imaginations, and gave me the vapours again
to the highest degree, so that I shook with cold like one in an ague; and I went home
again, filled with the belief that some man or men had been on shore there ; or, in short,
that the island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I was aware ; and what
course to take for my security I knew not.

Oh, what ridiculous resolutions men take when possessed with fear! It deprives
them of the use of those means which reason offers for their relief. The first thing I
proposed to myself was, to throw down my enclosures, and turn all my tame cattle wild
into the woods, that the enemy might not find them, and then frequent the island in
prospect of the same or the like booty: then the simple thing of digging up my two corn-
fields, that they might not find such a grain there, and still be prompted to frequent the
island; then to demolish my bower and tent, that they might not see any vestiges of
habitation, and be prompted to look farther, in order to find out the persons inhabiting.

These were the subjects of the first night’s cogitations, after I was come home again
while the apprehensions which had so overrun my mind were fresh upon me, and my
head was full of vapours as above. Thus, fear of danger is ten thousand times more
terrifying than danger itself, when apparent to the eyes; and we find the burden of
anxiety greater, by much, than the evil which we are anxious about : but, which was
worse than all this, I had not that relief in this trouble, from the resignation I used to
practise, that I hoped to have. I looked, TI thought, like Saul, who complained not
only that the Philistines were upon him, but that God had forsaken him ; for I did
not now take due ways to compose my mind, by crying to God in my distress, and rest-
ing upon His providence, as I had done before, for my defence and deliverance ; which
if I had done, I had at least been more cheerfully supported under this new surprise,
and perhaps carried through it with more resolution.

This confusion of my thoughts kept me waking all night ; but in the morning I fell
asleep ; and having by the amusement of my mind been, as it were, tired, and my
spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly, and awaked much better composed than I had
ever been before. And now I began to think sedately ; and, upon the utmost debate





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f\ myself to go in and out (for I left no avenue), it was by setting two ladders, one to a

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

with myself, I concluded that this island (which was so exceeding pleasant, fruitful, and no
farther from the main land than as I had seen) was not so entirely abandoned as I might
imagine ; that although there were no stated inhabitants who lived on the spot, yet that
there might sometimes come boats off from the shore, who, either with design, or perhaps
never but when they were driven by cross winds, might come to this place ; that Thad
lived here fifteen years now, and had not met with the least shadow or figure of any
people yet ; and that, if at any time they should be driven here, it was probable they
went away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they had never thought fit to fix here
upon any occasion to this time ; that the most I could suggest any danger from was,
from any casual accidental landing of straggling people from the main, who, as it was
likely, if they were driven hither, were here against their wills ; so they made no stay
here, but went off again with all possible speed, seldom staying one night on shore,
lest they should not have the help of the tides and daylight back again; and that,
therefore, I had nothing to do but to consider of some safe retreat, in case I should
see any savages land upon the spot.

Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave so large as to bring a door
through again, which door, as I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined te
the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I resolved to draw me a second
fortification, in the same manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just where
I had planted a double row of trees about twelve years before, of which I made mention :
these trees having been planted so thick before, there wanted but few piles to be driven
between them, that they should be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon
finished. So that I had now a double wall; and my outer wall was thickened with
picces of timber, old cables, and everything I could think of to make it strong, having
in it seven little holes, about as big as I might put my arm outat. In the inside of this,
I thickened my wall to about ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my
cave, and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it ; and through the seven
holes I contrived to plant the muskets, of which I took notice that I got seven on
shore out of the ship; these, I say, I planted like my cannon, and fitted them into
frames, that held them like a carriage, that so I could fire all the seven guns in two
minutes’ time. This wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and yet never thought
myself safe till it was done.

When this was doner I stuck all the ground without my wall, for a great way every
way, as full with stakes or sticks of the osier-like wood, which I found so apt to grow,
as they could well stand ; insomuch that I believe T might set in near twenty thousand
of them, leaving a pretty large space between them and my wall, that I might have
room to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from the young trees, if they
attempted to approach my outer wall.

Thus, in two years’ time, I had a thick grove; and in five or six years’ time I had a
wood before my dwelling grown so monstrous thick and strong that it was indeed
perfectly impassable : and no man, of what kind soever, would ever imagine that there
was anything beyond it, much less a habitation. As for the way which I proposed to

part of the rock which was low, and then broke in, and left room to place another ladder
upon that ; so when the two ladders were taken down, no man living could come down f
to me without mischiefing himself; and if they had come down, they were still on
the outside of my outer wall.

Thus I took all the measures human prudence could suggest for my own preservation ; ,

108







and it will be seen, at length, that they were not altogether without just reason ; though
I foresaw nothing at that time more than my mere fear suggested to me.

While this was doing, I was not altogether careless of my other affairs ; for I had a
great concern upon me for my little herd of goats: they were not only a present supply
to me upon every occasion, and began to be sufficient for me, without the expense of
powder and shot, but also abated the fatigue of my hunting after the wild ones ; and I
was loth to lose the advantage of them, and to have them all to nurse up over again.

For this purpose, after long consideration, I could think of but two ways to preserve
them: one was, to find another convenient place to dig a cave under ground, and to
drive them into it every night ; and the other was to enclose two or three little bits of
land, remote from one another, and as much concealed as I could, where I might keep
about half a dozen young guats in each place ; so that if any disaster happened to the
flock in general, I might be able to raise them again with little trouble and time: and
this, though it would require a good deal of time and labour, I thought was the most
rational design.

Accordingly, I spent some time to find out the most retired parts of the island ; and
I pitched upon one which was as private indeed as my heart could wish: it was a
little damp piece of ground, in the middle of the hollow and thick woods, where, as is
observed, I almost lost myself once before, endeavouring to come back that way from the
eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear piece of Jand, near three acres, so sur-
rounded with woods, that it was almost an enclosure by Nature; at least, it did not want
near so much labour to make it so, as the other pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.

I immediately went to work with this piece of ground ; and, in less than a month’s
time, I had so fenced it round that my flock, or herd, call it which you please, which
were not so wild now as at first they might be supposed to be, were well enough secured
in it. So, without any further delay, I removed ten she-goats, and two he-goats,
to this piece ; and, when they were there, I continued to perfect the fence, till I had

Â¥. made it as secure as the other; which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me

up more time by a great deal.

All this labour I was at the. expense of, purely from my apprehensions on the
account of the print of a man’s foot which I had seen; for, as yet, I had never seen
any human creature come near the island ; and I had now lived two years under this
uneasiness, which, indeed, made my life much less comfortable than it was before, as
may well be imagined by any who know what it is to live in the constant snare of the fear
of man. And this I must observe, with grief, too, that the discomposure of my mind
had too great impressions also upon the religious part of my thoughts ; for the dread and
terror of falling into the hands of savages and cannibals lay so upon my spirits, that I
seldom found myself in a due temper for application to my Maker ; at least, not with the
sedate calmness and resignation of soul which I was wont to do: I rather prayed to God
as under great affliction and pressure of mind, surrounded with danger, and in
expectation every night of being murdered and devoured before morning ; and I must
testify, from my experience, that a temper of peace, thankfulness, love, and affection, is
much the more proper frame for prayer than that of terror and discomposure ; and that
under the dread of mischief impending, a man is no more fit for a comforting performance
of the duty of praying to God, than he is for repentance on a sick bed; for these
discomposures affect the mind, as the others do the body: and the discomposure of the
mind must necessarily be as great a disability as that of the body, and much greater ;
praying to God being properly an act of the mind, not of the body.

110


FRAGMENTS OF A CANNIBAL FEAST.

But to go on: after I had thus secured one part of my little living stock, I went
about the whole island, searching for another private place to make such another deposit ;
when, wandering more to the west point of the island than I had ever done yet, and
looking out to sea, I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, ata great distance. I had found
a perspective glass or two in one of the seamen’s chests, which I saved out of our ship,
but I had it not about me; and this was so remote that I could not tell what to make
of it, though I looked at it till my eyes were not able to hold to look any longer :
whether it was a boat or not, I do not know; but as I descended from the hill I could see
no more of it, so I gave it over; only I resolved to go no more out without a
perspective glass in my pocket. ‘

When I was come down the hill to the end of the island, where, indeed, I had never
been before, I was presently convinced that the seeing the print of a man’s foot was not
such a strange thing in the island as I imagined ; and but that it was a special providence
that I was cast upon the side of the island where the savages never came, I should easily
have known that nothing was more frequent than for the canoes from the main, when
they happened to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side of the island
for harbour : likewise, as they often met and fought in their canoes, the victors, having
taken any prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where, according to their
dreadful customs, being all cannibals, they would kill and eat them ; of which hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said above, being the S.W. point
of the island, I was perfectly confounded and amazed ; nor is it possible for me to express
the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore spread with skulls, hands, feet, and other
bones of human bodies ; and particularly, I observed a place where there had been a fire
made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a cockpit, where I supposed the savage wretches
had sat down to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of their fellow-creatures.

I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that I entertained no notions of
any danger to myself from it for a long while : all my apprehensions were buried in the
thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality, and the horror of the degeneracy
of human nature, which, though I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a view
of before ; in short, I turned away my face from the horrid spectacle ; my stomach grew

=) sick, and I was just at the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disorder from

my stomach ; and having vomited with uncommon violence, I was a little relieved, but
could not bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got up the hill again with all the
speed I could, and walked on towards my own habitation.

When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood still awhile, as amazed,
and then, recovering myself, I looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with
a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks, that had cast my first lot in a part of the
world where I was distinguished from such dreadful creatures as these ; and that though
I had esteemed my present condition very miserable, had yet given me so many comforts
in it that I had still more to give thanks for than to complain of: and this, above all,
that I had, even in this miserable condition, been comforted with the knowledge of
Himself, and the hope of His blessing: which was a felicity more than sufficiently
equivalent to all the misery which I had suffered, or could suffer.

In this frame of thankfulness, I went home to my castle, and began to be much
easier now, as to the safety of my circumstances, than ever I was before : for I observed

i\| that these wretches never came to this island in search of what they could get ; perhaps

not seeking, not wanting, or not expecting, anything here ; and having often, no doubt,
been up in the covered, woody part of it, without finding anything to their purpose. I






RQ

K\ I reproved myself often for the simplicity of it: for I presently saw there would be the







=> & GF = eXS.
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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

Wat



knew I had been here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least footsteps of
human creature there before ; and I might be eighteen years more as entirely concealed
as I was now, if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no manner of occasion
to do; it being my only business to keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless
I found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make myself known to. Yet I
entertained such an abhorrence of the savage wretches that I have been speaking of, and
of the wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating one another up, that I
continued pensive and sad, and kept close within my own circle for almost two years
after this: when I say my own circle, I mean by it my three plantations, viz., my castle,
my country-seat (which I called my bower), and my enclosure in the woods: nor did I
look after this for any other use than as an enclosure for my goats ; for the aversion
which nature gave me to these hellish wretches was such, that I was as fearful of seeing
them as of secing the devil himself, nor did I so much as go to look after my boat in all
this time, but began rather to think of making me another ; for I could not think of ever
making any more attempts to bring the other boat round the island to me, lest I should
meet with some of those creatures at sea ; in which case, if I had happened to have fallen
into their hands, I knew what would have becn my lot.



Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in no danger of being discovered
by these people, began to wear off my uneasiness about them ; and I began to live just
in the same composed manner as before, only with this difference, that I used more
caution, and kept my eyes more about me than I did before, lest I should happen to be
seen by any of them ; and particularly, I was more cautious in firing my gun, lest any
of them, being on the island, should happen to hear it ; and it was, therefore, a very good
providence to me that Ihad furnished myself with a tame breed of goats, and that 1 had
no need to hunt any more about the woods, or shoot at them ; and if I did catch any of
them after this, it was by traps and snares, as I had done before : so that for two years
after this, I believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never went out without it ;
and, which was more, as I had saved three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them
out with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my goat-skin belt. I likewise
furbished up one of the great cutlasses that I had out of the ship, and made me a, belt to
put it on also; so that I was now a most formidable fellow to look at when I went
abroad, if you add to the former description of myself, the particular of two pistols, and
a great broad-sword hanging at my side ina belt, but without a scabbard.

Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I seemed, excepting these
cautions, to be reduced to my former calm sedate way of living. All these things tended
to show me, more and more, how far my condition was from being miserable, compared
to some others ; nay, to many other particulars of life, which it might have pleased God
to have made my lot. It put me upon reflecting how little repining there would be
among mankind at any condition of life, if people would rather compare their condition
with those that are worse, in order to be thankful, than be always comparing them
with those which are better, to assist their murmurings and complainings.

