Title Page
 Part I
 Part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073570/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Defoe's Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: iv, 284 p., 16 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Frederick Warne (Firm) ( Publisher )
Scribner, Welford, and Co ( Publisher )
Savill, Edwards and Co ( Printer )
Publisher: Frederick Warne and Co.
Scribner, Welford and Co.
Place of Publication: London (Belford Street Covent Garden)
New York
Manufacturer: Savill, Edwards and Co.
Publication Date: <1869?>
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with ill., printed in colours, from original designs.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; on front and back cover: Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, sixteen coloured illustrations.
General Note: Date based on NUC citation below.
General Note: Ill. engraved by Dalziel.
General Note: Description same as NUC pre-1956, 0118390 (v. 136, p. 600), except NUC copy has series Warne's national books on cover.
General Note: Publisher's advertisements on recto and verso of endpapers and on pastedowns.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073570
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03013425

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Part I
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
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        Page 6a
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    Part II
        Page 199
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Full Text

AC M .........











Wlitjy llustrations, Vrintch in olanzurs,




* ANIEL DE FOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe," was
born in London, in 1661. At the age of fourteen he was
sent to school, to the Rev. Charl9 Morton, at Newington
Green, where he got a first-rate education. He was a
Dissenter and a devoted partizan of William III. De Foe was in
trade, it is believed, as a hosier, and about the year 1692 would have
failed for 17,0ooo., but that his creditors, convinced of his integrity,
allowed him to trade on his own security. However, in the year 1703,
when he had lost his royal friend and patron, King William, he was
totally ruined, and had to pay a fine of 3000o. to the Government,
for libel. From that period he became a political writer. For these
writings he underwent much persecution; he had to stand in the
pillory and to pay fines, which twice ruined him, and he was thirteen
months in Newgate jail. The story of his release is this :-Harley,
the great minister, wrote to ask De Foe what he could do for him.
He replied, Lord, that I may receive my sight." Queen Anne was
touched by the prayer; he was released, and she afterwards treated
him kindly.
When nearly sixty years of age, he wrote his famous romance,
" Robinson Crusoe"-being his hundred and sixty-seventh work-
suggested, it has been supposed, by the real adventures of Alexander

Selkirk. We are sorry to add that the ingratitude of his own son
embittered the last hours of the life of the man who has been so pre-
eminently the friend of boys, and that he died, as he had lived, in
trouble and sorrow. But lie has left the legacy of many a happy
hour to the young, in his charming story; and we believe that tl.e
boys of Britain will give their old friend "Robinson Crusoe the
-warmcr welcome since he appears in an edition which may be slipt
into a pocket and carried forth to be read under the greenwood trees,
or lying on the hearthrug by the winter fire.

k iZ ,0
-**^ ..




SWAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a
foreigner, of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a
good estate by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived
afterwards at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family
in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,
-nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my
companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second bother I never
knew, any more than my father and mother knew what was become
of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts : my father,
who was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning,
sfar as house-education and a country free-school generally go, and
designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
he will, nay, the commands of my father, and against all the
treaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that
here seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
ending directly to the life.of misery which was to befal me.

My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving my father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it
was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common road; and these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
What might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hard-
ships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the hap-
piness of this state by this one thing, viz. that this was the state of
life which all other people envied ; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the
mean and the great ; that the wise man gave his testimony to this,
as the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty
nor riches.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against ; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had been recommending to
me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must
be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning
me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; and to
close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to
whom he had used the same persuasions to keep him from going
to the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires
prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed; and
though he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would
venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not
bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having

neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved that he bioke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas a
few days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first
heat of my resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when
I thought her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that
my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through
with it, and my father had better give me his consent than force me
to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was
sure if I did I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea; and
if she would speak to my father to let me go but one voyage abroad, if
I came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more; and I
would promise, by a double diligence, to recover that time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject;
that if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but I might
depend I should never have their consent to it; that for her part,
she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should
never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father was
not. Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him, and
that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with
a sigh : That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but
if he goes abroad, he will be the miserablest wretch that ever was
born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they

knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time ; but, I say, being there, and one of my com-
panions being about to sail to London in his father's ship, and
prompting me to go with them with the common allurement of sea-
faring men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I
consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent
them word of it ; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing or my father's, without any consideration
of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour God knows, on
the Ist of September, 165r, I went on board a ship bound for London :
never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of
the Humber, but the wind began to blow and the waves to rise in a
most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I
was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty; all the good counsels of
my parents, my father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now
fresh into my mind, and my conscience, which was not yet come to
the pitch of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have
seen many times since ; no, nor what I saw a few days after: but it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had
never known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise
more; in this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions,
that if it would please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever
I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly home to
my father, and never set it into a ship again while I lived ; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these any
more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably he had lived
all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting
prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to

it : however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-
sick still ; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me:
"Well, Bob," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, "how do
you do after it ? I warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night,
when it blew but a capful of wind?"-"A capful d'you call it?"
said I; 'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replies
he; do you call that a storm ? why, it was nothing at all ; give us
but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
of wind as that ; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob : come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that ; d'ye see what
charming weather 'tis now?" To make short this sad part of my
story, we went the old way of all sailors ; the punch was made, and
I was made half-drunk with it ; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned
to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement
of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows
and promises that I made in my distress. I found, indeed, some
intervals of reflection ; and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook then) off, and
roused myself from them, and applying myself to drink and com-
pany, soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I called them;
and I had in five or six days got as complete a victory over conscience
as any young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could
desire. But I was to have another trial for it still.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.

We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea ; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the
sheet-anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the
cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves.
The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
to himself say, several times, Lord, be merciful to us we shall be
all lost ; we shall be all undone and the like. During these first
hurries I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the
steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened
myself against : I thought the bitterness of death had been past;
and that this would be nothing like the first. But when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and looked
out ; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea went mountains
high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress round us ; two ships
that rode near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden ; and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a
mile ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the Roads to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared the
best, as not so much labouring in the sea ; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail
out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do ; but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did
not, the ship would founder, he consented, and when they had cut
away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the



ship so much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make a
clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at
but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having returned from
them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at
death itself; and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in the
sea, that the seamen every now and then cried out she would founder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they
meant by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so vio-
lent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain,
and some others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and
expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses,
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we
had sprung a leak ; another said, there was four foot water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my heart, as
I thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of
my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me,
and told me, that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another: at which I stirred up, and went to the
pump, and worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing
what that meant, thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing
happened. In a word, I was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon.
As this was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no-
body minded me, or what was become of me; but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let
me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was appa-
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into a port ; so the master continued firing guns for help; and a
light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out

to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us,
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship's side ; till at last the men rowing very heartily, and
venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching their own ship, so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could, and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master : so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore al-
most as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
before we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what
was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking;
for from that moment they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in, my heart was as it were dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar
to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come
near, but we made but slow way towards the shore, nor were we able
to reach it, till, being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind : here we got in, and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards
on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used with
great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone home, I had been happy,
and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had
even killed the fatted calf for me ; for hearing the ship I went away
in was cast away in Yarmouth Road, it was a great while before he
had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my

reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I did not
obey them.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master's son, was now less forward than I; the first time he
spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or
three days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; I
say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered ; and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I
did, and telling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his father
turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone, Young man,"
says he, "you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man." "Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?"
"That is another case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore
my duty ; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you persist;
perhaps this has all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the
ship of Tarshish. Pray," continued he,. "what are you; and on
what account did you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of
my story ; at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of
passion; "What had I done," says he, that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed
was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have autho-
rity to go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me, ex-
horted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to
my ruin; told me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me; "and, young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
and disappointments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more; which way he went I know not. Having some money
in my pocket, I. travelled to London by land; and there, as well
as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life
I should take, whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to
my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be
laughed at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see,
not my father and mother only, but even everybody else; from
whence I have since often observed, how incongruous and irrational
the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that

reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of
the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresis-
tible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return wore off
with it, till at last, I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked
out for a voyage.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided
young fellows as I then was ; the devil generally not omitting to lay
some snare for them very early ; but it was not so with me. I first
got acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast
of Guinea; and who, having had very good success there, was re-
solved to go again; and who taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had
a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him
I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit ; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer ; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I went the
voyage with him, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by
the disinterested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very
considerably ; for I carried about 40 in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This 40 I had mustered together by
the assistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my
friend the captain ; under whom also I got a competent knowledge
of the mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant;
for I brought home 5 pounds 9 ounces of gold-dust for my adventure,

which yielded me in London, at my return, almost 300 ; and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of
the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 1oo of my new-gained wealth, so
that I had 200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes; and the
first was this-our ship making her course towards the Canary
Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was
surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded
also as much canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry
to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to'fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in
the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a
broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after return-
ing our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred
men which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,
all our men keeping close. He prepared to attack us again, and we
to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immedi-
ately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rigging. We plied
them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such like, and
cleared our deck of them twice. However, to cut short this me-
lancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended,
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his
proper prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit
for his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed;
and now I-looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me,
that I should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I
thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be

worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was
undone without redemption. But, alas this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of the story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate to
be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that thtn I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bility in it ; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me;
no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman, there but
myself; se that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the
imagination, yet I never had the least prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head : my patron lying at home longer than usual, without fitting
out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used,
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing;
and, as he always took me and a young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm morn-
ing, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from
the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither or
which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night; and when
the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of
pulling in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from
the shore; however, we got well in again, though with a great deal
of labour, and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go
a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so he'

ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an English slave, to
build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the long-boat,
like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and
hale home the main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails ; she sailed with what we call a shoulder-
of-mutton,sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave
or tWo, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; particularly his
bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It
happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for
pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction in
that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of provi-
sions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready three fusees
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship; for that they
designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendents out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my
patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, from some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the
man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some
fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house
all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand ; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not
for fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither
did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for anywhere to
get out of that place was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board ; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread; he said that
was true ; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of thin
kind, and three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before
for our master ; I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the

boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also :
his name was Ismael, which they call Muley, or Moely ; so I called
to him :-" Moely," said I, our patron's guns are on board the
boat; can you not get a little powder and shot, it may be we may
kill some alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I
know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he,
" I'll bring some ;" and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held a pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and another
with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all
into the boat; at the same time, I had found some powder of my
master's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty ; pouring what was in
it into another: and thus furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance
of the port, knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish; the wind blew from the N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire ; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure
to have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would
be gone from that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not
see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do; our master will
not be thus served; we must stand farther off;" he, thinking no
harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the boat, set the sails; and,
as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and
then brought her to, as if I would fish, when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise with my
arm under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea.
,He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and calling to me,
begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over the world with
me; he swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
*me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped
into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be
quiet I would do him none: But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm; make the best of your
way to shore, and I will do you no harm ; but if you come near the

boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty :" so he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he'was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury,
and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you
a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,'
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must throw
you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so
innocently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to
me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any
one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for
who would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not
go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore : and having a
fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail
that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I could not be less than 15o miles south of
Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not
stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing
fair till I had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels
were in chase of me, they also would how give over; so I ventured
to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what
country, what nation, or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to
see any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We
came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as
soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,

and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be
that we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, make
them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us
slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up ,
after all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped our
little anchor and lay still all night ; I say still, for we slept none; for
in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what
to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run
into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
" No," says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it,
and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately-
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the shore
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a
thing I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard
before: this convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in.
the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too ; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions
and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that asit would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and
where to get to it was the point. Xurv said, if I would let him go
-on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go? why I
should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy answered with so'

much affection, as made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go wey."--" Well, Xury," said I, "we
will both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they
shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to
eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned
before; apd we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought
was proper, and waded on shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and by-and-by I saw
him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,
like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human
creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I khew very well
that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to, know what latitude we were in, and not exactly know-
ing, or at least remembering, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must
e that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
opinions and the Negroes, lies waste and uninhabited; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors;
nd the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
arrenness; and, indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious
umbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
arbour there so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where

they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time: and,
indeed, for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw
nothing but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howlings and roarings of wild beasts by night.
Onci or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Tene-
riffe, being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning,
we came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty
high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off the shore;
" for," says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a
dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on
the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. "'Xury," says I, you shall go on shore
and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, "Me kill! he eat
me at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no
more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and took our biggest gun,
which was almost musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of
powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the first
piece to have shot him into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised
a little above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his
leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised
that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and
make but little noise, but lay struggling for life. Then Xury took
heart, and would have me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said
I: so the boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one
hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the
head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food ; and I was



very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. For what, Xury?" said I. Me cut off his head,"
said he. However, Xury could not cut off his head, but he cut off a
foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I betjiought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might
be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it
took us both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was, to make the
River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship;
and if I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek
for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the Coast of Guinea or
to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands;
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point,
either that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited ; and in two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black, and
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them ; but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a good way : I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they could
throw them a great way with good aim. So I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly
made signs for something to eat ; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this, I lowered
the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn, such as is the produce
f their country ; but we neither knew what the one nor the other was;

however, we were willing to accept it, but how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
w( re as much afraid of us ; but they took a safe way for us all, for they
brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great
way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully: for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea ; whether it was the male pur-
suing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we could
not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange,
but I believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially the
women. The man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did ; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion. At last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both the
others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head : immediately he sank down into the
water, bu. rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was : he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and
the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures
at the noise and fire of my gun ; some of them were even ready to
die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror. But when
they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the waler: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and
gave the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came ; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature,

so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me ; which,
when I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him ; and though
they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we Could
have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, making as if I would give it them; but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great
deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted ; then I made signs to them for some water, and held
out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in
the sun ; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on
shore with my jars, and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the land run out a great length into the sea, at about a distance of
four or five leagues before me ; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offing to make this point : at length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seaward : then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat down, Xury having the helm ; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail and the foolish boy
was frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us; but I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz., a Portuguese
hip ; and, as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea, for Ne-
roes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
ome any nearer to the shore : upon which I stretched out to sea as
nuch as I could, resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
ome in their way, but that they would be gone before I could make
y signal to them. But after I had crowded to the utmost, and


began to despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspec-
tive glasses, and that it was some European boat, which, as they
supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost ; so they shortened
sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw ; for they told me
they saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me ; and in about
three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them ; but, at last, a Scots sailor,
who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him
I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors at Sallee. They then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one would believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and
almost hopeless condition as I was in, and I immediately offered all
I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance ; but
he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
For," says he, I have saved your life on no other terms than I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be
my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," said he,
when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own
country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,"
says he, Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle ; for he ordered the seamen, that none should
touch anything that I had : then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw, and told
me he would buy it of me for his ship's use, and asked me what I
would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous to me in
everything, that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left it entirely to him ; upon which he told me he would give me a note
of hand to pay me 80 pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it
came there, if any one offered to give more, he would make it up.
He offered me also 60 pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which

I was loth to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captain
have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I
let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself
I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what J was willing to sell he
bought of me, such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax-for I had made candles of the rest :
in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo: and
with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call
it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
planting and making of sugar; and seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
licence to settle there, I would turn planter among them, resolving,
in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money, which I
had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a
kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was
uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as
I was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready
for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted help;

and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great
wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I
delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, lading, and
preparing for his voyage, nearly three months ; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice:-" Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always
called me), "'if you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form
to me, with orders to the person who has your money in London, to
send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the pro-
duce of them, God willing, at my return ; but, since human affairs
are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that, if it come safe,
you may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have. the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I
could not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left
my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adven-
tures-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portuguese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I
was now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply; and
when this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but
a full account of my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very hand-
some present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him
at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among
which, without mydirection (for I was too young in my business to think
of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and
utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
six years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a
little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being my own produce.
Neither was this all: for my goods being all English manufacture,
such, as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neigh-
bour-I mean in the advancement of my plantation; for the first thing
I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an European servant also-I
mean another besides that which the captain brought me from Lisbon.
To come by the just degrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story :-Having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and be-
ginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants
at St. Salvador, which was our port; and in my discourses among
them, I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
the coast of Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast for trifles, such as
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not
only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes,
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as
far as it was, had been carried on by Assientos, or permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock ; so
that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me next morning, annd told me they had been musing
very much upon what 1 had discoursed with them of the last night,
and they came to make a secret proposal to me ; and, after enjoining
me secresy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could
not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to
bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their

own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I would go
their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my equal share of
the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it; but for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as
I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the
other hundred pounds from England, and who in that time, and
with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too ;.for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer than I could restrain my first rambling designs when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should
direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and entered into
writings or covenants to do so ; and I made a formal will disposing of
my plantation and effects in case of my death, making the captain of
the ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir, but ob-
liging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will, one-half
of the produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation; had I used half as much prudence to have
looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I
ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its hazards.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out,
and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by
my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the ist
of September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried 6 guns, and 14 men,
besides the master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, espe-
cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.

The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those
days. We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way
upon our own coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we lost sight of land,
and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernandb de Noronha,
holding our course N.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22' northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days to-
gether we could do nothing but drive; and, scudding away before
it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
men die of the calenture, and one man and wie boy washed over-
board. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could, and found that he
was in about Ix north latitude, but that he was 220 of longitude
difference west from Cape St. Augustino ; so that he found he was
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river Amazon, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly
called the Great River ; and began to consult with me what course
he should take, for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coasts of America with him, we concluded there was no in-
habited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the
circle of the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away
for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the indraft of
the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped,
in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our
ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.W.
by W., in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief ; but our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in
the latitude of 12 dog. 18 min. a second storm came upon us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove us
so out of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our
lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our country.


