Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Biographical sketch of Daniel...
 Robinson's family, etc. - His elopement...
 First adventures at sea, and experience...
 Robinson's captivity at Sallee...
 He settles in the Brazils as a...
 Robinson finds himself in a desolate...
 Carries all his riches, provisions,...
 Robinson's mode of reckoning time...
 Robinson's journal - Details of...
 Robinson obtains more articles...
 His recovery - His comfort in reading...
 Robinson makes a tour to explore...
 He returns to his cave - His agricultural...
 His manufacture of pottery, and...
 Chapter 14 - Meditates his escape...
 He makes a smaller canoe, in which...
 He rears a flock of goats - His...
 Unexpected alarm and cause for...
 Precautions against surprise -...
 Chapter 19 - Robinson discovers...
 Another visit of the savages -...
 He visits the wreck and obtains...
 Robinson rescues one of their captives...
 Robinson instructs and civilizes...
 Robinson and Friday build a canoe...
 Robinson releases a Spaniard -...
 Robinson discovers himself to the...
 Atkins entreats the captain to...
 Robinson goes to Lisbon, where...
 Friday's encounter with a bear...
 He is seized with a desire to revisit...
 Robinson's ship relieves the crew...
 Relieves the crew of a bristol...
 Robinson and Friday go ashore -...
 The account continued - Quarrels...
 The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed...
 Several savages killed; the remainder...
 Robinson learns from the Spaniards...
 Robinson's discourse with ecclesiastic...
 Atkins relates his conversation...
 Encounter with savages at sea -...
 Chapter 41 - The vessel touches...
 Meets with an English merchant...
 Journey to Peking - Robinson joins...
 Route through Muscovy - Robinson...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073575/00001
 Material Information
Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe With a biograpical account of Defoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xxii <sic>, <25>-475 p., <5> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Thwaites, William H ( Illustrator )
Avery ( Engraver )
Loomis, Pascal, 1826-1878 ( Engraver )
Bobbett & Hooper ( Engraver )
Loomis & Annin ( Engraver )
Hurst & Company ( Publisher )
Argyle Press ( Printer )
Publisher: Hurst & Co.
Place of Publication: New York (122 Nassau Street)
Manufacturer: Argyle Press
Publication Date: 187-?
Edition: New ed., complete.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: At head of title and on spine: Arlington edition.
General Note: Ill. engraved by Annin & Loomis, Avery, Bobbett-Hooper, and Loomis.
General Note: Front. is included in the pagination.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Date based on Boston Public Library. Daniel Defoe, entry 779, dated <188-?> Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, has a variant (542) which is dated 187-. NUC pre-1956 describes a variant (0118450, v. 136, p. 603) dated <188-?> which lacks the word complete in the ed. statement. The University of Florida library's copy is inscribed 1891.
Statement of Responsibility: Illustrated by Thwaites and others.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073575
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 20323804

Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Biographical sketch of Daniel DeFoe
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
    Robinson's family, etc. - His elopement from his parents
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    First adventures at sea, and experience of a maritime life - Voyage to Guinea
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Robinson's captivity at Sallee - Escape with Xury - Arrival at the Brazils
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    He settles in the Brazils as a planter - Makes another voyage and is shipwrecked
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Robinson finds himself in a desolate island - Procures a stock of articles from the wreck - Constructs his habitation
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
    Carries all his riches, provisions, etc., into his habitation - Dreariness of solitude - Consolatory reflections
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Robinson's mode of reckoning time - Difficulties arising from want of tools - He arranges his habitation
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Robinson's journal - Details of his domestic economy and contrivances - Shock of an earthquake
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck - His illness and affliction
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
    His recovery - His comfort in reading the scriptures - Makes an excursion into the interior of the island - Forms his "bower"
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
    Robinson makes a tour to explore his island - Employed in basket-making
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    He returns to his cave - His agricultural labors and success
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    His manufacture of pottery, and contrivance for baking bread
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Chapter 14 - Meditates his escape from the island - Builds a canoe - Failure of his scheme - Resignation to his condition - Makes himself a new dress
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    He makes a smaller canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the island - His perilous situation at sea - He returns home
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 132a
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    He rears a flock of goats - His diary - His domestic habits and style of living - Increasing prosperity
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
    Unexpected alarm and cause for apprehension - He fortifies his abode
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
    Precautions against surprise - Robinson discovers that his island has been visited by cannibals
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
    Chapter 19 - Robinson discovers a cave, which serves him as a retreat against the savages
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
    Another visit of the savages - Robinson sees them dancing - Perceives the wreck of a vessel
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    He visits the wreck and obtains many stores from it - Again thinks of quitting the island - Has a remarkable dream
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 180a
    Robinson rescues one of their captives from the savages, whom he names Friday, and makes his servant
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Robinson instructs and civilizes his man Friday - Endeavors to give him an idea of Christianity
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Robinson and Friday build a canoe to carry them to Friday’s country - Their scheme prevented by the arrival of a party of savages
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Robinson releases a Spaniard - Friday discovers his father - Accommodation provided for these new guests - Who are afterwards sent to liberate the other Spaniards - Arrival of an English vessel
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Robinson discovers himself to the English captain - Assists him in reducing his mutinous crew, who submit to him
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
    Atkins entreats the captain to spare his life - The latter recovers his vessel from the mutineers, and Robinson leaves the island
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
    Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese captain, who renders him an account of his property in the Brazils - Sets out on his return to England by land
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 245
        Page 246
    Friday's encounter with a bear - Robinson and his fellow-travellers attacked by a flock of wolves - His arrangement of his affairs, and marriage after his return to England
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
    He is seized with a desire to revisit his island - Loses his wife - Is tempted to go to sea again - Takes out a cargo for his colony
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
    Robinson's ship relieves the crew of a French vessel that had caught fire
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
    Relieves the crew of a bristol ship, who are starving - Arrives at his island
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    Robinson and Friday go ashore - The latter meets with his father - Account of what passed on the island after Robinson's quitting it
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
    The account continued - Quarrels between the Englishmen - A battle between two parties of savages who visit the island - Fresh mutiny among the settlers
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
    The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the island - Return with several captive savages - Take the females as wives - Arrival of savages
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
    Several savages killed; the remainder leave the island - A fleet of them afterwards arrive - A general battle - The savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
    Robinson learns from the Spaniards the difficulties they had to encounter - He furnishes the people with tools, etc. - The French ecclesiastic
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
    Robinson's discourse with ecclesiastic as to introducing marriages among the people - Marriages performed - Atkins converts his wife
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
    Atkins relates his conversation with his wife - The latter baptized by the priest - Account of the starving state of those on board the rescued vessel - Robinson's departure from the island
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
    Encounter with savages at sea - Friday's death - Robinson finds his former partner in the Brazils - Sails for the East Indies
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 385
        Page 384
        Page 385
    Chapter 41 - The vessel touches at Madagascar - Affray with the natives - Who are massacred by the crew - The sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his nephew, the captain, in Bengal
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
    Meets with an English merchant with whom he makes some trading voyages - They are mistaken for pirates - Vanquish their pursuer - Voyage to China - Rencontre with the Cochin Chinese - Island of Formosa – Gulf of Nanquin - Apprehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
    Journey to Peking - Robinson joins a caravan proceeding to Moscow - Rencontrers with the Tartars
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
    Route through Muscovy - Robinson and a Scots merchant destroy an idol - The whole caravan in great peril from the pursuit of the Pagans – Tobolski - Muscovite exiles - Departure from Tobolski - Encounter with a troop of robbers in the desert - Robinson reaches Archangel, and finally arrives in England
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
        Page 461
        Page 462
        Page 463
        Page 464
        Page 465
        Page 466
        Page 467
        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
        Page 474
        Page 475
Full Text



- --~=2w







Ila.stratEt 4y itbaifte r r oatt m

New Edition, complete.


e65 & 26f CHERRY ST., Y.


Biographical Sketch of Daniel Defoe .............. ............


Robinson's Family, etc.-His Elopement from his Parents..........


First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life-Voyage
to Guinea.............................................


Robimson's Captivity at Sallee-Escape with Xury-Arrival at the
Brazils .................................... ....... ......


He settles in the Brazils as a Planter-Makes another Voyage, and is
shinwrecked............................ ..............



Robinson finds Himself in a Desolate Island-Procures a Stock of
Articles from the Wreck-Constructs his Habitation...........


Carries all his Riches, Provisions, etc., into his Habitation-Dreari-
ness of Solitude-Consolatory Reflections .....................


Robinson's Mode of Reckoning Time-Difficulties arising from Want
of Tools-He arranges his Habitation........................


Robinson's Journal-Details of his Domestic Economy and Contriv-
ances-Shock of an Earthquake .............................


Robinson obtains more Articles from the Wreck-His Illness and
Affl iction ............... ..................................


His Recovery-His Comfort in Reading the Scriptures -Makes an
Excursion into the Interior of the Island-Forms his Bower."...


Robinson makes a Tour to explore his Island-Employed in Basket-
Mamng .................. ...............................



He returns to his Cave-His Agricultural Labors and Success ...... 110


His Manufacture of Pottery, and Contrivance for baking Bread...... 116


Meditates his Escape from the Island-Builds a Canoe-Failure of
his Scheme-Resignation to his Condition-Makes Himself a New
Dress............ ...... ...................... ........... 120


He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the
Island-His Perilous Situation at Sea-He returns Home........ 138


He rears a Flock of Goats-His Diary-His Domestic Habits and
Style of Living-Increasing Prosperity....................... 137


Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension-He Fortifies his
Abode................ .. .............................. 144


Precautions against Surprise-Robinson discovers that his Island has
been visited by Cannibals ....................... ....... 15)

- w --~-- 'mj- '' _lE


rjobinson discovers a Cave, which serves Him as a Retreat against
the Savages ............................ ...... ........... 159


Another Visit of the Savages-Robinson sees them dancing-Per-
ceives the W r"eek if a Vessel .................. .... ..... ... 166


'IH isits the Wreck ani obtains many Stores from it-Again thinks
or quitting the Island-Has a Remarkable Dreamn............ ..171


Rolinson rescues One of their Captives from the Savages, whom He
names Friday, and makes his Servant ......................... 181


Rolinson instructs and civilizes his Man Friday-Endeavors to give
Iim an Idea of Christianit .................................. 189


Robinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry Them to Friday's Coan-
try-Their Scheme prevented by the Arrival of a Party of Savages. 193


Robinson releases a Spaniard-Friday discovers his Father-Ac-
commodation provided for these New Guests--Who are afterward
sent to liberate the other Spaniards-Arrival of an English Vessel. 203



Robinson discovers Himself to the English Captain-Assists Him in
reducing his Mutinous Crew, who submit to Him................ 217


Atkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life-The Latter recovers
his Vessel from the Mutineers-And Robinson leaves the Island... 229


Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain, who
renders him an Account of his Property in the Brazils-Sets out
on his Return to England by Land ........................... 237


Friday's Encounter with a Bear-Robinson and his Fellow Travellers
attacked by a Flock of Wolves-His Arrangement of his Affairs,
and Marriage afte'his Return to England ..................... 247


He is seized with a Desire to revisit his Island-Loses his Wife-Is
Tempted to go to Sea again-Takes out a Cargo for his Colony... 258


Robinson's Ship relieves the Crew of a French Vessel that had
caught Fire.................... ........ ................ ;;


Relieves the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving-Arrives at
his Island ................................ .............. 273


Robinson and Friday go Ashore-The Latter meets with his Father
-Account of what passed on the Island after Robinson's quitting
It ....... ......................... .................. 280


The Account continued-Quarrels between the Englishmen-A Bat-
tle between two Parties of Savages who visit the Island-Fresh
Mutiny among the Settlers................................. 287


The Mutinous Englismli.n are dismissed from the Island-Return
with Several Captive Savages-Take the Females as Wives-Ar-
rival of Savages ............................. ............ 305


Several Savages killed tihe Remainder leave the Island-A Fleet of
them afterward arrive-A General Battle-The Savages are over-
come, and Tranquillity restored............................... 316


n0e'.:ison learns from the Spaniards the Difficullies they had to en-
1 inter-He furnishes the People with Tools, etc -The French
L cls iastic ................... ............................. 832


Robinson's Discourse with the Ecclesiastic as to introducing Mar-
riages among the People-Marriages performed-Atkins converts
his Wife.......................................... ......... 842 J'


Atkins relates his Conversation with his Wife-The Latter baptized
by the Priest-Account of the starving State of Those on Board the
rescued Vessel-Robinson's Departure from the Island........... 369


Encounter with Savages at Sea-Friday's Death-Robinson finds his
former Partner in the Brazils-Sails for the East Indies.......... 878


The Vessel touches at Madagascar.-Affray with the Natives, who are
Massacred by the Crew-The Sailors afterward refuse to sail with
Robinson, who is left by his Nephew, the Captain, in Bengal...... 886


Meets with an English Merchant with whom he makes some Trading
Voyages-They are Mistaken for Pirates-Vanquish their Pursu-
ers-Voyage to China Rencounter with the Cochin Chinese-
Island of Formosa-Gulf of Nanquin-Apprehensions of falling into
the Hands of the Dutch ......... .......................... 402


Journey to Peking-Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to Moscow
-Rencounters with the Tartars ............................. 433


Route through Muscovy-Robinson and a Scots Merchant destroy an
Idol-The whole Caravan in great peril from the pursuit of the Pa-
gans-Tobolski-Muscovite Exiles-Departure from Tobolski-
Encounter with a Troop of Robbers in the Desert-Robinson
reaches Archangel, and finally arrives in England............... 448