As in my present condition there were not really many things which I wanted, so,
indeed, 1 thought that the frights I had been in about these savage wretches, and the
concern I had been in for my own preservation, had taken off the edge of my invention
for my own conveniences ; and I had dropped a good design, which I had once bent
my thoughts upon, and that was to try if I could not make some of my barley into
malt, and then try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whimsical thought, and


























































































































































































































would be impossible for me to supply ; as, first, casks to preserve it in, which
was a thing that, as I have observed already, I could never compass ; no, though
I spent not many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but to no
purpose. In the next place, I had no hops to make it keep, no yeast to make it

intervened—I mean the frights and terrors I was in about the savages—I
had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to pass, too ; for I seldom gave any-
., thing over without accomplishing it, when I once had it in my head enough to
begin it. But myinvention now ran quite another way; for, night and day, I
could think of nothing but how I might destroy some of these monstors in their








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=i ROBINSON CRUSOE. per '
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“EN cruel, bloody entertainment ; and, if possible, save the victim the: should bring hither
Me J 3 ) P y 5

to destroy. Jt would take up a larger volume than this whole work is intended to be,
to set down all the contrivances I hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my thoughts, for iy P
the destroying these creatures, or at least frightening them so as to prevent their y
coming hither any more: but all was abortive ; nothing could be possible to take 1 !
effect, unless I was to be there to do it myself: and what could one man do among Wh
them, when perhaps there might be twenty or thirty of them together with their darts,
or their bows and arrows, with which they could shoot as true to amarkasIcould ¥%



with my gun? oR

Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place where they made their fire, Be
and putting in five or six pounds of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, ei
would consequenily take fire, and blow up all that was near it: but as, in the first place, *
T should be unwilling to waste so much powder upon them, my store being now within sy

the quantity of one barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going off at any certain
time, when it might surprise them ; and, at best, that it would do little more than just
blow the fire about their ears and fright them, but not sufficient to make them forsake
the place: so I laid ij aside; and then proposed that I would place myself in ambush
in some convenient place, with my three guns all double loaded, and in the middle of
their bloody ecremony let fly at them, when I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps
two or three at every shot; and then falling in upon them with my three pistols and
my sword, I made no doubt but that, if there were twenty, I should kill them all. This
fancy pleased my thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full of it, that I often dreamed
of it, and sometimes, that I was just going to let fly at them in my sleep. I went so
far with it in my imagination, that I employed myself several days to find out proper
places to put myself in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them, and I went frequently
to the place itself, which was now grown more familiar to me ; but while my mind was
thus filled with thoughts of revenge and of a bloody putting twenty or thirty of them to
4» the sword, as T may call it, the horror I had at the place, and at the signals of the
S barbarous wretches devouring one another, abetted my malice. Well, at length I
found a place in the side of the hill, where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I
saw any of their boats coming ; and might then, even before they would be ready to
come on shore, convey myself unseen into some thickets of trees, in one of which
there was a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely ; and there I might sit and
observe all their bloody doings, and take my full aim at their heads, when they were
so close together as that it would be next to impossible that I should miss my shot, or
that I could fail wounding three or four of them at the first shot. In this place, then,
I resolved to fix my design; and accordingly, I prepared two muskets and my
ordinary fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace of slugs each, and
four or five smaller bullets, about the size of pistol bullets; and the fowling-piece I
loaded with near a handfal of swan-shot of the largest size; I also loaded my pistols
with about four bullets each ; and in this posture, well provided with ammunition for a
second and third charge, 1 prepared myself for my expedition.



After I had thus laid the scheme of my design, and in my imagination put it in
practice, I continually made my tour every morning to the top of the hill, which was
from my castle, as I called it, about three miles, or more, to see if I could observe any
boats upon the sea, ecming near the island, or standing over towards it; but I began
to tire of this hard duty, after I had for two or three months constantly kept my
watch, but came always back without any discovery ; there having not, in all that
rig




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HE ABANDONS HIS DESIGN AGAINST THE SAVAGES.

AN ote — = es

NN

AX time, been the least appearance, not only on or near the shore, but on the whole ocean,
as far as my eyes or glass could reach every way.

As long as I kept my daily tour to the hill to look out, so long also I kept up the



=

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vigour of my design, and my spirits seemed to be all the while in a suitable frame for so
outrageous an execution as the killing twenty or thirty naked savages, for an offence i
which I had not at all entered into a discussion of in my thoughts, any farther than
my passions were at first fired by the horror I conceived at the unnatural custom of the
people of that country ; who, it seems, had been suffered by Providence, in His wise dis-
position of the world, to have no other guide than that of their own abominable and
vitiated passions ; and, consequently, were left, and perhaps had been so for some ages,




















































































to act such horrid things, and receive such dreadful customs, as nothing but nature,
entirely abandoned by Heaven, and actuated by some hellish degeneracy, could have
run them into. But now, when, as I have said, I began to be weary of the fruitless
excursion which I had made so long and so far every morning in vain, so my opinion of \ |
the action itself began to alter ; and I began, with cooler and calmer thoughts, to consider
what I was going to engage in; what authority or call I had.to pretend to be judge
and executioner upon these men as criminals, whom Heaven had thonght fit, for’ so
many ages, to suffer, unpunished, to go on, and to be, as it were, the executioners of
His judgments, one upon another ; how far these people were offenders against me, and
what right I had to engage in the quarrel of that blood which they shed promiscuously
upon one another. I debated this very often with myself thus :—'‘ How do I know what
God himself judges in this particular case? It is certain these people do not commit
this as a crime; it is not against their own consciences reproving, or their light
reproachinug them; they do not know it to be an offence, and then commit it in
detiance of Divine justice, as we do in almost all the sins we commit. They think it no
morea crime to kill a captive taken in war, than we do to kill an ox ; or to eat human
flesh, than we do to eat mutton.”

When I considered this a little, it followed necessarily that I was certainly in the
wrong in it; that these people were not murderers, in the sense that I had befure con-
demnel them in my thoughts, any more than those Christians were murderers who often
put to death the prisoners taken in battle ; or more frequently, upon many occasions,
put whole troops of men to the sword, without giving quarter, though they threw
down their arms, and submitted. In the next place, it occurred to me, that albeit the
usage they gave one another was thus brutish and inhuman, yet it was really nothing to
me. ‘These peoyle had done me no injury; that if they attempted me, or I saw it
n
it: but that I was yet out of their power, and they really had no knowle:lge of me, and



ecessary, for my immediate preservation, to fall upon them, something might be said for

consequently no design upon me ; and, therefore, it could not be just for me to fall upon
them. That this would justify the conduct of the Spaniards in all their barbarities
practised in America, where they destroyed millions of these people ; who, however
they were idolators and barbarians, and had several bloody and barbarous rites in their
customs, such as sacrificing human bodies to their idols, were yet, as to the Spaniards,
very innocent people ; and that the rooting them out of the country is spoken of with
the utmost abhorrence and detestation by even the Spaniards themselves, at this tine,
and by all other Christian nations in Europe, as a mere butc!:ery, a bloody and unnatural
| piece of cruelty, unjustifiable either to God or man; and such as for which the very name
of a Spaniard is reckoned to be frightful and terrible to ‘all people of humanity or of
Christian compassion ; as if the kingdom of Spain were particularly eminent for the












































ROBINSON CRUSOE.
product of a race of men who were without principles of tenderness, or the common
Lowels of pity to the miserable, which is reckoned to be a mark of a generous temper in
the mind.

These considerations really put me to a pause, and toa kind of a full stop ; and I began,
hy little and little, to be off my design, and to conclude I had taken wrong measures in
my resolution to attack the savages ; and that it was not my business to meddle with
them, unless they first attacked me ; and this it was my business, if possible, to prevent :
but that if I were discovered and attacked by them, then I knew my duty. On the other
hand, I argued with myself that this really was the way not to deliver myself, but
entirely to ruin and destroy myself ; for, unless I was sure to kill every one that not §
only should be on shore at that time, but that should ever come on shore afterwards, if
Dut one of them escaped to tell their country-people what had luppened, they would "Â¥
come over again by thousands to revenge the death of their fellows, and I should only
bring upon myself a certain destruction, which, at present, I had no manner of occasion

for. Upon the whole, I concluded that I ought, neither in principle nor in policy, one pri
way or other, to concern myself in this affair; that my business was, by all possible Oe
means, to conceal myself from them, and not to leave the least sign for them to guess 7

Se

pees

hy that there were any living ercatures upon the island—I mean of human shape.
Religion joined in with this prudential resolution ; and I was convinced now, many



ways, that I was perfectly out of my duty when I was Inying all my bloody schemes for
the destruction of innocent creatures—I mean innocent as to me. As to the crimes
they were guilty of towards one another, I had nothing to do with them ; these were
national punishments, to make a just retribution for national offences, and to bring
public judgment upon those who offend in a public manner, by such ways as best



please God. This appeared so clear to me now, that nothing was a greater satis-
faction to me than that I had not been suffered to do a thing which I now saw so
much reason to believe would have been no less a sin than that of wilful murder, if I
had committed it ; and I gave most humble thanks, on my knees, to God, that He had
thus delivered me from blood-guiltiness ; beseeching 1Lim to grant me the protection of
His providence, that I might not fall into the hands of the barbarians, or that I might
not lay my hands upon them, unless I had a more clear call from Heaven to do it, in
defence of my own life.

In this disposition I continued for near a year after this; and so far was I from
desiring an occasion for falling upon these wretches, that in all that time I never once §
went up the hill to see whether there were any of them in sight, or to know whether
any of them had been on shore there or not, that I might uot be tempted to renew any
of my contrivances against them, or be provoked by any advantage that might
present itself, to fall upon them: only this I did; I went and removed my boat,
which I had on the other side of the island, and carried it down to the east end of
the whole island, where I ran it into a little cove, which I found under some high
rocks, and where I knew, by reason of the currents, the savages durst not, at least
would not, come with their boats upon any account whatever. With my boat I carried
away everything that I had left there belonging to her, though nut necessary for the
bare going thither, viz. a mast and sail which I had made for her, and a thing like an
anchor, but which indeed could not be called cither anchor or grapnel ; however, it was
the best I could mak2 of its kind: all these I removed, that there might not be the
least shadow for discovery, or any appearance of any boat, or of any habitation upon
the island. Besides this, I kept myself, as I said, more retired than ever, and seldom

O
A : >

ROBINSON CRUSOE.































fir
























went from my cell, except upon my constant employment, viz, to milk my she-gonts, s
and manage my little flock in the wood, which, as it was quite on the other part of the
island, was out of danger; for certain it is that these savage people who sometimes
haunted this island, never came with any thoughts of finding anything here, and
consequently never wandered off from the coast, and I doubt not but they might have
been several times on shore after my apprehensions of them had made me cautious,
as well as before. Indeed, I looked back with some horror upon the thoughts of what
my condition would have been, if I had chopped upon them and been discovered
before that ; when, naked, and unarmed, except with one gun, and that loaded often
only with small shot, I walked everywhere, peeping and peering about the island to see

what I could get ; what a surprise should I have been in, if, when I discovered the

print of a man’s foot, I had instead of that seen fifteen or twenty savages, and found
x them pursuing me, and by the swiftness of their running, no possibility of my
escaping them! The thoughts of this sometimes sunk my very soul within me, and

distressed my mind so much that I could not soon recover it, to think what I should
| have done, and how I should not only have been unable to resist them, but even
| should not have had presence of mind enough to do what I might have done ; much





; less what now, after so much consideration and preparation, I might be able to do.
Indeed, after serious thinking of these things, I would be very melancholy, and,
th
Li
/



sometimes, it would last a great while; but I resolved it all, at last, into thank-
fulness to that’Providence which had delivered me from so many unseen dangers, and
had kept me from those mischiefs which I could have no way been the agent in
delivering myself from, because I had not the least notion of any such thing depend-



{ ing, or the least supposition of its being possible.

F} This renewed a contemplation which ofien had come into my thoughts in former
A? times, when first I began to see the merciful dispositions of Heaven, in the dangers
we run through in this life; how wonderfully we are delivered when we know
¥- nothing of it; how, when we aré in a quandary (as we call it), a doubt or hesitation
whether to go this way or that way, a secret hint shall direct us this way, when we
intended to go that way : nay, when sens, cur own inclimation, and perhaps business,

has called us to go the other way, yet a strange impression upon the mind, from



we know not what springs, and by we know not what power, shall overrule us to
go this way; and it shall afterwards appear that had we gone that way which we
should have gone, and even to our imagination ought to have gone, we should have
been ruined and lost. Upon these, and many like reflections, I afterwards made
it a certain rule with me, that whenever I found those secret hints or press



mind, to doing or not doing anything that presented, or going this way or that way,
I never failed to obey the secret dictate; though I knew no other reason for it
than that such a pressure, or such a hint, hung upon my mind. I could give many
examples of the success of this conduct in the course of my life, but more especially
in the latter part of my inhabiting this unhappy island; besides many occasions
which it is very likely I might have taken notice of, if I had seen with the same
eyes then that I see with now. But it is never too late to be wise ; and I cannot
but advise all considering men, whose lives are attended with such extraordinary
incidents as mine, or even though not so extraordinary, not to slight such secret
intimations of Providence, let them come from what invisible intelligence they will.
That I shall not discuss, and perhaps cannot account for; but certainly they are
a proof of the converse of spirits, and a secret communication between those
THE CAVE IN THE WOODS.
embodied and those unembodied, and such a proof as can never be withstood ; of
which I shall have occasion to give some very remarkable instances in the remainder
of my solitary residence in this dismal place.

I believe the reader of this will not think it strange if I confess that these
anxieties, these constant dangers I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me,
put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances that I had laid for my future
accommodations and conveniences. I had the care of my safety more now upon hands
than that of my food. I cared not to drive a nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for
fear the noise I should make should be heard ; much Jess would I fire a gun for the
same reason: and, above all, I was intolerably uneasy at making any fire, lest the
smoke, which is visible at a great distance in the day, should betray me. For this
reason, I removed that part of my business which required fire, such as burning of
pots and pipes, &e., into my new apartment in the woods; where, after I had been
some time, I found to my unspeakable consolation, a mere natural cave in the earth,
which went in a vast way, and where, I dare say, no savage, had he been at the mouth
of it, would be so hardy as to venture in; nor, indeed, would any man else, but one
who, like me, wanted nothing so much as a safe retreat.