In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning cried out, "'Land !" and we had no sooner ran
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a man-
ner, that we expected we should all have perished immediately ; and
we were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us
from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circum-
stances : we knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it
was we were driven, whether an island or the main, whether in-
habited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the ship hold many minutes without breaking in pieces,
unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting
death every moment, and every man, acting accordingly, as pre-
paring for another world; for there was little or nothing more for
us to do in this ; that which was our present comfort, and all the
comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed,
and had nothing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern, just before the storm, but she
was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the next
place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea;
so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board, but
how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing ; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her slung over the
ship's side ; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves,
being eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea ; for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
upon the shore, and might be well called den wild zce, as the Dutch
call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high that the 3'oat could not live, and that we


should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at ihe
oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to
execution ; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea.
However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest mqnner;
and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruc-
tion with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards land. it
Wfiat the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal,
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least
shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our
boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth
water. But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as
we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de. race. In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once ; and separating
us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time to
say, 0 God !" for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land
almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer
the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again. But I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it ; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with : my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could : and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible : my greatest
concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once 20 or 30
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a
mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way ; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my

might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt
myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not twaiseconds of time that I coid keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and newourage. I was covered again with
wateia good while, but not so lon but I held it out; and, finding the
waitfhad spent itself and began to return, I struck forward against
the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
,_still a few moments to recover breath and till the waters went from'
me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had,
further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again ; and twice
more I was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well-near been fatal to me ; for the"
sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow
taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of
my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have been
strangled in the water ; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so
high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated,
and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore,
that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the
shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite
out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are,
when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave.
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance;
making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe,
reflecting upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw
them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were notfellows.

I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on shore !
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my con-
dition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in,
and what was next to be done : and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I waswet, had
no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort
me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing
with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that which was
particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs; in a word, I
had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
Vn a box; this was all my provisions; and this threw me into terrible
gonies of mind, that for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
ming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night
ey always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to
et up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did, to my great joy; and having drank, and
put a little tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so that if I
should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself the
most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the dashing me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seeming
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might
save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay as the

wind and the sea had tossed her, up upon the land, about two miles
on my right-hand; I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her; but found a neck or inlet of water between me and the
boat which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped-
to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship;
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief ; for I saw evidently;
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we
had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be.
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was; this
forced tears to my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for
the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when-1
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board, for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as that
with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship; here I found that the ship was
bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she lay
so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern
lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to the water;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that wasin that part
was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to search, and to see
what was spoiled and what was free; and first, I found that all the
ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the water, and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filled my
pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which
I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enough of to
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had ; -and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in
the ship : I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many
of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was
done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied

four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went
to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains, but the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged
me to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight;
my next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I
laid upon it from the surf of the sea : but I was not long considering
this, I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get, and
having considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the first of these I filled with provisions,
viz., bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European
corn), which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to
sea with us, but the fowls were killed; there had been some barley
and wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found after-
wards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all; as for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters ; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack ; these
Sstowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortification to
see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on the shore, upon
he sand, swim away ; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and
pen-knee'd, I swam on board in them and my stockings; however,
his set me on rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough, but
ook no more than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
vhich my eye was more upon-as, first, tools to work with on shore ;
rnd it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's chest,
vhich was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valu-
ble than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time: I got it
own to my raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
or I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms : there were two
ery good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols ; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and
vo old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in
e ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but

with much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the
third had taken water; those two I got to my raft, with the arms ;
and now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to think
how I should get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor
rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my
I had three encouragements : ist, a smooth, calm sea ; 2ndlv, the
tide rising, and setting in to the shore ; 3rdly, what little wind there
was blew me towards the land : and having found two or three broken
oars belonging to the boat-and, besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, with this cargo I put
to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was ; there appeared before me a little open-
ing of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it,
so I guided my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the
stream : but here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart; for,
knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it
upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but
a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost, by setting my
back against the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not
thrust off the raft with all my strength, neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of
the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with
the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both
sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I looked on both
sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at sea,
and therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in; but here I had liked to have dipped- all my cargo into
the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
sloping, there was no place to land, but where one end of my float,

if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink 'lower, as
before, that it would endanger my cargo again ; all that'I could do,
was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over ; and
so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about
a foot pf water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end ; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen; where I was, I yet knew not; whether-on
the continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above
a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high, and which
seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it,
northward; I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder, and thus armed, I travelled for dis-
covery up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour
and difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction;
viz., that I was in an island environed every way with the sea, no land
to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great way off; and two
small islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none ; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood ; I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there
arose an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making4a con-
fused screaming and crying, and every one according to his usual
note, but not one of them of any kind that I knew; as for the crea-
ture I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak re-
sembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common ; its
flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day; what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but

some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears. However, as well as I
could, I barricaded myself round with the chests and boards that I
had brought on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging ; as for food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, ex-
cept that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the
wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to land,
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possi-
ble ; and as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till. I
had got everything out of the ship that I could get : then I called a
council-that is to say, in my thoughts-whether I should take back
the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to go as
before, when the tide was down, and I.did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered shirt,
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and, having had experience of the first, I neither made this so un-
wieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but vet I brought away several things
very useful to me ; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone ; all these I secured, together with several things belonging to
the gunner, particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of
musket bullets, seven muskets, another fowling-piece, with some
small quantity of powder more ; large bag full of small shot, and
a great roll of sheet-lead ; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist
it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, hammock, and some bedding ; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore : but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still ; she sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me ; I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor

did she offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great: however, 1 spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled
at it, and ate it, and looked, as if pleased, for more ; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels (for they were too
heavy, being large casks), I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into
this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun, and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from
man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without ; and
spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just
at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first
time, and slept very quietly all night, for 1 was very weary and heavy;
for the night before 1 had slept little, and had laboured very hard all
day, as well to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them
on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man : but I was not satisfied still, for while the ship
sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of
her that I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and
brought away something or other ; but particularly the third time I
went, I brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the
small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas,
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet
gunpowder : in a word, I brought away all the sails first and last;
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a
time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that last of all, after I
had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with ; I say,
after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets
of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour : this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water ; I soon emptied the
hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces
of the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe oa
shore also.

The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables ; and cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with all these
heavy goods, and came away; but my good luck began now to leave
me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that, after I had
entered the little cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infi-
nite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now 13 days on shore, and had been ii times on board
the ship, in which time 1 had brought away all that one pair of hands
could well be supposed capable to bring ; though I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece ; but preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise : however, at low water I went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers
in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks :
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some
European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money : "O drug !" said I,
aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not
the taking off the ground : one of those knives is worth all this heap :
I have no manner of use for thee-even remain where thou art, and go
to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However,
upon second thoughts, I took it away, and, wrapping all this in a
piece of canvas, I began to think of making another raft; but while
I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began
to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore.
It occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone before the
tide of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore

at all; accordingly, I let myself down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose
very hastily, and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me, very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with the satis-
factory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated any dili-
gence, to get everything out of her that could be useful to me; and
that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away,
if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages (if any should appear), or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to make; whether I should make
me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth ; and, in short, I re-
solved upon both, of the manner and description of which, it may not
be improper to give an account.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, because
it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and 1 believed
would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: ist, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned;
2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly, security from ravenous
creatures, whether man or beast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my delive-
rance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as
a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top;
on the side of the rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
cave, or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to
pitch my tent: this plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and

about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door, and, at-the
end of it descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds
by the sea-side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that I
was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S.
sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top;
the two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a
post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it ; this cost me a great deal of time and labour,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and
drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I
lifted over after me ; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified,
as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me
from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I
made double, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above it;
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved
among the sails. And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed
and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my
tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so


that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things
were brought to perfection ; and, therefore, I must go back to some
other'things which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time
it happened, after 1 had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent,
and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a great
clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself-O my powder! my
very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed ; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing my food, as I thought, entirely depended : I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight ; and I think my powder,
which in all was about 240 pounds weight, was divided in not less
than a hundred parcels : as to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave,
which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen ; and the rest I hid up and
down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at
least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me ; but then it was attended with this misfortune
to me, viz., that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at them ; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them : I observed if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run
away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys,

1 41

and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I
concluded, that by the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards, I took this method,-I always climbed
the rocks first, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
mark. The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily ; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock
still by her, till I came and took her up ; and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed
me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and
took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to
have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it,
and eat it myself; these two supplied me with flesh a great while,
for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did"
for that, and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its place.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 3oth of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island, when the sun,
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude 9 deg. 22
min. north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should be losing my reckoning of time for want of
books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days ; but
to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital letters,
and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first
landed, I came on shore here on the 3oth of September, z659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month, as long again as that long one ; and thus I kept
my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before ; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,





mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or.four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation; all which I huddled together, whether I might want
them or no : also, I found three very good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a
dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to
say something in its place ; for I carried both the cats with me; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on
shore to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and
was a trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me.
I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I
kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I
could not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together ; and of these, ink was one,
as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pins, and thread : as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily ; and it was
near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale, or
surrounded my habitation; the piles or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more, by far, in bringing home; so that I spent some-
times two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got
a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one
of the iron crows ; which, however, though I found it, made driving
those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other employ-
ment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs
in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me, for I was likely to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts
from daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind: and as my


reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort
myself as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I
stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible, de-
solate island, void of all hope of
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mannkind-
a solitaire; one banished from
haiman society.
I have not clothes to cover ine.

I amn without any defence, or
me uis to resist any violence of
m. .n or beast.

SIt ive nao soul to speak to or
relieve me.