'F Fr'C l he author of Robinson Crusoe, would be en-
:11 t. i prominent place in the history of our litera-
'- i t,,, r, had he never given to the world that truly
.' ','i ..i ,.. production; and yet we may reasonably
-"'" '' ..,, i whether the name of Defoe would not long
J' ,.. u, .nk into oblivion, or at least have been known,
i. .e those of most of his contemporaries, only to the
1 curious student, were it not attached to a work whose popularity

the reputation due to the writer has been nearly altogether absorbed
in that of his hero, and in the all-engrossing interest of his adven-
tures. Thousands who have read Robinson Crusoe with delight,
and derived from it a satisfaction in no wie- diminished by repeated
perusal, have never bestowed a thought on its author, or, indeed,
-ri!arded it in the light of a literary performance. While its fascination
lhas een universally felt, the genius that conceived it, the talent that per-
fected it, have been generally overlooked, merely because it is so full of
nature and reality as to exhibit no invention or exertion on the part of
the author, inasmuch as he appears simply to have recorded what actually
happened and consequently only to have committed to paper plain matter
of fact, without study or embellishment. We wonder at and are struck
with admiration by the powers of Shakespeare or Cervantes; with regard
to Defoe we experieree no similar feelings ; it is not the skill of the artist
that enchants us, but the perfect naturalness of the picture, which is such
that we mistake it for a mirror ; so that every reader persuades himself
clit he could write as well, perhaps better, were he but furnished with the
miat:rials for an equally interesting narrative.
There are many circumstances in Defoe's own history that would rec-
omnuend it to the notice of the biograplher, independently of his claims as
the author of Robinson ; among which are the variety and extraordinary
number of his literary performances, amounting to no fewer than two hun-
dn ed and nine different publications ; and the no less singular fact that the
masterpiece of his genius was not only his first essay in that species of
composition, but was not produced till he was far advanced in years, he
having then arrived at a period of life when the generality of authors close
their literary career, and when the powers of imagination either lose much
of their vigor, or become altogether torpid. Nor will our surprise at De-
foe's industry, and the almost unprecedented fertility of his pen, be at all


diminished by considering that he was not a recluse student or professed
scholar, but was engaged in trade and various other speculations. In one
respect, however, his mercantile occupations contributed to lay the foun-
dation to his excellence as a novel writer, since there can be little doubt
that it is to his actual experience of the sea, and his acquaintance with
other countries, we are indebted for that truth and spirit which animate the
more interesting parts of Robinson Crusoe; while the manly good sense,
unaffected earnestness, and fund of native intelligence, have placed him far
above those who presume to undervalue his literary acquirements.
According to the latest and most copious of all his biographers, Daniel
Defoe was born in 1661, two years earlier than the generally assigned date
of his birth. His father was a butcher in the parish of St. Giles, Cripple-
gate, and appears to have been a citizen in easy circumstances, although
his trade was one that confers no particular lustre on a pedigree. It is usual
to effect some ,'ro.-' of astonishment when we read of men whose after
fame presents a -. .L._- contrast to the humility of their origin; yet we
must recollect that it is not ancestry and splendid descent, but education
and circumstances which form the man ; and in this respect the middling
classes possess a decided advantage over those either below or above them;
for if the former are precluded from cultivating their talents and abilities,
the latter generally consider themselves exempt from the necessity of doing
so, and accordingly content themselves with cultivating mere external ac-
complishments. in preference to exercising their mental energies. Those,
on the contrary, who are placed in the middle station, while they are not
debarred from the means of application, feel that stimulus to exertion
which arises from the desire of acquiring fortune or fame. The history of
such men as Ximenes, Wolsey, Alberoni, and Napoleon, may, indeed, just-
ly excite our wonder; when, too, we behold unlettered genius emerging,
in spite of every obstacle, from the obscurity to which it seemed condemned,
as in a Fergusson, a Dural, a Burns, and an Opie, we may be permitted to
express our astonishment; but as regards his origin, the history of Defoe is
that of thousands who have afterward raised themselves into comparative
elevation by the display of their powers. The solicitude, therefore, so
generally displayed by ;... ,, 1. on similar occasions, to trace some
consanguinity wit a more .l ..! 1 I ,'anch of their families, for those whose
native obscurity seems to demand soi. i[...1.. betrays a rather mistaken
policy. However this may be, it is ',r ... t I t it is quite as honorable for
Defoe to have ascended from a butcher as it would have been to have de-
scended from the Conqueror himself.
One undoubted and very great advantage, for which Defoe was indebted
to his parents, who were Nonconformists, was an education superior to
what it was then usual for persons in their station to bestow upon their
children; and thev were careful also to implant in his youthful mind that
regard for religion, and that strict moral integrity, which afterward dis-
played themselves not only in his writings, but his conduct through life.
And this rectitude of principle lie most unequivocally evinced when his
misfortunes put it so severely to the proof. At about the age of fourteen,
he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. Charles Morton, of Newington
Green, who was afterward vice-president of Harvard College, New England;
and from various incidental remarks in his own worls, it appears that
young Defoe now entered upon an extensive course of studies, and made
considerable proficiency in languages, mathematics, philosophy, history,
and theology ; although the natural liveliness of his disposition unfitted him
for that severe application which is necessary to form a profound scholarin
any one of those pursuits.
It was the irltentinn of his parents that lih should embrace the clerical


profession, which their religious feelings, and probably a very pardonable
ambition, induced them to select for him ; yet, notwithstanding his regard
for the sacred office, he was unwilling to embrace it himself; or events, at
least, diverted his talents into another channel. The political and religious
excitements of that period were contagious for ono of Defoe's temper; he
assumed the character of the patriot as soon as he cast off that of the boy,
and espoused the side of the popular party with all the ardor of youth;
nor was it long before he had opportunities of distinguishing himself. He
was a warm advocate for the Bill of Exclusion, passed by the Commons to
prevent the succession of the Duke of York to the throne ; and regarded
with abhorrence that spirit of despotism which sentenced Sydney and so
many others to the scaffold. At the age of twenty-one he commenced
author, which employment he continued for nearly half a century, and
that, too, almost uninterruptedly, notwithstanding his various speculations of
a different nature. It cannot be expected that in a sketch of this nature we
should attempt to give anything like a connected account of Defoe's various
literary performances, they being too numerous and multifarious for us to
advert to them separately, even if we conceived that by so doing we should
greatly interest the readers of this-the most distinguished of them all.
But the truth is, the majority of them are of that class which it is rather
the province of the bibliographer than the critic to describe. We may,
however, here mention the first production of his pen, which, under the
singular title of Speculum Crape-gownorum," was a reply to a publica-
tion of Roger L'Estrange's, a noted party writer of that day. In this work
Defoe indulged in rather intemperate language, and while vindicating the
dissenters, reflected in too hostile and indiscriminate a manner upon the
established clergy This was succeeded by a Treatise against the Turks,"
occasioned by the war between them and the imperialists; and was penned
by Defoe for the purpose of showing his countrymen that, if it was the in-
terest of Protestantism not to increase the influence of a Catholic power, it
was infinitely more so to oppose a Mohammedan one ; which, however de-
bateable it might appear to politicians, was almost too obvious a truism to
be entitled to any merit for its sagacity. It is the fate of political publica-
tions quickly to fall into oblivion after the events which call them forth have
passed away ; the reputation derived from them is as transitory as the
events themselves, or if the fame of the writer occasionally descends to pos-
terity, it is more than can be affirmed of his writings.
Shortly after this, Defoe proved that he was as ready to support the doc-
trines he advocated by the sword as by the pen. He accordingly joined
the standard of the Duke of Monmouth, when the latter landed in England
with a view of expelling a Catholic prince from the throne, and seating
himself upon it as the defender of Protestantism. The issue of that ad-
venture, and the subsequent fate of the unfortunate, if not perfectly inno-
cent, Monmouth are well known. Happier than the leader of the enter-
prise, it was Defoe's better luck to escape. He returned to the metropo-
lis in safety; and, abandoning politics and warfare, was content for a
while to turn bis attention to the more humble but less stormy pursuits of
He now became a hosier, or rather a hose-factor, that is, a kind of agent
between the manufacturer and retailer; and, according to Mr. Chalmers,
he continued to carry on this concern from 1685 to 1695. It was about
two years after be had thus established himself, that he was admitted a
liveryman of London, on the 26th of January, 1687-'8. Business, however,
did not so entirely absorb his attention but that he found time to engage in
the various controversies that agitated the public mind, and which were
occasioned by the arbitrary measures of James, who, feeling himself secure


after the removal of so dangerous an enemy as Monmouth, began more
openly to favor the Catholics, and to dispense with the tests intended to
prevent their accepting commissions in the army. This of course excited
oth the alarm and indignation of the Protestants, which were by no mean
allayed by the temporizing servility of their own clergy, who exerted their
eloquence in favor of the king's prerogative. Among those who attacked
the doctrine of the I1- -..- -. power was Defoe; nor, as may well be im-
agined, was he afterward an unconcerned spectator of the Revolution,
whose progress he had minutely watched, and whose anniversaryy lie con-
tinued yearly to celebrate as a day marked by the deli.rance of his coun-
try from political and religious tyranny. His attachment to tile new sov-
ereign was confirmed by the personal notice shown him both by that
prince and his consort; for tie butcher's son" had the honor of an early
introduction to the royal presence.
At this period Defoe resided at Tooting in Surrey, and he had now
launched out into more extensive commercial speculations, having em-
barked in the Spanish and Portuguese trade, so that he might fairly claim
the title of merchant. The precise time of his going to Spain, whether
before or after the Revolutol n, cannot be ascertained ; but lie not only
made a voyage thither, but stayed some time in the country, and acquired
a knowledge of the language. Sincere asas ws his attiaciment to the purely
tenets of Protestantism, it did not degenerate into blind prejudice, nor pre-
vent him from doing justice to Catholics : he has accordingly in his Rob-
inson Crusoe, represented the Spanish character under its most amiable
traits, and in a tone that may almost pass for panegyric. This voyage, as
we have already remarked, doubtlessly contributed to store his observant
mind with many materials for those descriptions of the perils and adven-
tures common to a sea-faring life, that so strongly excite the sympathy of
those who follow his hero across the trackless deep. Nor was he without
some experience of shipwreck, if not actually in his own person, by the loss
of a vessel in which lie was a shareholder, and which was wrecked in a
violent storm off the coast of Biscay. It was about this period also that
he traded with Holland; probably for civet, as one of his enemies has
sneeringly styled him a "- civet-cat merchant." Besides this lie visited
some other parts of the continent, particularly Germany ; he did not, how-
ever, relinquish his hose-agency business in consequence of his other en-
gagements, But commercial enterprise did not prove for him the road
to wealth ; on the contrary, his speculations involved him in such embar-
rassments, that, in 1692, he was obliged to abscond from his creditors. A
commission of bankruptcy was taken out against himi. vet it was afterward
superseded, those to whom he was most in debt agreeing to accept a conm-
position on his own bond ; and he not only puiictually discharged these
claims, but, after he had somewhat retrieved his circumstances, voluntarily
repaid the remainder. This is so much the more to his honor, since so far
from having met with many precedents of similar probity in others, his
misfortunes had beenin some degree occasioned by the knavery of unprin-
cipled men, who, availing themselves of the impunity held out to them by
the supineness or the impotency of tile law. were then accustomed to set
their creditors at defiance in the most barefaced manner.
It was Defoe himself who first called the attention of the legislature to
the intolerable abuses which arose from those sanrtua!rics, as they were
termed, for criminals and debtors, which then existed in the metropolis;
and to him, consequently, may we be said to be indebted for the abatement
of a nuisance as disgraceful to the national character, as it was injurious to
the industrious and honest portion of the community.
With a view of assisting him ia his distress. s-om of his friends now


eame forward and offered to settle him as a factor at Cadiz: yet, advan-
tageous as the proposal was, he declined it, preferring to endeavor to re-
trieve his finances by his pen. The country being then engaged in an
expensive war with France, Defoe proposed a scheme to assist the govern-
ment in raising the ways and means ;" and some time afterward he re-
ceived the appointment of accountant to the commissioners of the glass
duty ; but it proved only a temporary one, as the duty was repealed in
August, 16(;3. Probably it was also about the same period that he became
secretary to the tile-works at Tilbury, in which concern he embarked some
money, and was again a sufferer. His Essay on Projects," published in
January, 169 -7, shows him to have been, if not a very successful speculator
himself, at least a very ingenious and fertile deviser of theoretical plans,
most of which must be allowed to have the welfare of society in view ; nor
have they been without influence in leading to many improvements of later
times; among those which have been practically adopted, we may men-
tion his scheme for Friendly Societies and Saving Banks. Were any testi-
mony required in favor of this work, it would be sufficient to quote that of
the celebrated Franklin, who confesses that the impressions he received
from it gave a strong bias to his own pursuits.
If not invariably employed in the active defence of public morals, Defoe's
pen was too honest to betray their interests on any occasion: it was not
always that his topics called for, or even admitted, any direct inculcations
of virtue, but whenever they did, he displayed his earnestness in its behalf.
His publication entitled The Poor Man's Plea" is a very keen piece of
satire, with a considerable touch of humor, leveled against the vices of the
upper classes of society, in which he urges them to discountenance by their
own conduct the immorality they deem so reprehensible in the vulgar.
The stage too did not escape his castigation; and really its transgressions
were at that period so barefaced and audacious, so offensive even to com-
mon decency, that, whatever infamy there may have been in either toler-
ating or in attempting to defend such a system of lewdness, there could be
no great triumph in exposing that which did not even attempt to conceal
We have now to notice our author in a somewhat different character-
namely, as a candidate for poetical fame. His satire, entitled the True-
born Englishman," which was written for the purpose of averting from the
king' the abusive reflections cast upon him as a foreigner, had indeed a
very great run at the time-more, however, on account of the matter than
of the manner-since both that and all Defoe's other attempts of the kind
convince us, that, like the great Roman orator, he was an intolerably bad
poet, and not even a decent versifier. Yet could gratitude and enthusiastic
devotion to his prince have supplied the inspiration which the muses de-
nied him, Defoe's poetry would have been of first-rate excellence, so sincere
was his admiration of, so zealous was his devotion to, William III. The
various effusions in rhyme, and the numerous political pamphlets and
tracts which he published at this interval, we must pass by, and come
directly to an event that obtained for our author a rather unenviable species
of distinction. The reign of Anne commenced with much violence and
with cabals between the respective church parties, leading to controversies
that rather fanned than allayed the public ferment. On snch an occasion,
it was not to be expected that Defoe would remain passive ; assuming the
furious tone of the high-churchmen of the day against the dissenters, he
published a small pamphlet, which was in reality a satire upon the writings
which that party had issued from the press ; but the irony was so fine, and
the imitation so exact, that while it was supposed by them to utter the
real sentiments of the writer, it wa" also interpreted by those whom it


was intended to serve as coming from a violent enemy. The Shortest
way with the Dissenters"-such was its title-created an amazing sensation;
and on its real object being exposed, the high-church party became as
fierce in their indignation, as they had before been warm in their applause.
The author was detected, a reward offered for his apprehension. and he
himself sentenced to be imprisoned in Newgate, and to stand in the pillory:
but the attendance of his friends, and the enthusiasm of the populace in
favor of the champion of religious liberty, converted an ignominious cpun-
ishment into a triumph, so that his enemies had as little reason to exult in
their victory, as to be proud of the sagacity they had displayed. If, how-
ever, this event rather increased than diminished Defoe's reputation, it had
a different effect upon his pecuniary affairs; his confinement in Newgate
prevented his attending any longer to his concern at Tilbury, the conse-
quence of which was that it was obliged to be given up ; and thus Defoe
saw himself deprived at once of what had been the source of a handsome
income, for before this affair lie was in such thriving circumstances as to
be able to keep his coach, According to his own statement, he lost three
thousand five hundred pounds, a far more considerable sum at that period
than it would be now. There was indeed one way of botl speedily and
safely repairing his finances, namel y, by acceptiiing the overtures made
him by the ministry, who would gladly have enlisted in their own cause
that pen which had proved so powerful against them ; but Defoe was too
independent of soul, and too high principled, to purchase his release upon
terms that would inflict upon him the disgrace the pillory had failed to
Although a prison is not the most congenial place for literary pursuits,
our author availed himself of the time which the loss of his liberty afforded
him, of occupying his unwelcome leisure from all other business in writing
both in verse and prose. It was here that lie published his poem on the
Reformation of Manners." a sufficiently copious theme in every age, and
afterward continued the subject in another, entitled More Reformation ;"
in which he alludes to his own situation in the following nervous lines,
describing himself as

A modern tool,
To wit, to parties and himself a fool;
Embroiled with states to do himself no good,
And by hi friends m themselves misunderstood;
Misconstrued lirst in eiery wor li e said-
By these unpitied, and by those unpaid."