The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great rock, where, by mere
accident (I would say, if I did not see abundant reason 10 ascribe all such things now
to Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches of trees to make charcoal ;
and before I go on I must observe the reason of my making this charcoal, which
was thus:—I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation, as I said before;
and yet I could not live there without baking my bread, cooking my meat, &e ; so
I contrived to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England, under turf, till
it became chark or dry coal: and then putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to
carry home, and perform the other services for which fire was wanting, without danger
of smoke. But this is by the bye. While I was cutting down some wood here, I
perceived that, behind a very thick branch of low brushwood or underwood, there was
a kind of hollow place: I was curious to look in it; and getting with difficulty into
the mouth of it, I found it was pretty large, that is to say, sufficient for me to stand
upright in it, and perhaps another with me: but I must confess to you that I made
more haste out than I did in, when looking farther into the place, and which was
perfectly dark, I saw two broad shining eyes of some creature—whether devil or man
I knew not—which twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave’s mouth
shining directly in, and making the reflection. However, after some pause, I
recovered myself, and began to call myself a thousand fools, and to think that he
that was afraid to see the devil, was not fit to live twenty years in an island all
alone; and that I might well think there was nothing in this cave that was more
frightful than myself. Upon this, plucking up my courage, I took up a firebrand,
and in I rushed again, with the stick flaming in my hand: I had not gone three steps
in, before I was almost as much frightened as before; for I heard a very loud sigh,
like that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a broken noise, as of words
half expressed, and then a deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck
with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat, and if I had had a hat on my head,

\ I will not answer for it that my hair might not have lifted it off. But still plucking
up my spirits as well as I could, aud encouraging myself a little with considering that
the power and presence of God was everywhere, and was able to protect me, I stepped
forward again, and by the light of the firebrand, holding it up a little over my head, I

1

SS








ROBINSON CRUSOE.



saw lying on the ground a monstrous, frightful old he-goat, just making his will, as we
say, and gasping for life, and dying, indeed, of mere old age. I stirred him a little to
see if I could get him out, and he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself;
and I thought with myself he might even lie there; for if he had frightened me, so
he would certainly fright any of the savages, if any one of them should be so hardy
as to come in there while he had any life in him.

I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to look round me, when I found
the cave was but very small, that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over, but in
no manner of shape, neither round nor square, no hands having ever been employed in
making it but those of mere Nature. I observed also that there was a place at the far-
ther side of it that went in farther, but was so low that it required me to creep upon
my hands and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not; so, having no
candle, I gave it over for that time, but resolved to come again the next day provided
with candles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of one of the muskets, with
some wildfire in the pan.

Accordingly, the next day I came provided with six large candles of my own making
(for I made very good candles now of goats’ tallow, but was hard set for candle-wick,
using sometimes rags or rope-yarn, and sometimes the dried rind of a weed like nettles) ;
and going into this low place I was obliged to creep upon all-fours, as I have said, almost
ten yards—which, by the way, I thought was a venture bold enough, considering that I
knew not how far it might go, nor what was beyond it. When I had got through the
strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I believe near twenty feet ; but never was such
a glorious sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was to look round the sides and roof
of this vault or cave ; the wall reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my two
candles, What it was in the rock—whether diamonds, or any other precious stones, or
gold—which I rather supposed it to be—I knew not. The place I was in was a most
delightful cavity, or grotto, though perfectly dark ; the floor was dry and level, and had
a sort of a small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nauseous or venomous crea-
ture to be scen, neither was there any damp or wet on the sides o1 roof; the only diffi-
culty in it was the entrance—which, however, as it was a place of security, and such a
retreat as I wanted, I thought was a convenience—so that I was really rejoiced at the
discovery, and resolved, without any delay, to bring some of those things which I was
most anxious about to this place; particularly, I resolved to bring hither my magazine
of powder, and all my spare arms; viz., two fowling-pieces—for I had three in all—
and three muskets—for of them I had eight in all; so I kept in my castle only five,
which stood ready mounted like pieces of cannon on my outmost defence, and were
ready also to take out upon any expedition. Upon this occasion of removing my
ammunition, I happened to open the barrel of powder which I took up out of the sea,
and which had been wet, and I found that the water had penetrated about three or four
inches into the powder on every side, which caking and growing hard, had preserved
the inside like a kernel in the shell, so that I had near sixty pounds of very good powder
in the centre of the cask; and this was a very agreeable discovery to me at that time; so
I carried all away thither, never keeping above two or three pounds of powder with me
in my castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind; I also carried thither all the lead I had
left for bullets.

I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants who were said to live in caves
ant hotes in the rocks, where none could come at them ; for I persuaded myself, while
IT was here, that if five hundred savages were to hunt me, they could never find me out
120





an

4

Qe











\ [CRUSOE IN HIS FOR

—or if they did, they would not venture to attack me here. The old goat whom I found
expiring died in the mouth of the cave the next day after I made this discovery ; and
I found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and throw him in and cover him with
earth, than to drag him out; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to my nose.

I was now in the twenty-third year of residence in this island, and was so



) naturalised to the place and the manner of living, that, could I but have enjoyed the {7

(\\| certainty that no savages would come to the place to disturb me, I could have been
content to have capitulated for spending the rest of my time there, even to the last ‘

} 12U















































ROBINSON CRUSOE.

moment, till T had laid me down and died, like the old goat in the cave. I had also
arrived to some little diversions and amusements, which made the time pass more
pleasantly with me a great deal than it did before: first, I had taught my Poll, as I noted
before, to speak; and he did it so familiarly, and talked so articulately and plain, that it
was very pleasant to me, and he lived with me no less than six-and-twenty years. How
long he might have lived afterwards I know not, though I know they have a notion in
the Brazils that they live a hundred years. Perhaps some of my Pols may be alive there
still, calling after poor Robinson Crusoe to this day : I wish no Englishman the ill-luck
to come there and hear them ; but if he did he would certainly believe it was the devil.
My dog was a pleasant and loving companion to me for no less than sixteen years of my
tine, and then died of mere old age. As for my cats, they multiplied, as I have observed,
to that degree, that I was obliged to shoot several of them at first, to keep them from
devouring me and all I had; but, at length, when the old ones I brought with me were
gone, and after some time continually driving them from me, and letting them have no
provision with me, they all ran wild into the woods, except two or three favourites, which

~

I kept tame, and whose young, when they had any, T always drowned ; and these were i
part of my family. Besides these I always kept two or three household kids about me, #R
whom I taught to feed out of my hand; and I had two more parrots, which talked wy
pretty well, and would all call “ Robin Crusoe,” but none like my first; nor, indeed, ye R
did I take the pains with any of them that I had done with him. I had also several AW
tae sea-fowls, whose name I knew not, that I caught upon the shore, and cut their Vi
wings; and the little stakes which I had planted before my castle-wall being now grown Kk
up toa good thick grove, these fowls all lived among these low trees, and bred there, a
which was very agreeable to me; so that, as I said above, I began to be very well sy"

contented with the life I led, if I could have been secured from the dread of the savages.

But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss for all people who shall meet

with my story to make this just observation from it: viz, how frequently, in the course

of our lives, the evil which in itself we seek most to shun, and which, when we are fallen
into, is the most dreadful to us, is oftentimes the very means or door of our deliverance,

by which alone we can be raised again from the affliction we are fallen ‘into. I could
give many examples of this in the course of my unaccountable life, but in nothing
was it more particularly remarkable than in the circumstances of my last years of
solitary residence in this island.

It was now the month of December, as I said above, in my twenty-third year ; and
this, being the southern solstice (for winter I cannot call it), was the particular time of
my harvest, and required me to be pretty much abroad in the fields, when, going
out pretty early in the morning, even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised
with secing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a distance from me of about two
miles towards the end of the island where I had observed some savages had been, as
before, and not on the other side, but, to my great affliction, it was on my side of
the island.

I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stopped short within my grove, not
daring to go out. lest I might be surprised ; and yet I had no more peace within, from
the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in rambling over the island, should find
my corn standing or cut, or any of my works and improvements, they would immediately
conclude that there were people in the place, and would then never rest till they had
- found me out In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled up the \
ladder after me, haying made all things without look as wild and natural as I could. i
122 a




SAVAGES ARE DESCRIED.



Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a posture of defence ; I loaded
all my cannon, as I called them—that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon
my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to defend myself to the last gasp—
not forgetting seriously to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earnestly to
pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of the barbarians. And in this posture
T continued about two hours, and began to be impatient for intelligence abroad, for I had
no spies to send out. After sitting a while longer, and musing what I should do in this
case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance any longer ; so setting up my ladder t»
the side of the hill, where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and then pulling
the ladder after me, I set it up again, and mounted to the top of the hill, and pulling
out my perspective-glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me down flat on my
belly on the ground, and began to look for the place. I presently found there
were no less than nine naked savages sitting round a small fire they had made, not to
warm them, for they had no need of that, the weather being extremely hot, but, as I
supposed, to dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh which they had brought
with them, whether alive or dead I could not know.

They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled up upon the shore ; and as it
was then ebb of tide, they seemed to me to wait the return of the flood to go away
again. It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put me into, especially
seeing them come on my side of the island, and so near me, too ; but when I considered
their coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I began afterwards to be more
sedate in my mind, being satisfied that I might go abroad with safety all the time of the
flood of tide, if they were not on shore before ; and having made this observation, I
went abroad about my harvest work with the more composure.

As I expected, so it proved ; for, as soon as the tide made to the westward, I saw
them all take boat and row (or paddle, as we call it) away. I should have observed,
that for an hour or more before they went off they were dancing, and I could easily
discern their postures and gestures by my glass. I could not perceive, by my nicest
observation, but that they were stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them ;
but whether they were men or women I could not distinguish.

‘As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and
two pistols in my girdle, and my great sword by my side, without a scabbard, and with
all the speed I was able to make went away to the hill where I had discovered the first
appearance of all; and as soon as I got thither, which was not in less than two hours
(for I could not go apace, being so loaded with arms as I was), I perceived there had
been three canoes more of savages at that place; and, looking out farther, I saw
they were all at sea together, making over for the main. This was a dreadful sight
to me, especially when, going down to the shore, I could see the marks of horror
which the dismal work they had been about had left behind it, viz., the blood, the bones,
and part of the flesh of human bodies eaten and devoured by those wretches with
merriment and sport. Iwas so filled with indignation at the sight, that I now began to
premeditate the destruction of the next that I saw there, let them be whom or how
many soever. It seemed evident to me that the visits which they made thus to
this island were not very frequent, for it was above fifteen months before any more of
them came on shore there again—that is to say, I neither saw them nor any footsteps
or signals of them in all that time ; for as to the rainy seasons, then they are sure not
to come abroad, at least not so far: yet all this while I lived uncomfortably, by reason
of the constant apprehensions of their coming upon me by surprise—from whence I

I

aay
|
N A
\
Ni


A\ >
i :
ni

ROBINSON CRUSOE.



N observe that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering, especially if there
{ is no room to shake off that expectation or those apprehensions.

During all this time I was in the murdering humow, and spent most of my hours,
which should have been better employed, in contriving how to circumvent and fall upon
them the very next time I should see them—especially if they should be divided, as they
were the last time, into two parties ; nor did I consider at all that if I killed one party
—suppose ten or a dozen—I was still the next day, or week, or month, to kill another,
and so another, even ad infinitum, till I should be, at length, no less a murderer than they
were in being man-eaters—and perhaps much more so. I spent my days now in great
perplexity and anxiety of mind, expecting that I should one day or other fall into the
}ands of these merciless creatures ; and if I did at any time venture abroad, it was not
without looking around me with the greatest care and caution imaginable. And now I
found, to my great comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame flock or herd
of goats ; for I durst not upon any account fire my gun, especially near that side of the
a | island where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages; and if they had fled
| from me now, I was sure to have them come again with perhaps two or three hundred
canoes with them in a few days, and then I knew what to expect. However, I wore
out a year and three months more before I ever saw any more of the savages, and then I
found them again, as I shall soon observe. It is true they might have been there once
or twice, but either they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them ; but, in the
month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in my four-and-twentieth year, I had a
very strange encounter with them ; of which in its place.

The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or sixteen months interval was
very great; I slept unquietly, dreamed always frightful dreams, and often started out
of my sleep in the night. In the day, great troubles overwhelmed my mind; and in
the night, I dreamed often of killing the savages, and of the reasons why I might justify
the doing of it. But to waive all this for awhile. It was in the middle of May, on the
sixteenth day, I think, as well as my poor wooden calender would reckon, for I marked
all upon the post still ; I say, it was on the sixteenth of May that it blew a very great
storm of wind all day, with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very foul night
it was after it. I knew not what was the particular occasion of it; but as I was
~ reading in the Bible, and taken up with very serious thoughts about my present condi-
= tion, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I thought, fired at sea. This was, to
be sure, a surprise of a quite different nature from any I had met with before ; for the
notions this put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. I started up in the
greatest haste imaginable ; and, in a trice, clapped my ladder to the middle place of the
rock, and pulled it after me ; and, mounting it the second time, got to the top of the
hill the very moment that a flash of fire bid me listen for a second gun, which, accord-
ingly, in about half a minute, I heard ; and by the sound, knew that it was from that











part of the sea where I was driven ont with the current in my boat. I immediately
considered that this must be some ship in distress, and that they had some comrade,
or some other ship in company, and fired these for signals of distress, and to obtain
help. I had the presence of mind, at that minute, to think, that though I could not
help them, it might be they might help me; so I brought together all the dry wood I
could get at hand, and, making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon the hill.
The wood was dry, and blazed freely ; and though the wind blew very hard, yet it
burned fairly out, so that I was certain, if there was any such thing asa ship, they must

need see it, and no doubt they did; for as soon as ever my fire blazed up, I heard




































m— ff

oo



































































THE SPANISH SHIP

































































































































VIsITsS













































































































































































































































































































































eee CRUSOE







OE ae







































































































































ROBINSON CRUSOF.



another gun, and after that several others, all from the same quarter. I plied my fire

all night long, till daybreak ; and when it was broad day, and the air cleared up, I saw

” something at a great distance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail or a hull I

could not distinguish—no, not with my glass; the distance was so great, and the
weather still something hazy also—at least, it was so out at sea.

