Half Title
 Title Page
 Editor's preface
 Original prefaces
 Robinson Crusoe
 The farther adventures of Robinson...

Title: Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073561/00001
 Material Information
Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xii, 607, 4 p. : ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Clark, John Willis, 1833-1910
Clay, C. J ( Printer )
Millais, John Everett, 1829-1896 ( Illustrator )
Macmillan & Co ( Publisher )
R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor ( Printer )
Publisher: Macmillan and Co.
Place of Publication: London ;
Manufacturer: Printed by C.J. Clay ... at the University Press
Publication Date: 1866
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1866   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Cambridge
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: edited after the original editions, by J.W. Clark.
General Note: Spine title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York mariner.
General Note: Title vignette, with artist's mark of J.E. Millais, dated 1862.
General Note: "In this edition ... my aim has been to reproduce faithfully the original text. The edition used to print from was that of 1719, but I have collated it with earlier editions."--Editor's pref.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement for Macmillan's golden treasury series (4 p.) at end. "The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe," edited by Clark, is on p. 3of the listing, apparently referring to a different edition. Page 4 of advertisement: London: R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor, Printers, Bread Street Hill.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073561
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 18429358

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Editor's preface
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Original prefaces
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 313
        Page 314
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Full Text





nonbon anb 4eambribge:


IN this edition of ROBINSON CRUSOE my aim
has been to reproduce faithfully the original text.
The edition used to print from was that of 1719,
but I have collated it with earlier editions. I have
in no case modernized the spelling or phraseology.
The Archaisms are hardly ever such as to render
the meaning doubtful even to the ordinary reader,
and it has appeared to me likely to prove useful
and interesting to young and old in modem times
to have our English Classics preserved in all their
integrity in popular .editions such as this aims
to be.




Who lived eight and twenty years

all alone in an uninhabited Island on the

coast of America, near the mouth of the great

River of Oronooque;

having been cast on shore by ship-

wreck, wherein all the men perished but himself.

With an account how he was at last as strangely

delivered by Pyrates.


Printed for W. TAYLOR at the Ship in Pater-Noster-



IF ever the ._.:,-' of any private Man's Adventures
in the World were worth making Publick, and were
acceptable when Publish'd, the Editor of this Account
thinks this will be so.

The Wonders of this Man's Life exceed all that
(he thinks) is to be found extant; the Life of one Man
being scarce capable of a greater Variety.

The Story is told with Modesty, with Seriousness,
and with a religious Application of Events to the Uses
to which wise Men always apply them (viz.) to the
Instruction of others by this Example, and to justify
and honour the Wisdom of Providence in all the


Variety of our Circumstances, let them happen how7
they will.

The Editor believes the thing to be a just History
of FaR; neither is there any Appearance of Filion
in it: And however thinks, because all such things
are dispatchl'd, that the Improvement of it, as well to
the Diversion, as to the InstrucTion of the Reader,
will be the same; and as such, he thinks, without
farther Compliment to the Wlorld, he does them a great
Service in the Publication.


THE Success the former Part of this Work has met
with in the World, has yet been no other than is
acknowledged to be due to the surprising Variety of
the SubjecR, and to the agreeable Manner of the

All the Endeavours of envious People to reproach
it with being a Romance, to search it for Errors in


Geography, Inconsistency in the Relation, and Con-
tradiEtions in the FaR, have proved abortive, and as
impotent as malicious.

The just Application of every Incident, the religious
and useful Inferences drawn from every Part, are so
many Testimonies to the good Design of making it
public, and must legitimate all the Part that may be
called Invention, or Parable in the Story.

The Second Part, if the Editors Opinion may pass,
is (contrary to the Usage of Second Parts,) every Way
as entertaining as the First, contains as strange and
surprising Incidents, and as great a Variety of them;
nor is the Application less serious, or suitable; and
doubtless will, to the sober, as well as ingenious Reader,
be every way as profitable and diverting; and this makes
the abridging this Work, as scandalous, as it is knavish
and ridiculous, seeing, while to shorten the Book, that
they may seem to reduce the Value, they strip it of all
those Reflecfions, as well religious as moral, which are
not only the greatest Beautys of the Work, but are
calculated for the infinite Advantage of the Reader.


By this they leave the Work naked of its brightest
Ornaments; and if they would, at the same Time pre-
tend, that the Author has supply'd the Story out of his
Invention, they take from it the Iimrovement, which
alone recommends that Invention to wise and good

The Inju;y these _.1 do the Proprietor of this
Work, is a PraTice all honest Men abhor; and he
believes he may challenge them to shewz the D.''.
between that and Robbing on the Hfighway, or Breaking
open a House.

If they can't shew any D'- in the Crime, they
,ill find it hard to shew why there should be any
D' *--. -. in the Punishment: And he will answer for
it, that nothing shall be wanting on his Part, to do them





I WAS born in the Year 1632, in the City of York, of a
good Family, tho' not of that Country, my Father
being a Foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull:
He got a good Estate by Merchandise, and leaving off
his Trade, lived afterward at York, from whence he had
married my Mother, whose Relations were named Robin-
son, a very good Family in that Country, and after whom
I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but by the usual
Corruption of Words in England, we are now called, nay
we call our selves, and write our Name Crusoe, and so m
Companions always called me.
I had two elder Brothers, one of which was Lieutenait
Collonel to an English Regiment of Foot in Flanders,
formerly commanded by the famous Coll. Lockhart, and
was killed at the Battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards: What became of my second Brother I never
knew any more than my Father and Mother did know
what was become of me.
Being the third Son of the Family, and not bred to
any Trade, my Head began to be fill'd very early with
rambling Thoughts: My Father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent Share of Learning, as far as
House-Education and a Country Free-School generally
goes, and designed me for the Law; but I would be satis-
fied with nothing but going to Sea, and my Inclination to
R. C. I

this led me so strongly against the Will, nay the Com-
mands of my Father, and against all the Entreaties and
Perswasions of my Mother and other Friends, that there
seem'd to be something fatal in that Propension of Na-
ture tending directly to the Life of Misery which was to
befall me.
My Father, a wise and grave Man, gave me serious
and excellent Counsel against what he foresaw was my
Design. He called me one Morning into his Chamber,
where he was confined by the Gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this Subjec: He ask'd me
what Reasons more than a meer wandering Inclination
I had for leaving my Father's House and my native
Country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
Prospefl of raising my Fortunes by Application and In-
dustry, with a Life of Ease and Pleasure. He told me
it was for Men of desperate Fortunes on one Hand, or
of aspiring, superior Fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon Adventures, to rise by Enterprize, and make
themselves famous in Undertakings of a Nature out of
the common Road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
S middle State, or what might be called the upper Station
of Low Life, which he had found by long Experience was
the best State in the World, the most suited to human
Happiness, not exposed to the Miseries and Hardships,
the Labour and Sufferings of the mechanic Part of
Mankind, and not embarrassed with the Pride, Luxury,
Ambition and Envy of the upper Part of Mankind. He
told me, I might judge of the Happiness of this State, by
this one thing, viz. That this was the State of Life which
all other People envied; that Kings have frequently la-
mented the miserable Consequences of being born to
great things, and wish'd they had been placed in the
Middle of the two Extremes, between the Mean and the
Great; that the wise Man gave his Testimony to this as
the just Standard of true Felicity, when he prayed to
have neither Poverty or Riches.

He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that
the Calamities of Life were shared among the upper and
lower Part of Mankind; but that the middle Station had
the fewest Disasters, and was not expos'd to so many
Vicissitudes as the higher or lower Part of Mankind;
nay, they were not subje6ced to so many Distempers and
Uneasinesses either of Body or Mind, as those were who,
by vicious Living, Luxury and Extravagancies on one
Hand, or by hard Labour, Want of Necessaries, and
mean or insufficient Diet on the other Hand, bring Dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural Consequences
of their Way of Living; That the middle Station of Life
was calculated for all kind of Virtues and all kind of
Enjoyments; that Peace and Plenty were the Handmaids
of a middle Fortune; that Temperance, Moderation,
Quietness, Health, Society, all agreeable Diversions, and
all desirable Pleasures, were the Blessings attending the
middle Station of Life; that this Way Men went silently
and smoothly thro' the World, and comfortably out of it,
not embarrassed with the Labours of the Hands or of the
Head, not sold to the Life of Slavery for daily Bread, or
harrast with perplex'd Circumstances, which rob the Soul
of Peace, and the Body of Rest; not enrag'd with the
Passion of Envy, or secret burning Lust of Ambition for
great things; but in easy Circumstances sliding gently
thro' the World, and sensibly tasting the Sweets of living,
without the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and learn-
ing by every Day's Experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he press'd me earnestly, and in the most
affedionate manner, not to play the young Man, not to
precipitate my self into Miseries which Nature and the
Station of Life I was born in, seem'd to have provided
against; that I was under no Necessity of seeking my
Bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to
enter me fairly into the Station of Life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that if I was not very
easy and happy in the World, it must be my meer Fate
or Fault that must hinder it, and that he should have

nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his Duty
in warning me against Measures which he knew would be
to my Hurt: In a word, that as he would do very kind
things for me if I would stay and settle at Home as he
directed, so he would not have so much Hand in my
Misfortunes, as to give me any Encouragement to go
away: And to close all, he told me I had my elder Bro-
ther for an Example, to whom he had used the same
earnest Perswasions to keep him from going into the Low
Country Wars, but could not prevail, his young Desires
prompting him to run into the Army where he was kill'd;
and tho' he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish Step, God would not bless me, and I would have
Leisure hereafter to reflect upon having negleAed his
Counsel when there might be none to assist in my Re-
I observed in this last Part of his Discourse, which
was truly Prophetick, tho' I suppose my Father did not
know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the Tears run
down his Face very plentifully, and especially when he
spoke of my Brother who was kill'd; and that when he
spoke of my having Leisure to repent, and none to assist
me, he was so mov'd, that he broke off the Discourse,
and told me, his Heart was so full he could say no more
to me.
I was sincerely affected with this Discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according
to my Father's Desire. But alas! a few Days wore it all
off; and, in short, to prevent any of my Father's farther
Importunities, in a few Weeks after, I resolved to run quite
away from him. However, I did not adt so hastily neither
as my first Heat of Resolution prompted, but I took my
Mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter
than ordinary, and told her, that my Thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the World, that I should never
settle to anything with Resolution enough to go through

with it, and my Father had. better give me his Consent
than force me to go without it; that I was now Eighteen
Years old, which was too late to go Apprentice to a Trade,
or Clerk to an Attorney; that I was sure if I did, I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run away
from my Master before my Time was out, and go to Sea;
and if she would speak to my Father to let me go but
one Voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not
like it, I would go no more, and I would promise by a
double Diligence to recover that Time I had lost.
This put my Mother into a great Passion: She told
me, she knew it would be to no Purpose to speak to my
Father upon any such Subje&; that he knew too well
what was my Interest to give his Consent to any thing so
much for my Hurt, and that she wondered how I could
think of any such thing after such a Discourse as I had
had with my Father, and such kind and tender Expressions
as she knew my Father had us'd to me; and that in
short, if I would ruine myself there was no Help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their Consent to
it: That for her Part she would not have so much Hand
in my Destrudion; and I should never have it to say,
that my Mother was willing when my Father was not.
Tho' my Mother refused to move it to my Father, yet
as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the Discourse
to him, and that my Father, after shewing a great Con-
cern at it, said to her with a Sigh, That Boy might be
happy if he would stay at home, but if he goes abroad he
will be the miserablest Wretch that was ever born: I can
give no Consent to it.
It was not till almost a Year after this that I broke
loose, tho' in the mean time I continued obstinately deaf
to all Proposals of settling to Business, and frequently
expostulating with my Father and Mother, about their
being so positively determined against what they knew my
Inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
where I went casually, and without any Purpose of mak-
ing an Elopement that time; but I say, being there, and


one of my Companions being going by Sea to London,
in his Father's Ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common Allurement of Seafaring Men, viz. That
it should cost me nothing for my Passage, I consulted
neither Father or Mother any more, nor so much as
sent them Word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God's Blessing, or my Father's,
without any consideration of Circumstances or Conse-
quences, and in an ill Hour, God knows, on the first
of September 1651, I went on Board a Ship bound for
London; never any young Adventurer's Misfortunes, I
believe, began sooner, or continued longer than mine.
The Ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humbir,
but the Wind began to blow, and the Waves to rise in
a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at
Sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in Body, and
terrify'd in my Mind: I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the Judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
Father's House, and abandoning my Duty; all the good
Counsel of my Parents, my Father's Tears and my
Mother's Entreaties came now fresh into my Mind, and
my Conscience, which was not yet come to the Pitch of
Hardness to which it has been since, reproach'd me with
the Contempt of Advice, and the Breach of my Duty to
God and my Father.
All this while the Storm encreas'd, and the Sea, which
I had never been upon before, went very high, though
nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
like what I saw a few Days after: But it was enough to
affect me then, who was but a young Sailor, and had
never known any thing of the Matter. I expected every
Wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the Ship fell down, as I thought, in the Trough or Hollow
of the Sea, we should never rise more; and in this Agony
of Mind, I made many Vows and Resolutions, that if it
would please God here to spare my Life this one Voyage,
if ever I got once my Foot upon dry Land again, I would

go "direEly home to my Father, and never set it into a
Ship again while I liv'd; that I would take his Advice, and
never run my self into such Miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the Goodness of his Observations
about the middle Station of Life, how easy, how comfort-
ably he had liv'd all his Days, and never had been ex-
pos'd to Tempests at Sea, or Troubles on Shore; and I
resolved that I would, like a true repenting Prodigal, go
home to my Father.
These wise and sober Thoughts continued all the
while the Storm continued, and indeed some time after;
but the next Day the Wind was abated and the Sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inur'd to it: However
I was very grave for all that Day, being also a little
Sea sick still; but towards Night the Weather clear'd up,
the Wind was quite over, and a charming fine Evening
followed; the Sun went down perfecly clear, and rose so
the next Morning; and having little or no Wind, and a
smooth Sea, the Sun shining upon it, the Sight was, as I
thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the Night, and was now no more
Sea sick but very cheerful, looking with Wonder upon the
Sea that was so rough and terrible the Day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after.
And now lest my good Resolutions should continue, my
Companion, who had indeed entic'd me away, comes to
me, Well Bob, says he, clapping me on the Shoulder, How
do you do after it? I warrant you were frighted, wasn't you,
last Night, when it blew but a Cap full of Wind? A
Caf full d'you call it? said I, 'twas a terrible Storm: A
Storm, you fool you, replies he, do you call that a Storm?
why it was nothing at all; give us but a good Ship and
Sea Room, and we think nothing of such a Squal of Wind
as that; but you're but a fresh IWater Sailor, Bob; come
let us make a Bowl of Punch and we'll forget all that,
d'ye see what charming Weather 'tis now. To make short
this sad Part of my Story, we went the old way of all
Sailors, the Punch was made, and I was made drunk

with it, and in that one Night's Wickedness I drowned
all my Repentance, all my RefleCtions upon my past Con-
duA, and all my Resolutions for my future. In a word,
as the Sea was returned to its Smoothness of Surface and
settled Calmness by the Abatement of that Storm, so the
Hurry of my Thoughts being over, my Fears and Appre-
hensions of being swallow'd up by the Sea being for-
gotten, and the Current of my former Desires returned,
I entirely forgot the Vows and Promises that I made in
my Distress. I found indeed some Intervals of Reflec-
tion, and the serious Thoughts did, as it were, endeavour
to return again sometimes, but I shook them off, and
rouz'd my self from them as it were from a Distemper,
and applying myself to Drink and Company, soon mas-
ter'd the Return of those Fits, for so I called them, and I
had in five or six Days got as compleat a Victory over
Conscience as any young Fellow that resolved not to be
troubled with it, could desire: But I was to have another
Trial for it still; and Providence, as in such Cases gene-
rally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without Excuse.
For if I would not take this for a Deliverance, the next
was to be such a one as the worst and most harden'd
Wretch among us would confess both the Danger and the
Mercy. -
The sixth Day of our being at Sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the Wind having been contrary and
the Weather calm, we had made but little Way since the
Storm. Here we were obliged to come to an Anchor, and
here we lay, the Wind continuing contrary, viz. at South-
west, for seven or eight Days, during which time a great
many Ships from Newcastle came into the same Roads,
as the common Harbour where the Ships might wait for a
Wind for the River.
We had not however rid here so long, but should
have Tided it up the River, but that the Wind blew too
fresh; and after we had lain four or five Days, blew very
hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as a
Harbour, the Anchorage good, and our Ground-Tackle

very strong, our Men were unconcerned, and not in the
least apprehensive of Danger, but spent the Time in Rest
and Mirth, after the manner of the Sea; but the eighth
Day in the Morning, the Wind increased, and we had all
Hands at Work to strike our Topmasts, and make every-
thing snug and close, that the Ship might ride as easy as
possible. By Noon the Sea went very high indeed, and
our Ship rid Forecastle in, shipp'd several Seas, and we
thought once or twice our Anchor had come home; upon
which our Master ordered out the Sheet Anchor; so that
we rode with two Anchors a-Head, and the Cables vered
out to the better End.
By this Time it blew a terrible Storm indeed, and now
I began to see Terror and Amazement in the Faces even
of the Seamen themselves. The Master tho' vigilant to
the Business of preserving the Ship, yet as he went in
and out of his Cabbin by me, I could hear him softly to
himself say several times, Lord be merciful to us, we
shall be all lost, we shall be all undone; and the like.
During these first Hurries, I was stupid, lying still in my
Cabbin, which was in the Steerage, and cannot describe
my Temper: I could ill re-assume the first Penitence,
which I had so apparently trampled upon, and harden'd
my self against: I thought the Bitterness of Death had
been past, and that this would be nothing too like the
first. But when the Master himself came by me, as I
said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was dread-
fully frighted: I got up out of my Cabbin, and look'd out;
but such a dismal Sight I never saw: The Sea went
Mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four
Minutes: When I could look about, I could see nothing
but Distress round us: Two Ships that rid near us we
found had cut their Masts by the Board, being deeply
loaden; and our Men cry'd out, that a Ship which rid
about a Mile a-Head of us was foundered. Two more
Ships being driven from their Anchors, were run out of
the Roads to Sea a til Adventures, and that with not a
Mast standing. The light Ships fared the best, as rot so