Here we may truly sayfacit indignation versus for the caustic tone and an-
tithesis are not unworthy of Pope himself The political controversial
pieces which he sent forth to the world from his place of durance vile"
were too numerous for us to specify them ; we therefore prefer speaking of
a work of more permanent interest, one in which lie may be regarded as
the immediate predecessor of two of the most popular and admired of our
classic writers in the days of Anne-namely, Steele and Addison. Defoe's
"Review," which coiulmienced Feb. 19, 170t, deserves to be considered as
the prototype of our Tallers and Spectators; and may earn for its author
the appellation of the Father of English Essayists : since notwithstanding
that political intelligence and discussion constituted a great portion of its
contents, it touched upon a variety of other topics bearing upon literature,
manners, and morals ; while it was itself hardly in any degree indebted for
this part of its plan to preceding or contemporary publications. Uniformly
assailing vice, or exposing to just ridicule the follies and foibles of society.
Defoe varied his mode of attack, at one time employing grave reasoning


and serious remonstrance; at another, substituting sarcasm, number, wit,
and pleasantry, for monitory reproof. To a modern reader, indeed, many
of the topics might seem to lack invention, and to be rather common-place,
merely because they have been so repeatedly handled by later writers, that
both the wit and argument displayed in them have lost their freshness.
This circumstance, however, does not detract from Defoe's intrinsic merit,
or from the praise due to him as an originator ; on the contrary, he, in this
respect, only shares the fate common to all those who open a new path in
literature or art, inviting imitators whose number oppress, if they do not
overwhelm them ; that Defoe has not since been surpassed in this species
of writing is far more than we can venture to assert; yet it should be
recollected that it is the first navigator of the Atlantic, not those who cross
it in a modern steamboat, who claims the homage of our admiration.
Those who are unacquainted with Defoe the essayist, as well as Defoe
the novelist, will not be able to appreciate the extent of our author's
powers, and the variety of his information. But we have already dwelt
upon the "Review" at greater length than is consistent with the brevity
we must perforce observe ; it is time, therefore, to proceed with our nar-
rative. Mr. Harley, afterward earl of Oxford, happened, by a change in
the ministry, to come into power, after Defoe had been about two years
in confinement, and being able to appreciate his abilities-perhaps anxious
to secure them in his own support, he represented his case to the queen,
who generously sent a sum of money to his wife and family, and another to
discharge his fine and prison expenses. Immediately upon his liberation,
Defoe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. It was there that he wrote his mas-
terly treatise, entitled Giving Alms no Charity," in which he displays
great practical knowledge, with enlarged and sound views on the causes of
poverty, and on the employment of the poor. In the intervals of these
and other occupations, for it should be observed that he had been sent in
1705 by Harley on a secret mission to the continent, the express object of
which has not transpired-he found leisure to employ his pen on other
subjects, and anticipating his future character of a romance writer, he
intended the true narrative" of Mrs. Veal's apparition, which was pre-
fixed to a translation of Drelincourt on Death. The supposed stranger from
the other world is made to recommend that performance; and, as such
supernatural testimony was irresistible, the whole impression, which had
before lain on the bookseller's shelves, was quickly sold, and was succeeded
by many others, the work having since passed through forty different edi-
tions. This stratagem certainly does honor to Defoe's ingenuity and pene-
tration; yet whether it be entirely justifiable, considering the tendency of
the deception, may be doubted.
Leaving for a while the account of his literary career, we must now
briefly notice a very important national subject, namely, the Union with
Scotland, in which, besides warmly advocating the measure with his pen,
Defoe was personally employed. At the recommendation of Harley and
Lord Godolphin, by whom he had been recommended to the queen, he
was sent on a mission to Edinburgh, in which city he arrived in October,
1706. Here, it should seem, he was chiefly employed in making calcula-
tions relating to trade and taxes, for the information of the committees of
parliament; he also occupied himself in collecting those documents relative
to the Union which he afterward published. Besides this, he proposed
several plans for encouraging the manufactures, and for promoting the
trade, wealth, and maritime resources of Scotland. After an absence of
about sixteen months, he returned to England in 1708, when his services
obtained for him, from the ministry, an appointment with a fixed salary;
ad a it does not appear what was the nature of the office ho held, we aay




conclude it to have been merely a sinecure. Almost immediately after-
ward, his patron Harley was dismissed from office, through the persevering
intrigues of the duchess of Malborough, whom he had supplanted in the
queen's favor, an event that suddenly overclouded Defoe's political pros-
pect. Without compromising his principles, however, lie espoused the in-
terest of the snecceding ministry; but although Godolphin treated him
with consideration, lie suffered his pension to fall into arrears, perhaps in
consequence of Defoe's long absence in Scotland, whither he was again
despatched a few months afterward, upon some secret business. In the
following year, 1709, Defoe published a work which, to use the words of an
eminent living critic, places him among the soundest historians of the
day;" and which, according to the testimony of another, would have
handed down his name to posterity, even had he not, immortalized himself
by Robinson Crusoe. This was his History of the Union," which is as
interesting for the minute descriptions it gives of the actors and incidents
in that important event, as for the documents it furnishes.
Still engaged in politics, Defoe's continued and severe attacks against
the Tories and high-church party so exasperated them, that they attempted
to suppress his writings, and even threatened him with prosecutions ; their
animosity, however, did not procure for him, from those whose cause he
defended, a degree of favor and support at all commensurate with his long
and able services. He had also to contend with fresh pecuniary losses in
some concern in which he was engaged (1712) with Mr. Wood, a mercer of
Coleshill in Warwickshire, and with the personal abuse with which his
character was assailed by writers who reflected upon him as being a knav-
ish bankrupt. But his political career was now drawing to its close;
having carried on his Review" for more than nine years, he finally relin-
quished it in May, 1713, when he was again a prisoner in Newgate upon
an indictment preferred against him by his friends the Whigs, as the author
of three treasonable Jacobitical pamphlets whereas the publications in
question were of a directly opposite tendency. The queen once more be-
stowed a free prdon on him, and the malice of his numerous enemies was
defeated. From this time he employed his pen only occasionally on politi-
cal subjects. By the accession of George 1. to the throne. Defoc gained
nothing, although his writings had strenuously pleaded the cause of the
House of Hanover during the late reign ; and although he had superior
claims upon public gratitude for the zeal with which, during nearly thirty
years, he had not only advocated religious and political independence, but
endeavored to call attention to subjects of paramount importance to the
national prosperity. That this neglect should, in spite of all his philoso-
phy, have occasioned him considerable mortification, is not much to be
wondered at; and to the effect it had upon his health was attributed an
apoplectic attack in the year 1715, from which he continued to suffer for
six months.
After so serious a blow to his constitution, and at his advanced period or
life, it might have been expected that he would now lay aside his pen-at
least remit his exertions. Yet it was subsequently to this apparently
cloudy epoch of his career that the brightest and most durable of his lite-
rary wreaths was won. Great versatility of talent is not often accompanied
by an equal degree of vigor and raciness of intellect; when, however, such
does happen to be the case, it should seem that the former is rather bene-
ficial than otherwise to its possessor, and that change of subject serves to
recruit the mental energies. Defoe at least may be quoted as an extraor-
dinary instance of rejuiccnsccncy of mind in the decline of years. We do
not here allude to his '" Family Instructor," although that performance is
tne of the most valuable and useful systems vf practical morality in our


language, and has, doubtless, been far more beneficial to society than many
works of even splendid celebrity. It is the series of novels which now
appear in quick succession from his pen, that have won for him an imper-
ishable reputation among the worthies of English literature; nor will his
claims upon our admiration be diminished by considering the extravagant,
unnatural system of romance-writing which had till then prevailed, where
everything was either so artificial or so shadowy, that not a glimpse of real
life was to be discerned. In Defoe's narratives, on the contrary, there is
such an air of downright matter-of-fact and unadorned truth, as to amount
to actual deception; thereby preventing us from crediting the author with
any merit on the score of imagination, contrivance, or invention. Of this
the reader will be amply convinced by the perusal of the present work, on
which it is not necessary that we should expatiate, and we shall therefore
merely advert to the circumstances connected with its origin and publica-
tion. The history of Robinson Crusoe was first published in the year
1719, and its popularity may be said to have been established immediately,
since four editions were called for in about as many months, a circumstance
at that time almost unprecedented in the annals of literature. It rarely
happens that an author's expectations are surpassed by the success of his
work, however astonishing it may seem to others; yet perhaps even Defoe
himself did not venture to look forward to such a welcome on the part ol
the public, after the repulses he had experienced on that of the booksellers;
for incredible as it now appears, the manuscript of the work had been
offered to, and rejected by, every one in the trade, in which respect its des-
tiny was not only similar to that of Paradise Lost, but two of the most cele-
brated literary productions of the present day, namely, Waverley and Childe
Harold; the former of which remained in manuscript ten years, without
any probability of ever seeing the light, although its fame has since ex-
tended itself wherever the English language is known-nay more, has even
penetrated the wilds of Siberia.
Astonishing as was the success of Defoe's romance, it did not deter the
envious from attempting to disparage it. The materials, it was said, were
either furnished by, or surreptitiously obtained from, Alexander Selkirk, a
mariner who had resided forr four years in the desert island of Juan Fernan-
dez, and returned to England in 1711. Very probably, his story, which
then excited considerable interest and attention, did suggest to Defoe the
idea of writing his romance; but all the details and incidents are entirely
his own. Most certainly Defoe had obtained no papers or written docu-
ments from Selkirk, as the latter had none to communicate. So far, how-
ever, have others been from taxing our author with plagiarism, that they
have, on the contrary, charged him with putting on paper a heap of chime-
ras, to impose upon public credulity. Thus these two contradictory
charges reciprocally destroy each other. An attempt has also been made
to rob him entirely of the brightest jewel in his literary crown, by denying
him to have been the author of Robinson Crusoe, which has been ascribed,
by some, to Arbuthnot; by others, to Defoe's patron, the first earl of Ox-
ford. Those who have wished to gain credit for the latter opinion, assert
that it was composed by that nobleman during his imprisonment in the
Tower, in 1715, on a charge of high treason; and they have urged that the
whole tone of the work, especially of that part toward the conclusion
where an account is given of the exiled nobles of Muscovy, is what would
naturally be suggested by the solitude of a prison. Yet as far as internal
evidence is concerned, that is, indisputably, much stronger in favor of De-
foe; for he had not only been familiar with imprisonment, but was also by
his acquaintance with foreign countries, and his experience in business
and traffic much better qualified to produce a work which displays go

much practical knowledge of things, as well as of man. Indeed, nothing
short of the most conclusive and undeniable testimony of facts to the con-
trary can at all invalidate the claims to be considered as the real author.
Had Robinson Crusoe been the only production of the-kind that proceeded
from his pen, there m;ght be better reason for doubting whether he wrote
it; but the various other novels, or rather pieces of fictitious biography,
which he produced, form an additional reason for attributing it to hiim.
Of these latter we mnst here speak far more briefly than they deserve;
the "History of Moll Flanders," which was published in 1721, is an ad-
mirably drawn picture of life, and contains an excellent moral lesson.
although many of the scenes it necessarily discloses are coarse and revolt-
ing. The "Life of Colonel Jaque" contains almost as much able delineation
of real life; and in that part of the narrative which gives account of the
hero's residence in Virginia, Defoe has humanely advocated the cause of the
negro slaves. His Memoirs of a Cavalier," which work is supposed to
have been written about the same time, is rather history attired in the form
of an imaginary piece of biography, than a romance. Indeed, all the de-
tails are so circumstantial and accurate, that it has been mistaken for a
genuine narrative of the events of the civil wars in England and Germany;
and it was actually recommended as the very best account of them by the
great Lord Chatham, with whom it was a favorite book. In like manner
our author's History of the Plague" imposed upon Dr. Mead, and since
upon others, who have referred to it as an authentic document, and a true
recital of that great national calamity. Here he is the rival of Thucydides
and Boccacia; and depicts the horrors of pestilence as vividly and as mas-
terly as Poussin. It may, however, be imagined by some that this is rather
suspicious praise, and that the work of fiction which can pass as true his-
tory must be cold, matter-of-fact, and tame-repulsive and dry. It is not,
however, in the formal gravity of style that these works resemble history
but they imitate and reflect the features of the past in their most interesting,
if not their most engaging aspect.
Besides the preceding, and one or two other productions of a similar cast,
Defoe produced that very excellent and popular work entitled Religious
Courtship," which was first published in 1722, and afterward went through
numerous editions. This and his "Family Instructor" are replete with
lessons of the soundest practical wisdom, and place their author among the
most extensively useful of our English moralists.
Here, however, we must terminate our sketch, having barely left our-
selves room to mention a few particulars relative to the close of his life.
Although the profits accruing from his publications had of late been con-
siderable, and he had been able to give a portion to his daughter Sophia,
who married Mr. Baker, the celebrated natural philosopher, in 1729, yet
he was still doomed to contend with misfortune. In addition to the afflic-
tion of bodily infirmity and severe pain, he gain fell into great pecuniary
difficulties, and was even arrested. H" appears, however, to have recovered
his liberty within a short time; but thi unnatural conduct of his son, who
refused to give up the property that had been intrusted to him, with a view
of securing a provision to his mother and two unmarried sisters, was a
heavier blow than any he had before experienced; and the mental anguish
it occasioned doubtless accelerated his death, which occurred on the 24th
of April, 1731. Since that period more than a century has elapsed ; and
in that interval many names of considerable eminence in their day have
sunk into irretrievable oblivion; Defoe, also, has lost some portion of the
celebrity he enjoyed with his contemporaries; yet, after deduction, enough
remains to entitle him to 1 place among the worthies of English literature,
for should all his other productions be forgotten, his Robinson Crusoe must
remain imnerishlble.