I looked frequently at it all that day, and soon perceived that it did not move; so

I presently concluded that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager, you may be sure,

to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and ran towards the south side of the island,

to the rocks where I had formerly been carried away with the current; and getting up

there, the weather by this time being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great

i

sorrow, the wreck of a ship, cast away in the night upon those concealed rocks which I
found when I was out in my boat; and which rocks, as they checked the violence of
the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or eddy, were the occasion of my

y oe Ne 4
recovering from the most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been in in all K)
f, my life. Thus, what is one man’s safety is another man’s destruction ; for it seems ny

Na
ames

c

these men, whoever they were, being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly
under water, had been driven upon them in the night, the wind blowing hard at E,
and E.N.E. Had they seen the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not, they

7
aes
LE

LS et as

oa

must, as I thought, have endeavoured to have saved themselves on shore by the help of

their boat ; but their firing off their guns for help, especially when they saw, as T imagined,

a

my fire, filled me with many thoughts. First, I imagined that upon seeing my light,

3z

they might have put themselves into their boat, and endeavoured to make the shore ;
but that the sea running very high, they might have been cast away. Other times, I

oe

oa

imagined that they might have lost their boat before, as might’ be the case many ways ;























ao

as particularly, by the breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times obliged men

to stave, or take in pieces, their boat, and sometimes to throw it overboard with their

a>

own hands. Other times, I imagined they had some other ship or ships in company,
who, upon the signals of distress they made, had taken them up, and carried them off.
Other times, I fancied they were all gone off to sea in their boat, and being hurried
away by the current that I had been formerly in, were carried out into the great ocean,
where there was nothing but misery and perishing ; and that, perhaps, they might by
this time think of starving, and of being in a condition to eat one another.

As all these were but conjectures at best, so, in the condition I was in, I could do
no more than look on upon the misery of the poor men, and pity them; which had still
this good effect upon my side, that it gave me more and more cause to give thanks to
God, who had so happily and comfortably provided for me in my desolate condition ;
and that of two ships’ companies, who were now cast away upon this part of the world,
not one life should be spared but mine. I learned here again to observe, that it is very

rare that the Providence of God casts us into any condition of life so low, or any misery
J so great, but we may see something or other to be thankful for, and may see others in
worse circumstances than our own. Such certainly was the case of these men, of whom
I could not so much as see room to suppose any of them were saved; nothing could
make it rational so much as to wish or expect that they did not all perish there, except
the possibility only of their being taken up by another ship in company; and this was
but mere possibility indeed, for I saw not the least signal or appearance of any such
thing. I cannot explain, by any possible energy of words, what a strange longing I
felt in my soul upon this sight, breaking out sometimes thus :—“Oh, that there had been
but one or two, nay, or but one soul, saved out of this ship, to have escaped to me, that
ROBINSON RESOLVES TO VISIT THE WRECK.



I might but have had one companion, one fellow-creature, to have spoken to me and to
have conversed with!” In all the time of my solitary life, I never felt so earnest, so
strong a desire after the society of my fellow-creatures, or so deep a regret at the want
of it.

There are some secret moving springs in the affections, which, when they are set
a-going by some object in view, or, though not in view, yet rendered present to the
mind by the power of imagination, that motion carries out the soul, by its impetuosity,
to such violent, eager embracings of the object, that the absence of it is insupportable.
Such were these earnest wishings that but one man had been saved. I believe I
repeated the words, “ Oh, that it had been but one !” a thousand times ; and my desires
were so moved by it, that when I spoke the words my hands would clinch together, and
my fingers would press the palms of my hands, so that if I had had any soft thing in
my hand, I would have crushed it involuntarily ; and my teeth in my head would
strike together, and set against one another so strong, that for some time I could not
part them again. Let the naturalists explain these things, and the reason and manner
of them. All I can say of them is, to describe the fact, which was even surprising to me,
when I found it, though I knew not from what it should proceed ; it was, doubtless, the
effect of ardent wishes, and of strong ideas formed in my mind, realising the comfort which
the conversation of one of my fellow-Christians would have been to me. But it was not
to be; either their fate, or mine, or both, forbade it, for till the last year of my being on
this island, I never knew whether any were saved out of that ship or no; and had
only the affliction, some days after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore at
the end of the island which was next the shipwreck. He had no clothes on but a
seaman’s waistcoat,a pair of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt ; but
nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation he was of. He had nothing in
his pockets but two pieces of eight and a tobacco-pipe—the last was to me of ten times
more value than the first.

It was now calm, and I had a great mind to venture out in my boat to this wreck,
not doubting but I might find something on board that might be useful to me. But,
that did not altogether press me so much as the possibility that there might be yet some
living creature on board, whose life I might not only save, but might, by saving that
life, comfort my own to the last degree ; and this thought clung so to my heart that I
could not be quiet night or day, but I must venture out in my boat on board this
wreck ; and committing the rest to God’s providence, I thought the impression was so
strong upon my mind that it could not be resisted, that it must come from some
invisible direction, and that I should be wanting to myself if I did not go.

Under the power of this impression, I hastened back to my castle, prepared every-
thing for my voyage, took a quantity of bread, a great pot for fresh water, a compass to
steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a great deal of that left),and a basket of
raisins ; and thus loading myself with everything necessary, I went down to my boat,
got the water out of her, got her afloat, loaded all my cargo in her, and then went home
again for more. My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the umbrella to set up over
my head for a shade, another large pot full of fresh water, and about two dozen of small
loaves, or barley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat’s-milk, and a cheese : all
which with great labour and sweat I brought to my boat ; and praying to God to direct
my voyage, I put out, and rowing or paddling the canoe along the shore, came at last to
the utmost point of the island on the north-east side. And now I was to launch out
into the ocean, and either to venture or not to venture. I looked on the rapid currents

127






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ROBINSON CRUSOE.





































which ran constantly on both sides of the island at a distance, and which were very
terrible to me, from the remembrance of the hazard I had been in before, and my heart
began to fail me; for I foresaw that if I was driven into either of those currents, I
should be carried a great way out to sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or sight of the
island again ; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any little gale of wind should
rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind, that I began to give over my enterprise ; and
having hauled my boat into a little creck on the shore, I stepped out, and sat down upon
arising bit of ground, very pensive and anxious, between fear and desire, about my
voyage ; when as T was musing, I could perceive that the tide was turned, and the flood
came on; upon which, my going was impracticable for so many hours. Upon this,
presently it occurred to me, that I should go up to the highest piece of ground I could
find, and observe, if I could, how the sets of the tide, or currents lay, when the flood
came in, that I might judge whether, if I was driven one way out, I might not expect
to be driven another way home, with the same rapidity of the currents. This thought
was 10 sooner in my head than I cast my eye upon a little hill, whigh sutticiently over-
looked the sea both ways, and from whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets of
the tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my return. Here I found that as the
current of ebb set out close by the south point of the island, so the current of the
flood set in close by the shore of the north side ; and that I had nothing to do but to
keep to the north of the island in my return, and I should do well enough,

Encouraged with this observation, I resolved, the next morning, to set out with
the first of the tide ; and reposing myscif for the night in my canoe, under the great
watch-coat I mentioned, I launched out. I first made a little out to sea, full north,
till I began to feel the benefit of the current, which set eastward, and which carried me
ata great rate; and yet did not so hurry me as the current on the south side had done
before, so as to take from me all government of the boat; but having a strong steerage
with my paddle, I went, at a great rate, directly for the wreck, and in less than two
hours I came up to it. It was a dismal sight to look at : the ship, which, by its building,
was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between two rocks : all the stern and quarter of her
were beaten to pieces by the sea ; and as her forecastle, which stuck in the rocks, had
run on with great violence, her mainmast and foremast were brought by the board, that
is to say, broken short off ; but her bowsprit was sound, and the head and bow appeared
firm. When 1 came close to her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming,
yelped and cried ; and, as soon as I called him, jumped into the sea to come tome: I
took him into the boat, but found him almost dead with hunger and thirst. I gave him
a cake of my bread, and he devoured it like a ravenous wolf that had been starving a
fortnight in the snow ; I then gave the poor creature some fresh water, with which, if I
would have let him, he would have burst himself. After this I went on board ; but the
first sight I met with was two men drowned in the cook-room, or forecastle of the ship,
with their arms fast about one another. I concluded, as is indeed probable, that when
the ship struck, it being in a storm, the sea broke so high, and so continually over her,
that the men were not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant rushing in
of the water, as much as if they had been under water. Besides the dog, there was
nothing left in the ship that had life ; nor any goods, that I could see, but what were
spoiled by the water. There were some casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy, I
knew not, which lay lower in the hold, and which, the water being ebbed out, I could
see; but they were too big to meddle with. I saw several chests, which I believe




, Si a a
i Zi belonged to some of the seamen; and I got two of them into the

\ boat, without examining what was in them. Had the stern of the ship been
J fixed, and the forepart broken off, I am persuaded I might have made a good

WW

voyage ; for, by what I found in these two chests, I had room to suppose the ship
had a great deal of wealth on board ; and, if I may guess from the course she



steered, she must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or the Rio de la Plata,







ROBINSON CRUSOE.



Z- in the south part of America, beyond the Brazils to the Havannah, in the Gulf of
Mexico, and so perhaps to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in her, but of
no use, at that time, to anybody ; but what became of the crew I then knew not.

I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor, of about twenty gallons,
which I got into my boat with much difficulty. There were several muskets in the
cabin, and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of powder in it; as for the
muskets, I had no occasion for them, so I left them, but took the powder-horn. I took
a fire-shovel and tongs, which I wanted extremely; as also two little brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron ; and with this cargo, and the dog, I came
away, the tide beginning to make home again; and the same evening, about an hour
within night, I reached the island again, weary and fatigued to the last degree. I
reposed that night in the boat ; and in the morning I resolved to harbour what I had
got in my new cave, and not carry it home to my castle. After refreshing myself, I got
all my cargo on shore, and began to examine the particulars. The cask of liquor I found
to be a kind of rum, but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a word, not at all
good ; but when I came to open the chests, I found several things of great use to me:
for example, I found in one a fine case of bottles, of an extraordinary kind, and filled
with cordial waters, fine and very good ; the bottles held about three pints each, and
were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good succades, or sweetmeats, so
fastened also on the top that the salt water had not hurt them; and two more of the
same, which the water had spoiled. I found some very good shirts, which were very
welcome to me; and about a dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs and coloured
neckcloths ; the former were also very welcome, being exceedingly refreshing to wipe
my face in a hot day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I found there
three great bags of pieces of eight, which held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and



(

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eens

in one of them, wrapped up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and some small bars or
wedges of gold ; I suppose they might all weigh near a pound. In the other chest were
some clothes, but of little value ; but, by the circumstances, it must have belonged to the
gunner’s mate ; though there was no powder in it, except two pounds of fine glazed

powder, in three small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-pieces on
) occasion. Upon the whole, I got very little by this voyage that was of any use to me ;
for as to the money, I had no manner of occasion for it ; it was to me as the dirt under
my feet, and I would have given it all for three or four pair of English shoes and
stockings, which were things I greatly wanted, but had none on my feet for many years.
T had, indeed, got two pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the two drowned
men whom I saw in the wreck, and T found two pair more in one of the chests, which
were very welcome to me ; but they were not like our English shoes, either for ease or
service, being rather what we call pumps than shoes. I found in the seaman’s chest
about fifty pieces of eight, in rials, but no gold: I suppose this belonged to a poorer
man than the other, which seemed to belong to some officer. Well, however, I lugged
this money home to my cave, and laid it up, as I had done that before which I had
brought from our own ship ; but it was a great pity, as I said, that the other part of
this ship had not come to my share ; for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe
several times over with money; which, if I had ever escaped to England, would have
lain here safe enough till I might have come again and fetched it.

Having now brought all my things on shore, and secured them, I went back to my
boat, and rowed or paddled her along the shore to her old harbour, where I laid her
up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation, where I found everything safe
139

















CRUSOE MEDITATES MEANS OF ESCAPE,



and quiet. I began now to repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take car of
my itamily affairs ; and for awhile I lived easy enough, only that I was more vigilant
than I used to be, looked out oftener, and did not go abroad so much ; and if, at any
time, I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the east part of the island, where [
was pretty well satisfied the savages never came, and where I could go without so
many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammunition as I always carried with
me if I went the other way. I lived in this condition near two years more ; but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was born to make my body miserable,
was all these two years filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible, I might
get away from this island; for sometimes I was for making another voyage to the
wreck, though my reason told me that there was nothing left there worth the hazard
of my voyage ; sometimes for a ramble one way, sometimes another ; and I believe
verily, if I had had the boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured to sea,
bound anywhere, I knew not whither. I have been, in all my circumstances, a memento
to those who are touched with the general plague of mankind, whence, for aught I
know, one-half of their miseries flow; I mean that of not being satisfied with the
station wherein God and Nature hath placed them ; for, not to look back upon my
primitive condition, and the excellent advice of my father, the opposition to which
was, as I may call it, my original sin, my subsequent mistakes of the same kind had
been the means of my coming into this miserable condition ; for had that Providence,
which so happily seated me at the Brazils as a planter, blessed me with confined
desires, and I could have been contented to have gone on gradually, I might have
been by this time, I mean in the time of my being in this island, one of the most
considerable planters in the Brazils; nay, I am persuaded, that by the improvements
I had made in that little time I lived there, and the increase I should probably have
made if I had remained, I might have been worth a hundred thousand moidores: and
what business had I to leave a settled fortune, a well-stocked plantation, improving
and increasing, to turn supercargo to Guinea to fetch negroes, when patience and time
would have so increased our stock at home, that we could have bought them at our
own door from those whose business it was to fetch them? and though it had cost us
something more, yet the difference of that price was by no means worth saving at so
great a hazard. But as this is ordinarily the fate of young heads, so reflection upon the
folly of it is as commonly the exercise of more years, or of the dear-Lought experience
of time: so it was with me now; and yet so deep had the mistake taken root in my
temper that I could not satisfy myself in my station, but was continually poring
upon the means and possibility of my escape from this place: and that I may, with the
greater pleasure to the reader, bring on the remaining part of my story, it may not be
improper to give some account of my first conceptions on the subject of this foolish
scheme for my escape, and how, and upon what foundation I acted.

