Title Page
 Biographical memoir of Daniel...
 Robinson Crusoe, part I
 Robinson Crusoe, part II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073566/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 332 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Lavieille, Jacques Adrien, 1818-1862 ( Engraver )
Pisan, HeÌliodore Joseph, 1822-1890 ( Engraver )
Sargent ( Engraver )
Frederick Warne (Firm) ( Publisher )
Publisher: Frederick Warne & Co.
Place of Publication: London
Publication Date: 1868
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1868   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1868   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: On spine: Robinson Crusoe ... B?ook for boys.
General Note: Some ills. engraved by Lavieille, Pisan, and Sargent.
General Note: "Biographical memoir of De Foe," p. 5-8.
General Note: Front. is included in pagination.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Frederick Warne and Co., publishers located on Bedford Street, Covent Garden, London
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe sic ; with illustrations.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073566
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28229576

Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Title Page
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        Page 4
    Biographical memoir of Daniel DeFoe
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    Robinson Crusoe, part I
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    Robinson Crusoe, part II
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Full Text

"To my astonishment, my cat returned home with three












PEEnHrs there exists no work, either of instruction or en-
tertainment, in the English language, which has been more
generally read, and more universally admired, than the
"Life and Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
It was first published in April 1719; its reception, as
may be supposed, was universal; and society is for evea~-
debted to the memory of De Foe for his .,production w a
work in which the ways of Providence are supply and
pleasingly vindicated; and a lasting and useful moral is con-
veyed through the channel of an interesting and'delightful
D)AEl, DE FOE was bor in iLondon in the y:e 1663.
His education was rather circumscribed, which is the more
to be lamented, as, in so many instances, he has exhibited
proofs of rare natural genius. He was sent by his father, at
twelve years old, to the Newington Green D)senting Aca-
demy, where he remained about four years; and this appears
to have been all the education he ever received.
In 1685, when he was in his twenty-second year, he
took up arms in the cause of the Duke of Monmouth.
On the destruction of Monmouth's party, De Foe had the
good fortune to escape unpunished; but, n his latter years,
when the avowal waa no longer dangerous, he boasts much
of his exploits, in his Appeal to Honour -aud j udiee,
being a True Account of hia Conduct in Public Affaiw,.'


Two years afterwards (1688), De Foe was admitted a
Liveryman of London. As he had been throughout a
steady advocate for the Revdlution, he had now the satis-
faction of witnessing that great event. At a feast given by
the Lord Mayor of London to King William, on the 29th
October, 1689, De Foe appeared gallantly mounted, and
richly accoutred, amongst the troopers commanded by Lord
Peterborough, who attended the king and queen from
Whitehall to the Mansion House. All Daniel's horse-
manship, however, united to the steady devotion of his pen
to the cause of William, were unable to procure him the
notice of that cold-charactered monarch.
About 1695, our author's indefatigable endeavours pro-
cured him some notice from the court, and he was appoint-
ed accountant to the commissioners for managing the
duties on glass. He was thrown out of his situation by
the suppression of the tax in 1699.
But the time at length arrived when the royal favour
was to shine upon his prospects. About the end of 1699,
there was published what De Foe calls, an horrid pam-
phlet, in very ill verse, written by one Tutchin, and called
'The Foreigners;' in which the author fell personally
upon the king, then upon the Dutch nation, and, after
having reproached his majesty with crimes that his worst
enemies could not think of without horror, he sums up all
in the odious name of Foreigner. This filled me with rage
against the book, and gave birth to a trifle, which I never
could hope should have met with so general an accepta-
The trifle which De Foe here alludes to, was his True
Born Englishman ;" a poetical satire on The Foreigners,"
and a Defence of King William and the Dutch; of which
the sale was great without example, and our author's re-
ward proportionate. He was even admitted to the honour
of a personal interview with the king, and became with
more ardour than ever a professed partisan of the court.
His situation and affairs were materially affected by the
death of his sovereign, which took place 8th March, 1702.
The accession of Anne having restored the line of Stuart,
to whom the politics and conduct of De Foe had been


peculiarly obnoxious, our author was shortly reduced, as
before, to live on the produce of his wits. Had William
lived, probably the world would never have been delighted
with the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
Our unfortunate author's political sins were now all
mustered in array against him; De Foe was obliged to se-
crete himself: and a reward of 50 was offered for his
He was shortly after caught, fined, pilloried, and im-
While he was confined in Newgate, he occupied his time
in correcting for the press a collection of his own writings,
which was published in the course of the year; and he even
amused himself by writing an Ode to the Pillory," of
which he had so lately been made the unwilling acquaint-
About the end of 1704, Sir Robert Harley, then secre-
tary of state, took an opportunity to represent to the queen
De Foe's present misery, and unmerited sufferings. Anne,
however, did not immediately consent to his liberation, but
she inquired into the circumstances of his family, and sent
a considerable sum to his wife. She afterwards had a bim
conveyed to himself, equal to the payment of his fine and
discharge, and thus bound him to her interest. He was
liberated from Newgate the end of 1704, and retired imme-
diately to his family at St. Edmund's Bury.
It has been thought by some to detract from the merit of
De Foe, that the idea of Robinson Crusoe was not originally
his own, but really the story of Selkirk, which had been
published a few years before, in Woodes Rogers' "Voyage
round the World;" but it appears to have furnished our
author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man living
upon an uninhabited island, that it seems quite immaterial
whether he took his hint from that, or from any other
similar story, of which many were then current.
He published, in 1.720, The Life and Piracies of Captain
Singleton:" and finding it safer, it would seem, as well as
more profitable, to amuse the public, than to reform them,
he continued this course, with little variation, for the re-
mainder of his life.


His subsequent publications, to all of which a consider-
able degree of popularity was attached, though none of
them equalled the reputation of Robinson Crusoe, were the
"Dumb Philosopher," "History of Duncan Campbell,"
" Remarkable Life of Colonel Jack," "Fortunate Mistress,"
and "New Voyage round the World."
We are now to take leave of our author, who died in
1731, at the age of sixty-eight, in Cripplegate, London,
leaving a widow and large family in tolerable circum-
It does not fall within our plan, either to attempt a
critical analysis of Robinson Crusoe, or a detailed view of
the character of Daniel De Foe: the one is before our
readers, and the other~nay be estimated from his life. That
De Foe was a man of powerful intellect and lively imagina-
tion is obvious from his works; that he was possessed of
an ardent temper, a resolute courage, and an unwearied
spirit of enterprise, is ascertained by the events of his
changeful career; and whatever may be thought of that
rashness and improvidence by which his progress in life
was so frequently impeded, there seems no reason to with-
hold from him the praise of integrity, sincerity, and un-
varied consistency. As the author of Robinson Crusoe, his
fame promises to endure as long as the language in which
he wrote.




I wAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose're-
lations were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer;
but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we are
now called-nay, we call ourselves, and write our name-
Crusoe; and so my companions always called me..
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly
commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed
at the battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What be-
came of my second brother I never knew, any more than my
father or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts; my father, who was very ancient, had given me a
competent share of learning, as far as house education and a
country free-school generally go, and designed me for the
law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea;
and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the will,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties
and persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there
seemed to be something fatal in that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me0
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex,


cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by appli-
cation and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He
told me it was men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of
aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road;
that these things were all either too far above me, or too far
below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by
long experience, was the best state in the world, and the
most suited to human happiness; that the middle station of
life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind of en-
joyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness, health,
society, all agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,
were the blessings attending the middle station of life; that
this way men went silently and smoothly through the world,
and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands or of the head, not sold to a life of slavery for
daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I
was born in, seemed to have provided against; that as he
would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle
at home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand
in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go
away: and to close all, he told me I had an elder brother for
an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions
to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could
not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed; and though he said he would not
cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to me, that
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I

should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected
his counsel, when there might be none to assist irl my re-
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did 'not know it
to be so himself, the tears run down his face very plentifully,
especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and
that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none
to assist me, he was so moved that he broke off the discourse,
and told me his heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my
father's desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and,
in short, to prevent any of my father's further importunities,
in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my
resolution prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her
that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the
world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution
enough to go through with it, and my father had better give
me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice
to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did,
I should never serve out my time, but I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go
no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to re-
cover the'time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; and that, if I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me; but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it; and I should never have it to say that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I
heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her, with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he would

stay at home but if he goes abroad, he will be the most
miserable wretch that ever was born; I can give no consent
to it."
It was not till aluiost a year after this that I broke loose,
though, in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulated
with my father and mother about their being so positively de-
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that
time, and one of my companions going by sea to London in
his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them, with the
common allurement of a seafaring man, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother
any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving
them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of
September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind
began to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner;
and, as I had never been at sea before, I was most inex-
pressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began now
seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how justly I
was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked
leaving my father's house, and abandoning my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very
high, iho lgh nothing like what I have seen many times since;
no, nor what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to
affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never
known anything of the matter. I expected every wave would
have swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down,
as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more: in this agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my
life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry
land again, I would go directly home to my father, and never
set it into a ship again while I lived.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the
storm lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next d4y
the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to be