Bobinmn's FamhPi, et.a-His oleement from his Parm

WAS born in the year 1632 in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a for.
eigner of Bremen, named Kreutznaer, who settled fist at
Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and leaving off
his trade, lived afterward at York; from whence he had married
my mother, whose relations weie named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and after whom I was so called, that is to say, Rob.
inson Kreutznaer; but by the usual corruption of words in England,
we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant colonel, to
an English Regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dun
kirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother,
never knew, any more than my father and mother did know what was
become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trad, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My
father, who was very aged, had given me a competent share of learn-
Ing, as far as house education and a country free school generally go,
and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing
but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entree.
ties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there meee .d


o be something fatal in that propension of nature, tendLg directly to
,he life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout,and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this snbject; he asked me
hat reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving his house, and my native country, where I might be well in-
troduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune, by application
and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on
the other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by en-
terprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out
of the common road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what
might be called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by
long experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hardships, the
labor and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and not emn
barrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper part
of mankind; he told me, I might judge of the happiness of this state
by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miserable conse-
quences of being born to great things, and wished they had been
placed in the middle of two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have "neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but
that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind nay
they were not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, eitherr
of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagancies, on the one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessa-
ries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the ctherhand, bring distem.
pere upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way of
living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kinds of
virtues, and all kinds of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quiet.
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions and all desirable pleas
areas, were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that thk


way men went silently and smoothly through the world, and comfort
ably out of it, not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the
head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burning lust
0f ambition for great things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without
the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning, by every day's
experience, to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature and the station of life I was born in, seemed to
have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had been just recommending to me,
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word,
that, as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle
at home, as he directed; so he would not have so much hand in my
misfortunes as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close
all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into
the Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though,
he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to
say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me,
and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in the last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though, I snppose, my father did not know it to be so himself;
I pay I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed, and that, when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as, indeed, who eould
be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any mor%
but to settle at home, according to my father's desire. But, alam I
few days wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's


further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither, as my
first heat of resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time
when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late to
go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I
did, I should never serve out my time, and I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if
she would speak to my father to let me make but one yoyage abroad,
if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and I
would promise by a double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a sub-
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent
to anything so much to my hurt, and that she wondered how I could
think of any such thing, after the discourse I had had with my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help
for me; but I might depend I should never have their consent to it,
that, for her part, she would not have so much hand in my doetruc-
tion, and I should never have it to say that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I heard
afterward, that she reported all the discourse to him; and that my
father, after showing great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh
" That boy might be happy if he would stay at home, but if he goes
abroad he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born, I
can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though
m the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of set-
fling to business, and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But, being one day at Hull,
whither I went casually, and without any purpose of making an
elopement at that time, and one of my companions then going to
London by sea in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them
by the common allurement of seafaring men, viz., that it should oost
me nothing for my passage I consulted neither father nor mother


ny mere, nor so me th as sent them word of it, but left them to heaj
af it as they might; without asking God's blessing, or my father's
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in
ar ill hour, God knows.

lrt Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life-Voyage to GOnil

N the Ist of September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound
for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I
believe, began younger, or continued longer than mine
The ship had no sooner got out of the Humber than the
wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most frightful man-
ner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly
sick in body and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house. All the
good counsels of my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's en-
treaties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which
was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has been since,
reproached me with the contempt of advice and the abandonment of
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after; but
such as it was, enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave
would have swallowed us up, and at every time the ship fell down,
a I thought, into the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and, in this agony of mind, I made many vows and repo
lutions, that if it would please God to spare my life this voyage, if
ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go directly home to my
father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the
middle station of life; how easy, how comfortable he had lived all
his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea or trcuble
en shore, san I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prodigal
go home to my father.


These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm, and
indeed, some time after; but the next day, as the wind was abated,
and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to it. However, I
was very grave that day, being also a little seasick still-but toward
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charm-
ing fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning, and having little or no wind and a smooth
sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most de
lightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more seasick but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and pleasant in a
little time after.
And now, lest my good resolution should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, came to me and said, "Well, Bob,"
clapping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you wore frightened, wasn't you, last night, when it blew but a cap
full of wind ?" A cap full, do you call it 1" said I; 'twas a ter-
rible storm." "A storm, you fool!" replies he, do you call that a
storm ? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that. You
are but a fresh water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that. D'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all sail-
ors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that
one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections
upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a word,
as the sea was returned to is smoothness of surface and settled calm-
ness by the abatement of'aie storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
over, my fears and appr tensions of being swallowed up by the sea
forgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises I had made in my distress. I found,
indeed, some intervals of reflection, and serious thoughts did, as it
were, endeavor to return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myself to drink and company, soon mastered the return of those fits,
for so I called them, and had, in five or six days, got as complete a
victory over conscience as any young sinner that resolved not to be
troubled with it could desire. But, as I was to have another trial for
At still, and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved te
leave me entirely without excuse; for, if I would not take this fir e

BOBsuSOx CIusL. 81

leliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most
hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads
kte wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had mado
:ut little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ship
from Newcastle came into the same roads as the common harbor
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river Thames. We
had not, however, rid here so long but we should have tided up the
river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and after we had lain four
or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as a harbor, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive
of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of
the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased, and
we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make every-
thing snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle
in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our anchor
had come home, upon which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor,
so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to
the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm, indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves.
The master was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but, as
he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly say to
himself several times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost;
are shall be all undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot
describe my temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence, which I
had so trampled upon, and hardened myself against; I thought that
the bitterness of death had been past, and that this would have been
nothing too, like the first; but when the master himself came by me,
as I said just now, and said we should all be lost, I was dreadfully
frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dis.
mal sight I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke upon
us every three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could see
nothing but distress around us; two ships, that -id near us, we found
had cut their masts by the board, being deeply laden; and our was


eried out that a ship, which rid about a mile ahead of u, wa foud
ered. Two more ships being driven from their anchors, were run old
of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing
The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but
two or three of them drove, and came close to us, running away, with
enly their spritsails out, before the wind. Toward evening, the mate
and boatswain of our ship begged the master to let them cut away the
foremast, which he was very loath to do; but the boatswain protesting
to him that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, that they were obliged to cut it away also, and
make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at
but a little. But if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon ao-
count of my former convictions, and the having returned from them to
the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself'
and these, added to the terror of the storm, nut me into such a condi-
tion, that I can by no iords describe it; but the worst was not come
yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen themselveL
acknowledged they had never known a worse. We had a good ship,
but she was deep laden, and so swallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my advan
stage, in one respect, that I did not know what they nieant byfounder
till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what i
tot often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more sensible
than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night, and under all the
,eat of our distresses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose
so see, cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was four
0et water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell back-
jard upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the cabin. However, the
men roused me, and told me that I, who was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another: at which I stirred up and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the
master seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come near ,
ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, was so 'riurised. that I thought the ship had broke


st nome dreadful thing had happy ended. In a word, I was so surpri u
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when everyblodv ha.d
his own life to think of, no one minded ie, or wh.it was become of me
out another man stepped up to the pump, and thrust me aside with hit
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was apps
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abat:
a little, yet it was not possible she could swim till we might run into i
part, so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship.
who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. I'
was with the utmost hazard that the boat ';iine near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their
lives to save ours, our men cast them a ruqe over the stern, with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, i hicih they, after great labcv
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled theni close under our ster.
and got all into their boat. it was to no purpose for them or us, after
we were in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship ; so all aTro':
to let her drive, and only to pull her toward lshire as nuch as m,'
could: and our master promised them, that if the boat was staved up n
shore, he would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping toward
lie shore almost as far as Wiuterton-Ness.
W\V were not much more than a quarter of an. hour out of our ship
when we saw her sink, ind tht'n I understood, for the first time, wheit
was meant by a ship's foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge, I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking.
for from that moment they rather put me into the boat than that I might
ha said to go in. My heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
aighi, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting
the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running
along the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made
slow way toward the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till, being
past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward,
toward Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of tie
wind. Here we got in, and though not without much difficulty, got all
safe on shore, and walked afterward on foot to Yarmouth, whles as


unfortunate men, we were used with great humanity, as wel by the
magistrati,s of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the I ra
ticular merchants and owners of ships ; and had money given us suffi
cient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we saw fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have g me
home I bad been happy; and my father, an emblem of our blessed
Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing
the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason
and my more composed judgment to go home, yet I had.no power to
do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a
secret, overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for me
to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning
and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against two such
visible instructions as I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master's son, was now loss forward than I. The first time he spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three
days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; Iay
the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking
very melancholy and shaking his head, he asked me how I did; tell-
ing his father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a
trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father, turning to me, with
s grave and concerned tone: Young man," says he, you had never
'ught to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token, that you are not to be a seafaring man." Why, sir,r
said I, "will you go to sea no more ?" That is another case, said
he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you madr
this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen
us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," con-
tinues he, what are you. and on what account did you go to sea I"
Uton that I told him some of my story; at theend of which he burst
out with a strange kind of passion. What had I done," said ha
"that su.3h an unhappy wretch should have come into my ship I
would not set my foot in the s:. w shipi witt thee again for a thou


mad pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than
he could have authority to go. However, he afterward talked very
gravely to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of Heaven
against me; "and, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you do
not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but dis
asters and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upol
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him
no aore: which way he went, I know n( t: as for me, having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land ; and there, as well
as on the road, had many struggles with myself what course of life 1
should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea. As to going
home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts -
and it immediately occurred to me, how I should be laughed at among
the neighbors, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
mother only, but even everybody else. From whence I have often
since observed how incongruous and irrational the common temper of
mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide
them in such cases, viz, that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet aie
ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action, for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresist-
ible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the
remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off, and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
1 voyage. That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested notion o.
raising my fortune, and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon
me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties, and
ei'en the commands of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever
it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view;
and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked
a little harder than ordinary, yet, at that time, I had learned the duty


and office of a foremastman, and in time might have qualified myself
for a mate or lieutenant, if not a master : but as it was always my
fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board
in the habit of a gentleman ; and so I neither had any business in the
ship, nor learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty
good company in London ; which does not always happen to such
-oose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil, generally
not omitting to lay some snare for them very early. But it was not
so with me ; I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship, who had
been on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had very good success
there, was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversa-
tion, which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me
say I had a mind to see the world, told me, that if 1 would go the voy-
age with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have
all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and, perhaps, I
might meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and
entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a
small adventure with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my
friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
forty pounds of such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to
buy. This forty pounds I had mustered together by the assistance
of some of my relations whom I corresponded with ; and who, I
believe, got my father, or, at least my mother, to contribute so much
a that to my first adventure. This was the only voyage which I may
say was successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the in-
'Agrity and honesty of my friend the captain; under whom I also got
Scompetent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of navigation,
earnedd how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observation,
and, in short to understand some things that were needful to be un-
derstood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took
delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
md a merchant. For I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in Louuon, at mi
return, almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with tnose
aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet even
in this voyage I had my misfortunes, too; particularly that I was
continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the exces-
eive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the
oast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the Line itself


6ijiatrtr piT ec. b71

Sobinson's Captivity at Sallee-Escape with Xury-Arrival at the Brazils.

WAS now set up for a Guinea trader ; and my friend, to my
I great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
i he same voyage again; and I embarked in the same vessel
Swith ollne who was his mate in the former voyage, and had now
g 1 i,. colnuland of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that
ti, cr man made ; for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds
oif mly now-gained wealth, so that I had two hundred pounds left, and
whbih I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet
I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage : and the first was this,
i. '.: our lsilp, mn::ling her course t(nward the Canary Islands, or
ratlhr between those islands and the African shore, was surprised, in
the g:ray of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase
to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
caLnvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to ge' clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
witil us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve
ganus and the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, in-
stead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our
.unll to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
Ini;lde him sheer off again, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
is small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
ihiwever, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
i-r''pare to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying
us on board the next time upon our quarter, he entered sixty men upon
our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests,
and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended-,
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his busi-


ness. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant
to a miserable slave, 1 was perfectly overwhelmed and now looked
back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that now the
Iund of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemp-
tion. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through,
:a will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes lie would take me with hitm when he went to sea again,
believing that it would, some time or other, be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war, and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for when he
went to sea, lie left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do
the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came
home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look
after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for 1 had
nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me; no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself; so
that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagina-
tion, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnacle, and go out into the road a fishing;
and as he always took me and a young Moresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish, insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one
of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch
a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, t:,at going a fishing in a stark calm morning,
a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we knew not whither, or which
way, we labored all day, and all the next night, and when the morn-
ing came, we found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for


the shore, and that we were at least two leagues from the shore: how.
ever, we got well in again, though with a great deal of labor, and
some danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning;
but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care
of himself for the future; and having lying by him the longboat of our
English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the car-
penter of the ship, who was an English slave, to build a little state-
room or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that of a barge, wit)
a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul home the main sheet, ant
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed
with what we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room
for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to
drink, and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I was most
rexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It hap-
pened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place,
and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat, overnight, a larger store of provisions than ordinary,
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot,
which were on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of
fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate his guests: when, by-and-by, my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me with a man and boy, as usual,
to go out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as soon as I had got
some fish, I should bring it home to his house : all which I prepared
to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not
for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did
I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere, to get
out of that place, was my way.