I am now to be supposed retired into my castle, after my late voyage to the wreck,
my frigate laid up and secured under water, as usual, and my condition restored to
what it was before: I had more wealth, indeed, than I had before, but was not at all
the richer; for I had no more use for it than the Indians of Peru had before the
Spaniards came there.

It was one of the nights in the rainy season in March, the four-and-tweuntieth year
of my first setting foot in this island of solitude. I was lying in my bed or hammock,
awake, very well in health, had no pain, no distemper no uneasiness of body, nor any
uneasiness of mind more than ordinary, but could by no means close my eyes, that is,


ROBINSON CRUSOE.







UE so as to sleep ; no, not a wink all night long, otherwise than as follows :—It is impossible L/
and needless to set down the innumerable crowd of thoughts that whirled through that
great thoroughfare of the brain—the memory, in this night’s time: I ran over the ay
ie whole history of my life in miniature, or by abridgment, as I may call it, to my coming i
i to this island, and also of that part of my life since I came to this island. In my y
f reflections upon the state of my case since I came on shore on this island, Iwas J i
\ comparing the happy posture of my affairs in the first years of my habitation here, with |

Ps the life of anxiety, fear, and care, which I had lived in ever since I had seen the print ty
: of a foot in the sand ; not that I did not believe the savages had frequented the island “Hf
even all the while, and might have been several hundreds of them at times on shore
there ; but I had never known it, and was incapable of any apprehensions about it ; fe
my satisfaction was perfect, though my danger was the same, and I was as happy in "&
not knowing my danger as if I had never really been exposed to it. This furnished
my thoughts with many very profitable reflections, and particularly this one: How
infinitely good that Providence is, which has provided, in its government of mankind,
such narrow bounds to his sight and knowledge of things ; and though he walks in the
midst of so many thousand dangers, the sight of which, if discovered to him, would
distract his mind and sink his spirits, he is kept serene and calm, by having the events
of things hid from his eyes, and knowing nothing of the dangers which surround him.

After these thoughts had for some time entertained me, I came to reflect seriously
upon the real danger I had been in for so many years in this very island, and how I
had walked about in the greatest security, and with all possible tranquillity, even when
perhaps nothing but the brow of a hill, a great tree, or the casual approach of night,
had been between me and the worst kind of destruction, viz. that of falling into the
hands of cannibals and savages, who would have seized on me with the same view as I
would ona goat or a turtle; and have thought it no more crime to kill and devour me
than I did of a pigeon or a curlew. I would unjustly slander myself, if I should say aL
was not sincerely thankful to my great Preserver, to whose singular protection I
acknowledged, with great humility, all these unknown deliverances were due, and
without which I must inevitably have fallen into their merciless hands.

When these thoughts were over, my head was for some time taken up in considering
the nature of these wretched creatures, I mean the savages, and how it came to pass in
the world, that the wise Governor of all things should give up any of his creatures to
such inhumanity, nay, to something so much below even brutality itself, as to devour
its own kind: but as this ended in some (at that time) fruitless speculations, it occurred ff
to me to inquire, what part of the world these wretches lived in? how far off the coast
was from whence they came? what they ventured over so far from home for? what
kind of boats they had? and why I might not order myself and my business so, that
TI might be as able to go over thither, as they were to come to me.

I never so much as troubled myself to consider what I should do with myself when i
I went thither ; what would become of me if I fell into the hands of these savages ; or 9,
how I should escape them if they attacked me ; no, nor so much as how it was possible a
for me to reach the coast, and not be attacked by some or other of them, without SY
any possibility of delivering myself: and if I should not fall into their hands, what
I should do for provision, or whither I should bend my course : none of these thoughts, f
I say, so much as came in my way ; but my mind was wholly bent upon the notion of
my passing over in my boat to the main land. I looked upon my present condition as







132



































































Wa: > 4 ARS .
> nS ;
= ROBINSON CRUSOE.
SS
Sey ¥
Wik: anything but death, that could be called worse ; and if I reached the shore of the main, i

s I might perhaps meet with relief, or I might coast along, as I did on the African shore,
till I came to some inhabited country, and where I might find some relief; and, after i
1 all, perhaps I might fall in with some Christian ship that might take me in; and if the ne
S. worst came to the worst, I could but die, which would put an end to all these miseries iV
; ) at once. Pray note, all this was the fruit of a disturbed mind, an impatient temper, nA
i } made, as it were, desperate by the long continuance of my troubles, and the disappoint- iW
i” ments I had met with in the wreck I had been on board of, and where I had been so



y
5 near the obtaining what I so earnestly longed for, namely, somebody to speak to, and ;
wy to learn some knowledge of the place where I was, and of the probable means of my Bi
, ry deliverance. I say I was agitated wholly by these thoughts ; all my calm of mind, in z
| my resignation to Providence, and waiting the issue of the dispositions of Heaven, seemed (WX

| to be suspended ; and I had, as it were, no power to turn my thoughts to anything but 4
| the project of a voyage to the main, which came upon me with such force, and such an *s

, impetuosity of desire, that it was not to be resisted. Pn
a When this had agitated my thoughts for two hours or more, with such violence
A that it set my very blood into a ferment, and my pulse beat as if I had been in a fever,
At merely with the extraordinary fervour of my mind about it, Nature, as if I had been

fatigued and exhausted with the very thoughts of it, threw me into asoundsleep. One
: would have thought I should have dreamed of it, but I did not, nor of anything
, relating to it: but I dreamed that as I was going out in the morning as usual, from
il, my castle, I saw upon the shore two canoes and eleven savages, coming to land, and
S| = that they brought with them another savage, whom they were going to kill, in order to
eat him; when, on a sudden, the savage that they were going to kill jumped away, and
Fy) yan for his life ; then I thought, in my sleep, that he came running into my little thick
grove before my fortification, to hide himself; and that I, seeing him alone, and not
perceiving that the others sought him that way, showed myself to him, and smiling
upon him, encouraged him : that he kneele¢ down to me, seeming to pray me to assist
him ; upon which I showed him my ladder, made him go up it, and carried him into my
cave, and he became my servant; and that as soon as I had got this man, I said to
myself, “Now I may certainly venture to the main land, for this fellow will serve me_
as a pilot, and will tell me what to do, and whither to go for provisions, aud whither
not to go for fear of being devoured ; what places to venture into, and what to escape.”
I waked with this thought ; and was under such inexpressible impressions of joy at the
prospect of my escape in my dream, that the disappointments which I felt upon coming
to myself, and finding that it was no more than a dream, were equally extravagant the
other way, and threw me into a good dejection of spirits.
Upon this, however, I made this conclusion ; that my only way to go about an attempt
E for an escape was, if possible, to get a savage into my possession ; and, if possible,
it should be one of their prisoners, whom they had condemned to be eaten, and should
bring hither to kill. But these thoughts still were attended with this difficulty, that it
was impossible to effect this without attacking a whole caravan of them, and killing
them all; and this was not only a very desperate attempt, and might miscarry, but,
~ on the other hand, I had greatly scrupled the lawfulness of it to me; and my heart
trembled at the thoughts of shedding so much blood, though it was for my deliverance. yf
I need not repeat the arguments which occurred to me against this, they being the same |
mentioned before; but though I had other reasons.to offer now—viz., that those men
were enemies to my life, and would devour me if they could-; that it was self-
134





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ANOTHER ARRIVAL OF CANNIBALS.



preservation, in the highest’ degree, to deliver myself from this death of a life, and was
acting in my own defence as much as if they were actually assaulting me, and the like;
I say, though these things argued for it, yet the thoughts of shedding human blood for
my deliverance were very terrible to me, and such as I could by no means reconcile
myself to for a great while. However, at last, after many secret disputes with myself,
and after great perplexities about it (for all these arguments, one way and another,
struggled in my head a long time), the eager prevailing desire of deliverance at length
mastered all the rest; and I resolved, if possible, to get one of these savages into my
hands, cost what it would. My next thing was to contrive how to do it, and this
indeed was very difficult to resolve on; but as I could pitch upon no probable means
for it, so I resolved to put myself upon the watch, to see them when they came on
shore, and leave the rest to the event; taking such measures as the opportunity should
present, let be what would be.

With these resolutions in my thoughts, I set myself upon the scout as often as
possible, and indeed so often that I was heartily tired of it; for it was above a year and
a half that I waited; and for great part of that time went out to the west end, and to
the south-west corner of the island almost every day, to look for canoes, but none
appeared. This was very discouraging, and began to trouble me much, though I
cannot say that it did in this case (as it had done some time before) wear off the edge
of my desire to the thing; but the longer it seemed to be delayed, the more eager I
was for it: ina word, I was not at first so careful to shun the sight of these savages,
and avoid being seen by them, as I was now eager to be upon them. Besides, I fancied
myself able to manage one, nay, two or three savages, if I had them, so as to make them

entirely slaves to me, +o do whatever I should direct them, and to prevent their being
able at any time to do me any hurt. It was a great while that I pleased myself with
this affair; but nothing still presented; all my fancies and schemes came to nothing,
for no savages came near me for a great while.

About a year and a half after I entertained these nioHOnS (and by long musing had,
as it were, resolved them all into nothing, for want of an occasion to put them in execu-
tion), I was surprised one morning early by seeing no less than five canoes all on shore

1 together on my side the island, and the people who belonged to them all landed and
out of my sight. The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing so many, and
knowing that they always came four or six, or sometimes more, in a boat, I could not
tell what to think of it, or how to take my measures, to attack twenty or thirty men
single-handed; so lay still in my castle, perplexed and discomforted. However, I put
myself into all the same postures for an attack that I had formerly provided, and was
just ready for action, if anything had presented. Having waited a good while, listening
to hear if they made any noise, at length, being very impatient, 1 set my guns at the
foot of my ladder, and clambered up to the top of the hill, by my two stages, as usual ;
standing so, however, that my head did not appear above the hill, so that they could
not perceive me by any means. Here I observed, by the help of my perspective glass,
that they were no less than thirty in number; that they had a fire kindled, and that
they had meat dressed. How they had cooked it, I knew not, or what it was; but they
were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous gestures and figures, their own
way, round the fire.

While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, bg my perspective, two miserable
wretches dragged from the boats, where, it seems, they were laid by, and were now
brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them immediately fall; being


i



ROBINSON CRUSOE.





knocked down, I suppose, with a club, or wooden sword, for that was their way ; and
two or three others were at work immediately, cutting him open for their cookery, while
the other victim was left standing by himself, till they should be ready for him. In
that very moment, this poor wretch, seeing himself a little at liberty, and unbound,
Nature inspired him with hopes of life and he started away from them, and ran with
incredible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me ; I mean, towards that part of
the coast where my habitation was. I was dreadfully frightened, that I must acknowledge,
when I perceived him run my way; and especially when, as I thought, I saw him
pursued by the whole body ; and now I expected that part of my dream was coming to
pass, and that he would certainly take shelter in my grove: but I could not depend, by
any means, upon my dream, that the other savages would not pursue him thither, and
find him there. However, I kept my station, and my spirits began to recover when I
found that there was not above three men that followed him; and still more was I
encouraged, when I found that he outstripped them exceedingly in running, and gained
ground on them; so that, if he could but hold it for half an hour, I saw easily he
would fairly get away from them all.

There was between them and my castle, the creek, which I mentioned often in the
first part of my story, where I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this I saw
plainly he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch would be taken there ; but
when the savage escaping came thither, he made nothing of it, though the tide was then
up ; but, plunging in, swam through in about thirty strokes, or thereabouts, landed, and
ran with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three persons came to the creek,
I found that two of them could swim, but the third could not, and that, standing on the
other side, he looked at the others, but went no farther, and soon after went softly back
again ; which, as it happened, was very well for him in the end. I observed that the
two who swam were yet more than twice as long swimming over the creek than the
fellow was that fled from them. It came very warmly upon my thoughts, and indeed
irresistibly, that now was the time to get mea servant, and perhaps a companion or
assistant ; and that I was plainly called by Providence to save this poor creature’s life.
I immediately ran down the ladder with all possible expedition, fetched my two guns,
for they were both at the foot of the ladder, as I observed before, and getting up again
with the same haste to the top of the hill, I crossed towards the sea; and having a
very short cut, and all down hill, clap’d myself in the way between the pursuers and
the pursued, hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back, was at first perhaps as
much frightened at meas at them ; but I beckoned with my hand to him to come back ;
and, in the mean time, I slowly advanced towards the two that followed ; then rushing
at once upon the foremost, I knocked him down with the stock of my piece. I was
loth to fire, because I would not have the rest hear ; though, at that distance, it would
not have been easily heard, and being out of sight of the smoke, too, they would not
have known what to make of it. Having knocked this fellow down, the other who
pursued him stopped, as if he had been frightened, and I advanced towards him: but
as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow and arrow, and was fitting it to
shoot at me: so I was then obliged to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed him
at the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but had stopped, though he saw both his

| enemies fallen and killed, as he thought, yet was so frightened with the fire and noise

of my piece that he stood stock still, and neither came forward nor went backward,
though he seemed rather inclined still to fly than tocome on. I hallooed again to him,
and made signs to come forward, which he easily understood, and came a little way ;

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’ then stopped again, and then a fittle farther, and stopped

again ; and I could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he
had been taken prisoner, and had just been to be killed, as his two
encmies were. I beckoned to him again to come to me, and gave him all
the signs of encouragement that I could think of; and he came nearer and
nearer, kneeling down every ten or twelve steps, in token of acknowledg-
ment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked pleasantly, and beckoned
to him to come still nearer ; at length, he came close to me; and then he kneeled
down again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the ground, and, taking
ime by the foot, set my foot upon his head; this, it seems, was in token of swear-
ing to be my slave for ever. I took him up and made much of him, and
encouraged him all I could. But there was more work to do yet; for I per-
ceived the savage whom I had knocked down was not killed, but stunned with
the blow, aud began to come to himself: so I pointed to him, and showed him
the savage, that he was not dead ; upon this he spoke séme words to me, and:
though I could not understand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear ;:
for they were the first sound of a man’s voice that I had heard, my own excepted,
for above twenty-five years. But there was no time ‘for such reflections: :



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cut of his head as cleverly, no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner
or better; which I thought very strange for one who, I had reason to believe, never
saw a sword in his life before, except their own wooden swords: however, it seems, as I
learned afterwards, they make their wooden swords so sharp, so heavy, and the wood is
so hard, that they will even cut off heads with them, ay, and arms, and that at one
blow too When he had done this, he comes laughing to me in sign of triumph, an'l
brought me the sword again, and with abundance of gestures which I did not understand,
laid it down, with the head of the savage that he had killed just before me. But that
which astonished him most, was to know how I killed the other Indian so far off; 0
pointing to him, he made signs to me to let him go to him ; and I bade him go, as well
as I could. When he came to him, he stood like one amazed, looking at him, turning
him first on one side, then on the other; looked at the wound the bullet had madc,
which it seems was just in his breast, where it had made a hole, and no great quantity
of blood had followed ; but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite dead. He took up
his bow and arrows, and came back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned him to
follow me, making signs to him that more might come after them.