much labouring in the Sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only
their Sprit-sail out before the Wind.
Towards Evening the Mate and Boat-Swain begg'd
the Master of our Ship to let them cut away the Foremast,
which he was very unwilling to: But the Boat-Swain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not, the Ship would founder,
he consented; and when they had cut away the Foremast,
the Main Mast stood so loose, and shook the Ship so
much, they were obliged to cut her away also, and make
a clear Deck.
Any one may judge what a Condition I must be in at
all this, who was but a young Sailor, and who had been
in such a Fright before at but a little. But if I can
express at this Distance the Thoughts I had about me at
that time, I was in tenfold more Horror of Mind upon
Account of my former Convitions, and the having re-
turned from them to the Resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at Death it self; and these
added to the Terror of the Storm, put me into such a
Condition, that I can by no Words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet, the Storm continued with such
Fury, that the Seamen themselves acknowledged they
had never known a worse. We had a good Ship, but
she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the Sea, that
the Seamen every now and then cried out, she would
founder. It was my Advantage in one respeEt, that I did
not know what they meant by Founder, till I enquir'd.
However, the Storm was so violent, that I saw what is
not often seen, the Master, the Boat-Swain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their Prayers, and
expeAing every Moment when the Ship would go to the
Bottom. In the Middle of the Night, and under all the
rest of our Distresses, one of the Men that had been down
on Purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a Leak;
another said there was four Foot Water in the Hold.
Then all Hands were called to the Pump. At that very
Word my Heart, as I thought, died within me, and I fell

backwards upon the Side of my Bed where I sat, into the
Cabbin. However, the Men roused me, and told me, that
I that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at which I stirr'd up and went to the
Pump and work'd very heartily. While this was doing,
the Master seeing some light Colliers, who not able to ride
out the Storm, were oblig'd to slip and run away to Sea,
and would come near us, ordered to fire a Gun as a
Signal of Distress. I who knew nothing what that meant,
was so surprised, that I thought the Ship had broke, or
some dreadful thing had happened. In a word, I was so
surprised, that I fell down in a Swoon. As this was a
time when every Body had his own Life to think of,
no Body minded me, or what was become of me; but
another Man stept up to the Pump, and thrusting me
aside with his Foot, let me lye, thinking I had been
dead; and it was a great while before I came to my self.
We work'd on, but the Water increasing in the Hold,
it was apparent that the Ship would founder, and tho' the
Storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into a Port, so the Mas-
ter continued firing Guns for Help; and a light Ship, who
had rid it out just a Head of us ventured a Boat out to
help us. It was with the utmost Hazard the Boat came
hear us, but it was impossible for us to get on Board, or
for the Boat to lie near the Ship Side, till at last the Men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their Lives to save
ours, our Men cast them a Rope over the Stern with a
Buoy to it, and then vered it out a great Length, which
they after great Labour and Hazard took hold of, and we
hal'd them close under our Stern, and got all into their
Boat. It was to no Purpose for them or us after we were
in the Boat, to think of reaching to their own Ship, so all
agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards
Shore as much as we could, and our Master promised
them, That if the Boat was stav'd upon Shore he would
make it good to their Master, so partly rowing and
partly driving, our Boat went away to the Norward

sloaping towards the Shore almost as far as Winterton
We were not much more than a quarter of an Hour
out of our Ship but we saw her sink, and then I under-
stood for the first time what was meant by a Ship found-
ering in the Sea; I must acknowledge I had hardly
Eyes to look up when the Seamen told me she was sink-
ing; for from that Moment they rather put me into the
Boat than that I might be said to go in, my Heart was
as it were dead within me, partly with Fright, partly
with Horror of Mind and the Thoughts of what was yet
before me.
While we were in this Condition, the Men yet labour-
ing at the Oar to bring the Boat near the Shore, we could
see, when our Boat mounting the Waves, we were able to
see the Shore, a great many People running along the
Shore to assist us when we should come near, but we
made but slow way towards the Shore, nor were we able
to reach the Shore, till being past the Light-House at
Winterton, the Shore falls off to the Westward towards
Cromer, and so the Land broke off a little the Violence of
the Wind: Here we got in, and tho' not without much
Difficulty got all safe on Shore and walk'd afterwards on
Foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate Men, we were
used with great Humanity as well by the Magistrates of
the Town, who assigned us good Quarters, as by parti-
cular Merchants and Owners of Ships, and had Money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the Sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my Father,
an Emblem of our Blessed Saviour's Parable, had even
kill'd the fatted Calf for me; for hearing the Ship I
went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Road, it was
a great while before he had any Assurance that I was not
But my ill Fate push'd me on now with an Obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and tho' I had several times

loud Calls from my Reason and my more composed Judg-
ment to go home, yet I had no Power to do it. I know not
what to call this, nor will I urge, that it is a secret over-
ruling Decree that hurries us on to be the Instruments
of our own Destruction, even tho' it be before us, and
that we rush upon it with our Eyes open. Certainly
nothing but some such decreed unavoidable Misery at-
tending, and which it was impossible for me to escape,
could have push'd me forward against the calm Reason-
ings and Perswasions of my most retired Thoughts, and
against two such visible Instructions as I had met with in
my first Attempt.
My Comrade, who had help'd to harden me before,
and who was the Master's Son, was now less forward
than I; the first time he spoke to me after we were at
Yarmouth, which was not till two or three Days, for we
were separated in the Town to several Quarters; I say,
the first time he saw me, it appeared his Tone was alter'd,
and looking very melancholy and shaking his Head, ask'd
me how I did, and telling his Father who I was, and how
I had come this Voyage only for a Trial in order to go
farther abroad; his Father turning to me with a very
grave and concerned tone, Young Man, says he, you
ought never to go to Sea any more, you ought to take this
for a plain and visible Token, that you are not to be a
Seafaring Man. Why, Sir, said I, will you go to Sea no
more? That is another Case, said he; it is my Calling,
and therefore my Duty; but as you made this Voyage for
t Trial, you see what a Taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to exfpel if you persist; ferhafs this is
all befallen us on your Account, like Jonah in the ship of
Tarshish. Pray, continues he, what are you? and on
what Account did you go to Sea? Upon that I told him
some of my Story; at the End of which he burst out with
a strange kind of Passion, What had I done, says he,
that such an unhappy Wretch should come into my Ship?
I would not set my Foot in the same Ship with thee again
for a Thousand Pounds. This indeed was, as I said, an

Excursion of his Spirits which were yet agitated by the
Sense of his Loss, and was farther than he could have
Authority to go. However he afterwards talk'd very
gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my Father, and
not tempt Providence to my Ruine; told me I might see
a visible Hand of Heaven against me, Andyoung Man,
said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, where-
ever you go, you will meet with nothing but Disasters
and Disappointments, till your Father's Words are ful-
filled upon you. le
We parted soon after; for I made him little Answer,
and I saw him no more; which way he went, I know not.
As for me, having some Money in my Pocket, I travelled
to London by Land; and there, as well as on the Road,
had many Struggles with my self, what Course of Life
I should take, and whether I should go Home, or go to
As to going Home, Shame opposed the best Motions
that offered to my Thoughts; and it immediately occurred
to me how I should be laugh'd at among the Neighbours,
and should be asham'd to see, not my Father and Mother
only, but even every Body else; from whence I have since
often observed, how incongruous and irrational the com-
mon Temper of Mankind is, especially of Youth, to that
Reason which ought to guide them in such Cases, viz.
That they are not asham'd to sin, and yet are asham'd
to repent; not asham'd of the ACion for which they
ought justly to be esteemed Fools, but are asham'd of
the returning, which only can make them be esteem'd
wise Men.
In this State of Life however I remained some time,
uncertain what Measures to take, and what Course of
Life to lead. An irresistible Relutance continued to
going Home; and as I stay'd a while, the Remembrance
of the Distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated,
the little Motion I had in my Desires to a Return wore
off with it, till at last I quite lay'd aside the Thoughts of
it, and lookt out for a Voyage.

That evil Influence which carryed me first away from
my Father's House, that hurried me into the wild and
indigested Notion of raising my Fortune; and that im-
prest those Conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me
deaf to all good Advice, and to the Entreaties and even
Command of my Father: I say the same Influence, what-
ever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all En-
terprises to my View; and I went on board a Vessel
bound to the Coast of Africa; or, as our Sailors vulgarly
call it, a Voyage to Guinea.
It was my great Misfortune, that in all these Adven-
tures I did not ship my self as a Sailor; whereby, tho' I
might indeed have workt a little harder than ordinary,
yet at the same time I had learned the Duty and Office of
a Fore-Mast Man; and in time might have qualified my
self for a Mate or Lieutenant, if not for a Master: But as
it was always my Fate to choose for the worse, so I did
here; for having Money in my Pocket, and good Cloaths
upon my Back, I would always go on board in the Habit
of a Gentleman; and so I neither had any Business in
the Ship, or learned to do any.
It was my Lot first of all to fall into pretty good Com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
loose and misguided young Fellows as I then was; the
Devil generally not omitting to lay some Snare for them
very early: But it was not so with me, I first fell ac-
quainted with the Master of a Ship who had been on
the Coast of Guinea; and who having had very good
Success there, was resolved to go again; and who taking
a Fancy to my Conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to
see the World, told me if I wou'd go the Voyage with
him I should be at no Expence; I should be his Mess-
mate and his Companion, and if I could carry any thing
with me, I should have all the Advantage of it that the
Trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embrac'd the Offer, and, entering into a strict Friend-

ship with this Captain, who was an honest and plain-
dealing Man, I went the Voyage with him, and carried a
small Adventure with me, which by the disinterested
Honesty of my Friend the Captain, I increased very con-
siderably; for I carried about 401. in such Toys and
Trifles as the Captain directed me to buy. This 401. I
had mustered together by the Assistance of some of my
Relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe,
got my Father, or at least my Mother, to contribute so
much as that to my first Adventure.
This was the only Voyage which I may say was suc-
cessful in all my Adventures, and which I owe to the
Integrity and Honesty of my Friend the Captain, under
whom also I got a competent Knowledge of the Mathe-
maticks and the Rules of Navigation, learned how to keep
an Account of the Ship's Course, take an Observation;
and in short, to understand some things that were need-
ful to be understood by a Sailor: For, as he took Delight
to introduce me, I took Delight to learn; and, in a
word, this Voyage made me both a Sailor and a Mer-
chant: for I brought home L. 5. 9 Ounces of Gold Dust
for my Adventure, which yielded me in London at my
Return, almost 300oo. and this fill'd me with those aspiring
Thoughts which have since so completed my Ruin.
Yet even in this Voyage I had my Misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent Calenture by the excessive Heat of the
Climate; our principal Trading being upon the Coast,
from the Latitude of 15 Degrees North even to the Line
it self.
I was now set up for a Guiney Trader; and my Friend,
to my great Misfortune, dying soon after his Arrival, I
resolved to go the same Voyage again, and I embarked in
the same Vessel with one who was his Mate in the former
Voyage, and had now got the Command of the Ship.
This was the unhappiest Voyage that ever Man made;
for tho' I did not carry quite Ioo/. of my new gain'd
Wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodg'd with

my Friend's Widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell
into terrible Misfortunes in this Voyage; and the first
was this, viz. Our Ship making her Course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the
African Shore, was surprised in the Grey of the Morning,.
by a Turkish Rover of Sallee, who gave Chase to us with
all the Sail she could make. We crowded also as much
Canvass as our Yards would spread, or our Masts carry,
to have got clear; but finding the Pirate gain'd upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few Hours, we
prepared to fight; our Ship having 12 Guns, and the
Rogue 18. About three in the Afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to by Mistake, just athwart our
Quarter, instead of athwart our Stern, as he intended, we
brought 8 of our Guns to bear on that Side, and pour'd
in a Broadside upon him, which made him sheer off
again, after returning our Fire, and pouring in also his
small Shot from near 200oo Men which he had on Board.
However, we had not a Man touch'd, all our Men keep-
ing close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend our selves; but laying us on Board the next time
upon our other Quarter, he entered 60 Men upon our Decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the Decks
and Rigging. We ply'd them with Small-shot, Half-
Pikes, Powder-Chests, and such like, and clear'd our
Deck of them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly Part of our Story, our Ship being disabled, and
three of our Men kill'd, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carry'd all Prisoners into Sallee,
a Port belonging to the Moors.
The Usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended, nor was I carried up the Country to the
Emperor's Court, as the rest of our Men were, but was
kept by the Captain of the Rover, as his proper Prize,
and made his Slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his Business. At this surprising Change of my Circum-
stances from a Merchant to a miserable Slave, I was per-
fedly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
R. c. 2

Father's prophetic Discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effecually brought to pass, that it could not
be worse; that now the Hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without Redemption. But alas!
this was but a Taste of the Misery I was to go thro', as
will appear in the Sequel of this Story.
As my new Patron or Master had taken me Home to
his House, so I was in hopes that he would take me with
him when he went to Sea again, believing that it would
some time or other be his Fate to be taken by a S5panish
or Portugal Man of War; and that then I should be set
at Liberty. But this Hope of mine was soon taken away;
for when he went to Sea, he left me on Shore to look
after his little Garden, and do the common Drudgery of
Slaves about his House; and when he came home again
from his Cruise, he ordered me to lye in the Cabbin to
look after the Ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my Escape; and what
Method I might take to effect it, but found no Way that
had the least Probability in it: Nothing presented to
make the Supposition of it rational; for I had no Body to
communicate it to, that would embark with me; no Fel-
low-Slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there
but my self; so that for two Years, tho' I often pleased
my self with the Imagination, yet I never had the least
encouraging Prosped of putting it in PraAice.
After about two Years an odd Circumstance presented
it self, which put the old Thought of making some At-
tempt for my Liberty, again in my Head: My Patron
lying at Home longer than usual, without fitting out his
Ship, which, as I heard, was for want of Money; he used
constantly, once or twice a Week, sometimes oftner, if
the Weather was fair, to take the Ship's Pinnace, and go
out into the Road a-fishing; and as he always took me
and a young MAaresco with him to row the Boat, we made
him very merry, and I prov'd very dexterous in catching
Fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a

Moor, one of his Kinsmen, and the Youth the Maresco,
as they called him, to catch a Dish of Fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark
calm Morning, a Fog rose so thick, that tho' we were not
half a League from the Shore we lost Sight of it; and
rowing we knew not whither or which way, we labour'd
all Day and all the next Night, and when the Morning
came we found we had pull'd off to Sea instead of pull-
ing in for the Shore; and that we were at least two Leagues
from the Shore: However we got well in again, tho'
with a great deal of Labour, and some Danger; for the
Wind began to blow pretty fresh in the Morning; but
particularly we were all very hungry.
But our Patron warn'd by this Disaster, resolved to
take more Care of himself for the future; and having lying
by him the Longboat of our English Ship which he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a fishing any more
without a Compass and some Provision; so he ordered the
Carpenter of his Ship, who also was an English Slave,
to build a little State-room or Cabin in the middle of the
Longboat, like that of a Barge, with a Place to stand
behind it to steer and hale home the Main-sheet; and
Room before for a hand or two to stand and work the
Sails; she sail'd with what we call a Shoulder of Mutton
Sail; and the Boom gib'd over the Top of the Cabbin,
which lay very snug and low, and had in it Room for him
to lye, with a Slave or two, and a Table to eat on, with
some small Lockers to put in some Bottles of such Liquor
as he thought fit to drink; particularly his Bread, Rice
and Coffee.
We went frequently out with this Boat a fishing, and
as I was most dextrous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me: It happened that he had appointed to
go out in this Boat, either for Pleasure or for Fish, with
two or three Moors of some Distinction in that Place,
and for whom he had provided extraordinarily; and had
therefore sent on board the Boat over Night, a larger
Store of Provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me

to get ready three Fuzees with Powder and Shot, which
were on board his Ship; for that they designed some
Sport of Fowling as well as Fishing.
I got all things ready as he had direAed, and waited
the next Morning with the Boat, washed clean, her
Antient and Pendants out, and every thing to accomo-
date his Guests; when by and by my Patron came on
board alone, and told me his Guests had put off going,
upon some Business that fell out, and ordered me with
the Man and Boy, as usual, to go out with the Boat and
catch them some Fish, for that his friends were to sup at
his House; and commanded that as soon as I had got
some Fish I should bring it home to his House; all
which I prepared to do.
This Moment my former Notions of Deliverance dart-
ed into my Thoughts, for now I found I was like to have
a little Ship at my Command; and my Master being
gone, I prepared to furnish my self, not for a fishing Busi-
ness, but for a Voyage; tho' I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider whither I should steer; for any where
to get out of that Place was my Way.
My first Contrivance was to make a Pretence to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our Subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
Patron's Bread; he said, that was true; so he brought a
large Basket of Rusk or Bisket of their kind, and three
Jarrs with fresh Water into the Boat; I knew where my
Patron's Case of Bottles stood, which it was evident by
the make were taken out of some English Prize; and I
convey'd them into the Boat while the Moor was on
Shore, as if they had been there before, for our Master:
I convey'd also a great Lump of Bees-Wax into the Boat,
which weighed above half a Hundred Weight, with a
Parcel of Twine or Thread, a Hatchet, a Saw, and a
Hammer, all which were of great Use to us afterwards;
especially the Wax to make Candles. Another Trick I
try'd upon him, which he innocently came into also; his
Name was Ismael, who they call Muly, or Moely, so I