But I am alive; and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany were.
But I am singled oat, too,from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He thai mira-
culously saved me from death,
can deliver mefrom thiscondition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place, af-
fording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of
Africa : and what if I had been
shifpwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out as many neces-
saly things as will either supply
my wants or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable but there was some-
thing negative or something positive to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship-I say,
giving over these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way
of living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, silrrounded with a strong pale of post and cables;

but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside ; and after
some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found
at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me ; but I must observe,
too, that" at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place, I had no room to turn
myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave and work farther into
the earth ; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the
labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the rock ;
and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification. This
gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my
tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for
without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the
world ; I could not write or eat, or do several things, with so much
pleasure without a table. So I went to work ; and here I must needs
observe, that as reason is the substance and origin of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by
making the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in
time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in
my life ; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it,
especially if I had had tools ; however, I made abundance of things,
even without tools ; and some with no more tools than an adze and
a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour; for example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and
hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be
thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
by this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the
prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a
plank or board: but my time or labour was little worth, and so it
was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in
the first place ; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that

I brought on my raft from the ship; but when I had Wrought out
some boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to lay all
my tools, nails, and iron-work on ; and, in a word, to separate every-
thing at large into their places, that I might come easily at them ; I
knocked pieces into the wall %f the rock to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up : so that, had my cave been to be seen,
it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me
to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment ; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not
only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of. mind;
and my journal would have been full of many dull things ; for
example, I must have said thus : Sept. 3oth.- After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
fo: my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great quantity of
sa't water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a
little, I ran about the shore wringing my hands and beating my
head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out, I was
undone, undone !' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on
the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
got all that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to
the top of a little mountain, and looked out to sea, in hopes of seeing
a ship ; then fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail, please myself with
the hopes of it, and then after looking steadily, till I was almost blind,
lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal; of which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be
told all these particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
Sepicmber 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called "The Island of
Despair;" all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.

All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal
circumstances I was brought to; viz., I had neither food, house,
clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to ; and, in despair of any relief,
saw nothing but death before me, either that I should be devoured
by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
food. At the approach of night I slept in a tree, for fear of wild
creatures; but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October i.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer tfe island ; which, as it was some comfort, on one hand-for,
seeing her set upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief-so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on
board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not
have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been
saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent
great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things ; but, at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining,
though with no wind at all.
From the Ist of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent
in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I
brought on shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in
the days, though with some intervals of fair weather ; but it seems
this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it;
but, being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I
recovered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of
her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and se-
curing the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from
any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment; which I resolved to strengthen with
a work, wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within with
cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to 3oth, I worked very hard in carrying l. my goods

to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceed-
ingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also,
because it would not feed.
November i.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to
swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence round
me, a little within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make
me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it
did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock;
then eat what I had to live on ; and from twelve till two I lay down
to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in the evening,
to work again. The working part of this day and of the next were
wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing;
every creature that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my table
again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long
before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th,
9th, ioth, and part of the 12th (for the Inth was Sunday), I took
wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a
tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I
pulled it in pieces several times.
Note.--I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on n-y post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and

cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and
lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
ANov. 14, 15, i6.-These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at
most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to rll it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock,
to make room for my further convenience. Note, Three things I
wanted exceedingly for this work; viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a
wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to
consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools; as for
the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was
so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. I8.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of
that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for
its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling
my axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty enough,
for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and
my having no other way, made me a long while upon this machine,
for I worked it effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel
or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that
the board part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long ; however, it served well enough'for the uses which I
had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I believe, made
after that fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as
twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware, at least, none yet found
out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I had no notion of; neither did I know how to go
about it; besides I had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in ; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar in when they
serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the making
the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made
in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days

-I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I
seldom failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something
fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely'in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously. Note.-During all this time, I worked to
make this room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar ; as
for my lodging, I kept to the tent ; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my pale
with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and
load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December io.-I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity
of earth fell down from the top and one side ; so much that, in short,
it frighted me, and not without reason, too, for if I had been under
it, I had never wanted a grave digger. I had now a great deal of
work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out ; and,
which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. ii.-This day I went to work with it, and got two shores or
posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across over
each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured, and the
posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up ;
and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me;
also, I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day.-No stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught
it and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, which was broke. N.B.-I took such care of it
that it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as ever ; but, by my


nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away; this was the first time that I enter-
tained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was
no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent
in putting all my things in order within doors.
January I.-Very hot still: but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
farther iqro the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I
found there were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard
to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
to hunt them down.
Yan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and
set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about
upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not
come near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, it is sufficient to observe,
that I was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the i4th of
April working, finishing, and perfecting this wall, though it was no
more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a half-circle,
from one place in the rock to another place, about eight yards from
it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many
days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never
be perfectly secure till this wall was finished ; and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done with, especially the
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for 1 made them much bigger than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside doubly-fenced, with
a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be observed here-
after, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries in
these walks of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I
found a kind of wild pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in.a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them updame, and
did so; but when they grew older they flew away, which peirhapsjas

at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make ; as, indeed, with some of
them it was : for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped;
I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never
arrive at the capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it ; I could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so
true to one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also
over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as
soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was
obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees-wax with
which 1 made candles in my African adventure; but I had none of
that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat
I saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked
in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a
candle. In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummag-
ing my things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with
corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage; but before, as
I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder
of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats,
and I saw nothing in it but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use (T think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I
shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw tlis stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when, about a month after,
or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green shooting
out of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer
time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect
green barley, of the same kind as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me, otherwise than as chance, or,, as we lightly say, what pleases God,
without so much'as inquiring into the end of Providence in these
things, or His order in governing events for the world ; but after I

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saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously caused
His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,
because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and which
I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa, when I was ashore
there. I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place,
I went all over that part of the island where I had been before,
peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of it,
but I could not find any; at last it occurred to my thoughts, that I
shook a bag of chicken's meat out in that place; and then the wonder
began to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to
God's providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all
this was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had
been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had
been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that
particular place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang
up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June ; and, laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some
quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order;
for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it never came
up at all, at least not as it would have done ; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of
rice, which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or
to the same purpose-to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after some
time. But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months to get Ay wall

done, and the i4th of April I closed it up, contriving to go into it,
not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be no
sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside.
This was a complete enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough,
and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed. The case was
thus :-As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the en-
trance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful sur-
prising thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come
crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the
hill over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful manner : I was heartily scared, but thought
nothing of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top of
my cave was fallen in, as some of it had done before : and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking
myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of
the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me; I was no sooner
stepped down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a
terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have
overturned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth ; and a great piece of the top of a rock which
stood about half a mile from me next the sea fell down, with such
a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also the
very sea was put into violent motion by it ; and I believe the shocks
were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick,
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the
rock awaked me, and rousing me from the stupefied condition I
was in, filled me with horror; and I thought of nothing but the hill
falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and burying all
at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage ; and yet I had not heart enough to go over
my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the
ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do ;
all this while, I had not the least serious religious thought ; nothing

but the common Lord have mercy upon me i "and when it was
over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if
it would rain. Soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so
that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane, the
sea was all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth; the shore
was covered with the breach of the water ; the trees were torn up by
the roots ; and a terrible storm it was. This held about three hours,
and then began to abate; in two hours more it was quite calm, and
began to rain very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very
much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences of the
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to
revive ; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent. But the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid lest it should fall on my head. This violent
rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through my new
fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which would else
have flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave for some time,
and found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I began to
be more composed. And now, to support my spirits, which indeed
wanted it very much, I went to my little store, and took a small sup
of rum ; which, however, I did then and always very sparingly,
knowing I could have no more when that was gone. It continued
raining all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad ; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to
these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building a little hut in an open place, which I might
surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so make myself secure
from wild beasts or men; for I concluded if I stayed where I was, I
should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it stood, which was just under the hanging precipice of the
hill; and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent; and I spent the two next days, being the i9th and
20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence
was almost equal to it; but still, when I looked about, and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and

how safe from danger, it made me very loth to remove. In the
mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of
time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture
where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it
so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for
a time, and resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build
me a wall with piles and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my
tent up in it, when it was finished ; but that I would venture to stay
where I was till it was finished, and fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means to put
this resolve into execution ; but I was at a great loss about my tools.
I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we carried the
hatchets for traffic with the Indians) ; but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches, and dull; and
though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of
a man. At length, I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with
my foot, that I might have both my hands at liberty.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a great while,
now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a
day, which made my heart very heavy.
May i.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone : however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed; the
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least
six feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her,
was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side, and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a
great place of water before, so that I could not come within a quarter
of a mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up

to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, in
searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of the
ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck together,
and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as I
could from the side which lay highest ; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
fay 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, till I was weary of my sport ; when, just going to leave off, I
caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
May 5.-W-orked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder, and
brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I tied together,
and made to float on shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck, got several iron bolts out of her,
and other pieces of iron-work. Worked very hard, and came home
very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
iav 7.-Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to work,
but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams
being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the
inside of the hold lay so open that I could see into it, but almost full
of water and sand.
A.ay 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand; I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide; I left the iron crow in the wreck for next day.
Mlay 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the
body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with -the
crow, but could not break them up; I felt also a roll of English lead,
and could stir it; but it was too heavy to remove.
rMay 1o-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many

pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred-
weight of iron.
MaLy 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a piece
off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and driving
it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water,
I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
Alzy 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared
more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long in the
woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
the wreck that day.
Mlay 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a great
distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they were, and
found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
AIry 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much with the crow, that
the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests ; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil
pork in it; but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued
this work every day to the i5th of June, except the time necessary to
get food, which I always appointed, during this part of my employ-
ment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be read when it was
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank and iron-
work enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how; and
also I got, at several times and in several pieces, near Ioo weight of
the sheet-lead.
7Jue i6.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle ; this was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only my
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened
to be on the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds of
them every day, as I found afterwards ; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.
1une 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her threescore
eggs ; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of goats
and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
/iJue i8.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew
was not usual in that latitude.
J/ne 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
71'une 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with the appre-
hensions of my sad condition-to be sick, and no help. Prayed to