Upon this he made signs to me that he should bury them with sand, that they might
not be seen by the rest, if they followed; and so I made signs to him again to do so.
He fell to work ;-and in an instant he had scraped a hole in the sand with his hands, big
enough to bury the first in, and then dragged him into it, and covered him ; and did so by
the other also ; I believe he had buried them both in a quarter of an hour. Then calling
him away, I carried him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the farther part
of the island ; so I did not let my dream come to pass in that part, that he came into
my grove for shelter. Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and a
draught of water, which I found he was indeed in great distress for from his running ;
and having refreshed him, I made signs for him to go and lie down to sleep, showing
him a place where I-had laid some rice straw, and a blanket upon it, which I used to
sleep upon myself sometimes ; so the poor creature lay down, and went to sleep.

He was a comely, handsome fellow, perfectly well made, with straight, strong limbs,
not too large, tall and well shaped; and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of age.
He had a very good gountenance, not a fierce and surly aspect, but seemed to have
something very manly in his face ; and yet he had all the sweetness and softness of a
European in his countenance, too, especially when he smiled. His hair was long and
blaek, not curled like wool ; his forehead very high and large ; and a great vivacity and
sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The colour of his skin was not quite black, but very
tawny ; and yet not an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians and Virginians, and
other natives of America are, but of a bright kind of a dun olive-colour, that had in it
something very agreeable, though not very easy to describe. His face was round and
plump ; his nose small, not flat like the Negroes ; a very good mouth, thin lips, and his
fine teeth well set, and as white as ivory. :

After he had slumbered, rather than slept, about half-an-hour, he awoke again, and
came out of the cave to me; for I had been milking my goats, which I had in the
inclosure just by : when he espied me, he came running to me, laying himself down
again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an humble, thankful disposition,

Y- making a great many antic gestures to show it. At last he lays his head flat upon the

ground, close to my foot, and sets my other foot upon his head, as he had done before ;

and after this, made all the signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission

imaginable, to let me know how he would serve me so long as he lived. I understood yy
E 138




CRUSOE AND HIS MAN FRIDAY.



him in many things, and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In a little
time I began to speak to him, and teach him to speak to me ; and, first, I let him know
his name should be Fripay, which was tke day I saved his lite : I called him go for the
memory of the time. I likewise taught him to say Master, and then let him know that
was to be my name ; [I likewise taught him to say Yes and No, and to know the meaning
of them. I gave him some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it before
him, and sop my bread in it ; and gave him a cake of bread to do the like, which he
quickly complied with, and made signs that it was very good for him. I kept there
with him all that night ; but, as soon as it was day, I beckoned to him to come with
me, and let him know I would give him some clothes ; at which he seemed very glad, for
he was stark naked. As we went by the place where he had buried the two men,
he pointed exactly to the place, and showed me the marks that he had made to find
them again, making signs to me that we should dig them up again and eat them, At
this I appeared very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I would vomit at
the thoughts of it, and beckoned with my hand to him to come away, which he did
immediately, with great submission. I then led him up to the top of the hill, to see if
his enemies were gone, and pulling out my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place
where they had been, but no appearance of them or their canoes ; so that it was plain
they were gone, and had left their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.

But I was not content with this discovery ; but having now more courage, and
consequently more curiosity, I took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in
lis hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I found he could use very
dexterously, making him carry one gun for me, and I two for myself; and away we
marched to the place where these creatures had been—for I had a mind now to get
some fuller intelligence of them. When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in

my veins, and my heart sunk within me, at the horror of the spectacle ; indeed, it was a

dreadful sight, at least it was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it. The place
was covered with human bones, the ground dyed with the blood, and great pieces of
flesh left here and there, half-eaten, mangled, and scorched ; and, in short, all the tokens
of the triumphant feast they ha-1 been making there, after a victory over their enemies.
I saw three skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and feet, and
abundance of other parts of the bodies ; and Friday, by his signs, made me under-
stand that they brought over four prisoners to feast upon ; that three of them were
eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself, was the fourth ; that there had been a great
battle between them and their next king, of whose subjects, it seems, he had been
one, and that they had taken a great number of prisoners ; all which were carried
to several places, by those who had taken them in the fight, in order to feast
upon them, as was done here by these wretches upon those they brought hither.

T caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and whatever remained, and
lay them together on a heap, and make a great fire upon it, and burn them all to ashes.
I found Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the flesh, and was still a
canuibal in his nature ; but I discovered so much abhorrence at the very thoughts of it,
and at the least appearance of it, that he durst not discover it—for I had, by some means,
let him know that I would kill him if he offered it.

When he had done this, we came back to our castle, and there I fell to work for my
man Friday ; and first of ali, I gave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out of the
poor gunner’s chest I mentioned, which I found in the wreck, and which, with a little






O
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ROBINSON CRUOSE.
alteration, fitted him very well; and then I made him a jerkin of goat’s skin, as well as
my skill would allow (for I was now grown a tolerably good tailor) ; and I gave him a
cap which I made of hare’s skin, very convenient, and fashionable enough ; and thus he
was clothed, for the present, tolerably well, and was mighty well pleased to see himself
almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he went awkwardly in these clothes at
first; wearing the drawers was very awkward to him, and the sleeves of the waistcoat
galled his shoulders and the inside of his arms—but a little easing them where he
complained they hurt him, and using himself to them, at length he took to them very
well.

The next day, after I came home to my hutch with him, I began to consider
where I should lodge him ; and, that I might do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy
myself, I made a little tent for him in the vacant place between my two fortifications,
in the inside of the last, and in the outside of the first. As there was a door
or entrance there into my cave, I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to it
of boards, and set it up in the passage, a little within the entrance ; and, causing the
door to open in the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my ladders, too ; so
that Friday could no way come at me in the inside of my innermost wall, without
making so much noise in getting over that it must needs awaken me ; for my first wall
had now a complete roof over it of long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to

the side of the hill; which w in laid across with smaller



icks, instead of laths, and
then thatched over a great thickness with the rice-straw, which was strong, like reeds ;
and at the hole or place which was left to go in or out by the ladder, I had placed a
kind of trap-door, which, if it had been attempted on the outside, would not have
opened at all, but woull lave fallen down and made a great noise : as to weapons, [
took them all into my



ide every night. But I needed none of all this precaution ; for
never man had a more fi



Mul, loving, sincere servant than Friday was to me ; without
passions, sullenness, or designs, perfectly obliged and eng uged ; his very affections were
tied to me, like those of a child to a father ; and I dare say he would have sacrificed his
life for the saving mine, upon any occasion whatsoever: the many testimonies he gave
me of this put it out of doubt, and soon convinced me that T needed no precautions
fur my safety on his account.

This frequently gave me occasion to observe, and that with wonder, that however it
had pleased God in his providence, and in the government of the works of his hands, to
take from so great a part of the world of his creatures the best uses to which their
faculties and the powers of their souls are adapted, yet that he has bestowed upon then
the same powers, the same reason, the same affections ; the same sentiments of kindness
and obligation ; the same passions and resentinents of wrongs; the same sense of
gratitude, sincerity, fidelity, and all the capacities of doing good and receiving good,
that he has given to us ; and that when he pleases to offer them occasions of exerting
these, they are as ready, nay, more ready, to apply them to the right uses for which they
were bestowed than we are. This made me very melancholy sometimes, in reflecting,
as the several occasions presented, how mean a use we make of all these, even though
we have these powers enlightened by the great lamp of instruction, the Spirit of God,
and by the knowledge of his word added to our understanding ; and why it has pleased
God to hide the like saving knowledge from so many millions of souls, who, if I might
judge by this poor savage, would make a much better use of it than we did. From
hence, I sometimes was led too far, to invade the sovereignty of Providence, and, as it
were, arraign the justice of so arbitrary a disposition of things, that should hide that

140






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ROBINSON CRUSOE.

i sight from some, and reveal it to others, and yet expect a like duty from both ; but I

; shut it up, and checked my thoughts with this conclusion: first, That we did not know =A
by what light and law these should be condemned ; but that as God was necessarily,
and, by the nature of his being, infinitely holy and just, so it could not be, but if these |
creatures were all sentenced to absence from himself, it was on account of sinning
azainst that light, which, as the Scripture says, was a law to themselves, and by such
rales as their consciences wowd acknowledge to be just, though the foundation was not
discovered to us; and, secondly, That still, as we are all the clay in the hand of the
Potter, no vessel could say to Him, “ Why hast thou formed me thus ?”

But to return to my new companion ; I was greatly delighted with him, and made
it my business to teach him everything that was proper to make him useful, handy, and
helpful ; but especially to make him speak, and understand me when I spoke ; and he
was the aptest scholar that ever was ; and particularly was so merry, so constantly
diligent, and so pleased when he could but understand me, or make me understand
him, that it was very pleasant to me to talk to him. And now my life began to be so
easy that I began to say to myself, that could I but have been safe from more savages, I
cared not if I was never to remove from the place while I lived.”

After [ had been two or three days returned to my éastle, I thought that, in order
to bring Friday off from his horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal’s
stomach, I ought to let him taste other flesh ; so I took him out with me one morning
to the woods, I went, indeed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and bring it
home and dress it ; but as I was going, I saw a she-goat lying down in the shade, and
two young kids sitting by her. I catched hold of Friday ; “ Hold,” said I, “stand
still ;” and made signs to him not to stir: immediately I presented my piece, shot, and
killed one of the kids. The poor creature, who had, at a distance, indeed, seen me kill
the savage, his enemy, but did not know nor could imagine how it was done, was
sensibly surprised ; trembled, and shook, and looked so amazed that I thought he would
have sunk down, He didnot see the kid I shot at, or perceive I had killed it, but
ripped up his waistcoat, to feel whether he was not wounded ; and, as I found presently,
thought I was resolved to kill him : for he came and kneeled down to me, and embracing
my knees, said a great many things I did not understand ; but I could easily see the
meaning was, to pray me not to kill him.

I soon found a way to convince him that I would do him no harm ; and taking him
up by the hand, laughed at him, and pointing to the kid which I had killed, beckoned
to him to run and fetch it, which he did : and while he was wondering, and looking to
see how the creature was killed, I loaded my gun again. By-and-by I saw a great
fowl, like a hawk, sitting upon a tree within shot ; so, to let Friday understand a little
what I would do, I called him to me again, pointed at the fowl, which was indeed a
parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk ; I say, pointing to the parrot, and to my
gun, and to the ground under the parrot, to let him see I would make it full, I made
him understand that T would shoot and kill that bird ; accordingly, I fired, and bade
him look, and immediately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one frightened again,
notwithstanding all I had said to him ; and I found he was the more amazzd, because
Le did not sce me put anything into the gun, but thought that there must be so:ne
wonderful fund of death and destruction in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird,
or anything near or far off ; and the astonishment this created in him was such as could



not wear off for a long time; and, I believe, if I would have let him, he would x
have worshipped me and my gun. As for the gun itself, he would not so much as ¥j

5






14


FRIDAY BECOMES USEFUL.
touch it for several days after; but he would speak to it and talk to it, as if it had
answered him, when he was by himself; which, as I afterwards learned of him, was to
desire it not to kill him. Well, after his astonishment was a little over at this,
I pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which he did, but stayed some
time ; for the parrot, not being.quite dead, had fluttered away a good distance from the
place where she fell: however, he found her, took her up, and brought her to me ; and
as I had perceived his ignorance about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge
the gun again, and to let him see me do it, that T might be ready for any other mark that
might present ; but nothing more offered at that time : so I brought home the kid, and
the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out as well as I could ; and having a pot
fit for that purpose, I boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very good
broth. After I had begun to eat some, I gave some to my man, who seemed very glad
of it, and liked it very well; but that which was strangest to him was to see me eat
salt with it. He made a sign to me that the salt was not good to eat ; and putting a
little into his own mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and sputter at it,
washing his mouth with fresh water after it: on the other hand, I took some meat
into my mouth without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for want of salt, as
fast as he had done at the salt; but it would not do; he would never care for salt
with his meat, or in his broth ; at least, not for a great while, and then but a very little.

Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was resolved to feast him the
next day with roasting a piece of the kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire on a
string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting two poles up, one on each
side of the fire, and one across on the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting
the meat turn continually. This Friday admired very much ; but when he came to
taste the flesh, he took so many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could not
but understand him: and at last he told me, as well as he could, he would never eat
man’s flesh any more, which I was very glad to hear.

The next day I set him to work to beating some corn out, and sifting it in the
manner I used to do, as I observed before ; and he soon understood how to do it as well
as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning of it was, and that it was to make
bread of; for after that, I let him see me make my bread, and bake it, too; and
in a little time, Friday was able to do all the work for me, as well as I could do it
myself.