My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we lmus
uot presume to eat of our patron's read: he said that was true, so hI
brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of
some English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moot
was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I con
eyed also a great lump of beeswax into the boat, which weighed ;abou,
half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use to us afterward, es-
pecially the wax, to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also; his name was Ishmael, whom
they call Muley, or Moley: so I called to him : Moley," said I," our
patron's guns are on board the boat, can you get a little powder and
shot ? it may be we may kill some alcanies (fowls like our curlews)
for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship '
"Yes," says he, "I will bring some;" and accordingly he brought a
great leather pouch, which held about a poupd and a half of powder
or rather more, and another of shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same time I found some
powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of
the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring what
was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of
the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were
not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in our sail, and set
us down to fish. The wind blew from N. N. E., which was contrary to
my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made
the coast of Spain, and at last reached the bay of Cadiz: but my reso
lutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the hor-
rid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing, for when I had
fih on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, This will not do, our master will not be thus
served-we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed
and being at the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the
helm, I ran the boat near a league farther, and then brought to as if I
would fish. Then giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where
the Moor was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm under his
wait, and toned him clear overboard into the se. He rose imed




ately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged o be taken
in, and told me he would go all the world over with me. He swam
so strong after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin and fetched one of the fowling pieces; I presented it at him, aid
.old him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I would
io him none. But," said I, you swim well enough to reach the
ihore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and 1
,ill do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I will shoot you
through the head; for I am resolved to have my liberty." So he
turnedd himself about, and swaim for the shore; and I make no doubt
Lut he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When
bie was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to
him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will make you a great
man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me" (that is,
swear by Mahomet and his fitther's beard)," must throw you into the
sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that 1
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go all
over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out di-
rectly to sea with the boat,rather stretching to windward, that they might
think me gone toward the strait's mouth (as, indeed, any one, that had
been in their wits, must have been supposed to do); for who would have
supposed we were sailing on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian
coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround us with
'heir canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore
I"-it we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless sava-
:s of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my coures
a.d steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little to-
ward the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a fair
fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail that, I
believe by the next day,' at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty mile.
south of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or
indeed, of any other king thereabout, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had.of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, ti I



had sailed n that manner five days; and then the wild shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over; so 1 ventured to make the
coast and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew
not what or where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
5r what river. I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the prin.
oipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in
the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring and howling of wild creatures,
of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with
fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury,"
said I, gien I will not; but it may be, we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions." Then we may give them the
shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing; "make them run nway." Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was
glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram out of our
Datron's case of bottles to cheer him up. After all Xury's advice was
good and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still all
night. I say still, for we slept none, for in two or three hours we
saw vast creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many sorts,
come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howling and yelling, that I never, indeed, heard
;he like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and, indeed, so was I too; but we
were both more frightened when we heard one of these mighty crea-
:ures swimming toward our boat; we could not see him, but we
night hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous, huge, and furious
)east. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
Jut poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away. "No,"
ays I, Xury, we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to
sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so but I per
seived the creature, whatever it was, within two oars' length, which
something surprised me; however, I immediately steeped to the cabin
door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon which he immedi-
ately turned about, and swam to the shore again.
But it was impossible to describe the horrible noises and hideous
series and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the
run; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard before Thil


convinced me there was no going on shore for us in the night upon
that coast; and how to venture on shore in the day, was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers;
at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and
where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go; why I should not
go, and he stay in the boat ? The boy answered with so much affec-
tion that he made me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
come they eat me, you go away." Well, Xury," said I, "we will
both go, and if the wild mans come we will kill them; they shall eat
neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a
dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before,
and we hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought proper,
and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms and two jars
for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river, but the boy, seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him
come running toward me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frightened by some wild beast, and I therefore ran forward to help
him, but when I came nearer to him I saw something hanging over
his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in color, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat. But the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found, afterward, that we need not take such pains for water,
for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water
fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we
filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any hu-
man creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, 1 knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd islands also,
lay not far from the coast; but as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find what latitude we were in, and did not exactly
know, or at least remember what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea toward then,

al -.


otherwise I might now have easily found some of these islands; but
imy hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was, must be
that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's domin-
ions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wiJld
beasts, the Negroes having abandoned it and gone farther south, for
fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, byi
reason of its barrenne:s : aind, indeed, both forsaking it because of the
prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious crea-
tures which harbor there, so that the Moors use it for their hunting
only--were they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time-and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast,
we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country, by day, and heard
nothing but howling and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or tniice, in the daytime. I thought I saw the Pico of Tone-
riffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriife in the Canaries, and
had a great mind to venture out, in hope of reaching thither, but hav-
ing tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also
going too high for my little vessel, so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along tlie shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place, and once in particular, being early in the morning, we
came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high,
and the tide beginning to flow we lay still, to go farther n. Xnrv.
whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls softly
to me, and tells me that we had best go further off the shore : "i or,
says he, look! yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of thtl
hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster, indeed, for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it
were, over him.
Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frightened, and said, "Me kill! he eat me at one mouth;" one mouth-
ful, he meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade him he
still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket bore, and
loaded it with a good charge of powder and with two slugs, and laid
it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets, and a third, for
we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the
Ltst aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,


but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, that the
slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the bone; he started up.
growling at first, but finding his leg broke fell down again, and then
got up on three legs and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard.
I was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however,
I took up the second piece immediately, and though he began to move
off, fired again and shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see
him drop and make but little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then
Xury took heart, and would have me let him go on shore. "Well,
go," said I. So the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little
gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming
close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food, and I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that
was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some
of him, so he comes on board and asked me to give him the hatchet.
"For what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head," said he. How.
ever, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself
however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one way or other, be of
some value to us, and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him, but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in
two days' time, and it afterward served me to lie upon.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually, for ten ol
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener in to the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to make the river
Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say, any where about the Cape de
Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship; and
if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands or perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this cape or those islands; and, in a word, I
put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must
meet with some ship or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or


three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them, but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long.
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
'hrow them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but
talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and particularly made
signs for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat.
and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top
of my sail and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country, and
in less than half an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as the produce of their coun-
try, but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however,
we were willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were
as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury, from
the mountains toward the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the
female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell,
any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I
believe it was the latter, because, in the first place, those ravenous
creatures seldom appear but in the night, and in the second place, we
found the people terribly frightened, especially the women. The man
that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did;
however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did
not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged them-
selves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their di.
version. At last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than I at
first expected but I lay ready for him, for I loaded my gun with all
possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as
he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the
head; immediately he sunk down into the water. but rose instantly.
and plunged up and down, as if ho was struggling for life, and so indeed


be was. He immediately made to the shore; but between the wound,
which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died
just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures,
at the noise and fire of my gun: some of them were even ready to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they
saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to
them to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him and
gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that
it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable de-
gree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think
what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the.mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature,
so I was willing to have them take it as a favor from me; which, when
I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thank-
ful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they
had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin
as readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with a
knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as
if I would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs
to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning
it bottom upward, to show that it was empty and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their friends, and
there came two women and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and
I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The wo-
men were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out
a great length into the sea, at the distance of four or five leagues before
me ;- and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward; then I conclud-

2- -; w w- .- S. --. *S-9


ed, as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd5 and
those the islands called from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However,
they were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best
to do; for if I should. be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin and
sat me down, Xury having the helm; when on a sudden the boy cried
out, 3lster master a ship with a sail !" and the foolish boy was
frightened out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his mas-
ter's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough
out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw,
not only the ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound for the coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But
when I observed the course e se steered, I was soon convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the
shore ; upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make. I found I should not be able to come
in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any
signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they,- it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which, they supposed, must belong
to some ship that was lost: so they shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though
they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought
to, and lay by for me and in about three hours' time I came up with
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but at last, a Scotch sailor who
was on board called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors
at Sallee. They then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me
in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and al-
most hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I
had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he
generously told me, he wonuil t .ke nothing from me, but that all I had
should be delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. a For,


says he, "I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself, and it may, one time or other, be my lot to
be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he, "when I carry
you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if I should
take from you what you have, you will be starved there, and the n I only
take away that life I had given. No, no, Senhor Ingles" (Mr. English-
man), says he. "I will carry you thither in charity and these things will
help to buy your subsistence there, and your passage home again.'

gtapter four.

He Settles in the Brazils as a Planter-Makes another Voyage and is Ship'

S he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that
none should offer to touch anything I had: then he took
everything into his own possession, and gave me back an
exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as
my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told
me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me what- I
would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him : upon which, he told me he would give me a
note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and
when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he would
make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my
boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I wav not willing to
let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obliga-
tion to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this,
and Xury saying he was willing to go with him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay
de Todos los Santos, or All Saint's Bay, in about twenty-two days
after. And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself, I was now
to consider.



The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which
I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctu-
ally delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he bought of me;
such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of
beeswax-for I had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made about
two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this
stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of
a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it
(that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time,
and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting
and of making sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and how
they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a license to settle
there, I would turn planter among them; endeavoring in the mean-
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left in Lon-
don, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of natu.
realization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my money
would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settlement; such
a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as
I was. I call him my neighbor, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come in order; so that the third year we planted some
Tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted help; and
now I found more than before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no'great
wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on; I had got into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I
delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice. Nay, I was coming into the very mid-
dle station or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me
to before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as well
have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as


I had done; and I often used to say to myself, I could have done this
as well in England, among my friends, as to have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at
such a dtstancs as never to hear from any part of the world that had
the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neigh-
bor; no work to be done but by the labor of my hands; and I used
to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island,
that had nobody there but himself. But how just has it been! and
how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience. I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life
I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceedingly
prosperous and rich!
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in providing
his lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave
me this friendly and sincere advice: "Senhor Ingles," says he (for
so he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a procura-
tion here in form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return; but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which you
say is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it mis-
carry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your sup-
ply." This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced that it was the best course I could take;
so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I
left my money, anl a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he de-
sired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my ad*
ventures; my slavery escape, and how I had met with the Portuh


guese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and what condi-
tion I was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply;
and when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by
some of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only
but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but
out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them directly to him at
Lisbon, and he brought them all safely to me at the Brazils; among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in my business to
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron
work and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were of
great use to me. When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune was
made, for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds which my friend had sent him
as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant,
under bond for six years' service, and would nit accept of any con-
sideration except a little tobacco, which I would have him accept,
being of my own produce. Neither was this all; but my goods being
all English manufactures-such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might say I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was tow infinitely beyond
my poor neighbor, I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for
the first thing I did I bought me a negro slave, and a European ser-
vant also; I mean another besides that which the captain brought me
from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my
own ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries amonp
my neighbors, and these fifty rolls, being each of above one hun-
dred pounds weight, were well cured and laid by against the return
of the fleet from Lisbon; and now, increasing in business and in
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings be-
yond my reach, such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads
in busin ess. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had room
for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had so

Crusoe Cast Ashore.

Cmf oe Constructs his Boat.


sensibly described the middle station of life to be all of; but other
things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my
own miseries ; and, particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my apparent
obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering about, and
pursuing that inclination in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Pfovidence concurred to pro-
sent me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had
of being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue
a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest
gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be con-
sistent with life, and a state of health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story. You may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in
the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my
plantation, I had not only learned the language, but had contracted an
acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as
-among the merchants of St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an account of
my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase on the coast for trifles-
such as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the
like-not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, elephant's teeth, etc., bat
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying negroes
which was a trade at that time not only not far entered into, but, as far
as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or permission of tha
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed from the public; s h bat
few negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last
night and they came to make a secret proposal to me; and, after
enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out


a ship to go to Guinea ; that they had all plantations as well as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants ; that it was a trade
that could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the
negroes when they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and divide them
among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trad-
ing part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should
have an equal share of the negroes, without providing any part of the
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to
any one that had not a settlement and plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and
with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but to go on as I begun for three or
four years more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from
England ; and who, in that time and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-
ling, and that increasing too ; for me to think of such a voyage was the
most preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered
into writings or covenants to do so ; and I made a formal will, dispos-
ing of my plantations and effects in case of my death; making the cap-
tain of the ship that saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will ; one
half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to
England. In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects
and to keep up my plantation ; had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what
I ought to have done, and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone a voyage to sea, attended
with all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to ex.
pect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy


rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my part-
ners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the first of
September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my
parents at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority and the fool
to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried
six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy and myself ;
we had on board no large cargo of goods except of such toys as wc-rc
fit for our trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells,
and odd trifles, especially looking glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets,
and the like.
The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to
the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for
the African coast. When they came about ten or twelve degree of
northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in
those days, we had very good weather, only excessively hot all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino;
from whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding
our coast N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern lati-
tude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge; it began from the southeast, came about to the northwest,
and then settled in the northeast; from whence it blew in such a ter-
rible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whithersoever fate
and the fury of the winds directed; and during these twelve days, I
need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed,
did amy in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was got
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river
Amazon, toward that of the river Oronoco, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he should take, for
the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was for going di-
rectly back to the coast of Brazil.