called to him, Moely said I, our Patron's Guns are on
board the Boat, can you not get a little Powder and Shot,
it may be we may kill some Alcamies (a Fowl like our
Curlieus) for our selves, for I know he keeps the Gunner's
Stores in the Ship? Yes, says he, I'll bring some, and
accordingly he brought a great Leather Pouch which held
about a Pound and half of Powder, or rather more; and
another with Shot, that had five or six Pound, with some
Bullets; and put all into the Boat: At the same time I
had found some Powder of my Master's in the Great
Cabbin, with which I filFd one of the large Bottles in the
Case, which was almost empty; pouring what was in it
into another: and thus furnished with'every thing need-
ful, we sail'd out of the Port to fish: The Castle which is
at the Entrance of the Port knew who we were, and took
no Notice of us; and we were not above a Mile out of
the Port before we hal'd in our Sail, and set us down to
fish: The Wind blew from the N.NE. which was con-
trary to my Desire; for had it blown southerly I had
been sure to have made the Coast of Spain, and at least
reacht to the Bay of Cadiz; but my Resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from the hor-
rid Place where I was, and leave the rest to Fate.
After we had fisht some time and catcht nothing, for
when I had Fish on my Hook, I would not pull them up,
that he might not see them; I said to the Moor, this will
not do, our Master will not be thus serv'd, we must stand
farther off: He thinking no harm agreed, and being in
the head of the Boat set the Sails; and as I had the
Helm I run the Boat out near a League farther, and then
brought her too as if I would fish; when giving the Boy
the Helm, I stept forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stoopt for something behind him, I took
him by Surprize with my Arm under his Twist, and tost
him clear over board into the Sea; he rise immediately,
for he swam like a Cork, and called to me, begg'd to be
taken in, told me he would go all the World over with
me; he swam so strong after the Boat that he would

have reacht me very quickly, there being but little Wind;
upon which I stept into the Cabbin, and fetching one of
the Fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him,
I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet, I
would do him none; but said I, you swim well enough to
reach to the Shore, and the Sea is calm, make the best of
your Way to Shore and I will do you no harm, but if you
come near the Boat I'll shoot you thro' the Head; for I
am resolved to have my Liberty; so he turn'd himself
about and swam for the Shore, and I make no doubt but
he reacht it with Ease, for he was an excellent Swimmer.
I could ha' been content to ha' taken this Moor with
me, and ha' drowned the Boy, but there was no venturing
to trust him: When he was gone I turn'd to the Boy,
who they called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you
will be faithful to me I'll make you a great Man, but if you
will not streak your Face to be true to me, that is, swear
by Mahomet and his Father's Beard, I must throw you
into the Sea too; the Boy smil'd in my Face and spoke
so innocently that I could not mistrust him; and swore to
be faithful to me, and go all over the World with me.
While I was in View of the Moor that was swimming,
I stood out direEtly to sea with the Boat, rather stretching
to Windward, that they might think me gone towards the
Straits-mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
Wits must ha' been supposed to do) for who would ha-
suppos'd we were saild on to the Southward to the truly
Barbarian Coast, where whole Nations of Negroes were
sure to surround us with their Canoes, and destroy us;
where we could ne'er once go on Shore but we should be
devour'd by savage Beasts, or more merciless Savages of
humane kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the Evening, I changed
my Course, and steer'd directly South and by East, bend-
ing my Course a little toward the East, that I might keep
in with the Shore; and having a fair fresh Gale of Wind,
and a smooth quiet Sea, I made such Sail that I believe
by the next Day at Three a Clock in the Afternoon, when

I first made the Land, I could not be less than 150 Miles
South of Sallee; quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
Dominions, or indeed of any other King thereabouts, for
we saw no People.
Yet such was the Fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful Apprehensions I had of falling into their
Hands, that I would not stop, or go on Shore, or come to
an Anchor; the Wind continuing fair, 'till I had sail'd in
that manner five Days: And then the Wind shifting to the
Southward, I concluded also that if any of our Vessels
were in Chase of me, they also would now give over; so
I ventur'd to make to the Coast, and came to an Anchor
in the Mouth of a little River, I knew not what, or where;
neither what Latitude, what Country, what Nation, or
what River: I neither saw, or desir'd to. see any People,
the principal thing I wanted was fresh Water: We came
into this Creek in the Evening, resolving to swim on
Shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the Country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
Noises of the Barking, Roaring, and Howling of Wild
Creatures, of we knew not what Kinds, that the poor Boy
was ready to die with Fear, and begg'd of me not to go on
Shore till day; well Xury, said I, then I wo'nt, but it may
be we may see Men by Day, who will be as bad to us as
those Lyons; then we give them the shoot Gun, says
Xury, laughing, make them run wey; such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us Slaves, however I
was glad to see the Boy so cheerful, and I gave him a
Dram (out of our Patron's Case of Bottles) to chear him
up: After all, Xury's Advice was good, and I took it, we
dropt our little Anchor and lay still all Night; I say still,
for we slept none! for in two or three Hours we saw vast
great Creatures (we knew not what to call them), of many
sorts, come down to the Sea-shore and run into the Water,
wallowing and washing themselves for the Pleasure of
cooling themselves; and they made such hideous Howl-
ings and Yellings, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;

but we were both more frighted when we heard one of
these mighty Creatures come swimming towards our
Boat, we could not see him, but we might hear him by
his blowing to be a monstrous, huge and furious Beast;
Xury said it was a Lyon, and it might be so for ought I
know; but poor Xury cryed to me to weigh the Anchor
and row away; no, says I, Xury, we can slip our Cable
with the Buoy to it and go off to Sea, they cannot follow
us far; I had no sooner said so, but I perceiv'd the Crea-
ture (whatever it was) within two Oars Length, which
something surprised me; however I immediately stept to
the Cabbin-door, and taking up my Gun fir'd at him, upon
which he immediately turn'd about and swam towards the
Shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible Noises,
and hideous Cryes and Howlings, that were raised as well
upon the Edge of the Shore as higher within the Country;
upon the Noise or Report of the Gun, a Thing I have
some Reason to believe those Creatures had never heard
before: This convinced me that there was no going on
Shore for us in the Night upon that Coast; and how to
venture on Shore in the Day was another Question too;
for to have fallen into the Hands of any of the Savages,
had been as bad as to have fallen into the Hands of Lyons
and Tygers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
Danger of it..
Be that as it would, we were oblig'd to go on Shore
somewhere or other for Water, for we had not a Pint left
in the Boat; when or where to get to it was the Point:
Xury said, if I would let him go on Shore with one of the
Jarrs, he would find if there was any Water and bring
some to me. I ask'd him why he would go? Why I should
not go and he stay in the Boat? The Boy answered with
so much Affection that made me love him ever after. Says
he, If wild Mans come, they eat me, you go wey. Well,
Xury, said I, we will both go, and if the wild Mans come,
we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us; so I gave
Xurya piece of Rusk-bread to eat, and a Dram out of our

Patron's Case of Bottles which I mentioned before; and
we hal'd in the Boat as near the Shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded on Shore, carrying nothing but our
Arms and two Jarrs for Water.
I did not care to go out of Sight of the Boat, fearing
the coming of Canoes with Savages down the River; but
the Boy seeing a low Place about a Mile up the Country
rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come running
towards me, I thought he was pursued by some Savage,
or frighted with some wild Beast, and I run forward to-
wards him to help him, but when I came nearer to him, I
saw something hanging over his Shoulders which was
a Creature that he had shot, like a Hare but different in
Colour, and longer Legs, however we were very glad of it,
and it was very good Meat; but the great Joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good Water
and seen no wild Mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
Pains for Water, for a little higher up the Creek where we
were, we found the Water fresh when the Tide was out,
which flowed but a little way up; so we filled our Jarrs
and feasted on the Hare we had killed, and prepared to
go on our Way, having seen no Foot-steps of any humane
Creature in that part of the Country.
As I had been one voyage to this Coast before, I knew
very well that the Islands of the Canaries, and the Cafe
de Verd Islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no Instruments to take an Observation to know
what Latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at
least remember what Latitude they were in; I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to Sea to-
wards them; otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these Islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this Coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their Vessels upon their usual
Design of Trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my Calculation, that Place where I now
was, must be that Country, which lying between the

Emperor of Morocco's Dominions and the Negroes, lies
wast and uninhabited, except by wild Beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it and gone farther South for fear of the
Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its Barrenness; and indeed both forsaking
it because of the prodigious Numbers of Tygers, Lyons,
Leopards and other furious Creatures which harbour there;
so that the Moors use it for their Hunting only, where
they go like an Army, two or three thousand Men at a
time; and indeed for near an hundred Miles together upon
this Coast, we saw nothing but a wast uninhabited Coun-
try, by Day; and heard nothing but Howlings and Roar-
ing of wild Beasts, by Night.
Once or twice in the Day time, I thought I saw the
Pico of Tenerijfe, being the high top of the Mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to
venture out in hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice I was forced in again by contrary Winds, the
sea also going too high for my little Vessel, so I resolved
to pursue my first Design and keep along the Shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh Water,
after we had left this Place; and once in particular, being
early in the Morning, we came to an Anchor under a little
Point of Land which was pretty high, and the Tide begin-
ning to flow, we lay still to go farther in; Xury, whose
Eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we had best go farther off
the Shore; for, says he, look yonder lies a dreadful Mon-
ster on the side of that Hillock fast asleep: I look'd where
he pointed, and saw a dreadful Monster indeed, for it was
a terrible great Lyon that lay on the Side of the Shore,
under the Shade of a Piece of the Hill that hung as it
were a little over him. Xury, says I, you shall go on
Shore and kill him; Xury look'd frighted, and said, Me
kill! he eat me at one Mouth; one Mouthful he meant;
however, I said no more to the Boy, but bad him lye still,
and I took our biggest Gun, which was almost Musquet-
bore, and loaded it with a good Charge of Powder, and

with two Slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another
Gun with two Bullets, and the third, for we had three
Pieces, I loaded with five smaller Bullets. I took the best
aim I could with the first Piece to have shot him into the
Head, but he lay so with his Leg rais'd a little above his
Nose, that the Slugs hit his Leg about the Knee, and
broke the Bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his Leg broke fell down again, and then got up
upon three Legs and gave the most hideous Roar that
ever I heard; I was a little surjpriz'd that I had not hit
him on the Head; however I took up the second Piece
immediately, and tho' he began to move off fir'd again,
and shot him into the Head, and had the Pleasure to see
him drop, and make but little Noise, but lay struggling
for Life. Then Xury took Heart, and would have me let
him go on Shore: Well, go said I, so the Boy jump'd into
the Water, and taking a little Gun in one Hand, swam
to Shore with the other Hand, and coming close to the
Creature, put the Muzzle of the Piece to his Ear, and shot
him into the Head again, which despatch'd him quite.
This was Game indeed to us, but this was no Food,
and I was very sorry to lose three Charges of Powder
and Shot upon a Creature that was good for nothing to us.
However Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and ask'd me to give him the Hatchet;
for what, Xury, said I? Me cut off his Head, said he.
However Xury could not cut off his Head, but he cut off
a Foot and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.
I bethought my self however, that perhaps the Skin of
him might one way or other be of some Value to us; and
I resolved to take off his Skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him, but Xury was much the better
Workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed,
it took us up both the whole Day, but at last we got off
the Hide of him, and spreading it on the top of our
Cabbin, the Sun effe6cually dried it in two Days time,
and it afterwards serv'd me to lye upon.

After this Stop we made on to the Southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve Days, living very sparing on
our Provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftner into the Shore than we were obliged to
for fresh Water; my Design in this was to make the river
Gambia or Senegall, that is to say, any where about the
Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European Ship, and if I did not, I knew not what Course
I had to take, but to seek out for the Islands, or perish
there among the Negroes. I knew that all the Ships
from Europe, which sail'd either to the coast of Guiney,
or to Brasil, or to the East-Indies, made this Cape, or
those Islands; and in a word, I put the whole of my
Fortune upon this single Point, either that I must meet
with some Ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this Resolution about ten Days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the Land was
inhabited, and in two or three Places, as we sailed by, we
saw People stand upon the Shore to look at us, we could
also perceive they were quite Black and Stark-naked. I
was once inclin'd to ha' gone on Shore to them; but
Xury was my better Councellor, and said to me, no go,
no go; however, I hal'd in nearer the Shore, that I might
talk to them, and I found they ran along the Shore by
me a good way; I observed they had no Weapons in their
Hands, except one who had a long slender Stick, which
Xury said was a Lance, and that they would throw them
a great way with good Aim; so I kept at a distance, but
talk'd with them by Signs as well as I could; and parti-
cularly made Signs for some thing to Eat; they beckoned
to me to stop my Boat, and that they would fetch me
some Meat; upon this I lower'd the top of my Sail, and
lay by, and two of them run up into the Country, and in
less than half an Hour came back and brought with them
two Pieces of dry Flesh and some Corn, such as is the
Produce of their Country, but we neither knew what the
one or the other was; however, we were willing to accept
it, but how to come at it was our next Dispute, for I was

not for venturing on Shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the Shore and laid it down, and
went and stood a great way off till we fetch'd it ori'Board,
and then came close to us again.
We made Signs of Thanks to them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an Opportunity offered that
very Instant to oblige them wonderfully, for while we were
lying by the Shore, came two mighty Creatures, one pur-
suing the other, (as we took it) with great Fury, from the
Mountains towards the Sea; whether it was the Male
pursuing the Female, or whether they were in Sport or in
Rage, we could not tell, any more than we could tell whe-
ther it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the
latter; because in the first Place, those ravenous Crea-
tures seldom appear but in the Night; and, in the second
Place we found the People terribly frighted, especially the
Women. The Man that had the Lance or Dart, did not
fly from them, but the rest did; however as the two Crea-
tures ran directly into the Water, they did not seem to.
offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plung'd them-
selves into the Sea and swam about as if they had come
for their Diversion; at last one of them began to come
nearer our Boat than at first I expected, but I lay ready
for him, for I had loaded my Gun with all possible Expe-
dition, and bad Xury load both the other; as soon as he
came fairly within my reach, I fir'd, and shot him directly
into the Head, immediately he sunk down into the Water,
but rose instantly and plung'd up and down as if he was
struggling for Life; and so indeed he was, he immediately
made to the Shore; but between the Wound which was
his mortal Hurt, and the strangling of the Water, he dyed
just before he reached the Shore.
It is impossible to express the Astonishment of these
poor Creatures at the Noise and the Fire of my Gun;
some of them were even ready to dye for Fear, and fell
down as Dead with the very Terror. But when they saw
the Creature dead and sunk in the Water, and that I

made Signs to them to come to the Shore; they took
Heart and came to the Shore and began to search for
the Creature, I found him by his Blood staining the
Water, and by the help of a Rope which I slung round
him and gave the Negroes to hawl, they drag'd him on
Shore, and found that it was a most curious Leopard,
spotted and fine to an admirable. Degree, and the Negroes
held up their Hands with Admiration to think what it was
I had killed him with.
The other Creature frighted with the flash of Fire and
the Noise of the Gun swam on Shore, and ran up direAcly
to the Mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that Distance know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this Creature, so I
was willing to have them take it as a Favour from me,
which when I made Signs to them that they might take
him, they were very thankful for, immediately they fell to
work with him, and tho' they had no Knife, yet with a
sharpen'd Piece of Wood they took off his Skin as readily,
and much more readily than we cou'd have done with a
Knife; they offered me some of the Flesh, which I de-
clined, making as if I would give it them, but made Signs
for the Skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their Provision, which tho' I did
not understand, yet I accepted; then I made Signs to
them for some Water, and held out one of my Jarrs to
them, turning it bottom upward, to shew that it was
empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They called
immediately to some of their Friends, and there came
two Women, and brought a great Vessel made of Earth,
and burnt as I suppose in the Sun; this they set down for
me, as before, and I sent Xuiy on Shore with my Jarrs,
and filled them all three. The Women were as stark
naked as the Men.
I was now furnished with Roots and Corn, such as it
was, and Water, and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made
forward for about eleven Days more without offering to
go near the Shore, till I saw the Land run out a great