little inured to it; however, I was very grave for all that day,
being also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine
evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and
a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that
was so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so
calm and so pleasant in so little a time after. And now, lest
my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who had
enticed me away, comes toope: "Well, Bob," says he, clap-
ping me upon the shoulder, how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it
blew but a capful of wind ?"-" A capful, d'you call it?"
said I; "'twas a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you,"
replies he; "do you call that a storm ? Why, it was nothing
at all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but you're but a
fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch,
and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis
now ?" To make short this sad part of my story, we went
the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made
half-drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my past
conduct, all my resolutions for the future. As the sea was
returned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by
the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that
I made in my distress; and I had, in five or six days, got as
complete a victory over my conscience as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I
was to have another trial for it still.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here we were
obliged to come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind con-
tinuing-contraryviz., at south-west, for seven or eight days

during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. How-
ever, the roads being reckoned as good as a harbour, the
anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger,
but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the
sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind increased,
and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed,
and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we
thought once or twice our anchor had come home; upon
which our master ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables veered out to
the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I
began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the
seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in the busi-
ness of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of his
cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say several
times, "Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we
shall be all undone!" and the like. During these first hurries
I was lying still in my cabin; but when the master himself
came by me, and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully
frighted. I got up out of my cabin and looked out; but
such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran mountains high,
and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when" I could
look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the
board, being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship
which rid about a mile a-head of us was foundered. Two
more ships, being driven from their anchors, were run out of
the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their spritsail out
before the wind.

Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master
of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast, which he was
very unwilling to do; but the boatswain protesting to him,
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; and
when they had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood
so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But the worst was not come
yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We
had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and wallowed in
the sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she
would founder. It was my advantage in one respect that I
did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired.
However, the storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not
often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every
moment that the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men that had been down to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak; another said, there was four feet water in the hold.
Then all hands were called to the pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell backwards
upon the side of the bed where I sat, into the cabin. How-
ever, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was able
to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another;
at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked
very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some
light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged
to slip, and run away to the sea, and would come near us,
ordered a gun to be fired as a signal of distress. I, who
knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship had broken,
or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so surprised
that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when every-
body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let melie, thinking
I had been dead; and it was a great while before I came to

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though the
storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she
could swim till we might run into any port, so the master

continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid
it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat cut to help us. It
was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and

venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after much labour and hazard, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern, and got

Page 39.

all into their boat. .It was to no purpose for them or vs, after
we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own ship;
so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
shore as much as we could; and our master promised them
that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would make it


good to their master: so partly rowing, and partly driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the
shore almost as far as Wintcrton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of
our ship till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the
seamen told me she was sinking ; for from the moment that
they rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to
go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.
While we were in this condition-the men yet labouring at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore-we could see (when,
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore)
a great many people running along the strand to assist us
when we should come near; but we made but slow way to-
wards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till,
being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to
the westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a
little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and, though
not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates
of the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of ships, and had money given us
sufficient to carry us either to London or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud
calls from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to
go home, yet I had no power to do it.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than I. The
first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which
was not till two or three days, for we were separated in the
town to several quarters, his tone was altered ; and, looking
very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I
did ; and, telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad;
his father turning to me, with a very grave and concerned

tone, "Young man," says lie, you ought never to go to sea
any more ; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man." Why, sir,"
said I, will you go to sea no more ?" That is another
case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste
Heaven has given you of what you are to expect if you
persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us on your account,
Like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues he,
" what are you; and on what account did you go to sea ?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which
he burst out into a strange kind of passion. What had I
done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch should oome
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with
thee again for a thousand pounds." However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my
father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me. "And,
young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but dis-
asters and disappointments, till your father's words are ful-
filled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more; which way he went I knew not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
by land; and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-
gles with myself, what course of life I should take, and whether
I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me
how I. should be laughed at among the neighbours, and should
be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even
everybody else.
In this state of life, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irre-
sistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore
off; and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires
to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my

father's house, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vul-
garly called it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I
did not ship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet at the same
time I should have learnt the duty and office of a fore-mast
man; and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in
my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither
had any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in
London. I first got acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea: and who, having had very
good success there, was resolved to go again: this captain
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see
the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should
have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and
perhaps I might meet with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing man, I
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend
the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This 40 I had mustered together by the assistance of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with; and who, I be-
lieve, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful;
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost 300, and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to

my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again, and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in the former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left,
which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes; the first was
this-our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands,
sr rather between those Islands and the African shore, was
surprised in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of
Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as our yards would spread,
or our masts carry to get clear; but, finding the pirate gained
upon us, and would certainly come up with us in a few hours,
we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight
of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning
our fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two
hundred men which he had on board. However, we had not
a man touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but laying us
on board the next time upon our other quarter, hl. entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting
and hacking the sails and rigging. We plied them witlfsmall
shot, half pikes, powder chests, and such like, and cleared our
deck of them twice; but our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port be-
1onging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended; I was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's prophetic
discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none to
relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to

pass, that I could not be worse but, alas! ttis was but a
taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the
sequel of this story.
As my master had taken me home to his house, so I was in
hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it would some time or other be his fate
to be taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that
then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common
drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to
luok after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it; so that for two years, though I often pleased
myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least en--
couraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt for
my liberty again in my head. My patron lying at home
longer than usual without fitting out his ship, he used, con-
stantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the road
a-fishing ; and, as he always took me and young Maresco with
him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the
youth-the Maresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of
fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morn-
ing, a fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not
whither or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next
night, and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we
were at least two leagues from the shore. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour and some
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him

the long-boat of our English ship that he had taken, he re-
solved he would not go a-fishing any more without a compass
and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship
to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the middle of the
long-boat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind
it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room before
for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. The cabin
lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with
a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers
to put in some bottles of liquor, and his bread, rice, and
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat with two or three Moors of some distinction in that
place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had
therefore sent on board the boat over-night a larger store of
provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me to get ready
three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the
next morning; when by-and-by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some
business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish,
for that his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded
that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his
house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little
ship at my command: and my master being gone, I prepared
to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but for a voyage;
though I knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither
I should steer-anywhere to get out of that place was my
My first contrivance was to speak to this Moor, to get
something for our subsistence on board; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh water,
into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
tsood, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor

was on shore, as if they had been there before for our master.
I conveyed a~o a great lump of bees-wax into thel oat, which
weighed above half a hundredweigoht, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were
of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also : his name was Ismael, which they call Mulev,
or Moclv ; so I called to him:-"- Molvy," said I, "our
patron s guns are on board tlie boat; can you notgct a
little powder and shot ? It may be we mav kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlewvs) for ourselves, for I know lh
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." Accordingly lie brought
a great leather poucl1, which held a pound and a half of pow-
der, and another with lhot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time, I
had found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case ; and
thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the
port to fis1.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not
do our master will not be thus served; we must stand
ahrther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and set the sails;
and, as I had the helmn, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then l)rought her to ; when, giving tile boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by sur-
prise with my arm under his waist, and tossed him clear over-
board into the sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and begging to be taken in, told m e le would go all
over the world with me. He swanm so strong after the boat,
that lie would have r-eached me very quickly, upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetchirng one of the fowling-pieces,
I presented it at hi!, and told him I had done him no hurt,
and if lie would be quiet I would do him none. But," said
I, "if you come near the boat, I'll shoot yon through the
head, fur I am resolved to have my liberty ;" so he turned
himself about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt
but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called

Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me,
I'll make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your
face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet and his
father's beard, "I must throw you into the sea too." The