17~irJi:-~ -, >I.:-- ,<.7'-) Sw OTWBB^q1'fl

56 ADyuENT R3 OF

I was positip 'ly against that, and looking over the charts of the
seacoasts of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the-Carribee islads, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barba-
does; which. by keeping off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail, whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and our-
With tbis design, we changed our course, and steered away N. W.
by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for being in the
latitude of twelve degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger
of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our own coun-
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men,
early in the morning, cried out, "Land !" and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished immediately; and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the
very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for anyone who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances;
we knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not in-
habited ; and as the rage of the wind was still great, though rathefless
than at first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of
miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word, we sat looking
upon one another, and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world ; for there was little
or nothing more for us to do in this ; that which was our present
comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our ex-
pectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the

ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to
expect her getting off, w were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had
nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We
had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first staved
by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her. We had another boat on board, but how to get her offinto t
ihe sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and some
told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the shi p as
side ; and getting all into her, we let her go, and committed ourselr's,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high '
upon the shore, and might well be called den wild zee, as the Dutch call
the sea in a storm. .
And now our case was very dismal, indeed ; for we all saw plainly A
that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at the -
oar toward the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to exe-
cution; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer to the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest man-
ner; and the wind driving us toward the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could toward
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal-we knew not ; the only hope that could rationally give us the
le, st shadow of expectation, was, if we could happen into some bay or
gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by great chance we might hare
run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But nothing of this appeared.; and as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half, as
we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us
and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took uswith
such fury, that it overset the boat at once, and separating us, as well
from the boat as from one another gave us not time hardly to say
"0 God? 'for we were all swallowed up in a moment.



Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water ; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so us to draw my breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me a vast way on toward the shore,
and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence
of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on to-
a rd the land as fast as I could, before another wave should return
and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it,
for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious
as an enemy which I had no means or strength to contend with;
my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could, and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot
myself toward the shore, if possible-my greatest concern now being
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way toward the shore when
it came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
toward the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried with
mighty force and swiftness toward the shore, a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all
my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I
felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was not
two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly-gave me breath and new courage. I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had
farther toward the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again, and twice more
I was lifted up by the waves and carried forward as before, the shore
being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me, for the
sea having hurried me along as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me against a piece of a rock, and that with such force that it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance, for the blow.
taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my


body, and had it returned again immediately, I must have been strain.
gled in the water; but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should again be covered with the water, I resolved
to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if pos-
sible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
is the first, being nearer land, I held my holl till the wave abated and
then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore that
the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up
as to carry me away, and the next run I took I got to the mainland,
where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore and
sat me down upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are
when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave ; and I did not now
wonder at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter
about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a
reprieve brought to him, I say I do not wonder that they bring a sur-
geon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise my not drive the animal spirits from the heart and
overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of my deliver-
ance, and making a thousand gestures and motions which I cannot de-
scribe; reflecting upon my comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but myself-for, as for them, I never
saw them afterward, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
zap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach and froth of
the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and con-
sidered-Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my con-
dition, I began to look around me to see what kind of a place I was
in, and what was next to be done, and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was
wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink
to comfort me ; neither did I see any prospect before me but that of


perishing with hunger or being devoured by wild beasts; and th h
which was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon
either to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision ; and
tiis threw me into such terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I
r.:. about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a
Lcavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any raven-
ous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
lor their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny, which grew
near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next
day what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did to my great joy ; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so that if I
should fall asleep I might not fall, and having cut me a short stick,
like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and, having
been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably
as I believe few could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occa-

1}apter fibe.

Robinson finds Himself in a Desolate Island-Procures a Stock of Articles from the
Wreck-Constructs his Habitation.
C^^^ HEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
l storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lift-
ed off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swel-
ling of the tide, and was driven almost as far as the rock which I at
First mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me
against it. This being within about a mile from the shore where I was,
and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board.
that at least I might save some necessary things for my use.


When I came down from my apartment in the tree I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the
wind and sea had tossed her up upon the island, about two miles on
my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got
to her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad, so I came back for the present, being
more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something
for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed so
far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship ; and
here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for 1 saw, evidently, that
if we had kept on board we had been all safe ; that is to say, we had
all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was. This
forced tears from my eyes again, but as there was little relief in this,
I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship ; so I pulled off my clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water ; but when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for as she lay aground and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the forechains, so low as that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into
the forecastle of the ship. Here I found the ship was bulged, and had
a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a
bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water; by this means all
her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for, you
may be sure, my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled
and what was free; and first, I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water, and being very well disposed
to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with biscuit,
and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I
also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was be-
fore me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to furnish myself with
many things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had, and
this extremity roused my application; we had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in
the ship ; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many




overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done I went
down to the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them
fast together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft,
and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, crosswise, I
found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear
any great weight, the nieces being too light ; so I went to work and
with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three lengths,
and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labor and pains. But
the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to go
beyond what I should have been able to do on another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
S this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I got three of the
seamen'schests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft ; these I filled with provisions, viz: bread,
rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterward
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found sev-
eral cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chests, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm ; and I had the mortification to
see my coat, shirt and waistcoat, which I had left on shore, upon the
sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were. only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stockings. However,
this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
which my eye was more upon ; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found the carpenter's chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time. I got it
down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to look
into it, for I knew, in general, what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were tw


Very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistolsTthese I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the
ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with
much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had
taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I
thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the
least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements : 1st, A smooth calm sea; 2dly, The
tide rising and setting in to the shore ; 3dly, What little wind therA
was blew me toward the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer ; and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very
well, only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where
I had landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find some creek or
river there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
my cargo.
As I imagined so it was ; there appeared before me a little opening
of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I
guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I
had. I think it would verily have broken my heart; for, knowing noth-
ing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and
not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my
cargo had slipped off toward that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did [my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in, but holding
up the chests with allmy might, I stood in that manner near half an
hour, in which time the rising of the water brought me a little more
upon a level ; and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off, with the oar I had, into the channel, and
then driving up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide run-
ning up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for
I was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in time
to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as ne"
the coast as I could.


At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in ; but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again ; to1 that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land but where one end of my float, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that it
would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do was to wait till
the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an an-
chor to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground which I expected the water would flow over, and so it did. As
soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of' water,
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fa tened or
moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the gro' nd, one on
one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near t e other end;
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a properplace for
my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them fro what-
ever might happen. 'Where I was I yet knew not-whether on t e con-
tinent or on an island-whether inhabited, or not inhabited -wh their
in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a hill, not above a iile
from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to ov 'r-
top some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I
took out one of the fowling pieces and one of the pistols, and a horn f
powder, and, thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top ( if
that hill ; where, after I had, with great labor and difficulty, got up tj o
the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. : that I was on an
island, environed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less than
this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, how-
ever, I saw none ; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds ; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food,
and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which I saw
sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the
first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, but from all parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual note but not


one of ithm of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color and back resembling it, but it
had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of the
day; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
re*, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
will beast might devour me-though, as I afterward found, there
was really no need for those fears. However, as well as I could, I
barricadoed myself round with chests andboards thatI had brought on
shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I
yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two or
three creatures, like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out
of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land, and
I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible,
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till I
got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a coun-
sel, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft,
but this appeared impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when the
tide was down ; and I did so, only that I stripped before 1 went into
my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy,
nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very use-
ful to me-as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags
of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets,
and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these
I secured, together with several things belonging to the gunner, par-
ticularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets,
seven muskets, and another fowling piece, with some small quantity of
powder more, a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over
the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that
I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a hammock and some bedding,
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe oc
bhore, to my very great comfort.


I was under some apprehension lest, during my absence from the
land, my provisions might be devoured on shore; but when I came
back, I found no signs of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wildcat upon one of the chests, which, when I came toward it, ran
away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very composed
and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but she did
not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away, upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by
the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great ; how-
ever, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and
ate it, and looked (as pleased) for more ; but I thanked her, and could
spare no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large casks-I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail and some poles, which I cut for that purpose, and into
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with rain
or sun ; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circleround
the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without, and, spread-
ing one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at
my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first
time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy; for the night before I had slept little and had labored very
hard all day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship as to get
them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man ; but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship
sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out
of her that I could-so every day, at low water, I went on board, and
brought away something or other : but particularly the third time 1
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all
the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvas, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time
as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvas

- 7~rr -


But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of all, afte:
I had made five or six such voyages as these, and though I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,
I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large
runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour;
this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out-and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could
get, and having cut down the spritsail yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything that I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those
heavy goods, and came away ; but my good luck began now to leave
me, for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me ; however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infi-
nite labor, for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had now been thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship ; in which time I had brought away all that one pair
of hands could well be supposed capable to bring: though I veriljr
believe had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece, but preparing the twelfth time to go on
board, I found the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I went
on board; and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so
effectually as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered a locker
with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and
forks ; in another I found about thirty-six pounds in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some


I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0 drug," I ex
claimed, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off the ground ; one of those knives is worth all this
heap. I have no manner of use for thee ; e'en remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving."
However, upon secon.l thoughts, I took it away ; and wrapping all this
in a piece of canvas, I began to think of making another raft ; but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind be-
gan to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft with the wind off shore ; and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide or flood began, or otherwise I might not be
able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the ship
and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water ; for the wind rose very hastily and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satis-
factory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, or abated no dil-
igence, to get everything out of her, that would be useful to me, and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away
if I had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck ; as indeed,
divers pieces of her afterward did ; but those things were of small use
to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island ; and I'had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make; whether I should make a
cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I resolved
on both ; the manner and description of which, it may not be im-
proper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particu-
larly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I be-
lieved it would not be wholesome ; and more particularly because there
was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.


I consulted several things in my situation which I found would be
proper for me ; first, air and fresh water, I just now mentioned;
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun ; thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts; fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any ad.
vantagee for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all
iry expectations yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front toward this little plain was as steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top. On the side of this rock, there was a hollow place, worn a little
way in, Pike the entrance or door of a cave ; but there was not really
any cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place I resolved to
pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards Iroad,
and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door ; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low
ground by the sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side of the hill; so
that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a V.
and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter frum the
rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
'hem into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
and being out of the ground, about five feet and a half, and sharpened
on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon an another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post ; and this fence was so strong that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labor,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and
drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door but by a
short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me ; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I


thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done ; though, as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this caution against heo enemies
that I apprehended danger from.

Q2apitrr $i.
Carries all his Riches, Provisions, etc., into Ms Habitation-Dreariness of Soltnude
Consolatory Reflections.
7, N}TO this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores of
which you have the account above; and I made a large tent,
which, to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent there, I made double, viz: one smaller tent
within, and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I had brought
on slore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions and everything that would
spoil by the wet, and having thus enclosed all my goods I made up the
entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed,
as f said, by a short ladder.
'When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringiIg all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my
tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half, and thus I
made me a cave just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to
my house. It cost me much labor and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection, and therefore I must go back to
some ot:ir things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick,
dark clouo, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so
much surprised with the hghtning as I was with a thought, which
darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself-0, my powder!
My very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all
my powder might be destroyed I On which, not my defence only, but


the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder taken
fire, I should never have known what had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and appli-
ed myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come it
might not all take fire at once, and to keep it so apart that it should
not be possible to make one part fire another. I finished this work in
about a fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all was about two
hundred and forty pounds weight, was divided into not less than a
hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not appre-
hend any danger from that, so Iplaced it in my new cave, which in my
fancy I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in hole
among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very care-
fully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least
once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food, and as near as I could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats upon the island, which
was a great satisfaction to me ; but then it was attended with this
misfortune to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift
of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them ; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened, for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them : I observed,
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks they
would run away as in a terrible fright ; but if they were feeding in
the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me, from
whence I concluded that, by the position of their optics, their sight
vas so directed downward that they did not readily see objects that
were above them, so afterward I took this method -I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily ; but when the old one fell the kid stood stock
still by her till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but when I
carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed m 4
quite to my enclosure ; upon which I laid down the dam and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have brel -t


up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it my.
self. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat spar-
ingly, and preserved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as I
possibly could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary
to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn ; and what I did
for that, as also how I enlarged my cave and what conveniences I made,
I shall give account of in its proper place, but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which it may
well be supposed were not few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent
storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way,
viz., some hundreds of leagues out of the ordinary course of the trade
of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determination of
Heaven that in this desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I
should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down my face
when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable, so abandoned without help,
so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful
for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts and to reprove me ; and particularly one day, walking with
my gun in my hand by the sea side, I was very pensive upon the sub-
ject of my present condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated
with me the other way, thus : "Well, you are in a desolate condition,
it is true, but pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you
come, eleven of you, into the boat? Where are the ten ? Why were
they not saved and you lost? Why were you singled out? Is it bet-
ter to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my sub-
sistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened
(which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the
place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the shore that
I had time to get all these things out of her? What would have been
my case if I had been to have lived in the condition in which I at first
onme on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
_.ocure them? Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what

-" n ? ... .y'C- w' '., -- -' .'- 7-- ?.f <-- -- ^, i

Bnomnsor CBonso. 73

should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of covering ? and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such a
manner as to live without my gun when my ammunition was spent, so
that I had a tolerable view of subsisting without any want, as long as
I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would provide
for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
come, not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast-I mean my powder being blown up by light-
ning-and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it
lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such perhaps as was never heard of in the world before, I
shall take it from its beginning and continue it in its order. It was
by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the manner as above
said, I first set foot upon this horrid island ; when the sun, being to us
in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head ; for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine degrees twenty,
two minutes north of the line.

Otapter Seben,
Robinson'smode of Beckoning Time--Diffiulties arising from Want of Tools--Bi
Arranges his Habitation.
FTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
Into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of
Time for want of books and pen and ink, and should even
forget the Sabbath days from the working days ; but to pre-
vent this I cut it with my knife upon a large post in capital letters
and making it into a great cross, I set it upon the shore where I first
landed, viz : I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659. "
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest; and
every first day of the month as long again as that long one; and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of


But it happened, that anrong the many things which I brought out
of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not all less useful
to me, which I found some time after, in rummaging the chests ; as
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's
mate's, gunner's and carpenter's keeping ; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspective charts, and books
of .: ,.- t;. : all of which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no; also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; some Portuguese books also, and among them, two or
three popish prayer books, and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place ; for I carried both of the cats with me ; and as
for the dog he jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to
me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me for many years ; I wanted nothing that he could fetch
Ene, nor any company that he could make up to me, I only wanted to
have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed before
i found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost;
and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things very exact,
but after all that was gone, I could not ; for I could not make any ink
by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things notwithstand-
-rg all that I had amassed together ; and of these, this of ink was one ;
as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel to dig or or remove the earth;
needles, pins, and thread ; as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was
near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or
surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more, by far in bringing home ; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground ; for which purpose, I got a heavy
piece of wood, at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the
iron crows, which, however, though I found it answer, made driving
these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need
I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to do;
seeing I had time enough to do it in ; nor had I any other employ-

a-;--~-- *''~ *:~- pr nr ~ rqe. w w r *t q r~r~


ment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food; which I did, more or less, every
I now began to consider, seriously, my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me
(for I was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from
daily poring upon them and afflicting my mind; and as my reason
began to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have
something to distinguish my case from worse ; and I stated very im-
partially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the
miseries I suffered, thus :



I am cast upon a horrible deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-

I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a
solitaire: one banished from hu-
man society.