God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but scarce knew what
I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful apprehensions of
7June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then a violent
iune 24.-Much better.
1und 25.-An ague very violent : the fit held me seven hours; cold
fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun,
but found myself very weak. However, I killed a she-goat, and with
much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would
fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, and
neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst ; but so weak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again, but was light-headed ; and when I was not, I
was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
" Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me Lord have mercy upon me !"
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours ; till, the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and ex-
ceeding thirsty. However, as I had no water in my habitation, I was
forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep, I had this terrible dream :-I thought that I was sitting on the
ground, on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great
black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground.
He was all over as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to
look towards him ; his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful,
impossible for words to describe. When he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if
it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner landed upon
the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me ; and when he came to a rising ground,
at some distance, he spoke to me-or I heard a voice so terrible that
it is impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I un-
derstood, was this :-" Seeing all these things have not brought thee
to repentance, now thou shalt die;"-at which words, I thought he
lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision.


Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression that remained
upon my mind when I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and profane
to the last degree. In the relating what is already past of my story,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through
all the variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never
had so much as one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin; my rebellious behaviour against
my father-or my present sins, which were great-or so much as a
punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When I was
on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, 1 never
had so much as one thought of what would become of me, or one
wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from
the danger which apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious
creatures as cruel savages. But I was merely thoughtless of a God
or a Providence, acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well
used, and dealt justly and honourably with, as well as charitably, I
had not the least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I
was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment. I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisurely
view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me; when
my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and
nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to reproach myself
with my past life. "Now," said I aloud, "'my dear father's words
are come to pass ; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none
to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which had
mercifully put me in a posture or station of life wherein I might have
been happy and easy ; but I would neither see it mys-lf, nor learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents. I left them to mourn over
my folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it.
I refused their help and assistance, who would have lifted me in the
world, and would have made everything easy to me; and now I have
difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support,
and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." Then I cried
out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great distress." This was the

first prayer, if I may call it so, that I had made for many years. But
I return to my Journal :-
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the fright
and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered that the fit
of the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time
to get something to refresh and support myself when I should be ill;
and tht first thing I did, I filled a large square case-bottle with water,
and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed ; and to take off the chill
or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of
rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece of the
goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I
walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-
hearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return
of my distemper the next day; at night, I made my supper of three
of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call
it, in the shell, and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessing to, even as I could remember, in my whole life. After
I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without that); so I went
but a little way, and sat down upon the ground looking out upon the
sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat
here some such thoughts as these occurred to me :-What is this earth
and sea, of which I have seen so much ? Whence is it produced ?
And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human
and brutal? Whence are we? Sure we are all made by some secret
power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, it is God that has made all.
Well, but then, it came on strangely, if Godo has made all these
things, He guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
them; for the power that could make all things must certainly have
power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can happen in the great
circuit of His works, either without His knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that 1
am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if nothing happens
without His appointment, He has appointed all this to befal me.
Immediately it followed,-Why has God done this to me? My con-
science presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed,
and methought it spoke to me like a voice-" Wretch dost thou ask
what thou hast done ? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and
ask thyself what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
long ago destroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the.Sallee man-of-war-;

devoured by the wild-beasts on the coast of Africa ; or drowned HERE
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I
done ?" I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one astonished,
and had not a word to say,--no, not to answer to myself, but rose up
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went up over mywall,
as if I had been going to bed ; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed,
and I had no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair, and
lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension
of the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to
my thought that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for
almost all distempers, and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests, which was quite cured, and some also that was green, and
not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there
too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before, and
which to this time I had not found leisure or inclination to 16ok into ;
I say, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me
to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my
distemper, or whether It was good for it or no: but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I resolved it should hit one way or other : I
first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at
first almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and that I had not been much used to it; then I took some and
steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose
of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals,
and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I couli bear
it, as well for the heat as the virtue of it, and I held almost to suffo-
cation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and
began to read ; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having opened
the book casually, the first words that occurred to me were these,
" Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will-deliver thee, and thou
shalt glorify me." The words were very apt to my case, andm e
some impression upon my thoughts at the time of read
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, asor being
delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing
was so remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I
began to say, as the children of Israel did when they were promised
flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?" so I began
to say, Can God himself deliver me from this place ?" And4it
was not for many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very

. 1 -




often upon my thoughts; but, however, the words made a very great
impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often. It grew now
late, and the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much that I
inclined to sleep ; so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should
want anything in the night, and went to bed ; but before I lay down, I
did what I never had done in all my life-I kneeled down, and prayed
to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the
day of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and inmer-
fect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had steeped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco that I could
scarcely get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and I
found presently it flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a
sound sleep, and waked no more till, by the sun, it must necessarily
be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next day ; nay, to this
hour I am partly of opinion that I slept all the next day and night,
and till almost three the day after ; for otherwise, I know not how
I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week,
as it appeared some years after I had done ; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than a day ;
but in my account it was lost, and I never knew which way. Be
that, however, one way or other, when I awaked I found myself
exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful. When I
got up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my stomach
better, for I was hungry; and, in short, I had no fit the next day,
but continued much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 3oth was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my
gun, but did not care to travel too far: I killed a sea-fowl or two,
something like a brand goose, and brought them home, but was not
very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs,
which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
I had supposed did me good the day before, viz., the tobacco steeped
in rum ; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any
of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke; however, I was not so
well the next day, which was the first of July, as I hoped I should
have been ; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed .the fit for good and all, though I did not
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I was thus
gathering strength my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scripture,
I will deliver thee ;" and the impossibility of my deliverance lay
much upon my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it : but as I was
discouraging myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that

I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that
I disregarded the deliverance I had received, and I was as it were
made to ask myself such questions as these; viz. : Have I not been
delivered, and wonderfully too, from sickness-from the most dis-
tressed condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me?
and what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part ? God had
delivered me, but I had not glorified him-that is to say, I had not
owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance; and how could I
expect greater deliverance ? This touched my heart very much;
and immediately I knelt down, and gave God thanks aloud for my
recovery from my sickness.
j7uly 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and, beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and imposed upon
myself to read a while every morning and every night; not tying
myself to the number of chapters, but long as my thoughts should
engage me ; it was not long after I set seriously to this work, but I
found my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wicked-
ness of my past life ; the impression of my dream revived; and the
words, All these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran
seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give
me repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day, that,
reading the Scripture, I came to these words: "He is exalted a
Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I
threw down the book ; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted
up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, "Jesus,
thou son of David Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour give me
repentance This was the first time I could say, in the true sense
of the words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I prayed with a
sense of my condition, and a true scripture view of hope, founded on
the encouragement of the Word of God; and from this time, I may
say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.
But I return to my Journal :-
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in walking
about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a man
that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness; for it is
hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was
reduced. The application which I made use of was perfectly new,
and perhaps which had never cured an ague before; neither can I
recommend it to any one to practise, by this experiment: and though
it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for
I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time. I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in the rainy
season was the most pernicious thing to my health that could be.

I had been now in this unhappy island above ten months; all pos-
sibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely taken
from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape had -ever set
foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
survey of the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher, and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good;
but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it-at least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could
be perceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; and
on the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where the
water, as might be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal
of tobacco, green, and growing to a great and very strong stalk.
There were divers other plants, which I had no notion of or under-
standing about, that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which
I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of, but I could find
none. I saw large plants-of aloes, but did not understand them. I
saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and, for want of cultivation, im-
perfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this time, and
came back, musing with myself what course I might take to know
the virtue and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should
discover, but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had
made so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field; at Ieast, very little that might serve
me to any purpose now in my distress.
The next day., the i6th, I went up the same way again ; and, after
going something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the
brook and savannahs began to cease, and the country become more
woody than before. In this part, I found different fruits, and par-
ticularly I found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and
grapes upon the trees ; the vines had spread, indeed, over the trees,
and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe and
rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding glad of
them; but I was warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them,
remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes
killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throwing

them into fevers ; but I found an excellent use for these grapes; that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
wholesome and agreeable to eat when no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. In the night, I took my first contrivance, and got up in a
tree, where I slept well; and the next morning proceeded upon my
discovery, travelling nearly four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills on the
south and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west ; and a
little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by
me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared
so fresh, so green, so flourishing, everything being in a constant
verdure or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I
descended a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with
a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with my other afflicting
thoughts) to think that this was all my own ; that I was king and
lord of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession;
and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as completely
as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange, and lemon, and citron-trees ; but all wild, and very few
bearing any fruit, at least not.then. However, the green limes that
I gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome ; and I
mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it very whole-
some, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I had business
enough, to gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up
a store as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself
for the wet season, which I knew was approaching. In order
to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a
lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
lemons in another place; and taking a few of each with me,
I travelled homewards; resolving to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave) ; but before I
got thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit and
the weight of the juice having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing : as to the limes, they were
good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two
mall bags to bring home my harvest. But I was surprised, when


coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and fine when I
gathered them, to find them all spread about, trod to pieces, and
dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and
devoured. By this, I concluded there were some wild creatures
thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were I knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight, I took another course ; for I gathered a large quantity of
the grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that
they might cure and dry in the sun; .and as for the limes and lemons,
I carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the
situation ; the security from storms on that side, the water, and the
wood : and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and looking
out for a place equally safe as where now 1 was situated, if possible,
in that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it
for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me ; but when
I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now by the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something might happen to
my advantage, and, that the same ill-fate that brought me hither,
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and
though it was scarce probable that any such thing should ever happen,
yet to inclose myself among the hills and woods in the centre of the
island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an affair
not only improbable, but impossible ; and that therefore I ought not
by any means to remove. However, I was so enamoured of this place,
that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second thoughts, I
resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and
surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brush-
wood ; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights
together; always going over it with a ladder as before; so that I
fancied now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and
this work took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy my labour,
but the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habitation ;
for though I made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and


spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the rains were
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my bower,
and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes
I had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed excellent raisins of the sun ;
so I began to take them down from the trees, and it was very happy
that I did so, for the rains which followed would have spoiled them,
and I had lost the best part of my winter food; for I had above two
hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all
down, and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began to
rain ; and from hence, which was the i4th of August, it rained, more
or less, every day till the middle of October; and sometimes so vio-
lently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of ny family;
I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who ran away
from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more
tidings of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home about the
end of August, with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my gun,
yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our European cats;
yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one;
from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,
that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to
drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the i4th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I could
not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In this con-
finement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing out twice,
I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th, found
a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and my food was re-
gulated thus :-I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast ; a piece of
the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled (for, to my
great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything), and two
or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees worked it
on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made
a door or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was in a perfect in-
closure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not
perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest creature
that I had yet seen upon the island being a goat.


Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had been
on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a
solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself
on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing my sins
to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and pray-
ing to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and not having
tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down
of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went
to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed
no Sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the weeks, by
making a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did
not really know what any of the days were; but now, having cast up
the days as above, I found I had been there a year; so I divided it
into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though
I found at the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in my
reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my life.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular
to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them accor-
dingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am
going to relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that I
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought, of them-
selves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after
the rains, the sun being in its southern position, going from me.
Accordingly, I dug up a piece of ground as well as I could with my
wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but
as I was sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper time
for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful
of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so, for
not one'grain of what I sowed this time came to anything: for the dry
months following, the earth having had no rain after the seed was
sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at
all till the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I
easily imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of ground near

my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in February, a little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded
a very good crop; but having part of the seed left only, and not
daring to sow all that I had, I had but a small quantity at last, my
whole crop not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But
by this experiment I was made master of my business, and knew
exactly when the proper season was to sow, and that I might expect
two seed times, and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was
of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November, I
made a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
double hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the
stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were
all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-tree
usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I could not tell
what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from. I was surprised,
and yet very well pleased, to see the young trees grow: and I pruned
them, and led them up to grow as much alike as I could. It is scarce
credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so that
though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter,
yet the trees, for such I might now cill them, soon covered it, and it
was a complete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a
hedge like this, in a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first
dwelling), which I did; and placing the trees or stakes in a double
row, at about eight yards distance from my first fence, they grew
presently, and were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and after-
wards served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
and the dry seasons, which were generally thus :-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the half of April--
rainy, the sun being then on or near the equinox.-The half of April, .
the whole of May, June, and July, and the half of August-dry, the
sun being then to the north of the Line.-The half of August, the
whole of September, and the half of October-rainy, the sun being
then come back.-The half of October, the whole of November, De-
cember, and January, and the half of February-dry, the sun being
then to the south of the Line.-The rainy season sometimes held
longer or shorter as the winds happened to blow, but this was the

general observation I made. After I had found, by experience, the
ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to. furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go
out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during the wet
months. In this time I found much employment, and very suitable
also to the time, for I found great occasion for many things which I
had no way to furnish myself with but by hard labour and constant
application ; particularly I tried many ways to make myself a basket,
but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so brittle that
they would do nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now,
that when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at a
basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see them make
their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are, very officious to
help, and a great observer of the manner in which they worked those
things, and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these means so full
knowledge of the methods of it, that I wanted nothing but the mate.
rials, when it came into my mind that the twigs of that tree from
whence I cut my stakes that grew, might possibly be as tough as the
sallows, willows, and osiers in England, and I resolved to try. Ac-
cordingly, the next day I went to my country house, as I called it,
and cutting some of the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose
as much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared
with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there
was great plenty of them ; these I set up to dry within my circle or
hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave;
and here, during the next season, I employed myself in making, as
well as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth or to carry
or lay up anything, as I had occasion ; and though I did not finish
them very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without
them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially
strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I
should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time
about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two
wants. I had no vessels to hold anything that was liquid, except
two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles,
some of the common size, and others which were case-bottles, square,
for the holding of water, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to
boil anything, except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship,
and which was too big for such uses as I desired it for, viz., to make
broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second thing I fain
would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible to me to

make one; however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I
employed myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles, and in
this wicker-working all the summer or dry season, when another busi-
ness took me up more time than it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I built my
bower, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the othef
side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-
shore on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and
a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit
cakes and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began
my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as
above, I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or continent I
could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the W. to the
WV.S.W. at a very great distance ; by my guess, it could not be less
than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I concluded,
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions. After
some thought, I considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I
should certainly, one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass
one way or other ; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and Brazils, where are found the worst of
savages; for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to mur-
der and devour all the human bodies that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward. I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than
mine, the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and
grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and
fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a
young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having
recovered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak. However, at last, I taught him to call me
by my name very familiarly ; but the accident that followed, though it
be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares (as 1 thought them to be) and foxes ; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several; but I had no-need to be
venturous; for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good, too, especially these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and

turtle, or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market
could not have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the
company: and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had
great cause for thankfulness that I was not driven to any extremities
for food ; but had rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright in a day,
or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns and returns to see what
coveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place
,?here I resolved to sit down all night ; and then either reposed
myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set
upright in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no
wild creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island ; for here, indeed,
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas on the other
side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was also an
infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which I had not seen
before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not
the names of, except those called penguins. I could have shot as
many as I pleased, but was very sparing of my powder and shot, and
therefore had more mind to kill a she-goat, if I could, which I could
better feed on ; and though there were many goats here, more than
on my side the island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I
could come near them, the country being flat and even, and they
saw me much sooner than when I was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed
in my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while
I was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. How-
ever, I travelled along the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose
about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore
for a mark, I concluded I would go home again ; and the next journey
I took should be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again ; of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not
miss finding my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found
myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles, I found
myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which
was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then,
unless I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the day.
It happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved

hazy for three or four days while I was in the valley ; and not being
able to see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at
last was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come
back the same way as I went : and then, by easy journeys, I turned
homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammuni-
tion, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized upon it;
and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and saved it alive from
the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could, for I had
often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be all spent. I made a collar for
this little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-
yarn, which I always carried about me, I led him along, though
with some difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed
him and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed ; this little
wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had been so
unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to myself, was a
perfect settlement to me compared to that ; and it rendered every-
thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a
great way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my
long journey ; during which, most of the time was taken up in the
weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll, who began now to be a
mere domestic, and to be well acquainted with me. Then I began to
think of the poor kid which I had penned in within my little circle,
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food ; accord-
ingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed it could not get
out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrub s as I could find, and
threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away ; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to
have tied it, for it followed me like a dog ; and, as I continually fed
it, the creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it
wo'ild never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I
kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before,
being the anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been
there two years, and no more prospect of being delivered than the
first day I came there.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the
wicked life I led all the past part of my days; my very desires
altered, my affections changed their gusts, and my delights were per-
fectly new from what they were at my first coming, or, indeed, for
the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for viewing
the country,, the anguish of my soul at my condition would break out
upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me, to
think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was in, and how I
was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean,
in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption. In the midst of
the greatest composure of my mind, this would break out upon me
like a storm, and make me wring my hands and weep like a child,
Sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for an
hour or two together ; and this was still worse to me, for if I could
burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and
the grief, having exhausted itself, would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts: I daily
read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my present
state; and began to conclude in my mind, that it was possible for
me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition, than it
was probable I should ever have been in any other state in the
world ; and with this thought I was going to give thanks to God for
bringing me to this place. I know not what it was, but something
shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak the words.
" How canst thou become such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly,
"to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou
mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst rather pray
heartily to be delivered from ?" So I stopped there, but though I
could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I sincerely gave
thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflicting provi-
dences, to see the former condition of my life, and to mourn for
my wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible, or shut it,
but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my friend in
England, without any order of mine, to pack it up among my goods,
and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of the wreck of the
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year ; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first; yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very seldom idle, but having regularly divided