I began now to consider, that having two mouths to feed instead of one, I must

provide more ground for my harvest, and plant a larger quantity of comm than I used to &

do; so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began the fence in the same manner as
before, in which Friday worked not only very willingly and very hard, but did it very
cheerfully : and I told him what it was for ; that it was for corn to make more bread,
§ because he was now with me, and that I might have enough for him and myself too.
He appeared very sensible of that part, and let me know that he thought I had much
more labour upon me on his account, than I had for myself; and that he would work
the harder for me, if I would tell him what to do.

This was the pleasantest year ofall the life I led in this place. Friday began to
talk pretty well, and understand the names of almost everything I had occasion to call ~
for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a great deal to me; so that, in short
I began now to have some use for my tongue again, which, -indeed, I had very little
occasion for before ; that is to say about speech. Besides the pleasure of talking to him,
I had a singular satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned honesty appeared,


|
i;







ROBINSON CRUSOE A\

to me more and more every day, and I began really to love the creature; and on his side
I believe he loved me more than it was possible for him ever to love anything before. |

T had a mind once to try if he had any hankering inclination to his own country {
again; and having taught him English so well that he could answer me almost any |

question, I asked him whether the nation that he belonged to never conquered in battle.
At which he smiled, and said, “ Yes, yes, we always fight the better ;” that is, he meant,
always get the better in fight ; and so we began the following discourse :— |
Master.—You always tight the better ; how came you to be taken prisoner then, | |
Friday ¢

Friday.—My nation beat much, for all that. hi yi
Muster.—How beat? —1f your nation beat them, how came you to be taken ? | | ;
Friday.—They more many than my nation, in the place where me was ; they take f
one, two, three, and me: my nation over-beat them in the yonder place, where me no }
was ; there my nation take one, two, great thousand. N i} I
Master.—But why did not your side recover you from the hands of your enemies | ! |
then ¢
Friday.—They run, one, two, three, and me, and make me go in the canoe; my , i
nation have no canoe that time. { Po)
Master,—Well, Friday, and what does your nation do with the men they take? Do Hy
they carry them away and eat them, as these did ? oT

Friday.—Yes, my nation eat mans too: eat all up.
aster.—Where do they carry them ? Ff
Friday.—Go to other place, where they think. iN
Master. —Do they come hither ? iN





lriday.—Y es, yes, they come hither ; come other else place.
Master.—Have you been here with them !

—=

Friday.—Y es, 1 been here (points to the N.W. side of the island, which, it seeans
was their side.)

——s

By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly been among the savages

3 é . . AN w\)

who used to come on shore on the farther part of the island, on the said man-eating ANG!
: . . VAN
occasions that he was now brought for: and, some time after, when I took the courage Al}

to carry him to that side, being the same | formerly mentioned, he presently knew the
place, and told me he was there once, when they eat up twenty men, two women, and
one child : he could not tell twenty in English, but he numbered them, by laying so
many stones in a row, and puinting to me to tell them over. ; 5

T have told this passage, because it introduces what follows; that after this discourse
T had with him, I asked him how far it was from our island to the shore, and whether

the canoes were not often lost. He told me there was no danger, no canoes ever lost ;
bat that after a little way out to sea, there was a current and wind, always one way in
the morning, the other in the afternoon. This I understood te be no more than the
sets of the tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards understood it was occa-
sioned by the great draft and reflux of the mighty river Oroonoko, in the mouth of
which river, as 1 thought afterwards, our island lag; and that this land which I perceived
to the W. and N.W. was the great island Trinidad, on the north point of the mouth
of the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about the country, the inhabitants,
the sea, the coast, and) what nations were near: he told me all he knew, with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the names of the several nations of his sort
of people, but could get no other name thar Caribs : from whence I easily understood




that these were the Caribbees, which our maps place on the part of America which
reaches from the mouth of the river Oroonoko to Guiana, and onwards to St. Martha.
He told me, that up a great way beyond the moon (that was, beyond the setting of the
moon, which must be west from their country), there dwelt white-bearded men, like me,
and pointed to my great whiskers, which [ mentioned before; and that they had killed
much mans, that was his word: by all which I understood he meant the Spaniards,
whose cruelties in America had been spread over the whole country, and were remem-
bered by all the nations from father to son.








(3 4 ee
akS Z 2

= = -
ROBINSON CRUSOE. Sas) A ‘ys






I inquired if he could tell me how I might come from this island, and get among
those white men: he told me, “ Yes, yes, I might go in two canoe.” I could not
understand what he meant by two canoe, till at last, with great difficulty, I found he
meant it must be in a large, great boat, as big as two canoes. This part of Friday's
discourse hegan to relish with me very well; and from this time I entertained some
hopes that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to make my escape from
this place, and that this poor savage might be a means to help me to do it.

During the long time that Friday had now been with me, and that he began to
speak to me, and understand me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious
knowledge in his mind ; particularly I asked him one time who made him. The poor
creature did not understand me at all, but thought I had asked him who was his father :
but I took it by another handle, and asked him who made the sea, the ground we
walked on, and the hills and woods. He told me, “It was one Benamuckee, that lived
beyond all;” he could describe nothing of this great person, but that he was very old,
“much older,” he said, “than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.” I asked
him then, if this old person had made all things, why did not all things worship him?
He looked very grave, and, with a perfect look of innocence, said, “ All things said O!
to him.” I asked him if the people who die in his country went away anywhere. He
said, “Yes; they all went to Benamuckee.” Then I asked him whether those they eat
up went thither too. He said, “ Yes.”

From these things I began to instruct him in the knowledge of the true God: I
told him that the great Maker of all things lived there, pointing up towards heaven ;
that he governed the world by the same power and providence by which he made it ;
that he was omnipotent, and could do everything for us, give everything to us, take
everything from us; and thus, by degrees, I opened his eyes. He listened with great
attention, and received with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to redeem
us, and of the manner of making our prayers to God, and his being able to hear us,
even into heaven. He told me one day, that if our God could hear us, up beyond the
sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Benamuckee, who lived but a little way
off, and yet could not hear till they went up to the great mountains where he dwelt to
Bit speak to him. I asked him if ever he went thither to speak to him. He said, “No;
se they never went that were young men ; none went thither but the old men,” whom he
Mi», called their Oowokakee ; that is, as I made him explain it to me, their religious, or
k clergy ; and that they went to say O! (so he called saying prayers) and then came back
and told them what Benamuckee said. By this I observed, that there is priestcraft
even among the most blinded, ignorant pagans in the world; and the policy of making
a secret of religion, in order to preservé the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not
only to be found in the Roman, but, perhaps, among all religions in the world, even
among the most brutish and barbarous savages.

T endeavoured to clear up this fraud to my man Friday, and told him that the pre-
tence of their old men going up to the mountains to say O! to their god Benamuckee
was a cheat ; and their bringing word from thence what he said was much more so ; that
if they met with any answer, or spoke with any one there, it must be with an evil spirit ;
and then I entered into a long discourse with him about the devil, the original of him, his
rebellion against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his setting himself up in the
dark parts of the world to be worshipped instead of God, and as God, and the many
stratagems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin ; how he had a secret access
to our passions and to our affections, and to adapt his snares to our inclinations, so as

146

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Ser SS













Paar

pes
FRIDAY RECEIVES RELIGIOUS INSTRUCTION,



to cause us even to be our own tempters, and run upon our own destruction by our
own choice.

I found it was not so easy to imprint right notions in his mind about the devil as it
was about the being of a God : nature assisted all my arguments to evidence to him even
the necessity of a great First Cause—an overruling, governing Power—a secret directing
Providence ; and of the equity and justice of paying homage to Him that made us, and
the like: but there appeared nothing of this kind in the notion of an evil spirit; of his
original, his being, his nature ; and, above all, of his inclination to do evil, and to draw
us in to do so too: and the poor creature puzzled me once in such a manner, by a
question merely natural and innocent, that I scarce knew what to say to him. I had
been talking a great deal to him of the power of God, His omnipotence, His aversion
to sin, His being a consuming fire to the workers of iniquity ; how, as He had made us
all, He could destroy us and all the world in a moment; and he listened with great
seriousness to me all the while. After this, I had been telling him how the devil was
God’s enemy in the hearts of men, and used all his malice and skill to defeat the good
designs of Providence, and to ruin the kingdom of Christ in the world, and the like.
“Well,” says Friday ; “but you say God is so strong, so great ; is he not much strong,
much might as the devil?” “Yes, yes,” says I, “Friday ; God is stronger than the
devil : God is above the devil, and therefore we pray to God to tread him down under
our feet, and to enable us to resist his temptations and quench his fiery darts.” “But,”
says he again, “if God much strong, much might as the devil, why God no kill the
devil, so make him no more do wicked?” I was strangely surprised at this question ;
and after all, though I was now an old man, yet I was but a young doctor, and ill quali-
fied for a casuist, or a solver of difficulties; and at first I could not tell what to say ;
so I pretended not to hear him, and asked him what he said ; but he was too earnest for
an answer to forget his question, so that he repeated it in the very same broken words
as above. By this time I had recovered myself a little, and I said, “God will at last
punish him severely ; he is reserved for the judgment, and he is to be cast into the
bottomless pit, to dwell with everlasting fire.” This did not satisfy Friday ; but he
returns upon me, repeating my own words, “‘ fteserve at last!’ me no understand : but
why not kill the devil now ; not kill great ago?” “You may as well ask me,” said I,

~ “why God does not kill you or me, when we do wicked things here that offend Him :
we are preserved to repent and be pardoned.” He muses awhile on this: “Well,
well,” says he, mightily affectionately, “that well: so you, I, devil, all wicked, all
preserve, repent, God pardon all.” Here I was run down by him to the last degree :
and it was a testimony to me, how the mere notions of nature, though they will guide
reasonable creatures to the knowledge of a God, and of a worship or homage due to the
supreme being of God, as the consequence of our nature, yet nothing but Divine revelation
can form the knowledge of Jesus Christ, and of redemption purchased for us ; of a
Mediator of the new covenant, and of an Intercessor at the footstool of God’s throne ; I
say, nothing but a revelation from heaven can form these in the soul ; and that, therefore,
the gospel of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, I mean the Word of God, and the
Spirit of God, promised for the guide and sanctifier of His people, are the absolutely
necessary instructors of the souls of men in the saving knowledge of God, and the means
of salvation.

I therefore diverted the present discourse between me and my man, rising up hastily
as upon some sudden occasion of going out ; then sending him for something a good
way off, I seriously prayed to God that he would enable me to instruct savingly this

= = 147° ss
oe =


O
aS.

ROBINSON CRUSOE,








poor savage ; assisting by His Spirit the heart of the poor ignorant creature to receive \ 7
~ the light of the knowledge of God in Christ, reconciling him to Himself, and would
guide me to speak so to him from the Word of God, that his conscience might be
_ convinced, his eyes opened, and his soul saved. When he came again to me, I entered
into a long discourse with him upon the subject of the redemption of man by the Saviour
of the world, and of the doctrine of the gospel preached from heaven—viz., of repentance WY f
towards God, and faith in our blessed Lord Jesus. I then explained to him as well as q iy
I could why our blessed Redeemer took not on Him the nature of angels, but the seed iy A
of Abraham ; and how, for that reason, the fallen angels had no sharein the redemption ; 4g

\

ly ‘) that he came only to the lost sheep of the house of Israel, and the like. Bi
‘i T had, God knows, more sincerity than knowledge in all the methods I took for this
(| poor creature's instruction, and must acknowledge, what I believe all that act upon the q

y sume principle will find, that, in laying things open to him, I really informed and
i) instructed myself in many things that I cither did not know, or had not fully considered B)
before, but which occurred naturally to my mind upon searching into them, for the Bt

Â¥y information of this poor savage ; and I had more affection in my inquiry after things yf

upon this occasion than ever I felt before: so that, whether this poor wild wretch was J

f
i 4
ie: the better for me or no, I had reason to be thankful that ever he came to me; my grief “@

Y sat lighter upon me; my habitation grew comfortable to me beyond measure : and when j i

I reflected that in this solitary life which I had been confined to, I had not only been
moyed to look up to heaven myself, and to seek the hand that had brought me here, but
was now to be made an instrument, under Providence, to save the life, and, for aught I
know, the soul of a poor savage, and bring him to the true knowledge of religion, and of om
the Christian doctrine, that he might know Christ Jesus, to know whom is life eternal ; BRR
I say, when I reflected upon all these things, a secret joy ran through every part of
© ay soul, and I frequently rejoiced that ever 1 was brought to this place, which I had so
often thought the most dreadful of all afflictions that could possibly have befallen me.

sa
a

Ss



~~

In this thankful frame I continued all the remainder of my time ; and the conver-
) sation which employed the hours between Friday and me was such as made the three
years which we lived there together perfectly and completely happy, if any such thing
as complete happiness can be found ina sublunary state. This savage was now a good
Christian, a much better than I; though I have reason to hope, and bless God for it,
that we were equally penitent, and comforted, restored penitents. We had here the
Word of God to read, and no farther off from His Spirit to instruct, than if we had been
in England. I always applied myself, in reading the Scriptures, to let him know, as 4
well as I could, the meaning of what I read ; and he again, by his serious inquiries and
questionings, made me, as I said before, a much better scholar in the Scripture knowledge
than I should ever have been by my own mere private reading. Another thing I
cannot refrain from observing here also, from experience in this retired part of my life
—viz., how infinite and inexpressible a blessing it is that the knowledge of God, and of
the doctrine of salvation by Christ Jesus, is so plainly laid down in the Word of God,
so easy to be received and understood, that, as the bare reading the Scripture made me
) capable of understanding enough of my duty to carry me directly on to the great work of
sincere repentance for my sins, and of laying hold of a Saviour for life and salvation, to a
stated reformation in practice, and obedience to all God’s commands, and this without any
teacher or instructor, I mean human ; so the same plain instruction sufficiently served
to the enlightening this savage creature, and bringing him to be such a Christian as I
have known few equal to him in my life.