Length into the Sea, at about the Distance of four or five
Leagues before me, and the Sea being very calm I kept a
large offing to make this Point; at length, doubling the
Point at about two Leagues from the Land, I saw plainly
Land on the other Side to Seaward; then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de
Verd, and those the Islands, called from thence Cipe de
Verd Islands. However they were at a great Distance,
and I could not well tell what I had best to do, for if I
should be taken with a Fresh of Wind I might neither
reach one nor the other.
In this Dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stept into
the Cabbin and sat me down, Xury having the Helm,
when on a suddain, the Boy cry'd out, Master, Master, a
Ship with a Sail, and the foolish Boy was frighted out
of his Wits, thinking it must needs be some of his Mas-
ter's Ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jump'd out of the
Cabbin, and immediately saw not only the Ship, but what
she was, (viz.) that it was a Portuguese Ship, and as I
thought was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Negroes.
But when I observed the Course she steer'd, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to come any nearer to the Shore; upon which I
stretch'd out to Sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them if possible.
With all the Sail I could make, I found I should not
be able to come in their Way, but that they would be
gone by, before I could make any Signal to them; but
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair,
they it seems saw me by the help of their Perspective-
Glasses, and that it was some European Boat, which as
they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost, so
they shortened Sail to let me come up. I was encouraged
with this, and as I had my Patron's Antient on Board,
I made a Waft of it to them for a Signal of Distress,
and fir'd a Gun, both which they saw, for they told me
they saw the Smoke, tho' they did not hear the Gun;

upon these Signals they very kindly brought too, and lay
by for me, and in about three Hours time I came up with
They ask'd me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of them;
but at last a Scots Sailor who was on board, called to me,
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman,
that I had made my escape out of Slavery from the
Moors at Sallee; then they bad me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my Goods.
It was an inexpressible Joy to me, that any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteem'd it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless Condition as I was
in, and I immediately offered all I had to the Captain of
the Ship, as a Return for my Deliverance; but he gene-
rously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that
all I had should be delivered safe to me when I came to
the Brasils; for says he, I have sav'd your Life on no
other Terms than I would be glad to be saved my self,
and it may one time or other be my Lot to be taken up in
the same Condition; besides, said he, when I carry you to
the Brasils, so great a way from your own Country, if I
should take from you what you have, you will be starved
there, and then I only take away that Life I have given.
No, no, Seignor Inglese, says he Mr. Englishman, I
will carry you thither in Charity, and those things will
help you to buy your Subsistance there and your Passage
home again.
As he was Charitable in his Proposal, so he was just
in the Performance to a tittle, for he ordered the Seamen
that none should offer to touch any thing I had; then he
took every thing into his own Possession, and gave me
back an exad Inventory of them, that I might have them,
even so much as my three Earthen Jarrs.
As to my Boat it was a very good one, and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the Ship's
Use, and ask'd me what I would have for it? I told him
he had been so generous to me in every thing, that I

could not offer to make any Price of the Boat, but left it
entirely to him, upon which he told me he would give me
a Note of his Hand to pay me 80 Pieces of Eight for it at
Brasil, and when it came there, if any one offered to give
more he would make it up; he offered me also 60 Pieces
of Eight more for my Boy Xury, which I was loath to
take, not that I was not willing to let the Captain have
him, but I was very loath to sell the poor Boy's Liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my Reason, he own'd it
to be just, and offered me this Medium, that he would
give the Boy an Obligation to set him free in ten Years,
if he turn'd Christian; upon this, and Xuiy saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the Captain have him.
We had a very good Voyage to the Brasils, and
arriv'd in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All-Saints Bay,
in about Twenty-two Days after. And now I was once
more delivered from the most miserable of all Conditions
of Life, and what to do next with my self I was now to
The generous Treatment the Captain gave me, I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of me
for my Passage, gave me twenty Ducats for the Leopard's
Skin, and forty for the Lyon's Skin which I had in my
Boat, and caused everything I had in the Ship to be
punctually delivered me, and what I was willing to sell
he bought, such as the Case of Bottles, two of my Guns,
and a Piece of the Lump of Bees-wax, for I had made
Candles of the rest; in a word, I made about 220 Pieces
of Eight of all my Cargo, and with this Stock I went on
Shore in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to
the House of a good honest Man like himself, who had
an Ingeino as they call it; that is, a Plantation and a
Sugar-House; I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted my self by that Means with the Manner of their
planting and making of Sugar; and seeing how well the
Planters liv'd, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
R. C. 3

if I could get Licence to settle there, I would turn Planter
among them, resolving in the mean time to find out
some Way to get my Money which I had left in London
remitted to me. To this Purpose getting a kind of a Letter
of Naturalization, I purchased as much Land that was
Uncur'd, as my Money would reach, and form'd a Plan
for my Plantation and Settlement, and such a one as
might be suitable to the Stock which I proposed to my
self to receive from England.
I had a Neighbour, a Portugueze of Lisbon, but born
of English Parents, whose Name was Wells, and in
much such Circumstances as I was. I call him my
Neighbour, because his Plantation lay next to mine, and
we went on very sociably together. My Stock was but
low as well as his; and we rather planted for Food, than
any thing else, for about two Years. However, we began
to increase, and our Land began to come into Order; so
that the third Year we planted some Tobacco, and made
each of us a large Piece of Ground ready for planting
Canes in the Year to come; but we both wanted Help;
and now I found more than before, I had done wrong in
parting with my Boy Xury.
But alas! for me to do wrong that never did right,
was no great Wonder: I had no Remedy but to go on; I
was gotten into an Employment quite remote to my
Genius, and direly contrary to the Life I delighted in,
and for which I forsook my Father's House, and broke
thro' all his good Advice; nay, I was coming into the
very middle Station, or upper Degree of low Life, which
my Father advised me to before; and which if I re-
solved to go on with, I might as well ha' staid at Home,
and never have fatigu'd my self in the World as I had
done; and I used often to say to my self, I could ha'
done this as well in England among my Friends, as
ha' gone 5000 Miles off to do it among Strangers and
Savages in a Wilderness, and at such a Distance, as
never to hear from any Part of the World that had the
least Knowledge of me.

In this manner I used to look upon my Condition
with the utmost Regret. I had no body to converse with
but now and then this Neighbour; no Work to be done,
but by the Labour of my Hands; and I used to say, I
liv'd just like a Man cast away upon some desolate
Island, that had no body there but himself. But how
just has it been, and how should all Men reflect, that,
when they compare their present Conditions with others
that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
Exchange, and be convinced of their former Felicity, by
their Experience: I say, how just has it been, that the
truly solitary Life I reflected on in an Island of meer
Desolation should be my Lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the Life which I then led, in which had
I continued, I had in all Probability been exceeding pro-
sperous and rich.
I was in some Degree settled in my Measures for
carrying on the Plantation, before my kind Friend the
Captain of fhe Ship that took me up at Sea, went back;
for the Shi Aliained there in providing his Loading,
and preparirig his Voyage, near three Months, when
telling him w11We Stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave iie' this friendly and sincere Advice,
Seignor Inglese, says he, for so he always called me, if
you will give me Letters, and a Procuration here in Form
to me, with Orders to the Person who has your Money
in London, to send your EffeAs to Lisbon, to such Per-
sons as I shall direct, and in such Goods as are proper
for this Country, I will bring you the Produce of them,
God willing, at my Return; but since human Affairs are
all subject to Changes and Disasters, I would have you
give Orders but for One Hundred Pounds Sterl. which
you say is Half your Stock, and let the Hazard be run
for the first; so that if it come safe, you may order the
rest the same Way; and if it miscarry, you may have the
other Half to have Recourse to for your Supply.
This was so wholesome Advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best Course

I could take; so I accordingly prepared Letters to the
Gentlewoman with whom I had left my Money, and a
Procuration to the Portuguese Captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English Captain's Widow a full Account
of all my Adventures, my Slavery, Escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal Captain at Sea, the Humanity
of his Behaviour, and in what Condition I was now in,
with all other necessary Directions for my Supply; and
when this honest Captain came to Lisbon, he found
means by some of the English Merchants there, to send
over not the Order only, but a full Account of my Story
to a Merchant at London, who represented it effeclually
to her; whereupon, she not only delivered the Money,
but out of her own Pocket sent the Portugal Captain a
very handsome Present for his Humanity and Charity
to me.
The Merchant in London vesting this Hundred
Pounds in English Goods, such as the Captain had writ
for, sent them diredly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them all safe to me to the Brasils, among which, without
my DireEtion (for I was too young in my Business to
think of them) he had taken Care to have all Sorts of
Tools, Iron-Work, and Utensils necessary for my Plan-
tation, and which were of great Use to me.
When this Cargo arrived, I thought my Fortune made,
for I was surprised with Joy of it; and my good Steward -
the Captain had laid out the Five Pounds which my
Friend had sent him for a Present for himself, to pur-
chase, and bring me over a Servant under Bond for six
Years Service, and would not accept of any Consideration,
except a little Tobacco, which I would have him accept,
being of my own Produce.
Neither was this all; but my Goods being all English
Manufactures, such as Cloath, Stuffs, Bays, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the Country, I
found means to sell them to a very great Advantage; so
that I may say, I had more than four times the Value of
my first Cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor

Neighbour, I mean in the Advancement of my Planta-
tion; for the first thing I did, I bought me a Negro Slave,
and an European Servant also; I mean another besides
that which the Captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abus'd Prosperity is oftentimes made the very
Means of our greatest Adversity, so was it with me. I
went on the next Year with great Success in my Plan-
tation: I raised fifty great Rolls of Tobacco on my own
Ground, nro.rc .m I had disposed of for Necessaries
among m) N s; and these fifty Rolls being each
of above a I3 H0/. were well cur'd and laid by against
the Return of the Fleet from Lisbon: And now increas-
ing in Business and in Wealth, my Head began to be
full of Projecs and Undertakings beyond my Reach;
such as are indeed often the Ruin of the best Heads in
Had I continued in the Station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my Father so earnestly recommended a quiet
retired Life, and of which he had so sensibly described
the middle Station of Life to be full of; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful Agent of all
my own Miseries; and particularly to increase my Fault
and double the Refletions upon my self, which in my
future Sorrows I should have Leisure to make; all these
Miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish Inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that Inclination, in contradiAion to the
clearest Views of doing my self good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those ProspeAs and those Measures of Life,
which Nature and Providence concurred to present me
with, and to make my Duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from
my Parents, so I could not be content now, but I must
go and leave the happy View I had of being a rich and
thriving Man in my new Plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate Desire of rising faster than the
Nature of the Thing admitted; and thus I cast my self

down again into the deepest Gulph of human Misery that
ever Man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
Life and a State of Health in the World.
To come then by the just Degrees, to the Particulars
of this Part of my Story; you may suppose, that having
now lived almost four Years in the Brasils, and beginning
to thrive and prosper very well upon my Plantation; I
had not only learned the Language, but had contracted
Acquaintance and Friendship among my Fellow-Planters,
as well as among the Merchants at St. Salvadore, which
was our Port; and that in my Discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an Account of my two
Voyages to the Coast of Guinea, the manner of Trading
with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the Coast, for Trifles, such as Beads, Toys, Knives,
Scissars, Hatchets, bits of Glass, and the like; not only
Gold Dust, Guinea Grains, Elephants Teeth, &c. but
Negroes for the Service of the Brasils, in great Numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my Dis-
courses on these Heads, but especially to that Part which
related to the buying Negroes, which was a Trade at that
time not only not far entered into, but as far as it was,
had been carried on by the Assiento, or Permission of
the Kings of Spain and Portugal, and engross'd in the
Public, so that few Negroes were brought, and those ex-
cessive dear.
It happened being in Company with some Merchants
and Planters of my Acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the next
I Morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I had discoursed with them of, the last Night,
and they came to make a secret Proposal to me; and
after enjoining me Secrecy, they told me, that they had
a mind to fit out a Ship to go to Guinea, that they had
all Plantations as well as I, and were straiten'd for no-
thing so much as Servants; that as it was a Trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly
sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to

make but one Voyage, to bring the Negroes on Shore
privately, and divide them among their own Plantations;
and in a Word, the Question was, whether I would go
their Super-Cargo in the Ship to manage the Trading
Part upon the Coast of Guinea? And they offered me
that I should have my equal Share of the Negroes, with-
out providing any Part of the Stock.
This was a fair Proposal, it must be confess'd, had it
been made to any one that had not had a Settlement and
Plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
Stock upon it. But for me that was thus entered and
established, and had nothing to do but go on as I had
begun for three or four Years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred Pound from England, and who in that
time, and with that little Addition, could scarce ha' failed
of being worth three or four thousand Pounds Sterling,
and that increasing too; for me to think of such a
Voyage, was the most preposterous Thing that ever Man
in such Circumstances could be guilty of.
But I that was born to be my own Destroyer, could
no more resist the Offer than I could restrain my first
rambling Designs, when my Father's good Counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all
my Heart, if they would undertake to look after my
Plantation in my Absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct if I miscarry'd. This they all
engag'd to do, and entered into Writings or Covenants to
do so; and I made a formal Will, disposing of my Planta-
tion and Effects, in Case of my Death, making the Cap-
tain of the Ship that had sav'd my Life as before, my
universal Heir, but obliging him to dispose of my Effets
as I had directed in my Will, one half of the Produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipp'd to England.
In short, I took all possible Caution to preserve my
Effecs, and keep up my Plantation; had I used half as
much Prudence to have looked into my own Interest, and
have made a Judgment of what I ought to have done, and

not to have done, I had certainly-never gone away from
so prosperous an Undertaking, leaving all the probable
Views of a thriving Circumstance, and gone upon a
Voyage to Sea, attended with all its common Hazards;
to say nothing of the Reasons I had to expeA particular
Misfortunes to my self.
But I was hurry'd on, and obey'd blindly the Didates
of my Fancy rather than my Reason: and accordingly the
Ship being fitted out, and the Cargo furnished, and all
things done as by Agreement, by my Partners in the
Voyage, I went on Board in an evil Hour, the First of
September 1659, being the same Day eight Year that I
went from my Father and Mother at Hull, in order to ad
the Rebel to their Authority, and the Fool to my own
Our Ship was about 120 Tun Burthen, carried 6 Guns,
and 14 Men, besides the Master, his Boy, and my self;
we had on Board no large Cargo of Goods, except of such
Toys as were fit for our Trade with the Negroes, such as
Beads, bits of Glass, Shells, and odd Trifles, especially
little Looking-Glasses, Knives, Scissars, Hatchets, and
the like.
The same Day I went on Board we set sail, standing
away to the Northward upon our own Coast, with Design
to stretch over for the Affrican Coast, when they came
about o1 or 12 Degrees of Northern Latitude, which it
seems was the manner of their Course in those Days.
We had very good Weather, only excessive hot, all the
way upon our own Coast, till we came the Height of Cape
St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther off at Sea we
lost Sight of Land, and steer'd as if we was bound for the
Isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our Course N. E. by
N. and leaving those Isles on the East; in this Course we
past the Line in about 12 Days time, and were by our last
Observation in 7 Degrees 22 Min. Northern Latitude,
when a violent Tournado or Hurricane took us quite out
of our Knowledge; it began from the South-East, came
about to the North-West, and then settled into the North-

East, from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that
for 12 Days together we could do nothing but drive, and
scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever Fate
and the Fury of the Winds directed; and during these 12
Days, I need not say, that I expected every Day to be
swallowed up, nor indeed did any in the Ship expea to
save their Lives.
In this Distress, we had, besides the Terror of the
Storm, one of our Men died of the Calenture, and one
Man and the Boy wash'd over-board; about the 12th Day
the Weather abating a little, the Master made an Ob-
servation as well as he could, and found that he was
in about 1 Degrees North Latitude, but that he was 22
Degrees of Longitude difference West from Cafe St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the
Coast of Guinea, or the North Part of Brasil, beyond
the River Amozones, toward that of the River Oronoque,
commonly called the Great River, and began to consult
with me what Course he should take, for the Ship was
leaky and very much disabled, and he was going direAly
back to the Coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that, and looking over the
Charts of the Sea-Coast of America with him, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited Country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the Circle of the Carribbe-
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Bar-
badoes, which by keeping off at Sea, to avoid the Indraft
of the Bay or Gulph of Mexico, we might easily perform,
as we hoped, in about fifteen Days Sail, whereas we could
not possibly make our Voyage to the Coast of Affrica
without some Assistance, both to our Ship and to our
With this Design we changed our Course, and steer'd
away N. W. by W. in order to reach some of our English
Islands, where I hoped for Relief; but our Voyage was
otherwise determined, for being in the Latitude of 12
Deg. 18 Min. a second Storm came upon us, which
carry'd us away with the same Impetuosity Westward.

and drove us so out of the very Way of all humane
Commerce, that had all our Lives been saved, 'as to the
Sea, we were rather in Danger of being devoured by
Savages than ever returning to our own Country.
In this Distress, the Wind still blowing very hard, one
of our Men early in the Morning, cry'd out, Land; and
we had no sooner run out of the Cabbin to look out in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the World we were; but
the Ship struck upon a Sand, and in a Moment her
Motion being so stopped, the Sea broke over her in such
a manner, that we expected we should all have perish'd
immediately, and we were immediately driven into our
close Quarters to shelter us from the very Foam and
Sprye of the Sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like Condition, to describe or conceive the Consternation
of Men in such Circumstances; we knew nothing where
we were, or upon what Land it was we were driven, whe-
ther an Island or the Main, whether inhabited or not
inhabited; and as the Rage of the Wind was still great,
tho' rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope
to have the Ship hold many Minutes without breaking in
Pieces, unless the Winds by a kind of Miracle should
turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one
upon another, and expe6ing Death every Moment, and
every Man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
World, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
this; that which was our present Comfort, and all the
Comfort we had, was, that contrary to our Expectation
the Ship did not break yet, and that the Master said the
Wind began to abate.
Now tho' we thought that the Wind did a little abate,
yet the Ship having thus struck upon the Sand, and
sticking too fast for us to expe6 her getting off, we were
in a dreadful Condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our Lives as well as we could; we
had a Boat at our Stern, just before the Storm, but she
was first stav'd by dashing against the Ship's Rudder, and

in the next Place she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to Sea, so there was no hope from her; we had
another Boat on Board, but how to get her off into the
Sea, was a doubtful thing; however, there was no room
to debate, for we fancy'd the Ship would break in Pieces
every Minute, and some told us she was actually broken
In this Distress, the Mate of our Vessel lays hold of
the Boat, and with the help of the rest of the Men, they
got her slung over the Ship's-side; and getting all into
her, let go, and committed our selves being Eleven in
Number, to God's Mercy, and the wild Sea; for tho' the
Storm was abated considerably, yet the Sea went dread-
ful high upon the Shore, and might well be call'S, Den
wild Zee, as the Dutch call the Sea in a Storm.
And now our Case was very dismal indeed; for we all
.saw plainly, that the Sea went so high, that the Boat
could not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making Sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could we
have done any thing with it; so we work'd at the Oar
towards the Land, tho' with heavy Hearts, like Men
going to Execution; for we all knew, that when the Boat
came nearer the Shore, she would be dash'd in a thousand
Pieces by the Breach of the Sea. However, we com-
mitted our Souls to God in the most earnest Manner,
and the Wind driving us towards the Shore, we hasten'd
our DestruCtion with our own Hands, pulling as well as
we could towards Land.
What the Shore was, whether Rock or Sand, whether
Steep or Shoal, we knew not; the only Hope that could
rationally give us the least Shadow of Expecation, was,
if we might happen into some Bay or Gulph, or the
Mouth of some River, where by great Chance we might
have run our Boat in, or got under the Lee of the Land,
and perhaps made smooth Water. But there was nothing
of this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the
Shore, the Land looked more frightful than the Sea.
After we had row'd, or rather driven about a League

and a Half, as we reckon'd it, a raging Wave, Mountain-
like, came rowling a-stern of us, and plainly bad us
exped the Coup-de-Grace. In a word, it took us with
such a Fury, that it overset the Boat at once; and sepa-
rating us as well from the Boat, as from one another, gave
us not time hardly to say, O God! for we were all swal-
lowed up in a Moment.
Nothing can describe the Confusion of Thought which
I felt when I sunk into the Water; for tho' I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver my self from the Waves so
as to draw Breath, till that Wave having driven me, or
rather carried me a vast Way on towards the Shore, and
having spent it self, went back, and left me upon the
Land almost dry, but half dead with the Water I took in.
I had so much Presence of Mind as well as Breath left,
that seeing my self nearer the main Land than I expected,
I got upon my Feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
the Land as fast as I could, before another Wave should
return, and take me up again. But I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the Sea come after me
as high as a great Hill, and as furious as an Enemy
which I had no Means or Strength to contend with; my
Business was to hold my Breath, and raise my self upon
the Water, if I could: and so by swimming to preserve
my Breathing, and Pilot my self towards the Shore, if
possible; my greatest Concern now being, that the Sea,
as it would carry me a great Way towards the Shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it
when it gave back towards the Sea.
The Wave that came upon me again, buried me at
once 20 or 30 Foot deep in its own Body; and I could
feel my self carried with a mighty Force and Swiftness
towards the Shore a very great Way; but I held my
Breath, and assisted my self to swim still forward with all
my Might. I was ready to burst with holding my Breath,
when, as I felt my self rising up, so to my immediate
Relief, I found my Head and Hands shoot out above the
Surface of the Water; and tho' it was not two Seconds of