Page 41.
boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all
over the world with me.
While the Moor was swimming, I stood out directly to sea
with the boat, rather stretching to windward, that they might

think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed anyone
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do);
for who would have supposed we were sailed on to the south-
ward, where whole nations of negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go
on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east; and having a
fresh gale of wind, and a smooth sea, I made such sail that I
believe by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than one hun-
dred and fifty miles south of Sallee.
The wind continued fair till I had sailed in that manner
five days ; and then the wind shifting to the southward, I
concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase of me,
they would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I
knew not what, or where; I neither saw, or desired to see,
any people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country ; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of
the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we
knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die
with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
"Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but it may be we may see
men by day who will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then
we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, "make
them run wey." I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and
I gave him a dram to cheer him up; and we dropped our
little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures,
of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore and run into the
water, wallowing and washing for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yell-
ings, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frighted when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could
not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a

monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion,
and cried to me to weigh anchor and row away: "No," says
I, "Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, and go
oi' to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature within two oars'length; how-
ever, I immediately fired at him, upon which he turned about,
and swam towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hide-
ous cries and cowlings, that were raised upon the report of
the gun. This convinced me that there was no going on
shore for us in the night on that coast, and how to venture on
shore in the day was another question too ; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages had been as bad as to
have fallen into the hands of lions and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-
where or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the
boat. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring
some to me. I asked him why he would go? The boy
answered with so much affection as made me love him ever
after. If wild mans come, they eat me, you go wey."-
" Well, Xury," said I, we will both go, and if the wild
mans come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of
us." So we hauled the boat in near the shore, and waded
on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it,
and by-and-by I saw him come running towards me. I
thought he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with
some wild beast, and I ran forwards to help him; but when
I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare;
it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and seen
no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains
for water, for a little higher up the creek we found the water
fresh when the tide was out; so we filled our jars, and feasted
on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,

having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part
of the country.
I had no instruments to take an observation to know what
latitude we were in; but my hope was, that if I stood along
this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels that would relieve and take
us in.
We made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we
were obliged for fresh water. My design in this was, to make
the River Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about
the Cape do Yord, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in two or
three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the
shore to look at us; we could also perceive they were quite
black, and naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore
to them; but Xury said to me, No go, no go." However,
I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I
found they ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept
at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to eat; they
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me
some meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than
half an hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and some corn. We were willing to accept it; but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not ven-
ture on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us:
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the
shore and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off
till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very in-
stant to oblige them wonderfully: for while we were lying
by the shore, came two mighty creatures with great fury from

the mountains towards the sea. The man that had the lance
or dart did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as
the two creatures ran directly into the water, they did not
offer to fall upon any of the negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their
diversion: at last one of them began to come nearer our boat
than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: he imme-
diately made to the shore, but died just before he reached it.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them
were ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the
very terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and that
I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart
and came, and began to search for the creature. By the help
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to
haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree.
The other creature, frighted with the noise of the gun,
swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains whence
they came. I found quickly the negroes wished to eat the
flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favour from me. They offered me some of the flesh, which
I declined, pointing out that I would give it them; but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a great. deal more of their provisions. I then
made signs to them for some water, and held out one of my
jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two women,
and brought a great vessel; this they set down to me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled
them all three.
I was now furnished with roots, corn, and water; and
leaving my friendly negroes, I madedorward for about eleven
days more, without offering to go near the shore. At length,
doubling the point, I saw plainly land on the other side, to
seaward: th -ii I c:-ncluded that this was the Cape de Verd,
nd those thie- islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd

Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not tell well what I had best to do ; for if I should be taken
with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "'Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish bov was frighted out of his wits, think-
ing it must be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. Ijumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw that it was a Portu-
guese ship.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them ; but after I had crowded to
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw, by the
help of their glasses, that it was some European boat; so
they shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and made them a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw. Upon these signals they very kindly
brought to, and lay by for me and in about three hours'
time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last,
a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me; and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee; they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus delivered
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. No, no,"
says he, Seignor Inglese, I will carry you thither in charity,
and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and
your passage home again."
In this proposal he was just in the performance to a tittle;
for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything
that I had: then he took everything into his own possession,
and gave me back an exact inventory of them.

My boat was a very good one; and he told me no would
nuy it. I told him, he had been so generous to me that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it
entirely to him : upon which he told me he would .ive me a
note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury;
but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had
assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered that he would set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was wining to go
to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in
All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now
I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all con-
ditions of life; and what to do next with myself I was to
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my
passage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and
forty for the lion's skin, and caused everything I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was will-
ing to sell he bought of me : in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and
with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man, who had a plantation and sugar-
house. I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself
with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly,
I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would
turn planter: resolving, in the meantime, to find out some
way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
to me. To this purpose, getting a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land as my money would reach, and formed
a plan for my plantation and settlement suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of
English rrriits, whose name was Wells, and in much such
Scirimlntanices as I was. My stock was low, as ivell as his;
'Pnd we ridllr.: planted for food than anything else, for about

two years. However, we began to increase, and our land
began to come into order ; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come: but we both
wanted help; and now I found I had done wrong in parting
with Xury.
But 1 had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an em-
ployment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to
the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's
house, and broke through all his good advice.
I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this
neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of my
hands ; and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some de-olate island, that had nobody there but himself.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying
on the plantation, before my kind friend the captain went
back ; for the ship remained there nearly three months ; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London,
lie gave me this friendly and sincere advice :-" Seignor In-
glcse," says he (for so le always called nme), "if you will
give me letters to the person who has your money in London,
to send your ellects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct,
and in such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring
you the produce of them : but I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half
your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first ; so that if
it come safe, you may order the rest tlhe same way ; and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
I could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take ; so I prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I
had left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as lie de-ired.
I wrote the Engliis captain's widow a full account of all
my adventures, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this
honest captain came to Lisbon, lie found means to send over,
not the order only, but a full account of my story to a mer-
chant at London, who represented it effectually to her: where-
upon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her owq


pocket, sent the Portugal captain
for his humanity and charity.

a very handsome present

*'' ''' i'


Page 44.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
SEnglish goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them

directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
to the Brazils: among which he had taken care to have all
sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for my plan-
tation, ,aid which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for
I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the
captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring me
over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and would
not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which
I would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manu-
facture, particularly valuable in the country, I found means to
sell them to a very great advantage; so that I had more than
four times the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
beyond my poor neighbour in the advancement of my plan-
tation; for the first thing I did I bought a negro slave, and
a European servant also, besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
I went on the next year n ith great success in my planta-
tion; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bours and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the
fleet from Lisbon; and now increasing in business and in
wealth, my head began to be full of projects and undertakings
beyond my reach.
To come, then, by the just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story :-You may suppose that having now
lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive
and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea; the
manner of trading with the negroes there, and how easy it
was to purchase upon the coast for trifles-such as beads,
toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-
not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &e., but
negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only
not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on
by the permission of the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock; so that few negroes were
bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to
make a secret proposal to me ; and, after enjoining me secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened
for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell
the negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
Sbut one voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in a word,
the question was, whether I would go their supercargo in the
ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea;
and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the
negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, had it been made to any one that
had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look
after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very consider-
able, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but to
go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England ; and
who in that time could scarce have failed of being worth three
or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too-
for me to think of such a voyage was the most preposterous
thing that ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer than I could restrain my first rambling
designs. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation ir
my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all entered into covenants to do;

and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life my heir, but obliging him to dispose
of my effects ; one-half of the produce being to himself, and
the other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say
nothing of particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, the cargo furnished, and all things done, as
by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board
in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same
day eight years that I went from my father and mother at
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the negroes,
such as leads, bits of glass, shells, and other trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with a design to stretch
over for the African coast. We had very good weather till
we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino ; whence, keep-
ing farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if
we were bound for the isle Fernando de Noronha. In this
course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, when a
violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
ledge. It blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve
days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding
away before it, let it carry us whither ever fate and the fury
of the winds directed.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one
of our men die of the calenture, and one man and the boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather
abating a little, the master made an observation as well as he
could, and found that he was upon the coast of Guiana, and

began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was going
directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there
was no inhabited country'for us to have recourse to, till we
came within the circle of the Carribbee Islands, and therefore
resolved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off
at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast
of Africa without some assistance both to our ship and to
With this design, we changed our course, in order to reach
some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same impetu-
osity westward, and drove us so out of the way of all human
commerce, that had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages, than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, "Land !" and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment the sea broke over in such a manner
that we expected we should all have perished; and we were
immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam ancbslrav of the sea.
It is not easy for anyone who has not beeKt in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances. We knew not where we were, or upon
what land we were driven ; and as the rage of the wind was
still great, we could not hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking into pieces, unless the winds, by a
kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,
we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, every man preparing for another world; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this; but, contrary
to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and the
master said the wind began to abate.

Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board, but how
to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung
over the ship's side; and getting all into her, let go, and com-
mitted ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy
and the wild sea.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, th th the boat could not
live, and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to
making sail, we had none ; so we worked at the oar towards
the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execu-
tion; for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach
of the sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the
most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards the
shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pull-
ing as well as we could towards land.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came
rolling astern of us with such fury, that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time to say, 0 God!" for we were all
swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sank into the water: for though I swam very well,
yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me,
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half

dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of
mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endea-
voured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come
after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an
enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend with:
my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon
the water, if I could: and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my
greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry
me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself raising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved greatly, -gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again wit-h- water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finl-Lim~-,e uIat:'r had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck T.*r.-rl~:.L:'; in- the return of the waves,
and felt ground agaim jtith my feet. I-stood still a few mo-
ments, to recover breath, and till the waters went from me,
and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I had,
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver
me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me
for the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or
rather dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with
such force, as left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my
own deliverance; for the blow taking my side and breast,
beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body-; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have:.ee- strangled in

the water : but I recovered a little before the return of the
waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the water,
I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held
my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it Nwent over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the
main land; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein
there was, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the very grave.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of
my deliverance ; making a thousand gestures and motions,
which I cannot describe ; reflecting upon all my comrades
that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself ; for, as for them, I never saw them after-
wards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and
froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay
so far off; and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could
get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of
place I was in, and what was next to be done: and I soon
found my comforts abate, and that I had a dreadful de-
liverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any-
thing either to eat or drink; neither did I see any prospect
before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or being de-
voured by wild beasts: and that which was particularly
afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon, either to hunt
and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself
against any other creature that might desire to kill me for

theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision ; and this throw me into terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night coming

Page 54.
upon nme, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country,
as at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny,

which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night, and
consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet I
saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I
did to my great joy; and having drunk, and put a little to-
bacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if
I should sleep, I might not fall. And having cut a short
stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging;
and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself more refreshed with it than I
think I ever was on such an occasion. *
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as
before; but that which surprised me most was, that the ship
was lifted off in the night from the sand where she lay, by
the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as
the rock, where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing
me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.
When I came down from the tree, I looked about me again,
and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the
wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two
miles on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile broad;
so I came back for the present, being more intent upon getting
at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship. And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief,
for I saw that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe:
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes
again; but I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I
pulled off my clothes, and took the water. But when I came

to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to get
on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the water,
there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of
rope, which hung down by the fore-chains so low, that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope
I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry. First, I found that all
the ship's provisions were untouched by the water. I also
found some rum in the great cabin. Now I wanted nothing
but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
We had several spare yards, and two or three large spars ol
wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship: I resolved to
fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a
rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done,
I went down the ship's side and pulling them to me, I tied
four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the
form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them, cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well,
but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces
being too light. So I went to work, and with the carpenter's
saw I cut a spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them
to my raft, with a great deal of labour and pains. But the
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to
go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, aid how to preserve
what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not
long considering this. I first laid all the plank or boards upon
it that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the
first of these I filled with bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goat's flesh, and a little European corn. As

for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to our
skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, in all, about
five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room
for them. It was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have
been at that time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general
what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols. These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. There were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but I knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found two
of them dry and good. Those two I got to my raft, with the
arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, or rudder; and the least cap-full of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea;
2ndly, the tide rising and setting in to the shore ; 3rdly, what
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, two saws, an
axe, and a hammer; with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile,
or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it
drive a little distant from the place where I had landed before;
by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently, I hoped to find some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a
little opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the
tide set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to
keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think, verily, would have broke my heart;
for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at one
end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at the other end,
it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards

the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did
my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was in:
but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, resolved
to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, that reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in. But here I had like to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep
-there was no place to land, but where one end of my float,
if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower,
as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I
could do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping
the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast
to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I found
water enough, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground,
and there moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into
the ground,-one on one side, near one end, and one on the
other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew
Snot: whether on the continent or an island; whether inhabited
or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one
of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of
Spywder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the
top of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and

difficulty got to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction,
Viz., that I was in an island environed on every side by the
sea: no land to be seen except some rocks, which lay a great
way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and
uninhabited. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was
fit for food, and what not. At my coming back I shot at a
great biud, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a
wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired there
since the creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, than
from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number
of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming and
crying, every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I killed,
I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak rcsembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh
was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day : what to do with myself at night I knew not.
nor indeed where to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made
a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw
not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land ; and I resolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I
resolved to set all other things apart, till I had got everything
out of the ship that I could get.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and, having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, I brought away several

things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores,
I found two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-
jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured, together
with several things belonging to the gunner; particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven
muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity
of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and a great roll
of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it
up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could
find, and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension during my absence from the
land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore:
but when I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only
there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests,
which, when I came towards it, ran away a little distance, and
then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted
with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as she did not
nunderstad it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she
offer to stir away ; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it: however, I
spared her a bit, and she ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more: so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was
obliged to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks-I went
to work to make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles
which I cut for that purpose : and into this tent I brought
evetrythll: tl:a T knew would spoil either with rain or sun;
and I i'ilel aill the empty chests and casks up in a circle round
the tent, to l:itl ly it from any sudden attempt, either from
Sman or lIea1t.
When I had .lone this, I blocked up the door of the tent
its.aji e bI:ar.l- within, and an empty chest set up on end
19.FI ; ;and leadingg one of the beds upon the ground,
i'r."my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at length

by me, I went to bed for the first time, and slept very quietly
all night, for I was very weary and heavy.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man ; for while the ship sat upright,
I got everything out of her that I could: so every day, at
low water, I went on board, and brought away something or
other ; but particularly the third time I went, I brought away
as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes
and rope twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvas.
which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of
wet gunpowder.
But that which comforted me more still, was, last of all,
after I had made five or six voyages, and thought I had no-
thing more to expect from the ship that was worth my med-
dling with, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large
runlets of rum, or spirits, a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapped
it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out,
and got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having
plundered the ship of what ,ras portable and fit to hand out,
I began with the cables, cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizon-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large rait, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and
came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unw, iidy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; my
cargo was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me : however, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and
some of the iron, though withl infinite labour. After this, I
went every Lday on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been no'w thirecn days on shore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship ; but preparing the twelfth time to go
on board, I found the wind began to rise : however, at low
water I went on board, and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually that nothing more could be

found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
vhich I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks;
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in money-

I(\\ \

Page 71.
some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some
gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "0 drug!"
said I aloud, wnat art thou good for ? Thou art not worth
to me-no, not the taking off the ground: one of those
knives is worth all this heap: I have no manner of use for

thee ; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as
a creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all in a piece
of canvas, I began to think of making another raft: but
while I was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the
wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a
fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off
shore ; and that it was my business to be gone before the tide
of flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the
shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel which lay between the ship and
the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the
roughness of the water.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen!
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many thoughts
of the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to
make-whether I should make me a cave in or a tent upon
the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner
and description of which it may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settle-
ment, because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the
sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome, and more par-
ticularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I re-
solved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation : 1st, health and
fresh water; 2ndly, shelter from the heat of the sun; 3rdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts;
4thly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain
on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little
plain was steep as a house-side, so that nothing could _ei

down upon me from the top. On the side of the rock there
was a hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or
door of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way
into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a
green before my door; and, at the end of it, descended
irregularly every way down into the low ground by the sea-
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was shel-
tered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun,
or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter,
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter from its
beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles,
the biggest end being out of the ground above five feet and
a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand
above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship,
and laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle,
between these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was o strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the '
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be,'not by a door, bu
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when
was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fence
in and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and cot
sequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could
not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was
no need of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended
danger from.
Into this t'ence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all
my-riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,

to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there, I made double, one smaller tent within, and
one larger tent above e it; and covered the uppermost with a
large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which had belonged to
the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down
out through my tent, I laid them up within my fence, in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about a
foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts.
At the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of
rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with
the lightning, as I was with a thought which darted into my
mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my powder! My very.
heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only,
but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I should never have known who had
hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once;
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to maW..
one part fire another. I finished this work in about airtnig '
and I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred

and forty pounds weight, was divided into not less than a
hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did
not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new
cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
once at least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself,
as to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
The first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me;
but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz., that
they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was
the difficultest thing in the world to come at them; but I was
not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and
then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I
observed that if they saw me in the valleys, though they were
upon the rocks, they would run away, as in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed
downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards, I took this method-I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had fre-
quently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; for, when the old one fell, the kid
stood stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and not
only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon
which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid in my aribs, and
carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but
it would noppat; so I was forced'to kill it, and ate it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as
much as possibly I coul&.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to

burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave,
and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of
in its place; but I must now give some little account of myself,
and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue
it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September,
when I first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my
head: for I reckoned myself by observation, to be in the
latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came
into my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for
want of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the
Sabbath days; but to prevent this, I cut with my knife upon
a large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great
cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, "I came
on shore here on the 30th of Sept:ember, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square pout I cut every day a notch
with my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as
the rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among the many
things I brought out of the ship, I got several things of less
value, but not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting
down before, as pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the
captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or
four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tives, charts, and books of navigation; all which I huddled
together, whether I might want them or no; also I found three
very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also; and several other books, all which I care-
fully secured. And I must not forget, that we htd in the ship
a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place; for I carried both the
cats withme; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship

of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me
many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any
company that he could make up to me; I only wanted to have
him talk to me, but that would not do. My pens, ink, and
paper I husbanded to the utmost; and while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact, but after that was gone I could not
for I could not make ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not.
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
ink was one; as also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or
remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for linen, I
soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in bring-
ing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of these posts, and a third day in driving
it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of
wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, made driving those
posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need
I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least that I couldforesee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did,
more or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was rducle to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
should come after me, for I was likely to have but few heirs,
as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mind: and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some-
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus;-


I am cast upon a horrible,
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out and sepa-
rated, as it were, from all the
world, to be miserable,

I am divided from mandind
- a solitaire; one banished
from human society.
I have not clothes to cover

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to,
or relieve me.

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's com-
pany were.
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crow, to be
spared from death; and He
that miraculously saved me
from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to
hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa ; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent
the ship in near enough to the
shore, that I have got out as
many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or
enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative or positive to be thankful for
in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,
-I began to apply myself to arrange my way of living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet


thick on the outside: and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock,
and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and such
things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found at
some times of the year very violent.

~'~K *Y~ s-> -
'~-~- --,

I .----,--r-


Pa e 74.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe'
too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which as
they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I had no
room to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave, and

work farther into the earth; and when I found I was pretty
safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand
into the rock; and then turning to the right again, worked
quite out and made me a door to come out on the side of my
pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few
comforts I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do
several things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I
went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason
is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating
and squaring everything by reason, and by making the most
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master
of every meenanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life;
and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made
it, especially if I had had tools. However I made abundance
of things, even without tools; and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made
that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example,
if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and
then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true that by this
method I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it took
me up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was
little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
However, I made me a table and a chair, in the first place;
and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some
boards as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot
and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to
lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, to separate
everything into their places, that I might come easily at them.

I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns
and all things that would hang up: so that my cave looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure
to me to see all my goods in such order, and especially to find
my stock of all necessaries so great.
Having settled my household stuff and habitation, made me
a table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could,
I began to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you
the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe,
,being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm, in the offing,
.came on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which I
called "The Island of Despair;" all the rest of the ship's
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at tlh
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me: either that I
should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
II slept in a tree for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
thl.u:hi it rained aH:night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which as it was some comfort,
on one hand, for seeing her sit upright, and not broken to
pieces, I hoped if the wind abated, I might get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have
saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all
drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we
might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
:ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
.things; but, at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon


the sand as near as I could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days en-
tirely spent in several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in the days, though with some intervals of fair
weather; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got
upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things being
chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the tide was
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some gusts
of wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind
blowing a little harder than before, and was no more to be
seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I had
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts
or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out my encampment; which I resolved to
strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 20th to the ;.',ri., I worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my lew habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to see for some food, and discover the country ; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I
afterwards killed also because it would not feed.
Norceber 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts, and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for nmy
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon went to
work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion;
viz., every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till
about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live on; and
from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot; and then, in the evening to work again. The
working part of this day and of the next were wholly em-
ployed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else.
Nov. 5.-This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog,
and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good
for nothing; every creature that I killed I took off the skins
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw
many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which,
while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got
into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was
Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with
much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to
please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times.
Note.-I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omit-
ting my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with
terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved
to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little
square chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and remote from one

another as possible. On one of these three days, I killed a
large bird that was good to eat, but I know not what to
call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my further convenience.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz., a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
that want, and make me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade
this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do
nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to make
I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great
labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought
it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in
England, only that the board part having no iron shod upon
it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel-
barrow. A basket I could not make by any means, having
no such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker-ware
-at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no
notion of; neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I
had no possible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle
or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and so, for
carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in,
when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to
me as the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and
the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took
me up ro less than four days.

Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I went on,
and working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note.--During all this time, I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard, that I could not keep
myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of
trees, like a thatch.
December 10.-I began to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side; so
much that it frighted me, and not without reason, too; for if
I had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. I
had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the
loose earth to carry out: and, which was of more importance,
I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more
would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of boards across over each post; this I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows,
served me for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that
fuld be hung up; and now I began to be in some order within
SDec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and
began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces of -boards
!ike a dresser, to order my victuals upon, but boards began
Sto be very scarce with me: also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day : no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
SDec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before,
1 and pleasanter.

Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that
I caught it, and led it home in a string; when I had it at
home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broken.
N.B.-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever : but by nursing it so long it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the iirsft time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
D Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.-Great heats, and no breeze, so that
thl're was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for
fod ; this time I spent in putting all my things in order
within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there were plenty of goats, though
exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they
all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not comoe near them.
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make
very thick and strong.
N.B.-This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal ; it is sufficient to observe that I
was no less time than from the 3rd of Jantmrry to the 14th of
April working, fini shing, and perfecting this wall, though it
was no more than about twenty-four yards in length, being a
half-circle, from one place in tihe rock to another place, about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.
All thii time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks, together ; but I thought I
should never be perfectly sceure till this wall was finished ; and
it is scarcely credible whlat inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into tlhe ground ; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.

When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there they would not
perceive anything like a habitation; and it was very well I did

*. .* ;---*--
-i *I-.-*t->* F.


Page 102.
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occa-
During this time I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent
discoveries in these walks of something or other to my advan-

stage; particularly I found a kind of wild pigeons, which
build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks ; and taking some young
ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so; but
when they grew older they flew away, which perhaps was at
fist for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which wore very good meat. And now, in the managing
mv household aflfirs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which 1 thought at first it was impossible for me to make ; as,
indeed, witl some of them it was: for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before, but 3 could never arrive at the capacity of
making one by then, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to
one another as to make them hold water; so I gave that also
over. In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally by seven
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of
bcee'-wax w ith which I made candles in my African adventure ;
but I had none of that now ; the only remedy I had was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added
a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp ; and this gave me
light, though not a clear steady light like a candle. In the
middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my
things, I found a little bag, which had been filled with corn
for the feeding of poultry. The little remainder of corn that
had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being willing to
have the bag for some other use, I shook the husks of corn out
of it on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much
as remembering that I had thrown anything there, when about
a month after, or thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of some-
thing green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might
be some plant I had not seen ; but I was surprised, and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about
ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley,
of the same kind as our English barley.

-~ ~

"I found the earth crumbling down from the roof of my cave, and two
of the posts I tad set up cracked in a frightful manner."

It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion ; I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions
of religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any-
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God, without so much as inquiring
into the end of Providence in these things, or His order in
governing events for the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled me
strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild,
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of
nature should happen upon my account; and this was the
more strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by
the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved
to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it
grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went all over that part of the island where I had been
before, peering in every corner, and under every rock, to see
for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it occurred
to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in
that place, and then the wonder began to cease ; and I must
confess, my religious thankfulness to God's providence began
to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it
had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Provi-
dence to me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve
grains of corn should remain unspoiled, when the rats had
destroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from heaven;
as also, that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up im-
mediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that
time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in

their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying
up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in
time, to have some quantity, sufficient to supply me with
bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow
myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but
sparingly, as I shall say afterwards, in its order ; for I lost all
that I sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of
which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care and for
the same use, to make me bread, or rather food; for I found
ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some time.
But to return to my Journal:
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriv-
ing to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in
the inside : this was a complete inclosure to me; for within I
had room enough, and nothing could come at me from with-
out, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
had all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the
case was thus :-As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frighted with
a most dreadful surprising thing indeed : for, all on a sudden,
I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my
cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of
the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful man-
ner. I was heartily scared; thinking that the top of my cave
was fallen in, as some of it had done before: and for fear I
should be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall for fear
of the pieces of the hill, which I expected might roll down
upon me. I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm
ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for
the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight

minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would have over-
turned the strongest building that could be supposed to have
stood on the earth, and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down, with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my
life. I perceived also the very sea was put into violent motion
by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself, having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with anyone that had, that I was like
one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of
the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me
from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror,
and I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon my
tent and all my household goods, and burying all at once; and
this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough
to go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive, but sat
still upon the ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not
knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least
serious religious thought, nothing but the common "Lord have
mercy upon me!" and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy,
as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind arose by little and
little, so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam
and froth; the shore was covered with the breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate;
and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over,
and I might venture into my cave again. With this thought,
my spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to per-
suade me, I went in and sat down in my tent; but the rain
was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with
it; and I was forced to go into my cave, though very much

afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole through
my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out, which
would else have flooded my cave. After I had been in my
cave for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earth-
quake follow, I began to be more composed. And now to
support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
to my little store and took a small sup of rum; which, however,
I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could have
no more when that was gone. It continued raining all that
night, and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir
abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began to think
of what I had best do: concluding, that if the island was sub-
ject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
cave, but I must consider of building a little hut in an open
place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here,
and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I
concluded if I stayed where I was, I should certainly, one time
or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it now stood, which was just under the hanging
precipice of the hill; and which if it should be shaken again,
would certainly fall upon my tent: and I spent the two next
days, being the 19th and 20th of April, in contriving where
and how to remove my habitation. The fear of being swal-
lowed up alive made me that I never slept in quiet; and yet
the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence was almost
equal to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how every-.
thing was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and
how safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In
the meantime, it occurred to me that it would require a vast
deal of time for me to do this, and that I must be contented to
venture where I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and
had secured it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution
I composed myself for a time; and resolved that I would go
to work with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cables,
&c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent up in it, when it
was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till
it was finished and fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of means

to put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss
about my tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of
hatchets, but with much chopping and cutting knotty hard
wood, they were all full of notches, and dull, and though I had
a grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too.
This cost me as much thought as a statesman would have bo-
stowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life
and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a
string to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands
at liberty.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to
one biscuit a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea side, the
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than
ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship,
which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out
of the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel which
was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gun-
powder, but it had taken water, and the powder was caked as
hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle,! which lay before buried in sand, was
heaved up at least six feet, and the stern, which was broke in
pieces and parted, from the rest by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging her, was tossed, as it were, up, and
cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on thai
side next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of
water before, so that'I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite
up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this
at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake;
and as by this violence the ship was more broke open than

formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by degrees
to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of re-
moving my habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of anything, I resolved to
pull everything to pieces that I c,!ld of the ship, con-
cluding that everything I could get from her would be of some
use or other to me.
Miay 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or
quarter deck together, and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could from the side which
lay highest: but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give
over for that time.
May 4.-I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently
caught fish enough, as much as I cared to cat; all which I dried
in the sun, and ate them dry.
lay 5.--Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir-planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made to '. r on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
3Iay 6.--Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard and
came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, not witli an intent to
work, but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it, but it was almost full of water and sand.
lMay 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.

May 9.-Woent to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also

Page 107.

a roll of English lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavy
to remove.
May 10-14.-Went every day to the wreck; and got a
great many pieces of timber and boards or plank, and two
or three hundredweight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a

piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and
a half in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the
llay 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide
prevented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found it was a piece of the lead, but too
heavy for me to bring away.
[May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much with
the crow, that the first blowing tide several casks floated out,
and two of the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from
the shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it, but the salt
water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every
dayto the 15th of June, except the time necessary to get food,
which I always appointed, during this part of my employment,
to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
ebbed out; and by this time I had got timber and plank, and
iron-work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known
how; and also I got at several times, and in several pieces, near
one hundredweight of the sheet-lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or
scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as I
found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having
had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. I thought,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude,

June 19.-Very ill and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21.-Very ill; frighted- almost to death with the
apprehension of my sad condition-to be sick, and np help;
prayed to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull, but
scarce knew what I said, or why; my thoughts being all
June 22.-A little better ; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.- An ague very violent: the fit held me seven
hours: cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very w1k : however, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty g t'ft hnlisi, and broiled some of it,
and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst; but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get
myself any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was
light-headed; and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I
knew not what to say ; only I lay and cried, Lord, look upon
me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" Isuppose
I did nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wearing
off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When
I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak and exceed-
ing thirsty; however, as I had no water in my habitation, I
was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In
this second sleep, I had this terrible dream: I thought that I
was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my wall, where I
sat when the storm blew after the earthquake, and that I saw
a man descend from a great black cloud, in a bright flan.m oi
fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over as bright rs a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him: his
countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his

feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done before
in the earthquake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension,
as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He was no sooner
landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards me, with
a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he
came to a rising ground at some distance, he spoke to me-
or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it. All that I can say I understood, was this:-
"Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die;" at which words, I thought he lifted
up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this
terrible vision. I mean, that even while it was a dream, I
even dreamed of those horrors. Nor is it any more possible
to describe the impression that remained upon my mind when
I awaked, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowAlbdge. What I had received
by the good instruction of my Kather was then worn out by
an uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wicked-
ness, and a constant conversation with none but such as were,
like myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not
remember that I had, in all that time, one thought that so
much as tended either to looking upwards towards God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most
hardened, t,iIt1.1b;., wicked creature among our common
sailors can be supposed to be: not having the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to
God, in deliverance.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness ; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight
of joy, without the least reflection upon the distinguished
goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled
me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed.
Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration, made
sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful

place, out of the reach of-diuman kind, out of all hope of
relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a pros-
pect of living, and that I should not starve and perish for
hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off; and I began
to be very easy, applied m self to the works proper for my
preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heav.-l or as .
the hand of God against me: these were thoughts which very
seldom entered my head.
But to return to my Journal:-
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep
I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con-
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill; and the first thing I did,
I filled a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon ,
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but
could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak,
and withal very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense of my
miserable condition, dreading the return of my distemper the |
next day. At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's
eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate in the shell, and
this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's blessing
to, that I could remember, in my whole life. After I had
eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that, so I
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. Some such thoughts as these occurred to me:
God knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition;
and if nothing happens without His appointment, He has ap-
pointed all this to befall me. Nothing occurred to mythought
to contradict any of these conclusions, and therefore it rested
upon me with the greater force, that it must needs be that
God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought
into this miserable circumstance by His direction, He having
the sole power, not of me only, but of everything that hap-

opened in the world. Immediately it followed-Why has God
done this to me ? What have I done to be thus used? My
conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had
bhlsphemed, and methought it spoke to me like a voice,
" Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast done ? Look back
upon a ''..:.li]l misspent life, and ask thyself, what thou hast
not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago de-
stroyed ? Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads;
killed in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-
of-war ; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa;
or drowned here, when all the crew perished but thyself?
Dost thou ask, what have I done ?" I was struck dumb with
these reflections, as one astonished, and had not a word to say
-no, not to answer to myself, but rose up pensive and sad,
walked back to my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I
had been going to bed; but my thoughts were sadly dis-
turbed, and I had no inclination to sleep : so I sat down in
my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark. Now,
as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified
me very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers, and
I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which
was quite cured, and some also that was green, and not quite
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt, for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, the tobacco: and as the few books I
had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I
mentioned before, and which to this time I had not found
leisure, or inclination, to look into. What use to make of the
tobacco I knew not, in my distemper, or whether it was good
for it or no; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I was
resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a piece
of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green and strong,
and that I had not been much used to. Then I took some
and steeped it an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to
take a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some
upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke or
it as long as I could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for

suffocation. In the interval of this operation, I took up the
Bible and began to read, but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time:
only, having opened the book casually, the first words that
occurred to me were these, Call on me in the day of trouble,
and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These
words were very apt to my case, and made some impression
upon my thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so
much as they did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the
word had no sound, as I may say, to me; the thing was so
remote, so impossible in my apprehension of things, that I
began to say as the children of Israel did when they. were
promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness?" so I began to say, "Can God Himself deliver mefrom this
place?" And as it was not for many years that any hopes ap-
peared, this prevailed very often uponmy thoughts; but however,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had dozed
my head so much that I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should wint anything in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God,
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon Him in the
day of trouble, He would deliver me. After my broken and
imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which I had
steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that I could scarcely get it down; immediately upon
this I went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head
violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more
till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in
the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour I am partly of
opinion, tht. I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after: for otherwise, I know not how I should
lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other,
when I awaked I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful; when I got up, I was stronger than

I was the day before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued much
altered for the better. This was the 2th..
The ; e::h was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home ; but was not very forward to eat them ; so I ate
some more of the turtle's Oggs, which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed did
me good the day before, the tobacco steeped in rum; only I
did not take so much as before, nor did 1 chew any 'Cf theleaf,
or hold my head over the smoke ; however, I was not so well
the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should
have boer.en for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.
Jul/ 2.-- renewoa-1 tle medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself wNith it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
Juiy 3.-I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I
was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon
this scripture, "I will deliver theec;" and the impossibility of
my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it; but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received ; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz : Have I not been delivered,
and wonderfully too, from sickness? from the most distressed
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ? and
what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part? God
had delivered me, but I had not glorified Him ; that is to say,
I had not owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance:
and how could I expect greater deliverance ? This touched
my heart very much; and immediately I knelt down, and
gave God thanks aloud for my recovery from my sickness.
Julyj 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible ; and beginning
at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it, and
imposed upon myself to read awhile every morning and every
night; not tying myself to the number of chapters, but as long
as my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after I set

seriously to this work, till I found my heart more deeply and
sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past life. The

i -

Page 120,
impression of my dream revived; and the words, "All these
things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in
my thoughts. I was earnestly begging of God to give me

repentance, when it happened providentially, the very day
that, reading the Scripture, I came to these words, He is
exalted a Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and to give
remission." I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of
joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou
exalted Prince and Saviour! give me repentance !" This was
the first time I could say, in the true sense of the words, that
I prayed in all my life ; for now I prayed with a sense of my
condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded on
the encouragement of the word of God; and from this time, I
may say, I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call
on Me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of anything
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was in: for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that in the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it in
another sense: now I looked back upon my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that
bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it,
or think of it; it was all of no consideration in comparison
to this. And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall
read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they
will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than
deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my Journal:-
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little
at a time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a
fit of sickness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness I was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps which had never
cured an ague before ; neither can I recommend it to anyone
to practise by this experiment: and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time; I
learned from it also this, in particular, that being abroad in thq

rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my health that
could be, especially in those rains which came attended with
storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in
the dry season was almost always accompanied with such store ms,
so I found that rain was much more dangerous than the rain
which fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months:
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no hu ian
shape had ever set foot upon that place. Having now secured
my habitation, as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a gre
desire to make a more perfect discovery of the island, and to
see what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where I brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I
came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher;
and that it was no more than a little brook of running water,
very fresh and good; but this being the dry season, there was
hardly any water in some parts of it. On the banks of this
brook, I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain,
smooth, and covered with grass: and on the rising parts of
them, next to the higher grounds, where the water, as might
be supposed, never overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco,
green, and growing to a great and very strong talkl; there
were divers other plants, which I had no notion of or under-
standing about, that might perhaps, have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out. I searched for the cassava root,
which the Indians, in all that climate. make their bread of, but
I could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not
understand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and
for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with
these discoveries for this time, and came back, musing with
myself what course I might take to know the virtue and good-
iess of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover;
but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made
so little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew
little of the plants in the field, that might serve me to air
purp-ose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and

after going something farther than I had gone the day before,
I found the brook and savannahs cease; and the country
became more woody. In this part, I found different fruits, and
particularly melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and
grapes upon the trees; the vines had spread over the trees,
and the clusters of grapes were just now in their prime, very
ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was
exceeding glad of them; but I was warned by my experience
to eat sparingly of them, remembering that when I was ashore
in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several of our English-
men, who were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and
fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and
that was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as
dried grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be
wholesome and agreeable to cat, when no grapes could be
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. In the night, I took my first con-
trivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the
next morning, proceeded upon my discovery, travelling nearly
four miles, as I might judge by the length of the valley, keep-
ing still due north, witu a ridge of hills on the south and north
side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an opening,
where thle country seemed to descend to the west; and a
little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so Il.... ,, everything being in a constant
verdure, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a
little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a
kind of secret pleasure, though mixed with my other afflicting
thoughts, that this v.-as all my own ; that I was king and lord
of all this country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession;
and, if I could convey it, I might have it in inheritance as com-
pletely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa trees, orange and lemon, and citron trees;
but all wild, and very few bearing any fruit. However, the
green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to cat,
but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice afterwards with
water, which made it very wholesome, and very cool and re
freshing. I found now I had business enough, to gather and

carry home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching. In order to do this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, a lesser heap in
another place, and a great parcel of limes and lemons in another
place; and taking a few of each with me, I travelled home-
wards: and resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack,
or what I could make, to carry the rest home. Accordingly,
having spent three days in this journey, I came home (so I
must now call my tent and my cave), but before I got thither
the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the
weight of the juice, having broken them and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing : as to the limes, they
were good, but I could bring but a few.
The next day being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest ; but I was surprised,
when coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod
to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this, I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts, which had done this;
but what they were, I knew not. However, as I found there
was no laying them up on heaps, and no carrying them away
in a sack, but that one way they would be destroyed, and the
other way they would be crushed with their own weight, I took
another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes,
and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and the
lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and ti'pleasant-
ness of the situation; the security from storms on fat. side
the water, and the wood : and concluded that I had pitched
upon a place to fix my abode, which was by far the worst part
of the country. Upon the whole, I began to consider of re-
moving my habitation; and looking out for a place equally
safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in that pleasant,
fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting .-
me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I e isidered that

I was now by the sea side, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage ; and, by the same
ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other un-
happy wretches to the same place; and though it was scarce
probable that any such thing should ever happen, yet to inclose
myself among the hills and woods in the centre of the island,
was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an afthir
not only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore I
ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so en-
amoured of this place, that I spent much of my time there for
the whole of the remaining part of the month of July, and
though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I
built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a
distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as
I could reach, well staked, and filled between with brushwood;
and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights
together ; always going over it with a ladder ; so that I fancied
now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this
work took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly :,li...i my fence, and began to enjoy my
labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made me a tent like the
other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it very well, yet I had
not the shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave
behind me to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found
the grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed were
excellent good raisins; so I began to take them down from the
trees, and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which
followed would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part
of my winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried
most of them home to my cave, but it began to rain; and
from hence, which was the 14th of August,.it rained, more or
less, every day till the middle of October; and sometimes so
violently, that I could not stir out of my cave for several
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of
my family : I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats,
who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead, and

I heard no more tidings of her, till to my astonishment, she
came home about the end of August, with three kittens. This
was the more strange to me, because, though I had killed a
wild cat, as I called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was a
quite different kind from our European cats; but the young
cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one; and
both my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with
cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts,
and to drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not ro be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food:
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me, and my food was regulated thus:-I ate a
bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or
of the turtle, for my dinner, broiled, for I had no vessel toboil
or stew anything; and two or three of the turtle's eggs for
my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain, I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave, and by degrees
worked it on towards one side, till I came to the outside of
the hill, and made a door or way out, which came beyond
my fence or wall; and so I came in and out this way. But I
was not perfectly easy at lying so open ; for, as I had managed
myself before, I was in a perfect enclosure; whereas now, 1
thought I lay exposed, and open for anything to come in upon
me; and yet I could not perceive that there was any living
thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon the
island being a goat.
Sept. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of
my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found I
had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept
this day as a solemn fast, even till the going down of the sun;
I then ate a biscuit-cake and a bunch of grapes, and went to
bed, finishing the day as I began it, with religious exercise.
I had all this time observed uo Sabbath-day; for as at first I
had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after some time,
omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making a longer notch
than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so did not really know

-'hat any of the d(1avs wero ; but now, having cast up the days
as above, I found I l ad been there a year, so I divided it into
weeks, and set ar C very seventh day for a Sibbath ; though
I found at the end ':ny account, I had lost lay or two in
my re; Acn A little afcer this, my ink I -:..n to fail me,
and so I -antntend myself to use it more sparingly, and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life, -without
continuing a daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season now began to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide ther.i so as to provide
for them rceordingly ; but I bought all ::- experience before
I had it, and this I am going to relate ',as one of ;'- most
discouraging experiments that I made.
Ihave mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley
and rice, which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I
thought of themselves, and I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley ; and now I thought
it a proper time to sow it, after the rains, the sun being in its
southern position, going from me. Accordingly, I dug up a
piece of ground as well as I could with my wooden spade, and
dividing it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but as I was
sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that I would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each. It was a great comfort to me after-
wards that I did so, for not one grain of what I sowed this
time came to anything; for the dry months following, the earth
having had no rain after the seed was sown, it had no moisture
to assist its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season
had come again, and then it grew as if it had been but newly
sown. Finding my first seed did not grow, which I easily
imagined was by the drought, I sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and I dug up a piece of
ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this having the
rainy months of March and April to water it, sprung up very
pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but having part of
the seed left only, and not daring to sow all that I had, I had
but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not amounting to
half a peck of each kind. But by this experiment I was made
master of my business, and knew exactly when the proper

season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times
and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, wh-ich
was of use to me after wards. As soon as the rains were o ..

Page 124.

and the weather began to settle, which was abouw tIe. month
of November, I made a visit up the country to my bower,
where, though I had not been some months, yet I found all
things just as I left them. The circle or double hedge
that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the stakes
which I had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts, were


all shot out and grown with long branches, as much as a willow-
tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head. I
was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the young
trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as
much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful
a figure they grew into in three years; so that though the
edge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet
the trees soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient
to lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to
cut some more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a
semi-circle round the wall of my first dwelling, which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards
served for a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally
be divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but
into the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were
generally thus:-
The half of February, the whole of March, and the
half of April-rainy, the sun being then on or near the
The half of April, the whole of May, June, and July, and
the half of August-dry, the sun being then to the north of
the Line.
The half of August, the whole of September, and the half
of October-rainy, the sun being then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December, and
January, and the half of February-dry, the sun being then
to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter, as the
winds happened to blow, but this was the general observation
I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill conse-
quences of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that I might not be obliged
to go out, and I sat within doors as much as possible during
the wet months. This time I found much employment, and
very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion for
many things which I had no way to furnish myself with but
by hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried

many ways to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could
get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do
nothing. It proved of excellent advantage to me now, that
when I was a boy, I used to take great delight in standing at
a basket-maker's, in the town where my father lived, to see
them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys usually are,
very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner in
which they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I
had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and I
wanted nothing but the materials, when it came into my mind
that the twigs of that tree whence I cut my stakes that grew
might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers
in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next day
I went to my country-house, as I called it, and cutting some
of the smaller twiga, I found them to my purpose as much as
I could desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared
wit a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for
there was great plenty of them. These I set up to dry within
my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use, I carried
them to my cave; and here, during the next season, Iemployed
myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
both to carry or to lay up anything, as I had occasion; and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet I made
them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, after-
wards, I took care never to be without them; and as my
wicker-ware decayed, I made more, especially strong deep
baskets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should
come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to
supply two wants. I had no vessel to hold anything that was
liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum, and
some glass bottles-some of the common size, and others, which
were case-bottles, square, for the holding of waters, spirits,
&c. I had not so much as a pot to boil anything, except a
great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which was too
big to make broth, and stew a bit of meat by itself. The
second thing I fain would have had was a tobacco-pipe, but it
was impossible to make one; however, I found a contrivance
for that, too, at last. I employed myself in planting my

second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-working all
the summer or dry season, when another business took me up
more time than it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole
island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to
where I built my bower, and where I had an opening quite to
the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so, taking
my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of
powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and a great
bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began myjourney.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above,
I came within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land, at a very great distance;
by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, other-
wise than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I con-
cluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish
After some thought upon this affair, I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time
or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but
if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish
country and Brazils, where are found the worst of savages.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurely forward;
I found that side of the island where I now was much plea-
santer than mine-the savannah fields sweet; adorned with
flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods. I saw
abundance of parrots, and fain I would have caught one, if
possible, to have kept it to be tame, and taught it to speak
to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a young
parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having re-
covered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I
could make him speak ; however, at last, I tan ~ht him to call
me by my name very familiarly. But the accid.nit that followed,
though it be a trifle, will be very diverting i its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this jou.:ney. I found in
the low grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes:
but they differed greatly from all the other kinds I had met
with, nor could I satisfy myvslf to cat them, though I killed

several. But I had no need to be. venturous, for I had no want
of food, and of that which was very good, too, especially these
three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise, which,
added to my grapes, Leadenhall-market could not have fur-
nished a table better than I, in proportion to the company.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles outright
in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns to see
what discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to
the place where I resolved to sit down all night; and then I
either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded myself with a
row of stakes set upright in the ground, from one tree
to another, so as no wild creature could come at me without
waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island,
for here, indeed, the shore was covered with innumerable turtles,
whereas, on the other side I had found but three in a year and
a half. Here was also an infinite number of fowls of many
kinds, some I had seen, and some I had not seen before, and
many of them very good meat, but such as I knew not the
names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very sparing
of my powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to kill
a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on; and
though there were many goats here, more than on my side the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could come
near them, the country being flat and even, and they saw me
much sooner than when I was on the hill.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine: btrt yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as
I was fixed in my habitation it became natural to me, and I
seemed all the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the shore of the
sea towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles, and then
setting up a great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded
I would go home again, and that the next journey I took
should be on the other side of the island east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I
could not miss finding my dwelling by viewing the country;

but I found myself mistaken, for, being come about two or,
three miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley,
but so surrounded with hills, and those hills covered with wood
that I could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the
position of the sun at that time of the day. It happened, to
my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for three
or four days while I was in the valley, and not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last
was obliged to find the sea-side, look for my post, and come
back the same way I went; and then by easy journeys Iturned
homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun,
ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and seized
upon it, and I, running in to take hold of it, caught it, and
saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it
home if I could, for I had often been musing whether it might
not be possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame
goats, which might supply me when my powder and shot should
be all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with
a string, which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always
carried about with me, I led him along, though with some
difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed him
and left him, for I was very impatient to be at home, whence
I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without settled place of abode, had
been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as I called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me compared to 'that; and
it rendered everything about me so comfortable, that I resolved
I would never go a great way from it again, while it should be
my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey; during which, most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Poll,
who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be well
acquainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned in within my little circle, and resolved to
go and fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it, almost starved for want of food.

I went and cut boughs of trees, and branches of such"shrubs
as I could find, and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it
as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame with being
hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it followed me
like a flog; fand as I continually fed it, the creature became so
loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became from that
time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island,
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much- more
happy this life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; and now I changed both my sorrows
and my joys; my very desires altered, my affections changed
their gusts, and my delights were perfectly new from what they
were at my first coming, or, indeed, for the two years past.
I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I daily read
the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the
Bible upon these words, "I will never, never leave thee, nor
forsake thee;" immediately it occurred that these words were
to me; why else should they be directed in such a manner,
just at the moment when I was mourning over my condition,
as one forsaken of God and man? "Well then," said I, "if
God does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be,
or what matters it, though the world should all forsake me,
seeing on the other hand, if I had all the world, and should
lose the favour and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss."
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind, that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world; and with this thought I
was going to give thanks to God fir bringing me to this place.
I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst
thou become such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, to pre-


tend to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou
mayest endeavour to be contented with, thou wouldst rather
pray heartily to be delivered from ?" So I stopped there, but
though I could not say I thanked God for being there, yet I
sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by what-
ever altlicting providences, to see the former condition of my
life, and to mourn for my wickedness, and repent. I never
opened the Bible, or shut it, but my very soul within me
blessed God for directing my friend in England, without any
order of mine, to pack it up among my goods, and for assist-
ing me afcrw'ards to save it out of the wreck of the ship.
In this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so parti-
cular.an account of my works this year as the first; yet in
general it may be obsel'rved, that I was very seldom idle, but
having regularly divided my time according to the several
daily employment that were before me, such as, first, my duty
to God, and the reading the Scriptures, which I constantly set
apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly, the going
abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours in every morning, when it did not rain: thirdly, the
ordering, cutting, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed
or caught for my supply: these took up great part of the day;
also, it is to be considered, that in the middle of the day, when
the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat was too
great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening was
all the time I could be supposed to work in, with this
exception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad with
my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time for labour, may be added the exceeding
laboriousness of my work; the many hours which for want of
tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did Look up
out of my time: for example, I was full two and forty days in
making a board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would
-have cut six of them out of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: it was to be a largo tree which was to be
cut down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree
I was three days in cutting down, and two more cutting off
the boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With

inexpressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of
it into chips tillit began to be light enough to move; then I
turned it, and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end; then turning that side downward, cut the

/l/RAMMA -UEces

Page 128.
other side, till I brought the plank to be about three inches
thick, and smooth on both sides. Anyone may judge the
labour in such a piece of work, but labour and patience carried
me through that, and many other things, as will appear by
what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December, ex-

pecking my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured and dug up for them was not great ; for, as I observed
my seed of eacil was not above e t quantity of half a peck, but
now my crop promised very well, when on a sudden I found I
was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several sorts,
which it was scarcely possible to keep from it; as, first the
goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and ate it so close, that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalk.
'This I saw no remedy Nr, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge ; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the
more, because it required speed. Ilowever, as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced
in about three weeks' time ; and shooting some of the creatures
in the day-time, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying
him up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark
all night long; so in a little time, the enemies forsook the
place, and the corn grew very strong and well, and began to
ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it
was in the ear; for going along by the place to see how it throve,
I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how
n:mny sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till I should be
gone. I immediately let fly among them, for I always had my
gun with me. I had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little
cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the
corn itself.
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and
never be able to raise a crop at all, and what to do I could not
tell; however, I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible,
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I
went among it, to see what damage was already done, and
found they had spoiled a good deal of it ; but that as it was vet
too green for them, the loss was not so great, but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.
I staved by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me,

as if they only waited till I was gone away, and the event
proved it to be so; for as I walked off, as if I was gone, I was
Iio sooner out of their sight, than they dropped down one by
one into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not
iave patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every
grain that they ate now was, as it might be said, a peck-loaf
to me in the consequence ; but coming up to the hedge I fired
again, and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England-hanged them in chains, for a terror to
others. It is impossible to imagine that this should have such
an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at
the corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and
I could never see a bird near the place as long as my scare-
crows hung there. This I was very glad of, and about the
latter end of December, which was our second harvest of the
year, I reaped my corn.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down,
and all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of
one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among
the arms out of the ship. However, as my first crop was but
small, I had no great difficulty to cut it do\\n; in short, 1
reaped it my way, for I cut nothing off but the ears, and
carried it away in a great basket which I had made, and so
rubbed it out with my hands; and at the end of my harvesting,
I found that out of my half-peck of seed I had near two bushels
of rice, and about two bushels and a half of barley; that is to
say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I fore-
saw that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread:
and yet, here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how
to grind or make meal of my corn, or, indeed, how to clean it
and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make bread of it:
and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake it; I re-
solved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for
seed against the next season ; and, in the meantime, to employ
all my study and hours of working to accomplish this great
work of providing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. I
believe few people have thought much upon the strange multi-

tude of little things necessary in the providing, producing,
curing, dressing, making, and finishing this one article of
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible of it
every hour.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or
shovel to dig it. Well, this I conquered by making me a
wooden spade, as I observed before, but this did my work but
in a wooden manner, and though it cost me a great many days
to make it. yet for want of iron, it not only wore out soon, but
made my work the harder, and made it be perfornied much
worse. However, this I bore with, and was content to work
it out with patience, and bear with the badness of the per-
formance. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough
of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be called, rather than
rake or harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, I have
observed already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure
it, inow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from
the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven
to bake it, but all these things I did without, as shall be ob-
;erved ; and yet the corn was an ine-timiable comfort and
advantage to me, too. All this made everything laborious and
tedious to me, but that there was no help foir; neither was my
time so much loss to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain
part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself
wholly, by labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils
proper for the perforiiing all the operations necessary for
making the corn, when I had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I
had a week's work at least to make me a spade, whiiel, when it
was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and
required double labour to work with it. Ilowever, I got
through that, and sowed my seed in two large flat pieces of
ground, as near my house as I could find them to my mind,
and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which

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