my time according to the several daily employment that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and the reading the Scriptures,
which I constantly set apart some time for, thrice every day ; secondly,
the going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up
three hours in every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed or
caught for my supply : these took up great part of the day. Also, it
is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when the sun was
in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out ; so
that about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be sup-
posed to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my
hours of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want
of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took up out
of my time. For example, I was full two and forty days in making a
board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two
sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them
out of the same tree in half a day. My case was this : it was to be a
large tree which was to be cut down, because my board was to be a
broad one. This tree I was three days in cutting down, and two
more cutting off the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the
sides of it into chips till it began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board from
end to end ; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and smooth on
both sides. Any one may judge the labour of my hands in such a
piece of work; but labour and patience carried me through that, and
many other things. I only observe this in particular, to show the
reason why so much of my time went away with so little work, viz.,
that what might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a vast
labour and required a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand.
But notwithstanding this, with patience and labour I got through
everything that my circumstances made necessary to me to do.
I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up
for them was not great ; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by
sowing in the dry season ; but now my crop promised very well, when
on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies
of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as,


first, the goats, an'd wild creatures which I called hares, which, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came
up, and eat it so close, that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an inclosure about it with
a hedge ; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more, because
it required a great deal of speed, as the creatures daily spoiled my
corn. However, as my arable land was but small, suited to my crop,
I got it totally well fenced in about three weeks' time; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day time, I set my dog to guard it in the
night, tying him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and
bark all night long ; so in a little time, the enemies forsook the place,
and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade,
so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear;
for, going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my little
crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, which
stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner
shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen
at all, from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hopes; that I should never be able to raise a
crop at all ; and what to do I could not tell: however, I resolved not
to lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night and day.
In the first place, I went among it, to see what damage was already
done, and found they had spoiled a good deal of it; but that as it
was yet too green for them, the loss was not so great but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.
I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so ;
for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was no sooner out of their
sight, than they dropped down one by one into the corn again. I
was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay till more
came on, knowing that every grain that they eat now was, as it might
be said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired again, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for ; so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz., hanged them in chains for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as
it had ; for the fowls would not only not come at the corn, but forsook
all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird near the place
, as long as my scarecrows hung there. This I was very glad of, you

may be sure, and about the latter end of December, which was our
second harvest of the year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and all
I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the
broadswords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However, as my crop was but small, I had no great difficulty
to cut it down; in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off
but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had made,
and so rubbed it out with my hands ; and at the end of all my har-
vesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had near two
bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of barley; that is to
say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread; and yet
here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or make
meal of my corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it, nor, if made
into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it. These things being added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season, and, in the mean time, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of pro-
viding myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a
little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought much
upon ; viz., the strange multitude of little things necessary in the
providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and finishing this
one article of bread. I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth-no spade or shovel to
dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as I
observed before, but this did my work but in a wooden manner; and
though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron,
it not only wore out soon, but made my work the harder, and made
it be performed much worse. However, this I bore with, and was
content to work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of
the performance. When the corn was sowed, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a
tree over it, to scratch the earth, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, I have ob-
served already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow


or reap it, cure and carryit home, thresh it, part it from the chaff, and
save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to bake it; but all these
things I did without; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me too; but this made everything laborious and
tedious to me; but that there was no help for; neither was my time
so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain part of it
was every day appointed to these works ; and as I resolved to use none
of the corn for bread till I had a greater quantity by me, I had the
next six months to apply myself wholly, by labour and invention, to
furnish myself with utensils proper for the performing all the opera-
tions necessary for the making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's
work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but
a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to
work with it ; however, I went through that, and sowed my seed in
two large flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find
them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes
of which were all cut off that wood which I had set before, which I
knew it would grow; so that, in a year's time, I knew I should have
a quick or living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work
was not so little as to take me up less than three months, because a
great part of that time was the wet season, when I could not go
abroad. Within-doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not go
out, I found employment on the following occasions-always ob-
serving, that all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with
talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly
taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty
loud, Poll," which was the first word I ever heard spoken in the
island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my work,
but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a great em-
ployment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied, by some
means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which, indeed,
I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come at them; however,
considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I could
find out any such clay, I might botch up some such pot as might,
being dried in the sun, be hard enough and strong enough to bear
handling, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept
so ; and as this was necessary in the preparing corn, meal, &c. which
was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could,
and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell

how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste, what odd, mis-
shapen, ugly things I made, how many of them fell in, and how many
fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how
many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only removing, as well
before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having
laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home,
and work it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things
(I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, Flifted
them very gently up, and set them down again in two great wicker
baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a little room
to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw; and these two
pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
made several smaller things with better success ; such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and anything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them strangely hard. But all this
would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen pot to hold
what was liquid, and bear the fire-which none of these could do.
It happened after some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking
my meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I found
a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire, burnt as
hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see
it, and said to myself, that certainly they might be made to burn
whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in, or
of glazing them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with; but
I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile, one
upon another, and placed my firewood all round it with a great heap
of embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round the
outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all: when I
saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
r.n; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate of the red
colour; and, watching them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say

handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand. After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted
no sort of earthenware for my use; but as to the shapes of them,
they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, when I had no
way of making them but as the children make dirt pies, or as a
woman would make -pies that never learned to raise paste.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the fire;
and rhad hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
on the fire again, with some water in it, to boil me some meat, which
it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very
good broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it so good as I would have had it.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at
that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want,
I was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the world, I was as
perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for any whatever; neither
had I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out
a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar,
and could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and
which I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in
the island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling
stone, which neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor
would break the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great
deal of time lost in searching for a stone; I gave it over, and resolved
to look out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed
much easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I
rounded it, and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet,
and then, with the help of fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow
place in it, as the Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I
made a great heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-
wood; and this I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop
of corn, when I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my
corn or meal, to make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my meal,
and part it from the bran and the husk, without which I did not see
it possible I could have any bread. This was a most difficult thing
to think on, for to be sure I had nothing like the necessary thing to
make it with; I mean no fine thin canvas or stuff to scarce the meal
through. And here I was at a full stop for many months; nor did I
really know what to do; linen I had none left but what was mere rags;

I had goats'-hair, but neither knew how to weave it or spin it; and
had I known how, here were no tools to work it with. All the remedy
that I found for this was, that at last I did remember I had, among
the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship, some neck-
cloths of calico or muslin; and with some pieces of these I made
three small sieves proper enough for the work: and thus I made shift
for some years: how I did afterwards, I shall show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I
should make bread when I came to have corn ; for, first, I h no
yeast. As to that part, there was no supplying the want, s- lid
not concern myself much about it. But for an oven, I was index in
great pain. At length I found out an experiment for that also, which
was this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that
is to sav, about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep;
these I burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by
and when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth,
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and
burning also ; but I should not call them square.
When the firewood was burned pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie till the hearth was very hot : then,
sweeping away all the embers, I set down my loaf or loaves, and
whelming down the earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-
loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastrycook into the bargain;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice; indeed I
made no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I
had, except the flesh either of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up most
part of the third year of my abode here; for, it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things I had my new harvest and hus-
bandry to manage; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
it home as well as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my large
baskets, till I had time. to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the in-
crease of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; insomuch
that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had been
quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quantity would
be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year. Upon

the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much
more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to sow just the
same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a
quantity would fully provide me with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island ; and I was not without secret wishes that I
was on shore there, fancying that, seeing the main-land, and an in-
Ihi-td country, I might find some way or other to convey myself
fher, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
ow I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the shoulder-
of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles on the
coast of Africa; but this was in vain. Then I thought I would go
and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast
awxay. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite ; and was
turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, almost bottom up-
wards against the high ridge of a beachy, rough sand, but no water
about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to
have launched her into the water, the boat would have done well
enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her easy
enough ; but I might have easily foreseen that I could no more turn
her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the
island ; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and
brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do ; sug-
gesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, I might easily
repair the damage she had received, and she would be a very good
boat, and I might go to sea in her very easily.
I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent,
I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible to
heave it up with my little strength, I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermine it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it right in the fall. But when I had done this,
I was unable to stir it up again, or to get under it, much less to move
it forwards towards the water ; so I was forced to give it over; and
yet, though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture
over for the main increased, rather than decreased, as the means for
it seemed impossible.
This at length set me upon thinking whether it was not possible
to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but
easy, and pleased myself extremely with my thoughts of making it,

and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the particular incon-
veniences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of
hands to move it, when it was made, into the water-a difficulty much
harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want of tools
could be to them ; for what was it to me, that when I had chosen a
vast tree in the woods, I might with much trouble cut it down, if
after I might be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into
the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollow, so as to make a boat of it, if after all this, I must leave it just
there where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the water?
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was ever able to undertake it;
not but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my
head ; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer,
which I gave myself: '' Let me first make it; I warrant I will find
some way or other to get it along when it is done."
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went and felled a cedar-tree ; I question
much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building of the
Temple of Jerusalem ; it was five feet ten inches diameter at the lower
part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter at the end
of twenty-two feet; after which it lessened for a while, and then parted
into branches. It was not without infinite labour that I felled this
tree ; I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the bottom ; I was
fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading
head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through with my axe
and hatchet, with inexpressible labour : after this it cost me a month
to shape it and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought to do. It
cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work it out
so as to make an exact boat of it; this I did, indeed, without fire, by
mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have
carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough to have
carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it : the boat was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe or
periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life ; many a weary stroke
it had cost, you may be sure, and had I gotten it into the water, I
make no question but I should have begun the maddest voyage, and
the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me ; though they
cost me infinite labour too; it lay about one hundred yards from the
water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouragement, I
resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity:
this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains, but who
grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ? But when this was
worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much at
one, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock
or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could not bring
the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work, and when I
began to enter into it, and calculate how deep it was to be dug, how
broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that, by the
number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have been
ten or twelve years before I should have gone through with it; for
the shore lay high ; so that at the upper end it must have been at
least twenty feet deep ; so at length, though with great reluctancy, I
gave this attempt over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we
judge rightly of our own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place,
and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious appli-
cation to the Word of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I
gained a different knowledge from what I had before; I entertained
different notions of things.
I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than
it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body.
I frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the
hand of God's providence, which had thus spread my table in the
wilderness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my con-
dition, and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed
rather than what I wanted ; and this gave me sometimes such secret
comforts, that I cannot express them; and which I take notice of
here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot
enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because they see and
covet something that he has not given them. All our discontents
about what we want appeared to me to spring from the want of
thankfulness for what we have.
I had now been here so long, that many things which I had brought
on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much wasted

and near spent. My ink, as I observed, had been gone some time,
all but a very little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little,
till it was so pale, it scarce left any appearance of black upon the
paper : as long as it lasted I made use of it to minute down the days
of the month on which any remarkable thing happened to me ; and
first, by casting up times past, I remembered that there was a strange
concurrence of days in the various providence which befel me, and
which, if I had been superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal
or fortunate, I might have had reason to have looked upon with a
great deal of curiosity.
First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from
my father and friends, and ran away to Hull, in order to go to sea, the
same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-of-war, and made
a slave. The same day of the year that I escaped out of the wreck of
the ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same day year afterwards I made
my escape from Sallee. The same day of the year I was born on, viz.
the 3oth of September, that same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on shore in this island,
so that my wicked life and my solitary life began both on a day.
The next thing to my ink's being wasted, was that of my bread-
I mean the biscuit which I had brought out of the ship; this I had
husbanded to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread
a day for above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near a
year before I got any corn of my own ; and great reason I had to be
thankful that I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already
observed, next to miraculous.
My clothes, too, began to decay mightily; as to linen I had none
a good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the
chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved, because
many times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt; and it was
a very great help to me that I had, among all the men's clothes of
the ship, almost three dozen of shirts. There were also several thick
watch-coats of the seamen which were left indeed, but they were too
hot to wear; and though it is true that the weather was so vio-
lently hot that there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite
naked-no, though I had been inclined to it, which I was not;-nor
could I abide the thought of it, though I was all alone. The reason
why I could not go naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun
so well when quite naked as with some clothes on; nay, the very
heat frequently blistered my skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air
itself made some motion, and whistling under the shirt, was twofold
cooler than without it; no more could I ever bring myself to go out
in the heat of the sun without a cap or a hat; the heat of the sun,

beating with such violence as it does in that place, would give me
the head-ache presently, by darting so directly on my head, without
a cap or a hat on, so that I could not bear it; whereas, if I put on
my hat, it would presently go away.
Upon these views I began to consider about putting the few rags
I had, which I called clothes, into some order; I had worn out all the
waistcoats I had, and my business was now to try if I could not
make jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had by me, and
with such other materials as I had; so I set to work, a-tailoring, or
rather, indeed, a-botching, for I made most piteous work of it. How-
ever, I made shift to make twoor three new waistcoats, which I hoped
would serve -me a great while; as for breeches or drawers, I made
but a very sorry shift indeed till afterwards.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I
had killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up,
stretched out, with sticks in the sun; by which means some of them
were so dry and hard that they were fit for little, but others, it seems,
were very useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap
for my head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain ; and
this I performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of clothes
wholly of these skins; that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open
at the knees, and both loose, for they were rather wanted to keep me
cool, than to keep me warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that
they were wretchedly made ; for if I iwas a bad carpenter, I was a
worse tailor; however, they were such as I made very good shift
with, and when I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the hair of my
waistcoat and cap being outermost, I was kept very dry.
After this I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an um-
brella; I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to
make one; I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very
useful in the great heats which are there, and I felt the heats every
jot as great here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox ; besides,
as I was obliged to be much abroad, it was a most useful thing to
me, as well for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains at it,
and was a great while before I could make anything likely to hold:
nay, after I thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before
I made one to my mind ; but at last I made one that answered indif-
ferently well; the main difficulty I found was to make it let down.
I could make it to spread ; but if it did not let down too, and draw
in, it would not be portable for me any way but just over my head,
which would not do. However, at last, as I said, I made one to
answer ; I covered it with skins, the hair upwards, so that it cast off
the rain, like a pent-house, and kept -off the sun so effectually, that I


could walk out in the hottest of the weather with greater advantage
than I could before in the coolest ; and when I had no need of it,
could close it, and carry it under my arm.
I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing
happened to me; I lived on in the same course as before ; the chief
things I was employed in, besides my yearly labour of planting my
barley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I always kept up
just enough to have sufficient stock of one year's provisions beforehand;
I say, besides this yearly labour, and my daily labour of going out with
my gun, I had to make a canoe, which at last I finished : so, that, by
digging a canal to it of six feet wide and four feet deep, I brought it
into the creek, almost half a mile. As for the first, which was so
vastly big, as I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought
to have done, how I should be able to launch it, so, never being able
to bring it into the water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to
let it lie where it was as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser next
time : indeed, the next time, though I could not get a tree proper
for it, and was in a place where I could not get the water to it at
any less distance than, as I have said, near half a mile, yet, as I saw
it was practicable at last, I never gave it over; and though I was
near two years about it, vet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of
having a boat to go off to sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it
was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I
made the first ; I mean of venturing over to the terra firma, where
it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my
boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no
more of it: but as I had a boat, my next design was to make a
cruise round the island ; for as I had been on the other side in one
place, crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the
discoveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see
other parts of the coast ; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing
but sailing round the island.
For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and
consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail to
it out of some of the pieces of the ship's sail which lay in store, and
of which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and
sail, and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well : then I
made little lockers, or boxes, at either end of my boat, to put pro-
visions, necessaries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea ; and a little, long, hollow
place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could lay my gun, mak-
ing a flap to hang down over it, to keep it dry.

I fixed my umbrella also in a step at the stern, like a mast, to
stand over my head, and keep the heat of the sun off me, like an
awning; and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon
the sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek; but, at
last, being eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I
resolved upon my tour, and accordingly I victualled my ship for the
voyage, putting in two dozen of loaves (cakes I sl.ould rather cal
them) of barley bread, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I
ate a great deal of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder
and shot for killing more, and two large watch-coats, of those which,
as I mentioned before, I had saved out of the seamen's chests ; these
I took, one to lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or my
captivity, that I set out on this voyage, and I found it much longer
than I expected ; for though the island itself was not very large, yet
when I came to the east side of it, I found a great ledge of rocks lie
out about two leagues into the sea, some above water, some under it;
and beyond, a shoal of sand, lying dry half a league more, so that I
was obliged to go a great way out to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enter-
prise, and come back again, not knowing how farit might oblige me
to go out to sea: and, above all, doubting how I should get back
again : so I came to an anchor; for I had made a kind of an anchor
with a piece of a broken grappling which I got out of the ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gup and went on shore,
climbing up a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw
the full extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill, I perceived a strong and
most furious current, which ran to the east, and even came close to
the point; I took the more notice of it, because I saw there might
be some danger, that when I came into it, I might be carried out to
sea by the strength of it, and not be able to make the island again:
and, indeed, had I not got first up upon this hill, I believe it would
have been so; for there was the same current on the other side the
island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and I saw there was
a strong eddy under the shore ; so I haa nothing to do but to get
out of the first current, and I should presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the said current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the point ; so that it was not
safe for me to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go
too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight,

the sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to all rash
and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I
was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found myself in
., great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill: it
carried my boat along with it with such violence that all I could do
could not keep her so much as on the edge of it ; but I found it
hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was on my
left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could
do with my paddles signified nothing: and now I began to give
myself over for lost ; for as the current was on both sides of the
island, I knew in a few leagues' distance they must join again, and
then I was irrecoverably gone ; nor did I see any possibility of avoid-
ing it ; so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by
the sea, for that was calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I
had, indeed, found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots ; but what was all this
to being driven into the vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no
shore, no main land or island, for a thousand leagues at least ?
And now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make
even the most miserable condition of mankind worse. Now I looked
back upon my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in
the world, and all the happiness my heart could wish for was to be
but there again. I stretched out my hands to it, with eager wishes:
"0 happy desert !" said I, "I shall never see thee more. O
miserable creature! whither am I going !" Then I reproached
myself with my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my
solitary condition ; and now what would I give to be on shore there
again Thus, we never see the true state of our condition till it is
illustrated to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we
enjoy, but by the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the
consternation I was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for
so it appeared to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two
leagues, and in the utmost despair of ever recovering it again. How-
ever, I worked hard till indeed my strength was almost exhausted,
and kept my boat as much to the northward, that is, towards the side
of the current which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when
about noon, as the sun passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little
breeze of wind in my face, springing up from S.S.E. This cheered
my heart a little, and especially when, in abqut half an hour more,
it blew a pretty small gentle gale. By this time, I had got at a
frightful distance from the island, and had the least cloudy or hazy
weather intervened, I had been undone another vway too; for I

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