Time that I could keep my self so, yet it reliev'd me
greatly, gave me Breath and new Courage. I was covered
again with Water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the Water had spent it self, and
began to return, I strook forward against- the Return of
the Waves, and felt Ground again with my Feet. I stood
still a few Moments to recover Breath, and till the Water
went from me, and then took to my Heels, and run with
what Strength I had farther towards the Shore. But
neither would this deliver me from the Fury of the Sea,
which came pouring in after me again, and twice more I
was lifted up by the Waves, and carried forwards as
before, the Shore being very flat.
The last Time of these two had well near been fatal to
me; for the Sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dash'd me against a Piece of a Rock,
and that with such Force, as it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own Deliverance; for the Blow
taking my Side and Breast, beat the Breath as it were
quite out of my Body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangled in the Water; but I
recovered a little before the return of the Waves, and
seeing I should be cover'd again with the Water, I re-
solv'd to hold fast by a Piece of the Rock, and so to hold
my Breath, if possible, till the Wave went back; now as
the Waves were not so high as at first, being near Land,
I held my Hold till the Wave abated, and then fetch'd
another Run, which brought me so near the Shore, that
the next Wave, tho' it went over me, yet did not so
swallow me up as to carry me away, and the next run I
took, I got to the main Land, where, to my great Comfort,
I clamber'd up the Clifts of the Shore, and sat me down
upon the Grass, free from Danger, and quite out of the
Reach of the Water.
I was now landed, and safe on Shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my Life was sav'd in a Case
wherein there was some Minutes before scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the Life

what the Extasies and Transports of the Soul are, when it
is so sav'd, as I may say, out of the very Grave; and I do
not wonder now at that Custom, viz. That when a Male-
faaor, who has the Halter about his Neck, is tyed up,
and just going to be turn'd off, and has a Reprieve brought
to him: I say, I do not wonder that they bring a Surgeon
with it, to let him Blood that very Moment they tell him
of it, that the Surprise may not drive the Animal Spirits
from the Heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden 7oys, like Griefs, confound at first.
I walk'd about on the Shore, lifting up my Hands, and
my whole Being, as I may say, wrapt up in the Contem-
plation of my Deliverance, making a thousand Gestures
and Motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all
my Comerades that were drown'd, and that there should
not be one Soul sav'd but my self; for, as for them, I
never saw them afterwards, or any Sign of them, except
three of their Hats, one Cap, and two Shoes that were not
I cast my Eyes to the stranded Vessel, when the
Breach and Froth of the Sea being so big, I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was it
possible I could get on Shore ?
After I had solac'd my Mind with the comfortable
Part of my Condition, I began to look round me to see
what kind of Place I was in, and what was next to be
done, and I soon found my Comforts abate, and that in a
Word I had a dreadful Deliverance: For I was wet, had
no Cloaths to shift me, nor any thing either to eat or
drink to comfort me, neither did I see any Prospet before
me, but that of perishing with Hunger, or being devour'd
by wild Beasts ; and that which was particularly afflicing
to me, was, that I had no Weapon either to hunt and kill
any Creature for my Sustenance, or to defend my self
against any other Creature that might desire to kill me
for theirs : In a Word, I had nothing about me but a
Knife, a Tobacco-pipe, and a little Tobacco in a Box;
this was all my Provision, and this threw me into terrible

Agonies of Mind, that for a while I ran about like a Mad-
man; Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy
Heart to consider what would be my Lot if there were any
ravenous Beasts in that Country, seeing at Night they
always come abroad for their Prey.
All the Remedy that offered to my Thoughts at that
Time, was, to get up into a thick bushy Tree like a Firr,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to
sit all Night, and consider the next Day what Death I
should dye, for as yet I saw no ProspeA of Life ; I walk'd
about a Furlong from the Shore, to see if I could find any
fresh Water to drink, which I did, to my great Joy; and
having drank, and put a little Tobacco in my Mouth to
prevent Hunger, I went to the Tree, and getting up into
it, endeavour'd to place my self so, as that if I should sleep
I might not fall; and having cut me a short Stick, like a
Truncheon, for my Defence, I took up my Lodging, and
having been excessively fatigu'd, I fell fast asleep, and
slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in
my Condition, and found my self the most refresh'd with
it, that I think I ever was on such an Occasion.
When I wak'd it was broad Day, the Weather clear,
and the Storm abated, so that the Sea did not rage and
swell as before: But that which surprised me most, was,
that the Ship was lifted off in the Night from the Sand
where she lay, by the Swelling of the Tyde, and was
driven up almost as far as the Rock which I first men-
tion'd, where I had been so bruis'd by the dashing me
against it; this being within about a Mile from the Shore
where I was, and the Ship seeming to stand upright still,
I wish'd my self on board, that, at least, I might have
some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my Appartment in the Tree,
I look'd about me again, and the first thing I found was
the Boat, which lay as the Wind and the Sea had toss'd
her up upon the Land, about two Miles on my right Hand;
I walked as far as I could upon the Shore to have got to
her, but found a Neck or Inlet of Water between me and

the Boat, which was about half a Mile broad, so I came
back for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the Ship, where I hop'd to find something for my present
A little after Noon I found the Sea very calm, and the
Tide ebb'd so far out, that I could come within a Quarter of
a Mile of the Ship ; and here I found a fresh renewing of
my Grief, for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on
Board, we had been all safe, that is to say, we had all got
safe on Shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all Comfort and Company, as I
now was; this forced Tears from my Eyes again, but as
there was little Relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get
to the Ship, so I pulled off my Cloaths, for the Weather
was hot to Extremity, and took the Water; but when
I came to the Ship, my Difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on Board, for as she lay a-ground, and high
out of the Water, there was nothing within my Reach to
lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
Time I spy'd a small Piece of a Rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the Fore-Chains so
low, as that with great Difficulty I got hold of it, and by
the help of that Rope, got up into the Forecastle of the
Ship, here I found that the Ship was bulg'd, and had a
great deal of Water in her Hold, but that she lay so on the
Side of a Bank of hard Sand, or rather Earth, that her
Stern lay lifted up upon the Bank, and her Head low
almost to the Water; by this Means all her Quarter was
free, and all that was in that Part was dry; for you may
be sure my first Work was to search and to see what was
spoil'd and what was free; and first I found that all the
Ship's Provisions were dry and untouch'd by the Water,
and being very well dispos'd to eat, I went to the Bread-
room and fill'd my Pockets with Bisket, and eat it as I
went about other things, for I had no time to lose; I
also found some Rum in the great Cabbin, of which I
took a large Dram, and which I had indeed need enough
of to spirit me for what was before me: Now I wanted

nothing but a Boat to furnish my self with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to
be had, and this Extremity rouz'd my Application; we
had several spare Yards, and two or three large sparrs of
Wood, and a spare Top-mast or two in the Ship; I
resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many of
them over board as I could manage for their Weight, tying
every one with a Rope that they might not drive away;
when this was done I went down the Ship's Side, and
pulling them to me, I ty'd four of them fast together at
both Ends as well as I could, in the Form of a Raft, and
laying two or three short Pieces of Plank upon them
cross-ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but
that it was not able to bear any great Weight, the Pieces
being too light; so I went to work, and with the Car-
penter's Saw I cut a spare Top-mast into three Lengths,
and added them to my Raft, with a great deal of Labour
and Pains, but hope of furnishing my self with Necessa-
ries, encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been
able to have done upon another Occasion.
My Raft was now strong enough to bear any reason-
able Weight; my next Care was what to load it with, and
how to preserve what I laid upon it from the Surf of the
Sea; But I was not long considering this, I first laid all
the Planks or Boards upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I first got three of
the Seamens Chests, which I had broken open and emp-
ty'd, and lower'd them down upon my Raft; the first of
these I fill'd with Provisions, viz. Bread, Rice, three
Dutch Cheeses, five Pieces of dry'd Goat's Flesh, which
we liv'd much upon, and a little Remainder of Eurofean
Corn which had been laid by for some Fowls which we
brought to Sea with us, but the Fowls were killed; there
had been some Barley and Wheat together, but, to my
great Disappointment, I found afterwards that the Rats
had eaten or spoil'd it all; as for Liquors, I found several
Cases of Bottles belonging to our Skipper, in which were
R. C. 4

some Cordial Waters, and in all about five or six Gallons
of Rack, these I stow'd by themselves, there being no
need to put them into the Chest, nor no room for them.
While I was doing this, I found the Tyde began to flow,
tho' very calm, and I had the Mortification to see my
Coat, Shirt, and Wast-coat, which I had left on Shore
upon the Sand, swim away; as for my Breeches which
were only Linnen and open-knee'd, I swam on board in
them and my Stockings: However this put me upon
rummaging for Cloaths, of which I found enough, but
took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my Eye was more upon, as first Tools
to work with on Shore, and it was after long searching
that I found out the Carpenter's Chest, which was indeed
a very useful Prize to me, and much more valuable than a
Ship Loading of Gold would have been at that time ; I
got it down to my Raft, even whole as it was, without
losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
My next Care was for some Ammunition, and Arms;
there were two very good Fowling-pieces in the great Cab-
bin, and two Pistols, these I secur'd first, with some Powder-
horns, and a small Bag of Shot, and two old rusty Swords:
I knew there were three Barrels of Powder in the Ship,
but knew not where our Gunner had stow'd them, but
with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken Water, those two I got to my
Raft, with the Arms, and now I thought my self pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to
Shore with them, having neither Sail, Oar, or Rudder,
and the least Cap full of Wind would have overset all my
I had three Encouragements, I. A smooth calm Sea,
2. The Tide rising and setting in to the Shore, 3. What
little Wind there was blew me towards the Land; and
thus, having found two or three broken Oars belonging
to the Boat, and besides the Tools which were in the
Chest, I found two Saws, an Axe, and a Hammer, and

with this Cargo I put to Sea: For a Mile, or thereabouts,
my Raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the Place where I had landed before, by
which I perceived that there was some Indraft of the
Water, and consequently I hop'd to find some Creek or
River there, which I might make use of as a Port to get
to Land with my Cargo.
As I imagin'd, so it was, there appeared before me a
little opening of the Land, and I found a strong Current
of the Tide set into it, so I guided my Raft as well as I
could to keep in the Middle of the Stream: But here I
had like to have suffered a second Shipwreck, which, if I
had, I think verily would have broke my Heart, for know-
ing nothing of the Coast, my Raft run a-ground at one
end of it upon a Shoal, and not being a-ground at the
other End, it wanted but a little that all my Cargo had
slipp'd off towards that End that was a-float, and so fall'n
into the Water: I did my utmost by setting my Back
against the Chests, to keep them in their Places, but
could not thrust off the Raft with all my Strength, neither
durst I stir from the Posture I was in, but holding up the
Chests with all my Might, stood in that Manner near half
an Hour, in which time the rising of the Water brought
me a little more upon a Level, and a little after, the
Water still rising, my Raft floated again, and I thrust
her off with the Oar I had, into the Channel, and then
driving up higher, I at length found my self in the Mouth
of a little River, with Land on both Sides, and a strong
Current or Tide running up, I look'd on both Sides for a
proper Place to get to Shore, for I was not willing to be
driven too high up the River, hoping in time to see some
Ship at Sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near
the Coast as I could.
At length I spy'd a little Cove on the right Shore of
the Creek, to which with great Pain and Difficulty I
guided my Raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching
Ground with my Oar, I could thrust her diredcly in, but
here I had like to have dipt all my Cargo in the Sea

again; for that Shore lying pretty steep, that is to say
sloping, there was no Place to land, but where one End
of my Float, if it run on Shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower as before, that it would endanger my
Cargo again: All that I could do, was to wait 'till the
Tide was at the highest, keeping the Raft with my Oar
like an Anchor to hold the Side of it fast to the Shore,
near a flat Piece of Ground, which I expeaced the Water
would flow over; and so it did: As soon as I found Water
enough, for my Raft drew about a Foot of Water, I thrust
her on upon that flat Piece of Ground, and there fasten'd
or mor'd her by sticking my two broken Oars into the
Ground; one on one Side near one End, and one on the
other Side near the other End; and thus I lay 'till the
Water ebb'd away, and left my Raft and all my Cargo
safe on Shore.
My next Work was to view the Country, and seek a
proper Place for my Habitation, and where to stow my
Goods to secure them from whatever might happen;
where I was I yet knew not, whether on the Continent or
on an Island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whe-
ther in Danger of wild Beasts or not: There was a Hill
not above a Mile from me, which rose up very steep and
high, and which seemed to over-top some other Hills
which lay as in a Ridge from it Northward; I took out
one of the Fowling Pieces, and one of the Pistols, and an
Horn of Powder, and thus arm'd I travell'd for Discovery
up to the Top of that Hill, where after I had with great
Labour and Difficulty got to the Top, I saw my Fate to
my great AffliAion, (viz.) that I was in an Island environ'd
every Way with the Sea, no Land to be seen, except some
Rocks which lay a great Way off, and two small Islands
less than this, which lay about three Leagues to the
I found also that the Island I was in was barren, and,
as I saw good Reason to believe, un-inhabited, except by
wild Beasts, of whom however I saw none, yet I saw
abundance of Fowls, but knew not their Kinds, neither

when I kill'd them could I tell what was fit for Food, and
what not; at my coming back, I shot at a great Bird
which I saw sitting upon a Tree on the Side of a great
Wood, I believe it was the first Gun that had been fir'd
there since the Creation of the World; I had no sooner
fir'd, but from all the Parts of the Wood there arose an
innumerable Number of Fowls of many Sorts, making a
confused Screaming, and crying every one according to
his usual Note; but not one of them of any Kind that I
knew: As for the Creature I kill'd, I took it to be a Kind
of a Hawk, its Colour and Beak resembling it, but had
no Talons or Claws more than common, its Flesh was
Carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this Discovery, I came back to my
Raft, and fell to Work to bring my Cargo on Shore,
which took me up the rest -of that Day, and what to do
with my self at Night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the Ground, not
knowing but some wild Beast might devour me, tho',
as I afterwards found, there was really no Need for those
However, as well as I could, I barricado'd my self
round with the Chests and Boards that I had brought on
Shore, and made a kind of a Hut for that Night's Lodg-
ing; as for Food, I yet saw not which Way to supply
my self, except that I had seen two or three Creatures
like Hares run out of the Wood where I shot the Fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great
many Things out of the Ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the Rigging, and Sails, and
such other Things as might come to Land, and I resolved .
to make another Voyage on Board the Vessel, if possible;
and as I knew that the first Storm that blew must neces-
sarily break her all in Pieces, I resolved to set all other
Things apart, 'till I got every Thing out of the Ship that
I could get; then I called a Council, that is to say, in my
Thoughts, whether I should take back the Raft, but this
appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before,

when the Tide was down, and I did so, only that I
stripp'd before I went from my Hut, having nothing on
but a chequer'd Shirt, and a Pair of Linnen Drawers, and
a Pair of Pumps on my Feet.
I got on Board the Ship, as before, and prepared a
second Raft, and having had Experience of the first, I
neither made this so unweildy, nor loaded it so hard, but
yet I brought away several Things very useful to me; as
first, in the Carpenter's Stores I found two or three Bags
full of Nails and Spikes, a great Skrew-Jack, a Dozen or
two of Hatchets, and above all, that most useful Thing,
called a Grind-stone; all these I secur'd together, with
several Things belonging to the Gunner, particularly two
or three Iron Crows, and two Barrels of Musquet-Bullets,
seven Musquets, and another Fowling-Piece, with some
small Quantity of Powder more; a large Bag full of small
Shot, and a great Roll of Sheet Lead: But this last was
so heavy, I could not hoise it up to get it over the Ship's
Besides these Things, I took all the Mens Cloaths
that I could find, and a spare Fore-top-sail, a Hammock,
and some Bedding; and with this I loaded my second
Raft, and brought them all safe on Shore to my very
great Comfort.
I was under some Apprehensions during my Absence
from the Land, that at least my Provisions might be
devoured on Shore; but when I came back, I found no
Sign of any Visitor, only there sat a Creature like a wild
Cat upon one of the Chests, which when I came towards
it, ran away a little Distance, and then stood still; she
sat very compos'd, and unconcern'd, and look'd full in my
Face, as if she had a Mind to be acquainted with me, I
presented my Gun at her, but as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away; upon which I toss'd her a bit of Bisket, tho'
by the Way I was not very free of it, for my Store was
not great: However, I spar'd her a bit, I say, and she
went to it, smell'd of it, and ate it, and look'd (as pleas'd)

for more, but I thank'd her, and could spare no more; so
she march'd off.
Having got my second Cargo on Shore, tho' I was
fain to open the Barrels of Powder, and bring them by
Parcels, for they were too heavy, being large Casks, I
went to work to make me a little Tent with the Sail and
some Poles which I cut for that Purpose, and into this
Tent I brought every Thing that I knew would spoil,
either with Rain or Sun, and I piled all the empty Chests
and Casks up in a Circle round the Tent, to fortify
it from any sudden Attempt, either from Man or Beast.
When I had done this I blocked up the Door of the'
Tent with some Boards within, and an empty Chest set
up an End without, and spreading one of the Beds upon
the Ground, laying my two Pistols just at my Head, and
my Gun at Length by me, I went to Bed for the first
Time, and slept very quietly all Night, for I was very
weary and heavy, for the Night before I had slept little,
and had labour'd very hard all Day, as well to fetch all
those Things from the Ship, as to get them on Shore.
I had the biggest Magazine of all Kinds now that ever
were laid up, I believe, for one Man; but I was not
satisfy'd still; for while the Ship sat upright in that
Posture, I thought I ought to get every Thing out of her
that I could; so every Day at low Water I went on
Board, and brought away some Thing or other: But par-
ticularly the third Time I went, I brought away as much
of the Rigging as I could, as also all the small Ropes and
Rope-twine I could get, with a Piece of spare Canvass,
which was to mend the Sails upon Occasion, the Barrel
of wet Gun-powder: In a Word, I brought away all the
Sails first and last, only that I was fain to cut them in
Pieces, and bring as much at a Time as I could; for they
were no more useful to be Sails, but as meer Canvass
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at
last of all, after I had made five or six such Voyages as
these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from

the Ship that was worth my medling with, I say, after all
this, I found a great Hogshead of Bread, and three large
Runlets of Rum or Spirits, and a Box of Sugar, and a
Barrel of fine Flower; this was surprising to me, because
I had given over expeaing any more Provisions, except
what was spoil'd by the Water: I soon empty'd the Hogs-
head of that Bread, and wrapt it up Parcel by Parcel in
Pieces of the Sails, which I cut out; and in a Word, I got
all this safe on Shore also.
The next Day I made another Voyage; and now hav-
ing plunder'd the Ship of what was portable and fit to
hand out, I began with the Cables; and cutting the great
Cable into Pieces, such as I could move, I got two Cables
and a Hawser on Shore, with all the Iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the Spritsail-yard, and the
Missen-yard, and every Thing I could to make a large
Raft, I loaded it with all those heavy Goods, and came
away: But my good Luck began now to leave me; for
this Raft was so unweildy, and so overloaden, that after I
was entered the little Cove, where I had landed the rest
of my Goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I
did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my Cargo
into the Water; as for my self it was no great Harm, for
I was near the Shore; but as to my Cargo, it was great
Part of it lost, especially the Iron, which I expected would
have been of great Use to me: However, wheh the Tide
was out, I got most of the Pieces of Cable ashore, and
some of the Iron, tho' with infinite Labour; for I was fain
to dip for it into the Water, a Work which fatigu'd me
very much; After this I went every Day on Board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now Thirteen Days on Shore, and had been
eleven Times on Board the Ship; in which Time I had
brought away all that one Pair of Hands could well be
supposed capable to bring, tho' I believe verily, had the
calm Weather held, I should have brought away the whole
Ship Piece by Piece: But preparing the I2th Time to go
on Board, I found the Wind begin to rise; however at

low Water I went on Board, and tho' I thought I had
rumag'd the Cabbin so effeftually, as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a Locker with Drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three Razors, and one
Pair of large Sizzers, with some ten or a dozen of good
Knives and Forks; in another I found about Thirty six
Pounds value in Money, some European Coin, some
Brasil, some Pieces of Eight, some Gold, some Silver.
I smil'd to my self at the Sight of this Money. O
Drug said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou art
not worth to me, no not the taking off of the Ground, one
of those Knives is worth all this Heap, I have no Manner
of use for thee, e'en remain where thou art, and go to the
Bottom as a Creature whose Life is not worth saving.
However upon second Thoughts, I took it away, and
wrapping all this in a Piece of Canvas, I began to think
of making another Raft, but while I was preparing this, I
found the Sky over-cast, and the Wind began to rise, and
in a Quarter of an Hour it blew a fresh Gale from the
Shore ; it presently occur'd to me, that it was in vain to
pretend to make a Raft with the Wind off Shore, and
that it was my Business to be gone before the Tide of
Flood began, otherwise I might not be able to reach the
Shore at all: Accordingly I let my self down into the
Water, and swam cross the Channel, which lay between
the Ship and the Sands, and even that with Difficulty
enough, partly with the Weight of the Things I had
about me, and partly the Roughness of the Water, for the
Wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
Water, it blew a Storm.
But I was gotten home to my little Tent, where I lay
with all my Wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that Night, and in the Morning when I looked
out, behold no more Ship was to be seen; I was a little
surpriz'd, but recovered my self with this satisfa6ory Re-
fleaion, viz. That I had lost no time, nor abated no
Diligence to get every thing out of her that could be
useful to me, and that indeed there was little left in

her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more
I now gave over any more Thoughts of the Ship, or of
any thing out of her, except what might drive on Shore
from her Wreck, as indeed divers Pieces of her afterwards
did ; but those things were of small use to me.
My Thoughts were now wholly employed about secur-j
ing my self against either Savages, if any should appear,
or wild Beasts, if any were in the Island; and I had many
Thoughts df the Method how to do this, and what kind
of Dwelling to make, whether I should make me a Cave
in the Earth, or a Tent upon the Earth: And, in short, I
resolved upon both, the Manner and Description of which
it may not be improper to give an Account of.
I soon found the Place I was in was not for my Settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
Ground near the Sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
Water near it, so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient Spot of Ground.
I consulted several Things in my Situation which I
found would be proper for me. Ist, Health, and fresh Wa-
ter I just now mentioned. 2dly, Shelter from the Heat of
the Sun. 3dly, Security from ravenous Creatures, whether
Men or Beasts. 4thly, a View to the Sea, that if God
sent any Ship in Sight, I might not lose any Advantage
for my Deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish
all my Expectation yet.
In search of a Place proper for this, I found a little
Plain on the side of a rising Hill, whose Front towards
this little Plain was steep as a House-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the Top; on the side of
this Rock there was a hollow Place worn a little way in
like the Entrance or Door of a Cave, but there was not
really any Cave or Way into the Rock at all.
On the Flat of the Green, just before this hollow Place,
I resolved to pitch my Tent: This Plain was not above an
hundred Yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay

like a Green before my Door, and at the End of it de-
scended irregularly every Way down into the Low-Grounds
by the Sea-side. It was on the N.N. W. Side of the Hill,
so that I was sheltered from the Heat every Day, till it
came to a W. and by S. Sun, or thereabouts, which in
those Countries is near the Setting.
Before I set up my Tent, I drew a half Circle before
the hollow Place, which took in about Ten Yards in its
Semi-diameter from the Rock, and Twenty Yards in its
Diameter, from its Beginning and Ending.
In this half Circle I pitch'd two Rows of strong Stakes,
driving them into the Ground till they stood very firm
like Piles, the biggest End being out of the Ground about
five Foot and a Half, and sharpen'd on the Top; The two
Rows did not stand above six Inches from one another.
Then I took the Pieces of Cable which I had cut in
the Ship, and laid them in Rows one upon another, with-
in the Circle, between these two Rows of Stakes, up to the
Top, placing other Stakes in the Inside, leaning against
them, about two Foot and a half high, like a Spur to a
Post, and this Fence was so strong, that neither Man or
Beast could get into it or over it: This cost me a great
deal of Time and Labour, especially to cut the Piles in the
Woods, bring them to the Place, and drive them into the
The Entrance into this Place I made to be not by a
Door, but by a short Ladder to go over the Top, which
Ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I
was compleatly fenc'd in, and fortify'd, as I thought, from
all the World, and consequently slept secure in the Night,
which otherwise I could not have done, tho' as it appeared
afterward, there was no need of all this Caution from the
Enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this Fence or Fortress, with infinite Labour, I
carry'd all my Riches, all my Provisions, Ammunition
and Stores, of which you have the Account above, and I
made me a large Tent, which, to preserve me from the
Rains that in one Part of the Year are very violent there,

I made double, viz. One smaller Tent within, and one
larger Tent above it, and cover'd the uppermost with a
large Tarpaulin which I had sav'd among the Sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the Bed which
I had brought on Shore, but in a Hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belong'd to the Mate of the
Into this Tent I brought all my Provisions, and every
thing that would spoil by the Wet, and having thus
enclos'd all my Goods, I made up the Entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so pass'd and repass'd, as I
said, by a short Ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the Rock, and bringing all the Earth and Stones that I
dug down out thro' my Tent, I laid 'em up within my
Fence in the Nature of a Terras, that so it rais'd the
Ground within about a Foot and a Half; and thus I made
me a Cave just behind my Tent, which serv'd me like a
Cellar to my House.
It cost me much Labour, and many Days, before all
these Things were brought to Perfecion, and therefore I
must go back to some other things which took up some
of my Thoughts. At the same time it happened after I
had laid my Scheme for the setting up my Tent, and
making the Cave, that a Storm of Rain falling from a
thick dark Cloud, a sudden Flash of Lightning happened,
and after that a great Clap of Thunder, as is naturally
the Effed of it; I was not so much surprised with the
Lightning, as I was with a Thought which darted into
my Mind as swift as the Lightning it self: O my Powder !
my very Heart sunk within me, when I thought, that at
one Blast all my Powder might be destroyed; on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me Food, as I
thought, entirely depended; I was nothing near so anxious
about my own Danger, tho' had the Powder took fire, I
had never known who had hurt me.
Such Impression did this make upon me, that after
the Storm was over, I laid aside all my Works, my Build-

ing, and Fortifying, and apply'd my self to make Bags
and Boxes to separate the Powder, and keep it a little
and a little in a Parcel, in hope, that whatever might
come, it might not all take Fire at once, and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part
fire another. I finished this Work in about a Fortnight,
and I think my Powder, which in all was about 240 1.
weight was divided in not less than a Hundred Parcels;
as to the Barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend
any Danger from that, so I plac'd it in my new Cave,
which in my Fancy I called my Kitchin, and the rest I
hid up and down in Holes among the Rocks, so that no
wet might come to it, marking very carefully where I
laid it.
In the Interval of time while- this was doing, I went
out once at least every Day with my Gun, as well to
divert myself, as to see if I could kill any thing fit for
Food, and as near as I could to acquaint my self with
what the Island produced. The first time I went out I
presently discovered that there were Goats in the Island,
which was a great Satisfation to me; but then it was
attended with this Misfortune to me, viz. That they
were so shy, so subtile, and so swift of Foot, that it was
the difficultest thing in the World to come at them: But
I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might
now and then shoot one, as it soon happened, for after I
had found their Haunts a little, I laid wait in this Manner
for them: I observed if they saw me in the Valleys, tho'
they were upon the Rocks, they would run away as in a
terrible Fright; but if they were feeding in the Valleys,
and I was upon the Rocks, they took no Notice of me,
from whence I concluded, that by the Position of their
Opticks, their Sight was so directed downward, that they
did not readily see Objects that were above them; so
afterward I took this Method, I always clim'd the Rocks
first to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
Mark. The first shot I made among these Creatures, I
killed a She-Goat which had a little Kid by her which she

gave suck to, which griev'd me heartily; but when the
Old one fell, the Kid stood stock still by her till I came
and took her up, and not only so, but when I carried the
Old one with me upon my Shoulders, the Kid followed
me quite to my Enclosure, upon which I laid down the
Dam, and took the Kid in my Arms, and carried it over
my Pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame, but it would
not eat, so was I forc'd to kill it and eat it my self; these
two supply'd me with Flesh a great while, for I eat
sparingly; and sav'd my Provisions (my Bread especially)
as much as possibly I could.
Having now fix'd my Habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a Place to make a Fire in, and Fewel
to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I enlarg'd
my Cave, and what Conveniences I made, I shall give a
full Account of in its Place: But I must first give some
little Account of my self, and of my Thoughts about
Living, which it may well be supposed were not a few.
I had a dismal Prospea of my Condition, for as I
was not cast away upon that Island without being driven,
as is said, by a violent Storm quite out of the Course
of our intended Voyage, and a great Way, viz. some
Hundreds of Leagues out of the ordinary Course of the
Trade of Mankind, I had great Reason to consider it as a
Determination of Heaven, that in this desolate Place,
and in this desolate Manner I should end my Life; the
Tears would run plentifully down my Face when I made
these Reflecions, and sometimes I would expostulate
with my self, Why Providence should thus compleatly
ruin its Creatures, and render them so absolutely miser-
able, so without Help abandoned, so entirely depress'd, that
it could hardly be rational to be thankful for such a Life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check
these Thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly one
Day walking with my Gun in my Hand by the Sea-side,
I was very pensive upon the Subjec of my present Con-
dition, when Reason as it were expostulated with me
t'other Way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate Condition

'tis true, but pray remember, Where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come Eleven of you into the Boat, where are
the Ten? Why were not they sav'd and you lost? Why
were you singled out? Is it better to be here or there?
and then I pointed to the Sea. All Evils are to be con-
sider'd with the Good that is in them, and with what
worse attends them.
Then it occur'd to me again, how well I was furnish'd
for my Subsistence, and what would have been my Case
if it had not happened, Which was an Hundred Thousand
to one, that the Ship floated from the Place where she
first struck and was driven so near to the Shore that I
had time to get all these Things out of her: What would
have been my Case, if I had been to have liv'd in the
Condition in which I at first came on Shore, without
Necessaries of Life, or Necessaries to supply and procure
them? Particularly said I aloud, (tho' to my self) what
should I ha' done without a Gun, without Ammunition,
without any Tools to make any thing, or to work with,
without Cloaths, Bedding, a Tent, or any manner of
Covering, and that now I had all these to a sufficient
Quantity, and was in a fair way to provide my self in
such a manner, as to live without my Gun when my
Ammunition was spent; so that I had a tolerable View of
subsisting without any Want as long as I liv'd; for I
considered from the beginning how I would provide for
the Accidents that might happen, and for the time that was
to come, even not only after my Ammunition should be
spent, but even after my Health or Strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertain'd any Notion of my
Ammunition being destroyed at one Blast, I mean my
Powder being blown up by Lightning, and this made the
Thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lighten'd and
thunder'd, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy Relation
of a Scene of silent Life, such perhaps as was never heard
of in the World before, I shall take it from its Beginning,
and continue it in its Order. It was, by my Account, the

3oth of Sept. when, in the Manner as abovesaid, I first set
Foot upon this horrid Island, when the Sun being, to us,
in its Autumnal Equinox, was almost just over my Head,
for I reckon'd my self, by Observation, to be in the Lati-
tude of 9 Degrees 22 Minutes North of the Line.
After I had been there about Ten or Twelve Days,
it came into my Thoughts, that I should lose my Reck-
oning of Time for want of Books and Pen and Ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath Days from the working
Days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my Knife upon a
large Post, in Capital Letters, and making it into a great
Cross, I set it up on the Shore where I first landed, viz.
I came on Shore here on the 3oth of Sept. 1659. Upon
the Sides of this square Post, I cut every Day a Notch
with my Knife, and every seventh Notch was as long
again as the rest, and every first Day of the Month as
long again as that long one, and thus I kept my Kalendar,
or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of Time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among the
many things which I brought out of the Ship in the
several Voyages, which, as abovemention'd, I made to it,
I got several things of less Value, but not all less useful
to me, which I omitted setting down before; as in parti-
cular, Pens, Ink, and Paper, several Parcels in the Cap-
tain's, Mate's, Gunner's, and Carpenter's keeping, three
or four Compasses, some Mathematical Instruments,
Dials, Perspectives, Charts, and Books of Navigation, all
which I huddled together, whether I might want them or
no; also I found three very good Bibles which came to
me in my Cargo from England, and which I had pack'd
up among my things; some Portugueze Books also, and
among them two or three Popish Prayer-Books, and seve-
ral other Books, all which I carefully secur'd. And I
must not forget, that we had in the Ship a Dog and two
Cats, of whose eminent History I may have occasion to
say something in its Place; for I carry'd both the Cats
with me; and as for the Dog, he jump'd out of the Ship
of himself, and swam on Shore to me the Day after I

went on Shore with my first Cargo, and was a trusty
Servant to me many Years; I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any Company that he could make up
to me, I only wanted to have him. talk to me, but that
would not do: As I observed before, I found Pen, Ink
and Paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost; and I
shall shew, that while my Ink lasted, I kept things very
exad; but after that was gone, I could not, for I could
not make any Ink, by any Means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amass'd together; and of
these, this of Ink was one, as also Spade, Pick-Aix and
Shovel, to dig or remove the Earth, Needles, Pins, and
Thread; as for Linen, I soon learned to-want that without
much Difficulty.
This want of Tools made every Work I did go on
heavily, and it was near a whole Year before I had
entirely finished my little Pale or surrounded Habitation:
The Piles or Stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
Woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that I
spent sometimes two Days in cutting and bringing home
one of those Posts, and a third Day in driving it into the
Ground; for which Purpose I got a heavy Piece of Wood
at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the Iron
Crows, which however, tho' I found it, yet it made driv-
ing those Posts or Piles very laborious and tedious
But what need I ha' been concerned at the Tedious-
ness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it in, nor had I any other Employment if that had
been over, at least, that I could foresee, except the rang-
ing the Island to seek for Food, which I did more or less
every Day.
I now began to consider seriously my Condition, and
the Circumstance I was reduc'd to, and I drew up the
State of my Affairs in Writing, not so much to leave
them to any that were to come after me, for I was like to
R. C. -

have but few Heirs, as to deliver my Thoughts from daily
poring upon them, and afflicting my Mind; and as my
Reason began now to master my Despondency, I began
to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set the Good
against the Evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my Case from worse; and I stated it very impar-
tially, like Debtor and Creditor, the Comforts I enjoy'd,
against the Miseries I suffered, thus:

Iam cast upon a horrible
desolate Island, void of all
hope of Recovery.
I am singlIed out and se-
parated, as it were, from all
the World to be miserable.

I am divided from Man-
kind, a Solitaire, one ba-
nish'd from humane Society.
I have not Cloaths to co-
ver me.

I am without any De-
fence or Mleans to resist any
Violence of Maln or Beast.

I have no Soul to speak
to, or relieve me.

But I am alive, and not
drown'd, as all my Ship's
Company was.
But I am singled out too
firm all the Shij's Crew to
be spared from Death; and
he that miraculously saved
me from Death, can deliver
me from this Condition.
But Iam not star -'d and
perishing- on a barren Place,
affording no Sustenance.
But I am in a hot Cli-
mate, where If had Cloaths
I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an Is-
land, where I see no wild
Beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the Coast of Africa: And
what if I had been Ship-
wreck'd there?
But God wonderfully
sent the ShzJ in near enough
to the Shore, that I have
gotten out so many necessary
things as will either sufply
mny Wants, or enable me to
supply my self even as long
as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted Testimony,
that there was scarce any Condition in the World so
miserable, but there was something negative or something
positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a
Direcion from the Experience of the most miserable of all
Conditions in this World, that we may always find in it
something to comfort ourselves from, and to set in the
Description of Good and Evil, on the Credit Side of the
Having now brought my Mind a little to relish my
Condition, and given over looking out to Sea, to see if I
could spy a Ship; I say, giving over these things, I began
to apply myself to accommodate my way of Living, and to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my Habitation, which was a
Tent under the Side of a Rock, surrounded with a strong
Pale of Posts and Cables, but I might now rather call it a
Wall, for I rais'd a kind of Wall up against it of Turfs,
about two Foot thick on the Outside, and after some time,
I think it was a Year and half, I rais'd Rafters from it
leaning to the Rock, and thatch'd or cover'd it with
Boughs of Trees, and such things as I could get to keep
out the Rain, which I found at some times of the Year
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my Goods
into this Pale, and into the Cave which I had made be-
hind me: But I must observe too that at first this was a
confused Heap of Goods, which as they lay in no Order, so
they took up all my Place; I had no room to turn myself;
So I set myself to enlarge my Cave and Works farther
into the Earth; for it was a loose sandy Rock, which
yielded easily to the Labour I bestowed on it: And so
when I found I was pretty safe as to Beasts of Prey, I
work'd sideways to the Right Hand into the Rock; and
then turning to the Right again, work'd quite out, and
made me a Door to come out, on the Outside of my Pale
or Fortification.
This gave me not only Egress and Regress, as it were

a Back-way to my Tent and to my Storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my Goods.
And now I began to apply my self to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, as particularly a
Chair and a Table; for without these I was not able to
enjoy the few Comforts I had in the World; I could not
write or eat, or do several things with so much Pleasure
without a Table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that as Reason is the Substance and Original of the
Mathematicks, so by stating and squaring every thing by
Reason, and by making the most rational Judgment of
things, every Man may be in time Master of every me-
chanick Art. I had never handled a Tool in my Life, and
yet in time by Labour, Application and Contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have
made it, especially if I had had Tools; however, I made
abundance of things, even without Tools, and some with
no more Tools than an Adze and a Hatchet, which per-
haps were never made that way before, and that with in-
finite Labour: For Example, If I wanted a Board, I had
no other Way but to cut down a Tree, set it on an Edge
before me, and hew it flat on either Side with my Ax, till
I had brought it to be thin as a Plank, and then dubb it
smooth with my Adze. It is true, by this Method I could
make but one Board out of a whole Tree, but this I had
no Remedy for but Patience, any more than I had for the
prodigious deal of Time and Labour which it took me
up to make a Plank or Board: But my Time or Labour
was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way
as another.
However, I made me a Table and a Chair, as I ob-
serv'd above, in the first Place, and this I did out of the
short Pieces of Boards that I brought on my Raft from
the Ship: But when I had wrought out some Boards, as
above, I made large Shelves of the Breadth of a Foot and
a Half one over another, all along one Side of my Cave,
to lay all my Tools, Nails, and Iron-work, and in a Word,

to separate every thing at large in their Places, that I
might come easily at them; I knock'd Pieces into the
Wall of the Rock to hang my Guns and all things that
would hang up.
So that had my Cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general Magazine of all necessary things, and I had
every thing so ready at my Hand, that it was a great Plea-
sure to me to see all my Goods in such Order, and espe-
cially to find my Stock of all Necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a Journal of
every Day's Employment, for indeed at first I was in too
much Hurry, and not only Hurry as to Labour, but in too
much Discomposure of Mind, and my Journal would ha'
been full of many dull things. For Example, I must have
said thus: Sept. the 30th, After I got to Shore and had
escap'd drowning, instead of being thankful to God for
my Deliverance, having first vomited with the great Quan-
tity of salt Water which was gotten into my Stomach, and
recovering my self a little, I ran about the Shore, wring-
ing my Hands and beating my Head and Face, exclaim-
ing at my Misery, and crying out, I was undone, undone,
till tir'd and faint I was forc'd to lye down on the Ground
to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being devour'd.
Some Days after this, and after I had been on board
the Ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could
not forbear getting up to the Top of a little Mountain and
looking out to Sea in hopes of seeing a Ship, then fancy at
a vast Distance I spy'd a Sail, please my self with the
Hopes of it, and then after looking steadily till I was
almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a
Child, and thus increase my Misery by my Folly.
But having gotten over these things in some Measure,
and having settled my household Stuff and Habitation,
made me a Table and a Chair, and all as handsome about
Sme as I could, I began to keep my Journal, of which I
shall here give you the Copy (tho' in it will be told all
these Particulars over again) as long as it lasted, for hav-
ing no more Ink I was forced to leave it off.



September30, 1659. I poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwreck'd, during a dreadful Storm, in the
offing, came on Shore on this dismal unfortunate Island,
Which I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the
Ship's Company being drown'd, and my self almost dead.
All the rest of that Day I spent in afflicting my self at
the dismal Circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had
neither Food, House, Cloaths, Weapon, or Place to fly to,
and in Despair of any Relief, saw nothing but Death be-
fore me, either that I should be devour'd by wild Beasts,
murther'd by Savages, or starv'd to Death for want of
Food. At the Approach of Night, I slept in a Tree for
fear of wild Creatures, but slept soundly tho' it rain'd all
O3ober I. In the Morning I saw to my great Surprise
the Ship had floated with the high Tide, and was driven
on Shore again much nearer the Island, which as it was
some Comfort on one hand, for seeing her sit upright,
and not broken to pieces I hop'd, if the Wind abated, I
might get on board, and get some Food and Necessaries
out of her for my Relief; so on the other hand, it renew'd
my Grief at the Loss of my Comrades, who I imagin'd if
we had all staid on board might have sav'd the Ship, or
at least that they would not have been all drown'd as they
were; and that had the Men been sav'd, we might per-
haps have built us a Boat out of the Ruins of the Ship, to
have carried us to some other Part of the World. I spent
great Part of this Day in perplexing my self on these
things; but at length seeing the Ship almost dry, I went
upon the Sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board; this Day also it continued raining, tho' with no
Wind at all.
From the Ist of OQCober to the 24th. All these Days
entirely spent in many several Voyages to get all I could
out of the Ship, which I brought on Shore, every Tide of
Flood, upon Rafts. Much Rain also in these Days, tho'

with some Intervals of fair Weather: But, it seems, this
was the rainy Season.
Od. 20. I overset my Raft, and all the Goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal Water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
Tide was out.
O?. 25. It rain'd all Night and all Day, with some
Gusts of Wind, during which time the Ship broke in
pieces, the Wind blowing a little harder than before, and
was no more to be seen, except the Wreck of her, and
that only at low Water. I spent this Day in covering and
securing the Goods which I had sav'd, that the Rain
might not spoil them.
O?. 26. I walk'd about the Shore almost all Day to
find out a Place to fix my Habitation, greatly concerned
to secure my self from an Attack in the Night, either
from wild Beasts or Men. Towards Night I fix'd upon a
proper Place under a Rock, and mark'd out a Semi-Circle
for my Encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with
a Work, Wall, or Fortification made of double Piles, lin'd
within with Cables, and without with Turf.
From the 26th to the 3oth I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my Goods to my new Habitation, tho' some part
of the time it rain'd exceeding hard.
The 31st in the Morning I went out into the Island
with my Gun to see for some Food, and discover the
Country; when I kill'd a She-Goat, and her Kid followed
me home, which I afterwards kill'd also, because it would
not feed.
November I. I set up my Tent under a Rock, and
lay there for the first Night, making it as large as I
could with Stakes driven in to swing my Hammock
Nov. 2. I set up all my Chests and Boards, and the
Pieces of Timber which made my Rafts, and with them
form'd a Fence round me, a little within the Place I had
mark'd out for my Fortification.
Nov. 3. I went out with my Gun, and kill'd two

Fowls like Ducks, which were very good Food. In the
Afternoon went to work to make me a Table.
Nov. 4. This Morning I began to order my times of
Work, of going out with my Gun, time of Sleep, and time
of Diversion, viz. Every Morning I walked out with my
Gun for two or three Hours if it did not rain, then employed
my self to work till about Eleven a-clock, then eat what I
had to live on, and from Twelve to Two I lay down to
sleep, the Weather being excessive hot, and then in the
Evening to work again; The working Part of this Day
and of the next were wholly employed in making my
Table, for I was yet but a very sorry Workman, tho'
Time and Necessity made me a compleat natural Me-
chanic soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5. This Day went abroad with my Gun and my
Dog, and kill'd a wild Cat, her Skin pretty soft, but her
Flesh good for nothing: Every Creature I kill'd, I took
off the Skins and preserv'd them. Coming back by the
Sea-Shore, I saw many sorts of Sea-Fowls, which I did
not understand; but was surpriz'd, and almost frighted
with two or three Seals, which, while I was gazing at, not
well knowing what they were, got into the Sea, and es-
cap'd me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my Morning Walk I went to work
with my Table again, and finished it, tho' not to my
liking; nor was it long before I learnt to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair Weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, ioth, and part of the 12th, (for the Ith
was Sunday) I took wholly up to make me a Chair, and
with much ado brought it to a tolerable Shape, but never
to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces
several times. Note, I soon neglected my keeping Sun-
days, for omitting my Mark for them on my Post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 13. This Day it rain'd, which refresh'd me ex-
ceedingly, and cool'd the Earth, but it was accompany'd
with terrible Thunder and Lightning, which frighted me
dreadfully, for fear of my Powder: As soon as it was

over, I resolved to separate my Stock of Powder into as
many little Parcels as possible, that it might not be in
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three Days I spent in making
little square Chests or Boxes, which might hold about a
Pound, or two Pound, at most, of Powder; and so putting
the Powder in, I stowed it in Places as secure and remote
from one another as possible. On one of these three
Days I kill'd a large Bird that was good to eat, but I
know not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This Day I began to dig behind my Tent
into the Rock, to make room for my farther Conveniency.
Note, Three Things I wanted exceedingly for this Work,
viz. a Pick-ax, a Shovel, and a Wheel-barrow or Basket,
so I desisted from my Work, and began to consider how
to supply that Want, and make me some Tools: As for a
Pick-ax, I made use of the Iron Crows, which were proper
enough, tho' heavy; but the next thing was a Shovel or
Spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I
could do nothing effecually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next Day in searching the Woods I
found a Tree of that Wood, or like it, which in the Brasils
they call the Iron Tree, for its exceeding Hardness; of
this, with great Labour and almost spoiling my Ax, I cut
a piece, and brought it home too with Difficulty enough,
for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive Hardness of the Wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this Machine; for
I worked it effedually by little and little into the Form of
a Shovel or. Spade, the Handle exactly shap'd like ours in
England, only that the broad Part having no Iron shod
upon it at Bottom, it would not last me so long; however
it serv'd well enough for the uses which I had occasion
to put it to; but never was a Shovel, I believe, made
after that Fashion, or so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a Basket or a Wheel-
barrow; a Basket I could not make by any means, having

no such things as Twigs that would bend to make Wicker
Ware, at least none yet found out; and as to a Wheel-
barrow, I fancy'd I could make all but the Wheel, but
that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go
about it; besides I had no possible way to make the Iron
Gudgeons for the Spindle or Axis of the Wheel to run in,
so I gave it over; and so for carrying away the Earth
which I dug out of the Cave, I made me a Thing like a
Hod which the Labourers carry Mortar in, when they
serve the Bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
Shovel; and yet this, and the Shovel, and the Attempt
which I made in vain, to make a Wheel-barrow, took me
up no less than four Days, I mean always, excepting my
Morning Walk with my Gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also bringing Home something fit to
Nov. 23. My other Work having now stood still, be-
cause of my making these Tools; when they were finished,
I went on, and working every Day, as my Strength and
Time allowed, I spent eighteen Days entirely in widening
and deepening my Cave, that it might hold my Goods
Note, During all this Time, I work'd to make this
Room or Cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a Warehouse or Magazine, a Kitchen, a Dining-room,
and a Cellar; as for my Lodging, I kept to the Tent,
except that sometimes in the wet Season of the Year, it
rain'd so hard that I could not keep my self dry, which
caus'd me afterwards to cover all my Place within my
Pale with long Poles in the Form of Rafters, leaning
against the Rock, and load them with Flags and large
Leaves of Trees like a Thatch.
December Ioth, I began now to think my Cave or
Vault finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made
it too large) a great Quantity of Earth fell down from
the Top and one Side, so much, that in short it frighted
me, and not without Reason too; for if I had been under

it I had never wanted a Grave-digger: Upon this Dis-
aster I had a great deal of Work to do over again; for
I had the loose Earth to carry out; and which was of
more Importance, I had the Cieling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 1. This Day I went to Work with it accord-
ingly, and got two Shores or Posts pitched upright to the
Top, with two Pieces of Boards a-cross over each Post,
this I finished the next Day; and setting more Posts up
with Boards, in about a Week more I had the Roof
secur'd; and the Posts standing in RoWs, serv'd me for
Partitions to part of my House.
Dec. I7. From this Day to the Twentieth I placed
Shelves, and knocked up Nails on the Posts to hang
every Thing up that could be hung up, and now I began
to be in some Order within Doors.
Dec. 20. Now I carry'd every Thing into the Cave,
and began to furnish my House, and set up some Pieces
of Boards, like a Dresser, to order my Victuals upon, but
Boards began to be very scarce with me; also I made
me another Table.
Dec. 24. Much Rain all Night and all Day, no stir-
ring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all Day.
Dec. 26. No Rain, and the Earth much cooler than
before and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Kill'd a young Goat, and lam'd another so
that I catch'd it, and led it Home in a String; when I
had it Home, I bound and splintered up its Leg which
was broke. N. B. I took such Care of it, that it liv'd,
and the Leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by.my
nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little
Green at my Door, and would not go away: This was
the first Time that I entertain'd a Thought of breeding
up some tame Creatures, that I might have Food when
my Powder and Shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great Heats and no Breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the Evening for

Food; this Time I spent in putting all my Things in
Order within Doors.
January I. Very hot still, but I went abroad early
and late with my Gun, and lay still in the middle of the
Day; this Evening going farther into the Valleys which
lay towards the Center of the Island, I found there was
plenty of Goats, tho' exceeding shy and hard to come at,
however I resolved to try if I could not bring my Dog to
hunt them down.
7an. 2. Accordingly, the next Day, I went out with
my Dog, and set him upon the Goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all fac'd about upon the Dog, and he
knew his Danger too well, for he would not come near
Jan. 3. I began my Fence or Wall; which, being
still jealous of my being attacked by some Body, I re-
solv'd to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This Wall being described before, I fur-
fosely omit what was said in the journal; it
is sufficient to observe, that I was no less Time
than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing and perfecting this
Wall, tho' it was no more than about 24
Yards in Length, being a half Circle from
one Place in the Rock to another Place about
eight Yards from it, the Door of the Cave
being in the Center behind it.
All this Time I worked very hard, the Rains hindering
me many Days, nay, sometimes Weeks together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure 'till this Wall
was finished; and it is scarce credible what inexpressible
Labour every Thing was done with, especially the bring-
ing Piles out of the Woods, and driving them into the
Ground, for I made them much bigger than I need to
have done.
When this Wall was finished, and the Out-side
double fenc'd with a Turf-Wall rais'd up close to it, I
persuaded my self that if any People were to come on