I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to or
relieve me.

But I am alive; and not drown-
ed, as all my ship's company

But I am singled out too from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He, that miracu-
lously saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.

But I am not starved and per-
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.

But I am in a hot climate, where
if I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.

But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af-
rica; and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there?

But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many neces-
sary things, as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.


Upon the whole, here was an unbounded testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was some-
thing negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it ; and let
this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable of
all conditions in this world, that we may always find in it something to
comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship ; I say given
over these things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ; and after some time (I
think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get, to keep out the rain ; which I found, at some times of
the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay
in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn my-
self; so I set myself to enlarge my cave and work further into the
earth, for it was a loose sandy rock which yielded easily to the labor I
bestowed upon it ; and when I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts
of prey, I worked sidewise, to the right hand, into the rock, and then
turning to the right again, worked out, and made me a door to come
out in the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back way
to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as Ifound I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table, for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I
could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure,
without a table, so I went to work. And here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and original of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master of
,every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life ; and yet

A .: :: .;:T ,z-/ i '-- ..


in time, by labor, application and contrivance, I found at last that I
wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if I had had tools.
However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ; and some
with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labor. For ex-
ample, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a
tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then dab it
smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method I could make but
one board of a whole tree, but this I had no remedy for but patience,
any more than I had for a prodigious deal of time and labor which it
took me up to make a plank or board; but my time or labor was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in
the first place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I
brought on my raft from the ship. But when I wrought out some
boards, as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a
half, one over another, all along one side of my cave to lay all my
tools, nails, and iron work on-and in a word, to separate everything
at large in their places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up, so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a
general magazine of all necessary things; and I had everything so
ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to meto see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's em-
ployment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
.: to labor, but in much discomposure of mind-and my journal
would, too, have been full of miny dull things ; for example, I must
inavr said thus-"Sept 30th. After I had got to shore, and had es-
caped drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited, with a great quantity of salt water which was
gcttcn into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about
the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaim-
,ng at my misery, and crying out Iwas undone, undone till, tired and
faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not
hl ep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the
top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a


ship ; then fancy that, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself
with the hopes of it, and after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus in-
crease my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all as handsome stuff about me as I could. I began to keep
my journal, of which I shall here give you the copy [though in it will
be told all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted ; for hav-
ing no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

QiD1atexr Orxgllt.

Robitson's Journal-Details of his Domestic Economy and Contrivances--Shook of
an Earthquake.

"EPTELABER, 30th, 1659, I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, which I
called the ISLAND OF DESp.un; all the rest of the ship's
company being drowned, and myself about dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz.: I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to ; and, in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me-that I should either be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
food. At the approach of nigit I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had
floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island which, as it was some comfort -.a one hand for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
ot her tor my relief, so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss cf my comrades, -who. I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not
have been all drowned,n as tlhy were ; and that. had the men been
saved we might perhaps ha'v built us a boat, out of the ruins of the


ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at length,
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather, but it seems this was the
rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered
many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind,
during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing a little
harder than before), and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of
her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and se-
curing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place
to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any
attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Toward night I
fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle
for my encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall,
or fortification, made of double piles lined within with cables, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though wome part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went ouX into the island with my gun to
seek for some food, and discover the country, when I killed a she-goat,
and her kid followed me home, which I aFterward killed also, because
it would not feed.
Aovemler 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing
my hammock upon.
Yoc. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
oiu. 3. I went out with my gun and killed two fowls like ducks.
which were very good food. In the afternoon I went to work to make
me a table.


Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of going
out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion, viz.: every
morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did
not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then
ate what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep,
the weather being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work
again. The working part of this day and the next was wholly employed
in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after,
as I believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing. Of every
creature that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming
back by the seashore I saw many sorts of sea fowl, which I did not un-
derstand, but was surprised and almost frightened with two or three
seals. which, while I was gazing at them tnot well knowing what they
were), got into the sea and escaped me for that time.
Soc. 6. After my morning ilk I went to work with my table again
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I
learned to mend it.
aor. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday, according to my
reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me, and even in the
making I pulled it to pieces several times.
NOTE. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays, for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
or. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly-cooled
the earth-but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and light-
ning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon
as it was over I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Vi'. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little square chests
or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most, of
powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed _1 in places as secure
and as remote from one another as possible. On one of these days I
killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
7ic. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to
make room for my further convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pickaxe, a shovel. and a wheelbarrow or basket, so I desisted from my


work, and began to consider how to supply these wants, and make me
some tools. As for a pickaxe I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy, but the next thing was a shovel
or spade ; this was so absolutely necessary that, indeed, I could do
nothing effectually without it, but what kind of one to make I knew
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of
that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils they call the iron tree, irom
its exceeding hardness ; of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home too, with difficulty enough,
for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
my having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for
I worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or
spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part, having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last
me so long ; however, it served well enough for the uses which I had
occasion to put it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that
fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make wicker ware -at least none yet found out-
and as the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel, but
that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to get about it; be.
sides I had no possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or
axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it over; and for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod,
which the laborers carry mortar in for the bricklayers. This was not
so difficult for me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow,
took me up no less than four days ; I mean always excepting my morn-
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed,
also, bringing home something fit to eat.
.ov. 23. My other work having now stood still because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time I worked to make this room or cave
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or magazine, a
kitchen, a dining-room and a cellar. As for lodgings, I kept the
tenant, except that sometimes in the wet season of the year it gained m



hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me afterward te
cover all my places within my pale with long poles, and in the form of
rafters, leaning against the rocks, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I now began to think my cave or vault finished, when
on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth
fell down from the top and on one side, so much that in short it fright-
ened me, and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it I
should never have wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I had a
great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry
out, and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up,
so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board
across over each post; this I finished the next day, and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured;
and the posts standing in rows served me for partitions to part off m3
Dec. 17. From this day to the 30th I placed shelves, andknocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up, and
now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon ; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also I
made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and plea-
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that I watched
it, and led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew well,
and as strong as ever : but by nursing it so long, it grew tame, and
fed upon the little green at my door, and would not go away. This
was the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some
tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot was
all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31 Great heats, and no breeze; so that there waa
no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for foo4 : this tume I spe*
in putting all my things in order vttd ntkxoL


January 1. Very hot still ; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening
going farther into the valleys which lay toward the centre of the
island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and
hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my
dog to hunt them down. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats ; but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about on the dog ; and he knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which being still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit what
was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less
time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working, finish-
ing, and perfecting this wall ; though it was no more than about
twenty-five yards in length, being a half circle, from one place in the
rock to another place, about twelve yards from it, the door of the cave
being in the centre, behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together ; but I thought I should never be
perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labor everything was done with, especially the
bringing of piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced, with
a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there they would not perceive anything like a
habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and make frequent discoveries, in
these walks, of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I
found a kind of wild pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks ; and tak-
ing some young ones, I endeavored to bring them up tame, and did
so; but when they grew older, they flew all away; which, perhaps,
was, at first, for wnnt of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones
which were very good meat. And now, in the management of my
household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I


thought at first it was impossible for me to make; as indeed, as t-
some of them, it was ; for instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but 1
could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I
spent many weeks about it. I could neither put in the heads, nor
join the staves so true to one another as to make them hold water, so I
gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for a
candle ; so that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-
wax with which I made candles in my African adventure, but I hal
none of that now ; the only remedy I had was that when I killed a
goat, I saved the tallow : and with a little dish made of clay, which i
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me
a lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like
a candle. In the middle of all my labors, it happened that in rum-
maging my things, I found a little bag ; which, as I hinted before,
had been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry ; not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon.
What little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust,
and being willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it was
to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some
such use), I shook the husks of the corn out of it, on one side of my
fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that I
threw this stuff away ; taking no notice of anything, and not so much
as remembering that I had thrown anything there ; when, about a
month after, I saw some few stalks of something green, shooting out
of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen ;
but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our
English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all ; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of any things that had befallen
me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say what pleases God *
without so much as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or his order in governing events in the world. But after I
saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was net proper for


corn, and especially as I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused
this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account ; and this was the more strange to me, be-
cause I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some other
straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which 1
knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I went
over all that part of the island where I had been before, searching
in every corner, and under every rock, for more of it; but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to my thoughts that I had shook out
a bag of chicken's-meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate too, upon the discovering of all this was
nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous ; for it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should re-
main unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
l een dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that
particularr place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang
71n) immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else at that
time, it would have been burned up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June ; and, laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some
quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of corn to eat,
and even then but sparingly, as I shall show afterward in its order,
frr I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the
proper time ; as I sowed just before the dry season, so that it never
came up at all, at least not as it would have done ; of which in its
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved witn the same care, and whose use was of the
same kind or to the same purpose, viz: to make me bread, or rather


food ; for I found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that
also for some time. But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my wall
done ; and the 14th of April I closed it up, contriving to get into it,
not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no
sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder ; so I went up with the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it after me, and let it down in the inside; this
was a complete enclosure to me, for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first mount
my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all my
labor overthrown at once, and myself killed ; the case was thus :-As I
was busy in the inside of it behind my tent, just at the entrance into
my cave, I was terribly frightened with the most dreadful surprising
thing indeed ; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a
frightful manner. I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of what
really was the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was fall-
ing in, as some of it had done before; and for fear I should be buried
in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which I
expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped down
upon firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake ;
for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight minutes'
distance, with three such shocks as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth ;
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half a mile
from me, next the sea, fell down with such a terrible noise as I neve:
heard in all my life. I perceived also that the sea was put into a vio-
lent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the
water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with anyone that had) that I was like one dead or
stupefied ; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like one
that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaker
me, as it were ; and rousing me from the stupefied condition I was in,
filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing but the bill flaling
upon my tent and my household goods,and burying all at once ; this
sunk my very soul within me a second time.


After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to go over my
wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground
greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. All this
while I had not the least serious religions thought: nothing but the
common Lord, have mercy upon me I and when it was over, that went
away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if it
would rain ; and soon after the wind rose by a little and little, so that
in less than half an hour, it blew a most dreadful hurricane; the sea
was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and froth; the shore was cov-
ered with a breach of the water ; the trees were torn up by the roots,
and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours, and then
began to abate ; and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began
to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts
that these winds and rain being the consequence of the earthquake,
the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my
cave again. With this thought my spirits began to revive, and the rain
also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but
the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with
it; and I was forced to get into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This violent rain forced
me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through my new fortification,
like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave for some time, and found no more
shocks.of the earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And
now, to support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
to my little store, and took a small cup of rum ; which, however, I did
then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have no more
when that was gone. It continued raining all that night and great
part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but my mind
being more composed, I began to think of what I had best do-con-
cluding, that if the island was subject to these earthquakes, there would
be no living for me in a cave; but I must consider of building me some
little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men;
for if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the


hill, and which, if it shGuld be shaken again, would certainly fall upon
my tent. I spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th of April,
in contriving where and how to remove my habitation. The fear of
being swallowed alive affected me so, that I never slept in quiet ; and
yet the apprehension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost
equal to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw how everything
was put in order, how pleasantly I was concealed, and how safe from
danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the meantime it occurred
to me that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and
that I must be contented to run the risk where I was, till I had formed
a convenient camp, and secured it so as to remove it. With this con-
clusion I composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go to
work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a
circle as before, and set up my tent in it wheD it was finished ; but
that I would venture to stay where I was till it was ready, and fit to re-
move to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to put
this measure into execution, but I was at a great loss about the tools.
I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the
Natchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and doll; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This caused me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a
man. At length I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my
foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
NoTE. I had never seen any such thing in England, or at least not
to take any notice how it was done, though since I have observed it is
very common there-besides that, my grindstone was very large and
heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to per-
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my tools,
my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit
take a day, which made my heart very heavy.


Ojaptcr fiue.