”

SY

they were

Ss

; and we had, blessed be

comfortable views of the Spirit of God teaching and instructing us by His word
greatest knowledge of the disputed

=

ig and obedient to the instruction of

or schemes of church government,

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whether niceties in doctrines,
all perfectly useless to us, and, for aught I can yet see, they have been to the rest of the

As to the disputes, wrangling,

2

world. We had the sure guide to heaven, viz, the Word of God

God,
leading us into all truth, and making us both willin,

fk. His word. And I cannot see the least use that the

about religion,


te ees

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2 & 2
al ast ioe i FE ‘is ata

3s

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ROBINSON CRUSOE.







points of religion, which have made such confusions in the world, would have been to i if
us, if we could have obtained it ; but I must go on with the historical part of things,
and take every part in its order. \

After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted, and that he could under- |
stand almost all I said to him, and speak fluently, though in broken English, to me, I WY
acquainted him with my own story, or at least so much of it as related to my coming Mf
into this place ; how I had lived there, and how long: I let him into the mystery, for ;
such it was to him, of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him how to shoot. Igavehin
a knife, with which he was wonderfully delighted ; and I made him a belt, with a frog yi
hanging to it, such asin England we wear hangers in ; and in the frog, instead of a &
hanger, I gave him a hatchet, which was not only as good a weapon in some cases, but .f
much more useful upon many occasions.

I described to him the countries of Europe, particularly England, which I came from ;
how we lived, how we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another, and how we
traded in ships to all parts of the world. I gave him an account of the wreck which I ,Â¥RV
had been on board of, and showed him, as near as I could, the place where she lay: but “(
she was all beaten in pieces long before, and quite gone. I showed him the ruins of
our boat, which we lost when we escaped, and which I could not stir with my whole By
strength then ; but was now fallen almost all to pieces. Upon seeing this boat, Friday Af
stood musing a great while, and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied
upon. At last, says he, “Me see such boat like come to place at my nation.” I did
not understand him a good while ; but, at last, when I had examined further into it, I
understood by him, that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon the country
where he lived ; that is, as he explained it, was driven thither by stress of weather. I
presently imagined that some European ship must have been cast away upon their coast,
and the boat might get loose and drive ashore; but was so dull that I never once
thought of men making their escape from a wreck thither, much less whence they might
come : so I only inquired after the. description of the boat.

Friday described the boat to me well enough ; but brought me better to understand
him when he added with some warmth, “ We save the white mans from drown.” Then
I presently asked if there were any white mans, as he called them, in the boat. “ Yes,”
he said ; “the boat full of white mans.” I asked him how many. He told upon his
fingers seventeen. J asked him then what became of them. He told me, “ They live,
they dwell at my nation.”

This put new thoughts into my head ; for I presently imagined that these might be
the men belonging to the ship that was cast away in the sight of my island, as I now
called it ; and who, after the ship was struck on the rock and they saw her inevitably
lost, had saved themselves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild shore among
the savages. Upon this I inquired of him more critically what was become of them.
He assured me they lived still there ; that they had been there about four years ; that
the savages left them alone, and gave them victuals to live. I asked him how it
came to pass that they did not killthemandeatthem. He said, “ No, they make brother
with them ;” that is, as I understood him, a truce ; and then he added, “They no eat
mans but when make the war fight ;” that is to say, they never eat any men but such
as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.

It was after this some considerable time, that being upon the top of the hill, at the
east side of the island, from whence, asI have said, I had, in a clear day, discovered the
main or continent of America, Friday, the weather being very serene, looks very
150






En

er
CRUSOE INDULGES IN GROUNDLESS JEALOUSY.





earnestly towards the main land, and, in akind of surprise, falls a-jumping and dancing,
and calls out to me, for I was at some distance from him. I asked him what was the
matter. “Oh, joy!” says he; “oh, glad! theresee my country, there my nation!” I
observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appeared in his face, and his eyes sparkled,
and his countenance discovered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in his
own country again. This observation of mine puta great many thoughts into me, which
made me, at first, not so easy about my new man Friday as I was before ; and I made
no doubt but that, if Friday could get back to his own nation again, he would not only
forget all his religion, but all his obligation to me, and would be forward enough to give
his countrymen an account of me, and come back, perhaps, with a hundred or two of
them, and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry as he used to be with
those of his enemies, when they were taken in war. But I wronged the poor honest
creature very much, for which I was very sorry afterwards. However, as my jealousy
increased, and held me some weeks, I was a little more circumspect, and not so familiar
and kind to him as before: in which I was certainly in the wrong too; the honest
grateful creature having no thought about it, but what consisted with the best prin-
ciples both as a religious Christian, and as a grateful friend ; as appeared afterwards to
my full satisfaction.

While my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I was every day pumping him,
to see if he would discover any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him ;
but I found everything he said was so honest and so innocent, that I could find nothing
to nourish my suspicion ; and, in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last entirely
his own again ; nor did he in the least perceive that I was uneasy, and therefore I could
not suspect him of deceit.

One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather being hazy at sea, so that we
could not see the continent, I called to him, and said, “ Friday, do not you wish yourself
in your own country, your own nation?” “Yes,” he said, “I be much O glad to be
at my own nation.” “What would you do there?” said I: “would you turn wild
again, eat men’s flesh again, and be a savage, as you were before?” He looked full of
concern, and shaking his head, said, “No, no; Friday tell them to live good ; tell them
1 to pray God ; tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-flesh, milk ; noeat man again.” “Why,
then,” said I to him, “they will kill you.” He looked grave at that, and then said,.
“No, no; they no kill me, they willing love learn.” He meant by this, they would be
willing to learn. He added, they learned much of the bearded mans that came in the
boat. Then I asked him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and told
me he could not swim so far. I told him, I would make a canoe forhim. He told me
he would go, if I would go with him. “Igo!” says I; “why they will eat me if I
come there.” “No, no,” says he, “me make them no eat you; me make them much
love you.” He meant, he would tell them how I had killed his enemies, and saved his
life, and so he would make them love me. Then he told me, as well as he could, how
kind they were to seventeen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who came
on shore in distress.

From this time, I confess, I had a mind to venture over, and see if I could possibly
join with those bearded men, who, I made no doubt, were Spaniards or Portuguese ;
not doubting but, if I could, we might find some method to escape from thence, being
upon the continent, and a good company together, better than I could from an island
forty miles off the shore, alone, and without help. So, after some days, I took Friday
to work again, by way of discourse, and told him I would give him a boat to go back

= 151 2

ew aN


ROBINSON CRUSOE.



to his own nation ; and, accordingly, I carried him to my frigate, which lay on the other
side of the island, and having cleared it of water (for I always kept it sunk in the water);
I brought it out, showed it him, and we both went into it. I found he was a most
dexterous fellow at managing it, and would make it go almost as swift and fast again
as I could. So when he was in, I said to him, “ Well, now, Friday, shall we go to
your nation?” He looked very dull at my saying so ; which it seems was because he
thought the boat too small to go so far. I then told him I had a bigger ; so the next
day I went to the place where the first boat lay which I had made, but which I
could not get into the water. He said that was big enough ; but then, as I had taken
no care of it, and it had lain two or three and twenty years there, the sun had split
and dried it, that it was rotten. Friday told me that such a boat would do very well,
and would carry “much enough vittle, drink, bread ;”—that was his way of talking.

Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my design of going over with him
to the continent, that I told him we would go and make one as big as that, and he
should go home in it. He answered not one word, but looked very grave and sad. I
asked him what was the matter with him. He asked me again, “ Why you angry mad
with Friday ?—what me done?” I asked him what he meant. I told him I was not
angry with himat all. “No angry!” says he, repeating the words several times ; “why
send Friday home away to my nation?” “Why,” says I, “Friday, did not you say
you wished you were there?” “Yes, yes,” says he, “wish we both there; no wish
Friday there, no master there.” Ina word, he would not think of going there without
me. “I go there, Friday?” says I ; “what shall I do there?” He turned very quick
upon me at this. “You do great deal much good,” says he ; “ you teach wild mans be
good, sober, tame mans; you tell them know God, pray God, and live new life.”
“ Alas, Friday!” says I, “thou knowest not what thou sayest ; I am but an ignorant
man myself.” “ Yes, yes,” says he, “you teachee me good, you teachee them good.”
“No, no, Friday,” says I, “you shall go without me ; leave me here to live by myself,
as I did before.” He looked confused again at that word ; and running to one of the
hatchets which he used to wear, he takes it up hastily, and givesitto me. “What must
I do with this?” says I to him. “You take kill Friday,” says he. “ What must I
kill you for?” said I again. He returns very quick—“ What you send Friday away
for? Take kill Friday, no send Friday away.” This he spoke so earnestly that I saw
tears stand in his eyes. In a word, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in him
to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him then, and often after, that I would
never send him away from me, if he was willing to stay with me.

Upon the whole, as I found by all his discourse a settled affection to me, and that
nothing could part him from me, so I found all the foundation of his desire to go to his
own country was laid in his ardent affection to the people, and his hopes of my doing
them good ; a thing which, as [ had no notion of myself, so I had not the least thought,
or intention, or desire of undertaking it. But still I found a strong inclination to my
attempting an escape, founded on the supposition gathered from the former discourse,
that there were seventeen bearded men there ; and therefore, without any more delay, I
went to work with Friday to find out a great tree proper to fell, and make a large
periagua, or canoe, to undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the island to
have built a little fleet, not of periaguas or canoes, but even of good large vessels ; but
the main thing I looked at was, to get one so near the water that we might Jaunch it
when it was made, to avoid the mistake I committed at first. At last, Friday pitched


A
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22

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- GRUSOE AND FRI
















ROBINSON CRUSOE.



it; nor can I tell, to this day, what wood to call the tree we cut down, except that it
was very like the tree we call fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it was
much of the same colour and smell. Friday was for burning the hollow or cavity of
this tree out, to make it into a boat, but I showed him how rather to cut it with tools ;
which, after I had showed him how to use, he did very handily; and in about a month’s
hard labour, we finished it and made it very handsome ; especially, when, with our axes,
which I showed him how .to handle, we cut and hewed the outside into the true shape
ofa boat. After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight’s time to get her along, as it

were, inch by inch, upon great rollers into the water ; but when she was in, she would -

have carried twenty men with great ease.

When she was in the water, though she was so big, it amazed me to see with what
dexterity and how swift my man Friday could manage her, turn her, and paddle her
along. So I asked him if we would, and if we might venture over in her.” “ Yes,” he
said ; “we venture over in her very well, though great blow wind.” However, I hada
farther design that he knew nothing of, and that was to make a mast and a sail, and to
fit her with an anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to get; so I
pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which I found near the place, and which there
was great plenty of in the island, and I set Friday to work to cut it down, and gave
him directions how to shape and order it. But as to the sail, that was my particular
care. I knew I had old sails, or rather pieces of old sails, enough ; but as I had had
them now six-and-twenty years by me, and had not been very careful to preserve them,
not imagining that I should ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but
they were all rotten ; and, indeed, most of them were so. However, I found two pieces,
which appeared pretty good, and with these I went to work ; and with a great deal of
pains, and awkward, tedious stitching, you may be sure, for want of needles, I at length
made a three-cornered ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of-mutton
sail, to go with a boom at bottom, and a little short sprit at the top, such as usually
our ships’ long-boats sail with, and such as I best knew how to manage, because it was
such a one as I used in the boat in which I made my escape from Barbary, as related
in the first part of my story.

I was near two months performing this last work—viz, rigging and fitting my mast
and sails ; for I finished them very complete, making a small stay, and a sail or foresail
to it, to assist if we should turn to windward ; and, which was more than all, I fixed a
rudder to the stern of her to steer with. And though I was but a bungling shipwright,
yet as I knew the usefulness, and even the necessity of such a thing, I applied myself
with so much pains to do it, that at last I brought it to pass ; though, considering the

many dull contrivances I had for it that failed, I think it cost me almost. as much |

labour as making the boat.

After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach as to what belonged to the
navigation of my boat ; for, though he knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he knew
nothing of what belonged to a sail and arudder ; and was the most amazed when he saw
me work the boat to and again in the sea by the rudder, and how the sail gibbed, and
filled this way or that way, as the course we sailed changed ; I say, when he saw this,
he stood like one astonished and amazed.. However, with a little use, I made all these
things familiar to him, and he became an expert sailor, except that as to the compass I
could make him understand very little of that. On the other hand, as there was very
little cloudy weather, and seldom or never any fogs in those parts, there was the less








































EN ee

ee




ANOTHER ARRIVAL OF CANOES



by day, except in the rainy seasons, and then nobody cared to stir abroad either by land
or sea. :

I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of my captivity in this place ;
though the three last years that I had this creature with me ought rather to be left out
of the account, my habitation being quite of another kind than in all the rest of my
time. I kept the anniversary of my landing here with the same thankfulness to God
for his mercies as at first ; and if I had such cause of acknowledgment at first, I had
much more so now, having such additional testimonies of the care of Providence over
me, and the great hopes I had of being effectually and speedily delivered ; for I had
an invincible impression upon my thoughts that my deliverance was at hand, and that
I should not be another year in this place. However, I went on with my husbandry ;
digging, planting, and fencing, as usual. I gathered and cured my grapes, and did
every necessary thing as before. Fi

The rainy season was, in the meantime upon me, when I kept more within doors
than at other times. I had stowed our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing her
up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning, I landed my rafts from the ship ;
and hauling her up to the shore at high-water mark, I made my man Friday dig a, little
dock, just big enough to hold her, and just deep enough to give her water enough to -
float in ; and then, when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the end of it,
to keep the water out ; and so she Jay dry as to the tide from the sea : and to keep the
rain off, we laid a great many boughs of trees, so thick that she was