Shore there, they would not perceive any Thing like a
Habitation; and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter upon a very remarkable Occasion.
During this Time, I made my Rounds in the Woods
for Game every Day when the Rain admitted me, and
made frequent Discoveries in these Walks of something
or other to my Advantage; particularly I found a kind
of wild Pidgeons, who built not as Wood Pidgeons in a
Tree, but rather as House Pidgeons, in the Holes of the
Rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew
older they flew all away, which perhaps was at first for
Want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however I frequently found their Nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good Meat.
And now in the managing my Houshold Affairs, I
found my self wanting in many Things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed as to
some of them it was; for Instance, I could never make
a Cask to be hoop'd, I had a small Runlet or two, as I
observed before, but I cou'd never arrive to the Capacity
of making one by them, tho' I spent many Weeks about
it; I could neither put in the Heads, or joint the Staves
so true to one another, as to make them hold Water, so I
gave that also over.
In the next Place, I was at a great Loss for Candle;
so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally
by Seven-a-Clock, I was oblig'd to go to Bed: I remem-
bred the Lump of Bees-wax with which I made Candles
in my African Adventure, but I had none of that now;
the only Remedy I had, was, that when I had kill'd a
Goat, I sav'd the Tallow, and with a little Dish made of
Clay, which I bak'd in the Sun, to which I added a Wick
of some Oakum, I made me a Lamp; and this gave me
Light, tho' not a clear steady Light like a Candle; in the
Middle of all my Labours it happened, that rumaging my
Things, I found a little Bag, which, as I hinted before
had been fill'd with Corn for the feeding of Poultry, not

for this Voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the Ship
came from Lisbon, what little Remainder of Corn had
been in the Bag, was all devour'd with the Rats, and I
saw nothing in the Bag but Husks and Dust; and being
willing to have the Bag for some other Use, I think it
was to put Powder in, when I divided it for fear of the
Lightning, or some such Use, I shook the Husks of Corn
out of it on one Side of my Fortification under the Rock.
It was a little before the great Rains, just now men-
tion'd, that I threw this Stuff away, taking no Notice of
any Thing, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown any Thing there; when about a Month after, or
thereabout, I saw some few Stalks of something green
shooting out of the Ground, which I fancy'd might be
some Plant I had not seen, but I was surpriz'd and per-
fectly astonish'd, when after a little longer Time, I saw
about ten or twelve Ears come out, which were perfe6
green Barley of the same Kind as our European, nay, as
our English Barley.
It is impossible to express the Astonishment and Con-
fusion of my Thoughts on this Occasion; I had hitherto
acted upon no religious Foundation at all; indeed I had
very few Notions of Religion in my Head, or had enter-
tain'd any Sense of any Thing that had befallen me,
otherwise than as a Chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God; without so much as enquiring into the End
of Providence in these Things, or his Order in governing
Events in the World; But after I saw Barley grow there,
in a Climate which I know was not proper for Corn, and
especially that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had mira-
culously caus'd this Grain to grow without any help of
Seed sown, and that it was so directed purely for my Sus-
tenance on that wild miserable Place.
This touch'd my Heart a little, and brought Tears out
of my Eyes, and I began to bless my self, that such a
Prodigy of Nature should happen upon my Account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near

it still all along by the side of the Rock, some other strag-
gling Stalks, which prov'd to be Stalks of Rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure Produ6tions of Pro-
vidence for my Support, but not doubting, but that there
was more in the Place, I went all over that part of the
Island, where I had been before peering in every Corner,
and under every Rock, to see for more of it, but I could
not find any; at last it occur'd to-my Thoughts, that I
had shook a Bag of Chickens Meat out in that Place, and
then the Wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my
religious Thankfulness to God's Providence began to
abate too upon the Discovering that all this was nothing
but what was common; tho' I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforeseen Providence, as if
it had been miraculous; for it was really the Work of
Providence as to me, that should order or appoint, that
o1 or 12 Grains of Corn should remain unspoil'd (when
the Rats had destroyed all the rest,) as if it had been
dropt from Heaven; as also that I should throw it out in
that particular Place, where it being in the Shade of a
high Rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it any where else at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.
I carefully sav'd the Ears of this Corn, you may be
sure, in their Season, which was about the End of 7une;
and laying up every Corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have some Quantity sufficient
to supply me with Bread; but it was not till the 4th Year
that I could allow myself the least Grain of this Corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards
in its Order; for I lost all that I sow'd the first Season, by
not observing the proper Time; for I sow'd it just before
the dry Season, so that it never came up at all, at least,
not as it would ha' done: Of which in its Place.
Besides this Barley, there was, as above, 20 or 30
Stalks of Rice, which I preserv'd with the same Care,

and whose Use was of the same Kind or to the same
Purpose, (viz.) to make me Bread, or rather Food; for I
found ways to cook it up without baking, tho' I did that
also after some time. But to return to my Journal.
I work'd excessive hard these three or four Months to
get my Wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a Door, but over the Wall
by a Ladder, that there might be no Sign in the Outside
of my Habitation.
April 16. I finished the Ladder, so I went up with the
Ladder to the Top, and then pull'd it up after me, and let
it down on the Inside: This was a compleat Enclosure to
me; for within I had Room enough, and nothing could
come at me from without, unless it could first mount my
The very next Day after this Wall was finished, I had
almost had all my Labour overthrown at once, and my
self kill'd; the Case was thus: As I was busy in the In-
side of it, behind my Tent, just in the Entrance into my
Cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful surpriz-
ing Thing indeed; for all on a sudden I found the Earth
come crumbling down from the Roof of my Cave, and
from the Edge of the Hill over my Head, and two of the
Posts I had set up in the Cave crack'd in a frightful
manner: I was heartily scared, but thought nothing of
what was really the Cause, only thinking that the top of
my Cave was falling in, as some of it had done before;
and for fear I should be bury'd in it, I ran forward to
my Ladder, and not thinking my self safe there neither,
I got over my Wall for fear of the Pieces of the Hill
which I expeaed might roll down upon me: I was no
sooner stept down upon the firm Ground, but I plainly
saw it was a terrible Earthquake, for the Ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight Minutes distance,
with three such Shocks, as would have overturned the
strongest Building that could be supposed to have stood
on the Earth; and a great Piece of the Top of a Rock,
which stood about half a Mile from me next the Sea, fell

down with such a terrible Noise, as I never heard in all
my Life: I perceiv'd also, the very Sea was put into
violent Motion by it; and I believe the Shocks were
stronger under the Water than on the Island.
I was so amaz'd with the Thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that I was
like one dead or stupify'd; and the Motion of the Earth
made my Stomach sick, like one that was toss'd at Sea;
but the Noise of the falling of the Rock awak'd me, as it
were, and rousing me from the stupified Condition I was
in, filled me with Horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the Hill falling upon my Tent and all my Household
Goods, and burying all at once; and this sunk my very
Soul within me a second time.
After the third Shock was over, and I felt no more for
some Time, I began to take Courage, and yet I had not
Heart enough to go over my Wall again, for fear of being
buried alive, but sat still upon the Ground, greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do: All this
while I had not the least serious religious Thought, no-
thing but the common, Lord ha' Mercy uzport me; and
when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the Air over-cast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that the Wind rose
by little and little, so that in less than half an Hour it
blew a most dreadful Hurricane: The Sea was all on a
sudden covered over with Foam and Froth, the Shore
was cover'd with the Breach of the Water, the Trees were
torn up by the Roots, and a terrible Storm it was; and
this held about three Hours, and then began to abate,
and in tvo Hours more it was stark calm, and began to
rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the Ground very much ter-
rify'd and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my
Thoughts, that these Winds and Rain being the Con-
sequences of the Earthquake, the Earthquake it self was
spent and over, and I might venture into my Cave again:
With this Thought my Spirits began to revive, and the-
R. c. 6

Rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my Tent, but the Rain was so violent, that my
Tent was ready to be beaten down with it, and I was
forc'd to go into my Cave, tho' very much afraid and
uneasy for fear it should fall on my Head.
This violent Rain forc'd me to a new Work, viz. To
cut a Hole thro' my new Fortification like a Sink to let
the Water go out, which would else have drown'd my
Cave. After I had been in my Cave some time, and
found still no more Shocks of the Earthquake follow, I
began to be more compos'd; and now to support my
Spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my
little Store and took a small Sup of Rum, which however
I did then and always very sparingly, knowing I could
have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that Night, and great Part of
the next Day, so that I could not stir abroad, but my
Mind being more compos'd, I began to think of what
I had best do, concluding that if the Island was subject
to these Earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a
Cave, but I must consider of building me some little Hut
in an open Place which I might surround with a Wall as
I had done here, and so make my self secure from wild
Beasts or Men; but concluded, if I staid where I was,
I should certainly, one time or otheri be bury'd alive.
With these Thoughts I resolved to remove my Tent
from the Place where it stood, which was just under the
hanging Precipice of the Hill, and which, if it should be
shaken again, would certainly fall upon my Tent: And I
spent the two next Days, being the 19th and 20th of
April, in contriving where and how to remove my Habi-
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me that I
never slept in quiet, and yet the Apprehension of lying
abroad without any Fence was almost equal to it; but
still when I look'd about and saw how every thing was
put in order, how pleasantly conceal'd I was, and how
safe from Danger, it made me very loth to remove.

In the mean time it occurred to me that it would re-
quire a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that I
must be contented to run the Venture where I was, till I
had form'd a Camp for my self, and had secured it so as
to remove to it: So with this Resolution I compos'd my
self for a time, and resolved that I would go to work with
all Speed to build me a Wall with Piles and Cables, &rc.
in a Circle as before, and set my Tent up in it when it
was finished, but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished and fit to remove to. This was
the 21st.
April 22. The next Morning I began to consider of
Means to put this Resolve in Execution, but I was at a
great loss about my Tools; I had three large Axes and
abundance of Hatchets, (for we carried the Hatchets for
Traffic with the Indians) but with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard Wood, they were all full of Notches
and dull, and tho' I had a Grindstone, I could not turn it
and grind my Tools too; this cost me as much Thought
as a Statesman would have bestow'd upon a grand Point
of Politicks, or a Judge upon the Life and Death of a
Man. At length I contrived a Wheel with a String, to
turn it with my Foot, that I might have both my Hands
at Liberty: Note, I had never seen any such thing in
England, or at least not to take notice how it was done,
tho' since I have observed it is very common there; be-
sides that, my Grind-stone was very large and heavy.
This Machine cost me a full Week's Work to bring it to
April 28, 29. These two whole Days I took up in
grinding my Tools, my Machine for turning my Grind-
stone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceiv'd my Bread had been low
a great while, now I took a Survey of it, and reduc'd my-
self to one Bisket-cake a Day, which made my Heart
very heavy.
May I. In the Morning looking towards the Sea-side,
the Tide being low, I saw something lie on the Shore

bigger than ordinary, and it look'd like a Cask; when
I came to it, I found a small Barrel, and two or three
Pieces of the Wreck of the Ship, which were driven on
Shore by the late Hurricane; and looking towards the
Wreck itself, I thought it seem'd to lie higher out of the
Water, than it us'd to do; I examined the Barrel which
was driven on Shore, and soon found it was a Barrel of
Gun-powder, but it had taken Water, and the Powder
was cak'd as hard as a Stone; however I roll'd it farther
on Shore for the present, and went on upon the Sands
as near as I could to the Wreck of the Ship to look for
When I came down to the Ship I found it strangely
remov'd; the Fore-castle, which lay before bury'd in Sand,
was heav'd up at least six Foot; and the Stern, which was
broke to Pieces and parted from the rest by the Force of
the Sea soon after I had left rummaging her, was toss'd,
as it were up, and cast on one Side, and the Sand was
thrown so high on that side next her Stern, that whereas
there was a great Place of Water before, so that I could
not come within a Quarter of a Mile of the Wreck with-
out swimming, I could now walk quite up to her when
the Tide was out; I was surpriz'd with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the Earthquake: And
as by this Violence the Ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many Things came daily on Shore, which the
Sea had loosen'd, and which the Winds and Water rolled
by degrees to the Land.
This wholly diverted my Thoughts from the Design of
removing my Habitation; and I busied myself mightily
that Day especially, in searching whether I could make
any way into the Ship; but I found nothing was to be ex-
pected of that Kind, for that all the In-side of the Ship
was choak'd up with Sand; However, as I had learned not
to despair of any Thing, I resolved to pull every Thing to
Pieces that I could of the Ship, concluding, that every
Thing I could get from her would be of some Use or
other to me.

May 3. I began with my Saw, and cut a Piece of
a Beam thro', which I thought held some of the upper
Part or Quarter-Deck together, and when I had cut it
thro', I cleared away the Sand as well as I could from the
Side which lay highest; but the Tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that Time.
May 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one Fish that
I durst eat of, till I was weary of my Sport; when just
going to leave off, I caught a young Dolphin. I had
made me a long Line of some Rope Yarn, but I had no
Hooks, yet I frequently caught Fish enough, as much as
I car'd to eat; all which I dry'd in the Sun, and eat
them dry.
May 5. Work'd on the Wreck, cut another Beam
asunder, and brought three great Fir Planks off from the
Decks, which I ty'd together, and made swim on Shore,
when the Tide of Flood came on.
May 6. Work'd on the Wreck, got several Iron Bolts
out of her, and other Pieces of Iron-work, worked very
hard, and came Home very much tir'd, and had Thoughts
of giving it over.
May 7. Went to the Wreck again, but with an Intent
not to work, but found the Weight of the Wreck had
broke itself down, the Beams being cut, that several
Pieces of the Ship seem'd to lie loose, and the In-side of
the Hold lay so open, that I could see into it, but almost
full of Water and Sand.
May 8. Went to the Wreck, and carry'd an Iron
Crow to wrench up the Deck, which lay now quite clear
of the Water or Sand; I wrench'd open two Planks, and
brought them on Shore also with the Tide: I left the Iron
Crow in the Wreck for next Day.
May 9. Went to the Wreck, and with the Crow made
Way into the Body of the Wreck, and felt several Casks,
and loosen'd them with the Crow, but could not break
them up; I felt also the roll of English Lead, and could
stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May Io, I 12, 13, 14. Went every Day to the Wreck,

and got a great deal of Pieces of Timber, and Boards, or
Plank, and 2 or 300 Weight of Iron.
May 15. I carry'd two Hatchets to try if I could not
cut a Piece off of the Roll of Lead, by placing the Edge
of one Hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it
lay about a Foot and a half in the Water, I could not
make any Blow to drive the Hatchet.
May 16. It had blow'd hard in the Night, and the
Wreck appeared more broken by the Force of the Water;
but I staid so long in the Woods to get Pidgeons for
Food, that the Tide prevented me going to the Wreck
that Day.
May 17. I saw some Pieces of the Wreck blown on
Shore, at a great Distance, near two Miles off me, but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a Piece
of the Head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every Day to this Day I work'd on the
Wreck, and with hard Labour I loosen'd some Things so
much with the Crow, that the first blowing Tide several
Casks floated out, and two of the Seamens Chests; but
the Wind blowing from the Shore, nothing came to Land
that Day, but Pieces of Timber, and a Hogshead which
had some Brazil Pork in it, but the Salt-water and the
Sand had spoil'd it.
I continued this Work every Day to the i5th of zune,
except the Time necessary to get Food, which I always
appointed, during this Part of my Employment, to be
when the Tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
ebb'd out, and by this Time I had gotten Timber, and
Plank, and Ironwork enough, to have builded a good Boat,
if I had known how; and also, I got at several Times,
and in several Pieces, near Ioo Weight of the Sheet-
June 16. Going down to the Sea-side, I found a
large Tortoise or Turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which it seems was only my Misfortune, not any Defect
of the Place, or Scarcity; for had I happened to be on
the other Side of the Island, I might have had Hundreds

of them every Day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps
had paid dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the Turtle; I found in
her threescore Eggs; and her Flesh was to me at that
Time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted
in my Life, having had no Flesh, but of Goats and Fowls,
since I landed in this horrid Place.
June 18. Rain'd all Day, and I stay'd within. I
thought at this Time the Rain felt Cold, and I was
something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the Weather
had been cold.
June 20. No Rest all Night, violent Pains in my Head,
and feverish.
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to Death with the
Apprehensions of my sad Condition, to be sick, and no
Help; Pray'd to GOD for the first Time since the Storm
off of Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why; my
Thoughts being all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful Appre-
hensions of Sickness.
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent Head-ach.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An Ague very violent; the Fit held me
seven Hours, cold Fit and hot, with faint Sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no Victuals to eat, took
my Gun, but found my self very weak; however I killed a
She-Goat, and with much Difficulty got it Home, and
broil'd some of it, and eat; I wou'd fain have stew'd it,
and made some Broth, but had no Pot.
June 27. The Ague again so violent, that I lay a-Bed
all Day, and neither eat or drank. I was ready to perish
for Thirst, but so weak, I had not Strength to stand up,
or to get my self any Water to drink: Pray'd to God again,
but was light-headed, and when I was not, I was so igno-
rant, that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cry'd,

Lord look upon me, Lord pity me, Lord have Mercy uton
me; I suppose I did nothing else for two or three Hours,
till the Fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till
far in the Night; when I wak'd, I found my self much re-
fresh'd, but weak, and exceeding thirsty: However, as I
had no Water in my whole Habitation, I was forc'd to lie
till Morning, and went to sleep again: In this second
Sleep, I had this terrible Dream.
I thought, that I was sitting on the Ground on the
Out-side of my Wall, where I sat when the Storm blew
after the Earthquake, and that I saw a Man descend from
a great black Cloud, in a bright Flame of Fire, and light
upon the Ground: He was all over as bright as a Flame,
so that I could but just bear to look towards him; his
Countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible
for Words to describe; when he stepp'd upon the Ground
with his Feet, I thought the Earth trembl'd, just as it had
done before in the Earthquake, and all the Air look'd, to
my Apprehension, as if it had been filled with Flashes of
He was no sooner landed upon the Earth, but he
mov'd forward towards me, with a long Spear or Weapon
in his Hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising
Ground, at some Distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a
Voice so terrible, that it is impossible to express the Ter-
ror of it; all that I can say I understood was this, Seeing
all these Things have not brought thee to Repentance,
now thou shalt die : At which Words, I thought he lifted
up the Spear that was in his Hand to kill me.
No one, that shall ever read this Account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the Horrors of my Soul
at this terrible Vision, I mean, that even while it was a
Dream, I even dreamed of those Horrors; nor is it any
more possible to describe the Impression that remained
upon my Mind, when I awak'd, and found it was but a
I had alas! no divine Knowledge; what I had re-
ceiv'd by the good InstruAion of my Father was then

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