Robinson obtains more Articles from the Wreck---His Illness and AfflioticL.
SAY 1. In the morning, looking toward the seaside, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
aJ) ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I
found a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of
the ship, which had been driven on shore by the late hurricane ; and
looking toward the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher
out of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel that was
driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder ; but it
had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone ; how-
e er, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship to look for
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in the sand, was heaved up at
I:,ast six feet ; and the stern (which was broke to pieces and parted
from the rest, by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging
of her) was tossed as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand
was thrown so high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out; whereas there was a great
]iece of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised with this at
first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as
Sy this violence the ship was more broken open than formerly, so many
things came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could out
of the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be
of some use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper parts or quarter-deck together
and when I had put it through, I cleared away the sand as well f I


could from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of till I was weary of my sport, when, just going to leave off, I
caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks ; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as
much as I cared to eat ; all of which I dried in the sun, and ate them
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunier, and
brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tie. together
and made swim on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck ; got several iron bolts out of her, and
other pieces of iron work ; worked very hard, and came home very
much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams
being cut ; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose; and
the inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it ; but almost
full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck and carried an iron crow, to wrench up
the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and sand. I wrenched
up two planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left
the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with my crow made my way into the
body of the wreck, and felt several casks and loosened them with the
crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead,
and could not stir it ; but it was too heavy to remove.
May 0T to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards or planks, and two or three hundred
weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece off
the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving it with
the other ; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not
make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared
more broken by the force of the water but I stayed so long in the
woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going the
wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, two miles offme, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for meto bring away,


May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and with
hard labor I loosened some things so much, with the crow, that the
first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day, but pieces of timber, and a hogshead which had some Brazil
pork in it ; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I contin-
ned this work every day to the 15th of June, except the time neces-
sary to get food; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide is up, that I might be ready when
it ebbed out ; and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank and
iron work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how, and
I also got, at several times, and in several places, near one hundred
weight of sheet lead.
June 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise or
turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it seems was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place or scarcity ; for had I happen-
ed to be on the other side of the island I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterward; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three score
eggs ; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savory and
pleasant that I ever tasted in my life ; having had no flesh, but of goats
and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. I thought, at
this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly ; which I
knew was not unusual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night ; violent pains in my head and feverish.
June 21. Very ill ; frightened almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition, to be sick and no help ; prayed to God, for
the first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said or
why, my thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehension of sick-
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering and then a violent
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours-cold
fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
AJne 26. Better, and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but
found myself very weak ; however, I killed a she-goat, and with muca


difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst; but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I
was so ignorant I knew not what to say ; only lay and cried, "Lord
look upon me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" 1
suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours ; till the fit wearing
off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When 1
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and exceeding
thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep I had this terrible dream : I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black
cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground ; he was all
over as bright as a flame, so that I could bat just bear to look toward
him. His countenance was inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe ; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet,
I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth-
quake ; and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been
filled with flashes of fire. He had no sooner landed upon the earth,
but he moved forward toward me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me ; and when he came to a rising ground, at some
distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is im-
possible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I understood
was this ; "Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance, now thou shalt die," at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision ; I
mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors;
ior is it any more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas no divine knowledge ; what I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conver-
sation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane to
the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time, one
thought that ft much as tended either to looking upward toward Goo


or inward toward a reflection upon my own ways : but a certain stu-
pidity of soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of evil, had en-
tirely overwhelmed me ; and I was all that the most hardened, unthink-
ing, wicked creature among our common sailors, can be supposed to be;
not having the least sense, either of the fear of God, in the danger, or of
thankfulness to him, in deliverances.
In the relating what is already a part of my story, this will be the
more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety of
miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as one
thought of its being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment
for my sin ; either my rebellious behaviour against my father, or my
present sins, which were great, or even as punishment for the general
course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedition on
the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought of what
would become of me, or one wish to God to direct me, whither I should
go, or to keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me,
as well from voracious creatures as cruel savages ; but I was quite
thoughtless of a God or a Providence ; acted like a mere brute, from
the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common sense only,
and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea by
the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly and honorably,
,s well as charitably, I had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts.
\hen, again, I was shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning,
on this island, I was far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment.
I only said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my ship's
crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of ecs-
tacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God as-
sisted, might have come up to true thankfulness ; but it ended where
it began, in a mere common flight of joy ; or, as I may say, being glad
I was alive, without the least reflection upon the distinguished good-
ness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled me out to
be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or any inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me; just the same common
sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got safe
ashore from a shipwreck ; which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over-and all the rest of my
life was like it. Even when I was, afterward, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition-how I was cast on this dreadful
place, eut of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or


prospect of redemption-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and
that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my
affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself to the
works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as
the hand of God against me ; these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at
first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in it ;
but as soon as that part of the thought was removed, all the impres-
sion which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its
nature, or mo e immediately directing to the invisible Power, which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the
impression it made went off also. I had no more sense of God or
his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my circumstances
being from His hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous con-
dition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view
of the miseries of death came to place itself before me ; when my
spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and na-
ture was exhausted with the violence of the fever ; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake ; and I reproached myself with my
past life, in which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness, pro-
voked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to
deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed
me for the second or third day of my distemper ; and, in the violence
as well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience,
extorted from me some words like praying to God ; though I cannot
say it was a prayer attended either with desires or with hopes; it
was rather the voice of mere fright and distress. My thoughts were
confused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror of
dying in such a miserable condition, raised vapors in my head witl
the mere apprehension ; and, in these hurries of my soul, I knew not
what my tongue might express ; but it was rather exclamation, such
as. "Lord, what a miserable sinner am I If I should be sick, I shall
certainly die for want of help; and what will become of me?"
Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say no more for a
good while. In this interval, the good advice of my father came to
my mind, and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the be-
ginning of this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God


woutl fot bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect
upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery." "Now," said I, aloud, my dear father's words are
come to pass : God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to
help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mer-
cifully put me in a station of life wherein I might have been happy
and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor learn from my pa-
rents to know the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly;
and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it; I refused
their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the world,
and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have diffi-
culties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support;
and no assistance, no comfort, nc advice. Then I cried out, "Lord,
be my help, for I am in great distress." This was the first prayer, if
I may so call it, that I had made for many years. But I return to my

ttapter eu.

His Recovery-His Comfort in Reading the Scriptures-Makes an Excursion into th
Interior of the Island-Forms his "Bower."
JUNYE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I
| had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up, and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and support
myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was to fill a large
square case bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of
my bread, and to take off the chill or agueish disposition of the water
I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them to-
gether. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh and broiled it on
the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about but was very
weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miser-
able condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, which I
roasted in the ashes and ate, as we call it, in the shell ; and this was
the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing to, as I could re-
member, in my whole life. After I had eaten I tried to walk, but
found myself so weak that I could hardly carry the gun (for I nevea


went out without that), so I went but a little way and sat down upon
the ground, looking out upon the sea which was just before me, and
very calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these
occurred to me : What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much? Whence is it produced : And what am I, and all the other
creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal? Whence are we?
Surely we are all made by some secret power, who formed the earth
and sea, the air and sky ; and who is that ? Then it followed most
naturally, it is God that has made all. Well, but then, it came on, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them all and all
things that concern them ; for the power that could make all things
must certainly have power to guide and direct them ; if so, nothing
can happen in the great circuit of his works, either without his know-
ledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows that I am
here, and am in this dreadful condition ; and if nothing happens with-
out his appointment, he has appointed all this to befall me. Nothing
occurred to my thought to contradict any of these conclusions, and
therefore it rested uDon me with the greatest force that it must needs
be that God had appointed all this to befall me ; that I was brought
to this miserable circumstance by His direction, He having the sole
power, not of me only, but of everything that happens in the world,
Immediately it followed : "Why has God done this to me ? What have
I done to be thus used ?" My conscience presently checked me in that
inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a
voice : Wretch dost iat ask what thou hast done? Look back upon
a dreadful, misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done?
Ask why it is thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not
drowned in Yarmouth Itoas ; killed in the fight when the ship
was taken by the Salle, man-of-war ; devoured by the wild beasts on
the coast of Africa ; or drowned here, when all the crew perished but
thyself? Dost ii,(o ask what thou hast done?' I was struck dumb
with these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say-
no, not to answer to myself-and rising up, pensive and sad, walked
back to my retreat, and went over my wall as if I had been going to
bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep, so I sat down in the chair and lighted my lamp, for it began
to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper
terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and I had
a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured
and some, also, that was green, and not quite cure&


I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this chest I found a
cure for both soul and body. I opened the chest and found what I
looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the bibles which I mentioned before, and
which, to this time,I had not found leisure or so much as inclination
to look into. I say I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco
with me to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not
as to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not, but I tried
several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it should hit one way
cr other. I first took a piece of the leaf and chewed it in my mouth,
which indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being
green and strong, and such as I had not been much used to. Then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to
take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt some upon a
pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I
could bear it, as well for the heat as almost for suffocation. In the
interval of this operation I took up the bible and began to read, but
my head was too much disturbed by the tobacco to bear reading, at
least at that time; only, having opened the book casually, the first
words that occurred to me were these: Call on me in the day of
trouble and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These
words were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did
afterward; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may
say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my apprehen-
sion of things, that, as the children of Israel said, when they were
promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness?
so I began to say, 'Can even God himseW deliver me from this
place ?" And as it was not for many years that any hopes appeared
this prevailed very often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words
made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often
It now grew late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so
much that I inclined to sleep, so I left my lamp burning in the cave,
lest I should want anything in the night, and went to bed; but, be-
fore I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life, I kneeled
down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me. After my bro
ken and imperfect prayer was over, 1 drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that
indeed I could scarce get it down; immediately upon this I went **
bed. I found, presently, the rum flew up into my head violently, but
I fell into a sound sleep and waked no more till, by the sun, it m


necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day i naj
to this hour, I am i artly of opinion that I slept all the next day and
night, and till almost three the day after; for, otherwise, I know not
how I should loce a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week
as it appeared, some years after, I had done; for, ifi had lest it by
crossing and re-crossing the line, I should have lost more than one
day, but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which
way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful
When I got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and
my stomach better, for I was .hungry; and, in short, I had no fit
the next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was
the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or
two, something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but
was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the
turtle's eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the
medicine, which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz., the
tobacco steeped in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, not
did I chew any of the leaf or hold my head over the smoke; how-
ever, I was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as
I hoped I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but
it was not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all tha three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did not recover
my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus gathering
strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this Scripture, I will
deliver thee :" and the impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon
my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it: but as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so
much upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz., Have I not been delivered, ard
wonderfully, too, from sickness ; from the most distressed condition
that could be and that was so frightful to me ? and what notice have
I taken of it ? Have I done my part ? God has delivered me, but I
have not glorified him; that is to say, I have not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance : and how can I expect a greater
deliverance ? This touched my heart very much; and im ediatelv I


knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible : and beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed upon my
c'lf to read awhile every morning and every night; not binding myself
to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engae-
me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, that I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The impression of my dream revived: and the words,
" All these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously
in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give me repent-
ance, when it happened providentially, the very same day, that, read-
ing the Scripture, I came to these words, "He is exalted a Prince
and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I threw
down the book ; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to
heaven, in a kindof ecstacy of joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus, thou Son
of David Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour give me repent-
ance This was the first time in all my life I could say, in the true
sense of the words, that I prayed; for now I prayed with a sense of
my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the word of God ; and from this time I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, "Call on
me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had
ever done before ; for then I had no notion of anything being called
deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity I was in; for
though I was at large in the place, yet the island was certainly a
prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now I
learned to take it in another sense ; now I looked back upon my past
life with such horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or thins
of it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison with this. And I
add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will find deliverance from
sin a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my
way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and my thoughts being
directed, by constantly reading the Scripture and prayfng to God, to
things of a higher nature. I had a great deal of comfort with:


which, till now, I knew nothing of; also, as my health and strength
returned. I bestirred me to furnish myself with everything that I
slanted, anid make my way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walk
Eg about with mx gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, aE
a: nm that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for
A is hardly to be imagined how low 1 was, and to what weakness I
-as red-'ed. The application which I made use of was perfectly
saw, and perhaps what had never cured an ague before : neither can
1 recommend it to any one to practise, by this experiment; and
though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weaker
ime; for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for soae
time. 1 learned from it also this, in particular; that being abroad a
the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health thai
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms
and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season
was almost always accompanied with such storms, so I found that this
rain was much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September
and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months. All
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
taken from me ; and I firmly believed that no human rhape had ever
set foot upon that place. Having secured my habitation, as I thought,
fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect dis-
covery of the island, and to see what other productions I might find
which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
binted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found after I came about two
miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no more
shan a little brook of running water, very fresh and good; but this
being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of it:
at least, not any stream. Or the banks of this brook I found many
pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds
(where the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed), I found a
great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a very great and strong
stalk: and there were divers other plants, which I had no kn wledge
of or understanding about, and that might, perhaps, have virtues of
their own, which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava
*oot, which the Indians in all that climate, make their bsead of; bat


, -oald fini none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not understand
..om. I saw several sugar-canes, hut wiid; and, for want of cultiva-
tion. imperfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this
time; and came back, musing with myself what course I might take
to know the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which
I should discover; but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short
1 made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at least, very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after
going something further than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook and the savannahs begin to cease, and the country became more
woody than before. In this part I found different fruits; and partic-
ularly I found melons upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes
upon the trees ; the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the
clusters of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and rich.
This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them;
but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them; remem-
bering, that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed
several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing them
into fluxes and fevers. I found, however, an excellent use for these
grapes; and that was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them
as dried grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought would be (as in-
deed they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes
were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation;
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. At night, I took my first contrivance, and got up into a tree,
where I slept well; and the next morning proceeded on my discovery
travelling near four miles s I might judge by the length of the val-
ley; keeping still due norih, with a ridge of hills on the south and
north sides of me. At the end of this march I came to an opening
where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring
of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is due east; and the country appeared so fresh
so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant verdure, or
flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended
a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret
kind of pleasure (though mixed with other afflicting thoughts)i ta think
that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could oonvey


it, I might have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a man,
or in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, and orange and
lemon, and citron trees, but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit,
at least not then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not
only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I mixed their juice
afterward with water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool
and refreshing. I found now I had business enough, to gather and
carry home ; and I res.-lvod to lay up a store, as well of grapes as
limes and lemons, to furni:,h myself for the wet season, which I knew
was approaching. In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, a lesser heap in another place ; and a great parcel of
limes and lemons in another place ; and taking a few of each with
me, I travelled homeward ; and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Accor-
dingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I
must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got thither, the
grapes were spoiled ; the richness of the fruits, and the weight of the
juice, having Lroken and bruised them, they were good for little or
nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but I could bring only a
The next da. being the 10th, I went back, having made me two
small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when
coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I
gathered them, I found thum all spread about, trod to pieces, and
draggd about. some here, some there, and abundance eaten and de-
vour d. By thi. I concluded there were some wild creatures there
about which had done this, but what they were I knew not. How-
ever, as I found there was no laying them up in heaps, and no carry-
in- them av.ay in a sack ; but that one way they would be destroyed
and the other wLay they would be crushed with their own weight; I
toCh another course : I then gathered a large quantity of the grapes
ansd hung thom upon the out-branches of the trees, that they might
aure and dry in the sun ; and as for the limes and lemons, 1 carried
as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the
situation ; the security from storms on that side ; the water and the
wood : and cnoncludedthat Ihad pitched upon a place to fix my abode
in. which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the whole,
I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to look out for a
plaee equally safe as where I was now situate ; if possible in that
pleasant fruiful part of the island.

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs