Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Biographical notice of the author...
 Robinson's family, etc. - His elopement...
 First adventures at sea, and experience...
 Robinson's captivity at Sallee...
 He settles in the Brazils as a...
 Robinson finds himself in a desolate...
 Carries all his riches, provisions,...
 Robinson's mode of reckoning time...
 Robinson's journal - Details of...
 Robinson obtains more articles...
 His recovery - His comfort in reading...
 Robinson makes a tour to explore...
 He returns to his cave - His agricultural...
 His manufacture of pottery, and...
 Meditates his escape from the island...
 He makes a smaller canoe, in which...
 He rears a flock of goats - His...
 Unexpected alarm and cause for...
 Precautions against surprise -...
 Robinson discovers a cave, which...
 Another visit of the savages -...
 He visits the wreck and obtains...
 Robinson rescues one of their captives...
 Robinson instructs and civilizes...
 Robinson and Friday build a canoe...
 Robinson releases a Spaniard -...
 Robinson discovers himself to the...
 Atkins entreats the captain to...
 Robinson goes to Lisbon, where...
 Friday's encounter with a bear...
 He is seized with a desire to revisit...
 Robinson's ship relieves the crew...
 Relieves the crew of a bistol ship,...
 Robinson and Friday go ashore -...
 The account continued - Quarrels...
 The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed...
 Several savages killed; the remainder...
 Robinson learns from the Spaniards...
 Encounter with savages at sea -...
 The sailors refuse to sail with...
 Meets with an English merchant...
 Jouney to Pekin - Robinson joins...
 Route through Muscovy - Robinson...


The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073557/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, 312 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Leavitt, George A ( Publisher )
Dalziel, Edward, 1817-1905 ( Engraver )
Dalziel, George, 1815-1902 ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: Geo. A. Leavitt
Place of Publication: New York
Publication Date: between 1866 and 1870?
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1868   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated with one hundred and ten wood engravings.
General Note: Gilt relief decorated spine with title: Robinson Crusoe; cover gilt relief decoration and vignettes with title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York mariner.
General Note: Date estimated from information found in entry for Leavitt & Allen in 'American literary publishing houses, 1638-1899.'
General Note: Ill. engraved by Dalziel.
General Note: "Biographical notice of the author of Robinson Crusoe," p. vii- viii.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into numbered sections. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: University of Florida's copy inscribed 1872.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28050564
System ID: UF00073557:00001

Table of Contents
        Page i
    Title Page
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Biographical notice of the author of Robinson Crusoe
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Robinson's family, etc. - His elopement from his parents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    First adventures at sea, and experience of a maritime life-voyage to Guinea
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Robinson's captivity at Sallee - Escape with Xury - Arrival at the Brazils
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    He settles in the Brazils as a planter - Makes another voyage, and is shipwrecked
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Robinson finds himself in a desolate island - Procures a stock of articles from the wreck - Constructs his habitation
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Carries all his riches, provisions, etc. into his habitation - Dreariness of solitude - Consolatory reflections
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Robinson's mode of reckoning time - Difficulties arising from want of tools - He arranges his habitation
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Robinson's journal - Details of his domestic economy and contrivances - Shock of an earthquake
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck - His illness and affliction
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    His recovery - His comfort in reading the scriptures - Makes an excursion into the interior of the island - Forms his "bower"
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Robinson makes a tour to explore his island
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    He returns to his cave - His agricultural labours and success
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    His manufacture of pottery, and contrivance for baking bread
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Meditates his escape from the island - Builds a canoe - Failure of his scheme - Resignation to his condition - Makes himself a new dress
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    He makes a smaller canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the island - His perilous situation at sea - He returns home
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    He rears a flock of goats - His dairy - His domestic habits and style of living - Increasing prosperity
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Unexpected alarm and cause for apprehension - He fortifies his abode
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Precautions against surprise - Robinson discovers his island has been visited by cannibals
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
    Robinson discovers a cave, which serves him as a retreat against the savages
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Another visit of the savages - Robinson sees them dancing - Perceives the wreck of a vessel
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    He visits the wreck and obtains many stores from it - Again thinks of quitting the island
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
    Robinson rescues one of their captives from the savages, whom he names Friday, and makes his servant
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    Robinson instructs and civilizes his man Friday - Endeavours to give him an idea of Christianity
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
    Robinson and Friday build a canoe to carry them to Friday's country - Their scheme prevented by the arrival of a party of savages
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Robinson releases a Spaniard - Friday discovers his father - Accomodation provided for these new guests - Who are afterwards sent to liberate the other Spaniards - Arrival of an English vessel
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
    Robinson discovers himself to the English captain - Assists him in reducing his mutinous crew - Who submit to him
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Atkins entreats the captain to spare his life - The latter recovers his vessel from the mutineers - And Robinson leaves the island
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese captain, who renders him an account of his property in the Brazils - Sets out on his return to England by land
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
    Friday's encounter with a bear - Robinson and his fellow travellers attacked by a flock of wolves - His arrangement of his affairs, and his marriage after his return to England
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
    He is seized with a desire to revisit his island - Loses his wife - Is tempted to go to sea again - Takes out a cargo for his colony
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    Robinson's ship relieves the crew of a French vessel that had caught fire
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Relieves the crew of a bistol ship, who are starving - Arrives at his island
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Robinson and Friday go ashore - The latter meets with his father - Account of what passed on the island after Robinson's quitting it
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
    The account continued - Quarrels between the Englishmen - A battle between two parties of savages who visit the island - Fresh mutiny among the settlers
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
    The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the island - Return with several captive savages - Take the females as wives - Arrival of savages
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
    Several savages killed; the remainder leave the island - A fleet of them afterwards arrive - A general battle - The savages are overcome, and tranquility restored
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
    Robinson learns from the Spaniards the difficulties they had to encounter - He furnishes the people with tools, etc. - The French ecclesiastic
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
    Encounter with savages at sea - Friday's death - Robinson finds his former partner in the Brazils - Sails for the East Indies
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
    The sailors refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his nephew, the captain, in Bengal
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Meets with an English merchant with whom he makes some trading voyages - They are mistaken for pirates - Vanquish their pursuers - Voyage to China - Rencontre with the chocin-Chinese - Island of Formoso - Gulf of Nanquin - Apprehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
    Jouney to Pekin - Robinson joins a caravan proceeding to Moscow - Rencontres with the Tartars
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Route through Muscovy - Robinson and a Scots merchant destory an idol - The whole caravan in great peril from the pursuit of the pagans - Tobolski - Departure from Tobolski - Encounter with a troop of robbers in the desert - Robinson reaches archangel, and finally arrives in England
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
Full Text

Robinson Crusoe instructing Friday.

z i







Robinson's Family, &c.--His Elopement from his Parents ...........................

First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Lie.--Voyage to
Guinea ..................................................................... 5

Robinson's Captivity at Sallee.--Escape with lury.-Alrrival at the Brazils. 11

Hle settles in the Brazils as a Planter.-Makes another Voyage, and is Bhip-
wrecked ..................................................................... 23

Robinson finds himself in a Desolate Island.-Procures a, Stock of Articles
from the Wreek.-COonstructs his Habitation ......................................... 31

Carries all his R~iches, Provisions, &tc. into his Habitation,-Dreariness of
Solitude.-Consolatory electionss ................................................. t

RobJinson's Mode of Reckoning Time.--DifBoulties arising from want of
Tools.--He arranges his Habitation.............................................. .. 42

Robinson's Journal....Details of his Domestic Economy and Contrivances.
--Shock of an Barthquake ....................................................... 4 *i

Robinson obtains more Articls fk~om the Wreck.-His Illness and AfBiotion 53

His Recovuery.--His Comfort in Beading the Scriptures.-Makes an Exur-`
aion into the Interior of the Island.-Forms his Bower" ...................... 57 j


Robinson makes a Tour to Emplore his Island ........................................... 86

He returns to his Cave.--His Agricultural Labours and Success ..,............. Go

His Manufacture of Pottery, and Contrivance for baking Bread.................. 74l

MIeditates his Escape from the Island.--Builds a, Canoe.--Failure of his
Scheme.-Recsignation to his Condition.-M~akes himself a new Dress ...... 78

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the Island.
--His perilous situation at Sea.--He returns home ...................................... 84

He rears a, Flock of Goats --His Diary.-His Domestic habits and Style of
Living.--Increasing Prosperity .................................................... 80

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension.--He Fortifies his Abode.- 93

Precautions against Surprise.-Ro~binson discovers that his Is and has been
visitedby Cannibals........................................................ 99

Robinson discovers a, Cave which serves him as a Rettreat against thle
Sav ag es................................................................... 103

Another visit of the Savages.-RBobinson sees them dancing.-Perceives the
W reek of a Vessel........................................................... 108

He visits the Wreck anid obtains many Stores from it.-Again thinks of
quitting the Islandl.-Hasr a remarkable Dream.....................,................ 112

Robinson rescues one of their Captives from the Savages, whom he names
Friday, and makes his Servant................................................. 110

Robipson instructs and civilizes hlia man Friday--Endeavours to give him
an Idea of Christianity...... ..........,, .... ........................................... 1In


B~obinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry them to Friday's Country--
Their Scheme prevented by the arrival ot a Party of Savages................... 181

Robinson releases a Spaniard.-Priday discovers his Pather.--Acormmods.
tion provided for these new Guests--who are afterwards sent to liberate
the other Spaniards.-Arrival ot an English Vessel .................................. 187

Robinson discovers himself to the English Captain.-Assists him in reducing
his mutinous Crew,-who submit to him ....................;........................ usg

ALtkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life.-The latter recovers his Vessel
from the 31utineers.-A~nd Robinson leaves the Island.............................. 163

Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain, who renders
him an Account of his Property in the Brazils.-SBets out on his Return to
England by Land ...............................................................171

Friday's Encounter with a Bear.-Raobinson anid his fellow Travellers
attacked by a Flock of Wolves.- His Arrangement of his atfairs, and
Marriage after his R~eturn to England............................................ 179

He is seized with a Desire to revisit hiis Island.--Loses his Wife-is tempted
to go to Sea again.-Takes out a Cargo for his Colony .............................. 187

Robinson's Ship relieves the Crew of a Prench Vessel that had caught Fire... 190

Relieves the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving.-Adrrives at his
Island .....................................................................193If

Robinson and Friday go ashore.--The latter meets with his Pather.-Account
of what passed on the Island after Robinson's quitting it ........................ 100

The Account continued.--Quarrels between the Englishmen.-A Battle
between two Parties of Savages who visit the Island.-Presh Hutiny
among the Bettlere .............................. ......................*...................... 205~


The mutinous Enlglishmen are dismissed from the Island.-RIeturn with
several captive Savages.--Take the Temales as Wives .............................. 222

Several Savages killed; the Remainder leave the Island.-A8 Fleet of them
afterwards arrive.--A general Battle.--the Savages are overcome, and
Tranquility restored ......................................... ................. 223

Robinson learns from the Spaniards the Diffculties they had to encounter.-
He furnishes the People with Tools, &c.--The French Ecclesiastic............ E48

Encounter with Savages at Sea.-PFriday's Death.--Robinson finds his former
Partner in the Brazils.--Sails for the East Indies .............. ...................... 254

The Vessel touches at Madragacar.-ABffray with the Natives,-who are mas-
sacred by the Crew.--The Sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinson,
who is left by his Nephew, the Captain, in Bengal................................... 250

MIeets with an English Mlerchant with whom he makes some trading
Voyages.--The~y are mistaken for Pirates.-YVanquish their Pursuers.--
Voyage to China.-RIecontre with the Cochin-Chinese.-Island of Formoss.
--Gulf of N'anquin.-Ap~prehension of falling into the Hands of the D~utch. 263

Journey to Pekin.--Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to Moscow.--Ren-
contres with the Tartars ........................................................ 234

Route through Muscovy.--Robinson and a Scots Merchant destroy an Idol.
--The whole Caravan in great Peril from the Pursuit of the Pagans.--
Tobolski.--Departure from Tobolski.--Encounter with a Troop of R~obbers
in the D~esert.--Robinson reaches Ahrchangel, and finally arrives in England 2951



DANIEL, DEFOE, the author of numerous works of fiction, among
which the History of the Plague has attained a certain popularity,
and Robinson Crusoe a lasting and world-wide renown, was born
in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, in the city of London, in the
year 16j61. He was educated at a dissenting school at Newington
Green; his father, a strict dissenter, intendinglum for the priesthood.
But this project seems to have been abandoned, for some unknown
reason, and young Daniel became a tradesman,1like his father. Some-
thing of the roving, restless nature, so admirably described in
"Ro inson Crusoe," seems to have been inherent in Defoe himself ;
for his life is full of strange vicissitudes, and he appears continually
involved in trouble on one account or another. WPe find him takn
part in the most ill-considered and unfortunate enterprise of i
time, the Rebellion of Monmouth, and narrowly escaping what the
cynical spirit of the time dubbed a merry go-round at rope fair,"
namely, death by strangulation, for the offence. In after-life he
was hotly embroiled in the political quarrels of his age. At one
time he was compelled to stand in the pillory, as a punishment for
writing a well-tuned and thoughtful pamphlet on The shortest way
with the Dissenters." The populace, sympathizmng with and ad-
mirinlg him, crowned the pilory with flowers, and converted hris
penance into a triumph; but this could not relieve him from the
burden of the heavy fine he was compelled to pay, and which ham-
pered him for years afterwards. At another time he suffered a long
unprisonmenlt, obtaining his release after two years b h nevn
tion of Ha~eyErley, xEarl fOxo Buthe hadnot ~ethe rt f avani
his fortunes, though his evident merit procured him em loment in
several matters of conse uence; and, at the end of his loglife, he
was in poverty and ne lect. He died in his native paris of St.
Giles, Cripplegate, Apri 24, 1781, at the age of seventy, and was
interred mn Bunll1 Exelds burial-ground.
The political works of Defoe are numerous, and had a sensibl-e
effect on the times in which he lived. A thorough Englishman, out-
spoken, vehement, and uncompromismng he shouted out lustily
against abuses and wrong-doing wherever he found them; and in many
respects his ideas were greatly in advance of his time. Some of his
schemes may have been visionarry and impracticable; but it is pleasant
to hear his sturdy voice raised, and to see his nervous pen wielded so
unfinchinglyin advocacy of his principles, and to mark howunvaryingly
those prinexples point to moderation, mercy and the law of kindness.


His Reviewv, which he conducted for nine years, may certainly be
considered as the pioneer of the Spectator, Tantler, Guatrdianw, and
other collections of essays which enriched the literature of the first
half of the eighteenth century.
His political writings, however, have mostly passed away with the
troublous times which gave them birth, andl to which their interest
was confined. It was as a writer of fiction that Defoe was to
achieve more lasting fame. Two, at least, of hlis works have a value
and a significance quite irrespective of time and place,--the one as a
record of ti national calamity, the other as a wonderful piece of ima-
~gmayautobiography. These two books are the Historyv of the
Plgeof 1665," and the Adventures of Robinson Crusoc."
At the time when the scourge was decimating London, Daniel
Defoe was only four years old. It could not, therefore, be from
memory that he so vividly described its incidents; though, doubtless,
in his youth he heard many an anecdote about the pestilence and its
ravages, from men of maturer years, on whose memories it must have
made an indelible impression. But hlis chief talent lay in the
management of detail and accurate description; and it is diflieult to
imagine, as we read the graphic record of thle state of the terror-
stricken, desolate city, that we have not before us the real daily
notes of an actual indweller in the city of the plague. In Rtobinson
Crusoe the same marvellous power is shown, but in a much higher
dere. ith matchless skill, thle doubts and sorrows, the shifts
ndexpedients, the little domestic triumphs and disappointments of
the ship-wrecked mariner in his solitary home are put before the
reader in the very form most calculated to enlist his Interest and
sympathies. So thoroughly has the author identified himself with the
hero of his romance, that Defoe disappears, and it is Robinson Crusoe
himself whlo becomes a living personality, and moves and speaks
before the reader, and becomes as clearly and distinctly personified

asThe frt eoditio of Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719. In
the century and a half that has since elapsed, hundreds of edi-
tions have appeared in all European languages. Everywhere the
book has worked its way; and as for the German version, Robinson
de Jungerer" is chronicled as one of the greatest successes of the
eminent~ Hamburgh firm of Campe and Co.
In the present volume, the original text, slightly shortened, has
been adhered to. The operation of modernizing the language, ne-
cessary, perhaps, mna scientific work, would hlave taken away one of
the chief charms from the narrative of the simple sailor, who is
therefore left to tell his tale in hris own rough, pathetic, old-fashioned
way. The drawings are from an eminent G'erman pencil, and apart
from their artistic value, serve the purpose of thoroughlly illustrating
the text.

~. ii



I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
through not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,
named Krcutznaer, who settled first at H~ull. He got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade,1lived afterwards at York;
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named
Rtobinson, a very good family in that country, and after whom I was
so called, that Is to say, Robinson K~reatznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by thle
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near D~unkirk
against the Spa~niards. What became of my second brother, I never
knew, anly more than my father and mother did know what was
become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, m
head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. M
father, who was very aged, had given me a competent share 6
learning, as far as house education and a country free school generally
go, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strong aainst the wnl, nay, the commands of my father, and
against a te entreaties and persuasions of my~ mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me,


Miy father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. H e called me one
morning mto his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject; he asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving his house, and my native country, where I might be well
introduced, and had a prospect of railsmg my fortune, by application
and industry, with a life of ease and measure. He told me it was
men of desperate fortunes, on one han or of superior fortunes, on
the other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by
enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of nature
out of the common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
found, by long experience, was, the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hard-
ships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind,
andl not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life
which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes, between the
mean and the great; t'hat the wise man gave his testimony to this
as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always fmnd, that the calami-
ties of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man-
kind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand, or, by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of
their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the hasndmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the middle
station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or ofthe head, not sold to the life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob*
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion
of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly


tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are
happy, and learning by every day's experience, to know it more
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born mn seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had been just recommending:
to me; and that if i was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder: it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
mn warning me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt;
in a word, that he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed; he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, who had run into the army, where he was
killed during the Low Country wars; that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter,
to reflect upon. having neglected his counsel, when there might be
I obervoess d te~ th~a:e tPearsru dwn his face ery~ plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who wcas knled, and that, when he
spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely atfected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any
more, but to settle at home, accord'g to my father's desire. But
alas a few days wore it all off : and, in short, to prevent any of
my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not act so hastily,
neither, as myV first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anytlun with resolution
enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to
an a',torney; that I was sure, if~ I ~did, I should never serve out
my time, and I should certainly run away from my master before my
time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to mqy father to
let me make but one voyage abroad, if I came home ~agm, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother in a great passion: she told me she kgws it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a sub-
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent


to anything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing, after such a. discourse as I had from
my father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my
father had used : that for her part,, she wroud not have so much hand in
my destruction; and I should never have it to say, that mly mother
was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as 1 have
heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him; and that
my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh :
That; boy might be hanppy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, hie will be thle most miserable wretch that ever was born,;
I cannot give consent to it."

-- I

Itwa ottllamota er fertis ta I brk os;tog
inhementmeI cntnud bsinael daftoal prosaso

Itowa Lndon byl ea inhst father' sfhip, tand prompine togo wi thog
inthe m bythme ommon alhaemen of seaaingtl men, viz. tatl itpol sou
cstln me nothingss for my passage, Ionsulatedg eithery fatherno
a mother any u more, r so uc aso psient dtherm wod of it; bt left
them, wtohear of iet cas they, mit without asking Godse blessing,
aneor my f thrs without t any consierto of mycircmtances ore conse
quncs aond in bsa n hi hour's God p knows. pigmet gm



ON the 1st September, 1651, I went on board a ship bound for
London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow, and the
waves to rise, in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been
at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in
mind; I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken bythe judgment of H~eaven, for wickedly
leaving my father's house. A the good counsels of my parents, my
father's tears, and m~y mother's entreaties, came now fresh to my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of
hardness to which it has been since,, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the abandonment of my duty.
Althis while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what
I have seen many times since; no, ner what I saw a few das after;
but, such as it was, enough to airect me then, who was b a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
slup fell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it wPould please God to spare my hfe
this voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry land, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a slup again while


I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness
of his observations about the middle station of life; how easy, how
comfortable, he hlad lived all his days, and never hlad been exposed
to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thloughlts continued during the storm, and
indeed sometime after; but the next day as the wind was abated,
and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to it. However, I
was very grave that day, beings also a little sea-sick still; but towards
night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charm.
ing fine evening followed: thle sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and havinlglittle or no wind, and a smooth
sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept, well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
veycheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
an terrible the day before, and could be so cahn and pleasant in a
little time after.

And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and said, Well, Bob,"
clapping me on thle shoulder, hlow do you do after it ? I warrant
you you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew a cap-
full of wind ?"-" A cap-full, do you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible
storml."--" A storm you fool ?" replies he, do you call that a storm !
W~hy, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room,'
and we think nothlingr of such a squall of wind as that; you are but
a fresh water sailor, B3ob; come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that. I)'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in
one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all myV reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and


settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my~ former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had
made in my distress.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we had
made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary,
viz. at south-west, for seven or eight~ days, during which tune a great
many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as a common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river Thames.
We had not, however rid here so long, but we should have tided up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had laid
four or five days, blew very hard. However, thle roads being reckoned
as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle
very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre.
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and cables veered
out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves.
The master was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but,
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
say to himself several times, Lord, be merciful to us we shall be
all lost; we shall be all undone;" and the like.
The storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the might, and under all the rest of
our distresses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, We have sprung a leak !" another man said there was
four foot water in the holld." Then all hands were cayed to the
pup t that very word my heart as I thought, died within me,
andI fell back~wards upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, who was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was domng, the master seein some light colliers, who,
not able to ride out the storm, were ob iad to slip and run away to
sea, and would not come near us, ordered us to fir a gun as a signal~


of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised,
that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened.
In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no one
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped
up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; ana it was a great, while before I came to
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that thle ship would founder; and though the storm began
to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we
ighat run into a port;--so the master continued firing guns for help;
adalight ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat
out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near
us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to
lie near the ship,'s side; till at last thle men rowing very heartily,
and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope
over our stern with a. buoy to it, and then veered it out a grreatt
length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and
we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into the boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat were stayed upon shore, he
would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat; went away to the northward, sloping towards the
shore almost as far as WVinterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
when we saw her sink; and then I understood, for the first time,
what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamlen told me she was
sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me into the boat
than that I might be said to g~o in.. M~y heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fr~ight, partly with horror of mind, and the
thoughts of what was yet before me.
W~ile we were in t~iis conditions, the men yet labouring at the oar
to bring the boat near thle shore, we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come
near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we
able to reach it, till being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the
shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land
broke offa little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shores and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth ; where, as unfortunate men, we were
used wit h great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town~, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and owners


of shi~ps; and had money given us suffcient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and hlave
gone home, I had been happy : and my father, an emublemn of our

blessed Saviour's parablel, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was
a great while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
M~y comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
thle master's son, was now less forward than I; the first time he spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three
days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; Isth
first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, loi~
very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did
telling hlis father who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father talked very
gravely to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of
Heaven against me; ':and, young man," said he, depend uon it, if
you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with n tinbut;
disasters anld disappointments, till your father's words are &uhle
upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him
no more; which way he went, I know not; as for me, having some
money mn my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself what course of
life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea. As
to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my


thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even everybody else. From whenceI
have often observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for
which they ought justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of
the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise me".
I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or as the
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in Lon-
don; I became acquainted with the master of a ship, who had been
on the coast of Gumea, and who having had very good success there,
was resolved to go again. He, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me say I
had a mind to see thle world, told me, that if I would go that voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have
all the advantage of it the trade would admit; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and, entermg
into strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest and plain-
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about forty pounds
in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. This
forty pounds I mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with; and who I believe, got my
father, or at least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was the only vyg hc a a a
successful in allmy adventures, anda~~ which I owe tothitgrt wan
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observa-
tion, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to
be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I
took dehight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, on
my reeturn, almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me wvith
toeaspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet
even in this voyage I had my misfortunes, too; particularly that I
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture by the ex-
cessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.




I wAs now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage agam; and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate m the former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unh piest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry qie a hundred pounds of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had two ~uded pounds left, and which I lodged'
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell mnto
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz.--our
ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the
grey of the morning, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase
to us, with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to et clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certa~l come
up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having
twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us; and brmngmg to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returnmg our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men'
whom he had on board. However, we had not a man touched, all


Our men keeping close. He. prepared to attack us again, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and riggmng. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such~ like, and cleared
our decks of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men
killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port blnigto the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so draflas at first I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper: prize and made his slave, beinlrrg omy1 and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circum-
stances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse
to me, that I should be miserable, anel have none to relieve me;
which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that it coukil
not be worse; that nlow the hand of H-eaven hlad overtaken me, anti
I was undone, without redemption. But, alas this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it w-ould, some time or other, be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portuguese manl of war, and that then I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after th~e ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bihlty in it. NIothingr presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for 1 had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me;
no fellow-slave, no Englishrman, Irishmnan, or Scotchman there but
myself ; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with
the imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of
putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
whlich put the old thought of makings some attempt for my liberty
again into my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fittinlg out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener,
if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnacle, and go out into
the road a fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moresco
with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved



very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of hris kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fshing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we knew not
whither, or which way, w~e laboured all day, anld all thle next night,
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,

inted f ulin i fr heshre ad ha w wreatlesttw

cntare of huimgself for the future; and thavin lym byr him lth lwon
borat ofa or Enlishrn shipe hdtakgen, he resolved bega woubldotg

ar of ihmg el an ore wtho ut omas and somen rovisbl ion sohe lni

ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an Egish slave, to
build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the lgboat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul
home the main sheet, and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails. She sailed with what we called a leg-of-mutton
sail, and the boom ribbed over the top of the cabin, whicEh lay very
anug and low, and h~ad in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I was

most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and
had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store of
provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me to get ready three
fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board his ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate hlis guests: when, by and by, my patron came

on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, ~ouponsme
business that fell out, and ordered me, with a mananbos
usual, to go out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as soon
as I had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house; all
which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for any
where, to get out of that place, was my way,
My fist contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get somethings for our subsistence on board; for I told him we
must not presume to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was
true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind,
and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew where my
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before


for our master. I conveyed also a great lump of bees-waxK into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of
twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of
great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon hlim, which he innocently came into also;
his name was Ishmael, whom they call Muley, or Moley; so I called to
him; Moley," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat, can
you not get a little powder and shot ? It may be we may kill some
alcamies (fowls like our curlews) for ourselves, and I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship."--" Yes," says he, I will bring some;"
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about
a po0und and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with shot,
that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat; at the same time I found some powder of my master's in
the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pourmng wbat was in it into another;
and thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out
of the port, when we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for,
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached to thre bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions
wvere, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the horrid
place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see
them, I said to the Moor: This will not do; our master will not be
thus served; we must stand further off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed; and being at the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I
had the helm, I run the boat near a league farther, and then brought
to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and I took him by surprise, with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clean overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken mI, and told me he would go all the world over
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; uon which
I stepped into the cabmn, and fetclung one of the iolgpeces,
I presented it at him, and told him, IZ had done him no hr, and
if he would be quiet, I would do him none. But," said I, you
swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will- do you no harm; but if you
come near the boat, I will shoot you through the head; for I am
resolved to have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and swam
for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me and
have drowned thle boy, but there wras no venturing to trust him.
WChen he was gone, 1 turned to the boy, wvhom they called Xury,
and said to him, "L Xury, if you w-ill be faithful to me I w~ill make you
a great man; but if you wrill not stroke your face to bc true to me
(that is, swear by Mahomlet anld hlis father's bardd, I must throw you
into the sea too." Thle boy smiled in my face, and spoke so inlnocently,
that I could not mistrust hlim; and swore to be faithlful to me, and
go all over the wrorld w~ith mec.

WFhile I was in viewv of the M\oor that w-as swimming, I stood out
dlirectly: to sea, withl the boat, rather stretching to windwvard, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed anly
one that had been in their writs must have been supposed to do); for
who would have supposed wre wrere sailing on to the southw-ard, to thle
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes w-ere sure to
surround us w~ithl their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never
once go on shore but wre should be devoured by salvage beasts, or
more merciless ssavages of human kind ?'
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I chaongred my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail,
that I believe tby' the next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I made teland, I could not be less than one hundred and
~fifty miles south of Sallce, qulite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's


dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout; for we saw no
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the M~oors, and the dreadfe
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
01- go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to
the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make
to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river;
I knew not what or where, neither what latitulde, what country,
what nation, or what river. I neither sa~w, nor desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
mnto this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, then Iwill not; but it may be
we shall see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then we may give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughngr, make
them run away." Such English X~ury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our
little anchor, and lay still a11night; I say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not what to call
them), of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the
water, wallow-ing and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such howlings and yelling, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frightened when we heard one of these creatures
swimming towards our boat; and we could hear by his blowing that
he was a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Poor Zury cried to me
to wewgh the anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury, we canl slip
our cable with a buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but Iperceived the creature within two
oars' length, which surprised me; however, I immediately stepped
to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
It is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries
and howling that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the g~un; a
thmg, I believe, those creatures had never heard before. This con-
vmeced me there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day, was another question.


too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, hlad
been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers; at
least, we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pmt left in the boat; when and
where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would fmd if there was any water, and
bring some to me. asked him why he would go; why I should
not go, and he stay in the boat. The bor answelred with so much

affection, that he made me love himn ever after. Says he, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go awfay.--" W'ell, Xury," said I, we
will both go ; and if the wild mans come, we will km them; they shall
cat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and
a dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before;
and we hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and
two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by,
I saw him come running towards mee. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frightened by some wild beast, and I therefore ran
forwards to help himl; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour and longer legs; however,
we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mnlws.


As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far from thle coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation, to find whlat latitude we were in, and did not exactly
know, or at least remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily found some of these islands. But
my hope was that if I stood along this coast til I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was, must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by
wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed both forsakmng
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use
it for their hunting only, where they go~ like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and, ned for near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of
wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, mn the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Canaries,
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary wmnds; the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually, for ten
or twelve days, having very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and gomng no oftener into shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. Myg design in this, was to make the
river Gambia, or Senegal; that Is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was m hopes to meet some European ship; and if
I did not, 1 knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands or perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or
to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and in a word
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet some ship, or perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
lury was my better counsellor, and stid to me, ~No go, no go." How


ever, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I
found they ranl along the shore by me a good way. I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a long
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would
throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but
talked to them by signs, as well as I could, an~d particularly made
signs fGY Something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,
and they would fetch me some meat; upon this I lowered the top of
my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into thle country; and
in less than halnf anl hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as the produce of their
country; but we neither knew wh~at the one or the other was; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. 13ut how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and
stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us agamn.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange; but I believe it was the latter, because, in thle first place,
these ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, m thle
second place we found the people terribly frightened, especially the
women. Thle man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as thle two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last, one of them be an to come nearer
our boat than I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun withl all possible expedition, and bde Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head; immediately he sunk down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor crea-
tures, at, the noise and fire of 'my gun; some of them were ever,
ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;
but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and
that I made signs for them to come to the shore, they took heart
and came to th~e shore, and began to search for the creature. I

found hlim by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leop~ard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to tlank' what it was I had killed him
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what
it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this

creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
wluch, when I made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, set with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
stand, y~et I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water,
and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there camve two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
suppose, mn t~he sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
lury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three.

I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for eleven
lays more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land
run a great length into the sea, at about the distance of four
or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a
large offing, to make this point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from thle land, I saw plainly land on the other
side, to seawmard; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Ver~d Islands. However, they were at a great dis-
tance, and I could not wrell tell what I had best to do; for if I
should be taken writh a -ale of wind, I mlighlt reach neither.
In this dilemma, as I wa-s very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat me down, Xury hlavingr the hlelm; whecn, on a sudden, the
boy cried out, Mlaster, master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish
boy was frightened out of his w~its, thinking it must needs be some
of his master's ships sent to pursue us, wh]en I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but w~hat shle was, viz. that
it was a Portuguese ship, and, as 1 thought, wras bound to the
Coast of Guinea, for N~egroes.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way; but after I had crow~ded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and thart it was some European boat, which, they
supposed, must belong to some shlip that wans lost; so they shortened
sail; and in about three hours' time I came up wiith them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French; but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch
sailor whlo was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I wras an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the M~oors, at Sallee; thley then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to mec, which any one will believe, that
I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and
almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immedliately offered all
I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but
he generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils.
I will carry you thlither in charity, and these things will help to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again.


Asy he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the perform-
ance. .to tttle: forhe ordered the seamn~o, that none should offer j
to touch anything I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as myg three earthen jars.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Ba
de Todos los Sant~os, or all Saints' Bay, in abput twenty-two dty
after. And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself, I was now
to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember : he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,--for I had made candles of the rest ;
in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenilo as they call
it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him some
ti.s and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
. plaastidg 'Ld of making sugar; and seeing how well the planters


lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
license to settle there, I would turn planlter among them: endear-
ouring, in the meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
thlat was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
mye plantation and settlement; such a one as might be srutable to
testock wrhichl I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighlbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as
I was. I call him my neighrlbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as hlis; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that thle third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
plantings canes the next year.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measure for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went bacr; for the ship remained there, in providing
hiis landing, and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when
telling him~ what little stock I had left behind me in Lonldon, he
gave me this friendly and sincere advice: Senhor Inglez," says he
(for so hre always called me,) "if you will give me letters, and a pro-
curation here in form to me, with orders to the person who had your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return: but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I
would have you .give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,
which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first, so that if: it come safe, you may order the rest the same way;
and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply." This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I
could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out
of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to
him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at, the Brazils: I
found means to sell theml to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first eargo,


and was now infiitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I brought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also, I mean another
besides one whom the captain brought me from Lisbon.
Having lived almost four years mn the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had not only
learned the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the mer-
chants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase on the coast for
trifles--such as beads, toys, knives, seissars, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like--not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth,
&2c., but Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buyina
Negroes, which was a trade, at that time, not only not far ent~erea
mnto, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed from
the public; so that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnesty three
of them came to me the next morning, and told me they h~ been
musmng very much upon what I hadi discoursed with them of the
last mlght, and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and,


after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as
it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to
make but one voyage, to bring the N'egroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their ow~n plantations; and, in a word, the
question was, whether I would go as their supercargo in the ship, to
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have an equal share of the Negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.
I, that was born to be my ownt destroyer, could no more resist the
offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, anid would dispose of it as I
should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and en-
tered into writings or covenants to do so, in case of my death;
making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universalheir; but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
The ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things
done as by agreement, by partners in the voyage, I went on board m
an evil hour again, the first of September, 16593, being the same day
eight years that I went from my parents at Hull, in order to act the
rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
We passed the Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern lati-
tude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge; it began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east ; from whence it blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the slup expect to save their
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could. He found that he had ~got
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river Amazon, toward that of the Oronoco, commonly called the
Great River; and as the ship was leaky and very much disabled he
was for going back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the
sea coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barba-


does ; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to
the coast of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N.W.
by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined; for in the
latitude of twelve degrees eighteen mmuntes a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had all our lives been saved, as to the sea, we stood a greater chance
of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning, cried out, Land!." and we had no sooner run out
of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world
we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her
motion being so stopped, the sea, broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should aHl have perished immediately; and we
were immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
The ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect \her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving out lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm,
but she was first stayed by dashing against the sinp's rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to
sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, ~and some told us she was actually broken
In this distress, thle mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the
ship's side; and getting all into her, we let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea;
for thonr the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went
dreadfulj high upon the shore, and might be well called den oild
zee, as th Dutch call the sea in a storm.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a ragmng wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the coupo de gr~ace. In a word, it
took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separa-
ting us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave~ us time
hardly to say, "O God!" for we were all swallowed up in a


Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk mnto the water; for though I swam very well, yet Icould not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards
the shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon the
land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seein myself
nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my feet and
endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which I had no
means or strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swim-
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if
possible; my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might not
car e back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The~ wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its ow-n body; and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a, very great
way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward
with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so,
yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding thle water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath,
and till the water went from me, and then took to my heels, and ran
with what strength I had farther towards the shore. 13ut neither
wecald this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pourtwr
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me ; for the
sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me, against a piece of rock, and that wilth such force, that it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the
blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite
out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must have
been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves; and, seeing I should again be covered with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves were
not so high as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the


wave abated, and then fetched another run, whlich brought me so
near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took,
I got to the main land!i where, to my great comfort, I clambered up
thue cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon thle grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a1 case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies and transports of
the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave; and

I did not wonder now at the custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to h~im---I say, I do not
wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting unp my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of my deliver-
ance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot des-
cribe; reflecting upon my comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but myself ; for, as for them, I
never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of
their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.


I cast my cyes to the stranded viessel---wh~en the breach and froth
of the sea bemng so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off-and
considered, Lord howl wans it possible I could get on shore ? "

I begrnu to look; around mie to see whatn kiind of aL place I was
in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I hand a dreadful deliverance; for I was
wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any~thing either to eat or drink,
to comfort me; neither did I see anly prospect before me, but that
of perishmng with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; anld that
which was particularly afflieting to me was, that I had no weapon
either to hunt and kill anly creature for my sulstenance, or to defend
myself against any other creatures that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a. knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco. N\ighlt comings upon me, I began, with a
heavy heart, to consider what would be mly lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country.
All the remedy that offered to miy th~oughts, w-as, to get up into a
thick bushy tree. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if cold indanyfresh water; whlich I did, to my great: joy; and
hving drunk,an put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hner, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
plce myself so as thart, if I should fall asleep, I might not fall; and
haing cut me a. stick, for my defence, I took up mly lodging; and
havq been excessively fatigued, I fell asleep, and slept as com-
fortab e as, I believe, few could have done mn my condition; and
found myself much refreshed.

--." I


~L~ ~-~CT~
-.r_-- 'i

___ ~_ ~


n'HEN I woke it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea, did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, thaIt the ship was lifted off in the
night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it.
'This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which lay, as
the wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two unles
on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to
have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water, between me
and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed


~"~iRB`. "T~B~i~ i I.~


so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship:
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief ; for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and had not been so miserable as to be
left entire~ destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was.
This forced tears from my eyes again; but as there was little relief
in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship: so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was h~ot to extremity, and took the
water : but when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board: for as she lay aground, and high out
of thle water, there was nothing in my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-
chlains so low, as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, aned by
the help of that rope got into hefrcslofthe ship. Hr
found that thle ship was bilged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free: and,
first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
oy the water, and being very wrell disposed to cat, I wrent to the
bra-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I
had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application: we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as
many overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every one
with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done,
I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of
th~em fast together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour
and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyoditi what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
M~y raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
Mly next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I


laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filled with provisions, viz. bread,
rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of Europeau corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liqluors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, m which were
some cordial waters; and, in all, five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chests, nlor any room for them. While I was doiag this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore,
upon the sanld, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummagmng for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work
with on shore : and it was after long searching that I found the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been
at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols;
these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, harmng neither
sadl, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation. I hoped to find some creek or river which I
ihtmake use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As ~I unagmned, so it was; there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a second
shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily would have broken my
;heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at

on end of it upon a shoal, and, not being agound at the other end,


it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the
end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost,
by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their places,
but could not thrust off thle raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time
the rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and
a little after, thle water still rising, my raft floated again, and I
thrust her off with the oar I had into the channel, and thlen driving
ulp higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I was
not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to
see some ship at sea, anld therefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the righlt shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
gtso near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust
directly in; but hecre I had like to have dipped all my cargo into
the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
sloping, there wans no place to land, but where one end of my float,
if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower, as
before, that it would endanger my caroagamn. All that I could do
wvas to wait till the tide was at the hiqest, keeping the raft with my
oar like an anchor, to hold the side f it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, which I expected the water would flow over;
and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars
into the ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
MyS next work was to view th~e country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether
on the continent, or on an island; whether inhabited, or not in-
habited; whether in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high,
and which seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and
one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled
for discovery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with
great labour an~d difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, viz. that I was in an island, environed in every way
with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.


I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit
for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world: I had no sooner fired, but from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many
sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying, every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew.
As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more
than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel,
if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things
apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then
I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should
take back the raft; but this appeared Impracticable: so I resolved
to go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I
stopped before I went from my but; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my
I got on board the .ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having hlad experience of the first, I neither made this so un-
wieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two
or three bags of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful thin~ called a grind-
stone. All these I secured together, with several t ings belonging
to the gunner; particularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with
some small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things,
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top-
sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and brmng them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large casks--I went to work to make a little tent, with
the sails, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into


this tent I brought cycry things thant I knewr would spoil either writhl
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up mna circle
round thle tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from
man or beast.
WFhen I hlad done this, I blocked up the door of the tenlt with
some boards writhlin, and an emiptyg chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of thle beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols
just at my head, and my~ gun at length by me, I went to bed for the
first time, andc slept ery quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy; for thle night before I hand slept little, and had laboured very
hard all day-, as well to fetch all those things from thle ship, as to get
them on sl;ore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still; for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every
thing out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I went
on board, and brought away something or other : but particularly
the third time I went, I brought away as much of the riggmga as I
could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a
piece of spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all
the sails first andl last; only that I was fain to out them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no more
useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of all, after


I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, an~d
three large r~unlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel in pieces of the sails, which I out out; and, in
a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plundered
thle ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, and cu~tting the great cable into pieces such as I could move,
I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all thle iron work I
could get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-
yard, and everything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with
all those heavy goods, and came away: but my good luck began now
to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that
after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for
myself, it was no great hann, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expIecte~d would have been of great use to me: however, when the
tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to go for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship; in which time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought
awvay the whole ship, piece by piece, but preparmg the twelfth time,
to go on board, I found the wind began to rise: however, at low
water, I went on board; and though I thought I had rummaged the
cabmn so effectually, as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
m money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; ": 0 drug I ex-
claimed, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou
art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
wvrappine all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making


another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-
cast, and thle wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh galc from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it
was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and,
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began, or
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly
I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between thle ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about.
me, and partly thle roughlness of the water; for the wind rose very
hastily, and before it was quite hligh water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, wvith lall m
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night,an
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz., thart I had lost no time, nor abated no
dihigence, to get everything out of her, that could be useful to me,
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything~
out of her, except whlat might drive on shore, from her wreek; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thoughts of thle method how to
do this, anid what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved
uIpon both; the manner and description of which, it may not be
Improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, par-
ticularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea,


and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it: so I resolved to fmnd a
more healthy and convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would
be proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now mentioned:
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures,'whether men or beasts: fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advan-
tage for my deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the
top. On the side of this rock, there was a hollow place, worn
little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. This plamn was not above one hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before m~y door;
and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the
low ground by the seaside. It was on the NJ.N.W. side of the hill;
so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
WT. and by 8. sun or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near
thle setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of the ground, about five feet and a half, and
sharpeners on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and laid
them mn rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placine other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to
a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but .bya
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I
lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified,
as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution against
the enemies that I apprehended danger from.



INTo this fenlce, or fortress, with inlfinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of whlich you have
the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me
from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I
made double, viz., one smaller tent withm, and one larger tent above
it, and covered the uppermost with a ]large tarpaulin, which 1 had
saved among the sails.
And Ilno I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought
on shore, but in a, hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belonged to thle mate of the ship.
Into this tcut I brought all my provisions, and every-thing that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
mande up the entrance, whlich till now I had left open, and so passed
aind repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my
tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground withinl about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house. It cost me much labour and many days,^before all

these things w-ere brought to perfection; and therefore, I must go
back to some other tlung~s which took up some of my thoughts. A
the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up of my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happeened,
and afer that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of
it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning as I was with
a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself : O my powder My very heart sunk within me when I thought,
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which not
my defence only, but th~e providing me food, as I thought, entirely
depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger,
though, had the powder taken fire, I should never have known who
hlad hurt me.
Such impressions did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder,
w-hich in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it mn my new cave, which, mn my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the
rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went 'out at least
once every day with my gun. One day I kinled a she-goat, which
had a. little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her,
till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the
old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
mny enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
m my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat-
sparmngly, and preserved my provisions (my bread especially) as
much as possibly I could.
And now being about to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I fist set foot upon this horrid island; when
the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude
of mne degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.


- -----_--~---=----



BFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thought thatnl Iu should lse reckoning of time for want of books,
and en nd nk, nd houd een forget the Sabbath days from the
working days: but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife into a
large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set
it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., "I came on shore here
on the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square
post I cut every day a notchl with my knife, and every seventh notch
.was as long again as the rest, and every first day of the month as
long again as that longs one: and thus I~ kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckonibng of time.
But it happened, that among thle manyhigwicIboutot
of the ship, in the several voyages whic hih, a aboveg metone,
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less
useful to me, which I found some time after, in rumlmagring the chests :
as in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, guriner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and looks
of navigation; all of which I huddaed together, whether I might
want them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among myp


things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or three
popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the pidp; a dog, p~d
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to sayisomne-
thing, in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and agfor
the dog he jumped out of the ship himself, and skipltr onihoisthe
day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trustyQ ser-
vant to me for many years : I wanted nothing that~ he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to me, I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I observed
before, 1 found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the
utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things
very exact, but after that was gone I could not; for I could not
makre any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstand-
ing all that I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was
one; as also a spade, pic~kaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I: did go on heavily: and it
was nearly a whole year before I had entirely finished my httle pale,
or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing
in th~e woods, and more by far inl bringmng home; so that I spknt
sometimes two days mn cutting and bringmg home one of those posts,
and a third in driving it into the ground; Ifor which purpose, I got a
heavy peace of wood at first, but at last bethought me of one of the
iron crows; which, however, though I found it answer, made driving
these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food; which I did more or
less, every day.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the ou-.side: and
some time (I thirik it was a year and a half) I raised rslfters from
leading to the rock, and thatched or covered it with bojughs of trees,
and such things as I could.get, to keep out the rain; whieb ,y~:
at ometims o th yer;very violent.
I have already observed hi~w I brought all my goods into this p e,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must ob-
serve, too, that at first this was a confused heap of _goods, which, as
they lay in no order, so they took upall my place; I had no room to
trnm myself : so I set myself to elr my cave, and work further


into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to
the labour I bestowed upon it; and whenl I found I was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right handI,

into the rook, and thlen turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out in the outside of my pale or
This gave me not onlly egress and regress, as it were, a back way
to mly tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my
And now I began to apply myself to mnake such necessary things as
I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the fewv comforts I had in the world;
I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure,:
without a table; so I went to work. And here I must need ob-
serve, that as reason is the substance and original of mathematics,
so that by stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I 41ad never handled a tool in my
life; and yet, m time, by labour, application, and contrivance I found
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adlze and a hatchet, which
phpswere never made that way before, and that with 'infinite
lbu.For example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but
to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, till Ihad brought it to be as thin as a plank,


and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method, I
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I: had no remedy
for but patience, anyo more than I had for a prodigious deal of tune
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth;, and so it was as well employed one
way as another.
I made me a table and a chair, in the first place; and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
ship. But when I wrougrht out some boards, as above, I made large
shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into
the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to fuid my stock of all necessaries so
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's em-
ployment; for, indeed, at fist, I was in too much hurry, and not
only as to labour, but in1 much discomposure of mind; and my
journal would, too, have been full of many dull things.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship and
got all that~ I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the
to of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in slopes of seeing a
s i: then fancy that, at a vast distance, I spied a, sail, please my-
sel with the hopes of it, and, after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus
mecrease my misery by my folly.
But having got over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all about me as handsome as I could, I bega to keep my
journal: of which I shall here give you the copy (hu in it will be
told all these particulars over again) as long as 1 ase; for, having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.




SEPTEMaBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore
on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the ISLAND OF
DESPAIR; all 1116 rBst of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
OCTrOBEx. 1. In the morning I saw, to mygreat surprise, the si
had floated with the high tide, and 'sas driven on shore again mc
nearer the island. I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief.
I spent great part of thlis dayp in perplexing myself on these things;~
but, at length, seeing the slpalmost dry, I went upon thesads
near as I could, and then swam on board.~ This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship;


which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Mduch rain
also in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather: but
it seems this was the rainy season.
Ocr. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing
a little harder than before) and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my habitation, though some part of the time it rained ex-
ceedingly hard.
The 31ist, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also,
Because it would not feed.
NOVEMBER 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for
the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in
to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if
it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I
Yay dowvn to sleep, the weather being exessivelyhot; and then, in
teevening, to work again. The working part of this day and the
next was wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but
a very sorry workman: though time anld necessity made mea
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they wRould any
one else.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with terrible thunder
and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate mqy stock
of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not
be an danger.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock,
to make room for my further convemence.
NOTE. Three tlungs I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket: so I desisted frone
my work and began to consider how to supply these wants, and make
me some tools. As for pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which ~
were proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing wasa
shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, Ifound a tree of


thant wood, or lik~e it, whlich, in the Brazils, they call the iron tree,
froml its exceeding~ hardcness: of this, with great labour, andc hnlost
spoiling myl! axe, I cut a piece; and brought it home, too, writh diffi-
enlt!- enoughl, for it wa-s exceeding hleavy. The excessive hlardness
of thle wrood, ndmyi hav-Ilring no other wayp, mnad me a long whlile
upon" this machine: for I w-orkedl it eiffctua\lly by little andl little,
into thle formn of' a shlovel or spa:de; thle hanldle exactly shaped
lik~e ours inl Engla:nd, onl- that thle broad panrt hav\ing no iron shlod
upon it at thle bottom, it would not last mre so long=; hlowevrer, it
serv-ed wecll enlouigh folr thie uses whlich~ I had ocens~ioix to pult it to;
but never was a shovelc, I believe, mande after thant fashiion, or so long
in making.

N\ov. 23. M~y other w-orki ha-ing now stood still.l, cause of my
mak~ing these tool, whlen the! were finished I en-it on;l and worktinr
every Ban, as my- strength and timne allowed, I specnt eighlteen days
entirely in w-idell nmg andt deepening mly cav-e, that it might hold miy
goods commodliously..
DECE~mBER 10. I began now to think; my car-e or vault finished;
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great qluantity
of earth fell dow-n from thle top and one side; so mulch, that, inl short,
it frightlened me, anld not without reason too; for if I hlad been under
it, I should never have wannted a grave-digger. Uonthis disaster,
I had a great deal of w-ork to do over again, frIhad the loose
earth to carry out; and, whlich wras of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
DEc. 11. Thlis day I wrent to work with it accordingly; and got


two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, withl two pieces of
board across over each post: tl~ns I finished the next day; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a wecek more I had the
roof secured; and the posts standing in rows, served me for parti-
tions to part ..i ,,,, house.
DEC. 17. i;! - .. Ihis day to thle 20th, I placed shlelves, and knocked
~up nails on thle posts, to hang everythling up tha5t could be hung up :
and now I began to be in some order within doors.
DEC. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order
my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also
I made me another table.
DEc. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I
spent in putting all my things in order withlin doors.

JaNUaRY 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
further into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island,
I found there were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard
to come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
to hunt them down. Accordingly,the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats: but I was mistaken, for they all
faced about upon the dog: and he knew his danger too well,. for he
would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, beings still jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries, in
these walks, of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, I


found a kind of wild pigeons, who build, not, as wood-pigeons, in a
tree, but rather as hlouse-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and,
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and
did so; but when they grew older, they flew all away; which, per-
haps, was, at first, for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. InL the middle of all my
labours it happened, that in rummagmg my things, I found a little
bag; which, as I hlinted before, hadr been filled with corn, for the
feeding of poultry; not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in thle bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust: and being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of thle lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of
corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain now mentioned, that I threw
this stuff away; taking no notice of anything, and not so much as
remembering thalt I had thlrowin anything there : when, about a month
after, I sawv some few stalks of somethmg green shooting out of the
ground, which~ I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I
was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a longer time, I
saw about, tenl or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of thle same kind as our European, nay, as our English
I at first thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support; and, not doubting that there was more, in the place, I went
over all that part of the island where I hlad been before, searching inl
every corner, and under every rock, for more of it; but I could not
find any. At last it occurred to my thoughlts, that I had shaken out
a bag of chick~en's-meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what w~as common; though I ougrht to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had
been miraculous: for it was really the work of Providence, as to me,
that should order or ap~point that tenl or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, whren the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it
had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it
out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a
high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown
it anywhere else, at that time, it would have been burned up and
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, whlich was about the end of Julie; and, laying ~p~ ehvery corn
I resolved to sow them~ all again; hoping, in time, t aesm
quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the


fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn
to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall show afterwards in its
order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not observing
the proper time; as I sowed just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which
in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and whose use was
of thle same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread,
or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also after some tune.--But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving to get
into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
APRIL 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it coldd
fist mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost all
my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was
thius.-ABs I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened by a shook of an
I was so much amazed with the thing itself havinga never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was like one dead
or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like
one that was tossed at sea: but the noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupified condition
I was in, fdlled me with horror, and I thought of nothing but the hill
falling upon my tent and my household goods, and burying all at
once; tlus sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to go over my
wall again, for fear of bemng buried alive; but sat still upon the
ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do.
All this while I had not the least serious religious thought; nothing
but the common Lor~d, have mercy on m~e!" and when it was over
that went away too.
This set me thinking about what I had best do; conclud-
ing, that if the island was subject to earthquakes, there would be
no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some
little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as 1
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men;
for if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive,


With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the
hill, and which, if it shouki be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent. I spent the next two days, being the 19th and 20th
of April, in contrivingr where and howv to remove my habitation. I
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall
writh piles and cables, &-c. in a circle as before, and set my1 tent in it
when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was
til it was ready, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
APRIL 22. 'I18 116t morning I began to consider of means to put
this measure into execution; and I w-as at a great loss about the

tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they wrere all full of notches,
and dull: and though~ I had a grindstone, I could nor turn it and
grind my tools too. This caused me as much thought as a states-
man would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel
with a, string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
APRIL 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding mny
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
APRIu 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.

--1 -_~



MAY 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and it looked like a cask; wvhen I canie to it I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane ; and looking towards the wreek itself,
I thought 'it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I exammed the barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on the
shore for th~e present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could
to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
C-When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay buried mn the sand, was heaved up at least
six feet; and the stern (which was broke to pieces, and parted from
the rest, by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummagmng her)
was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side: and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of rem ng my
habitation; and I busied mysell mighltily, that day especially
searching whether I could make any way into the ship; but I on
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand. However, as Ihad learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of
the ship, concluding that everything I could get from her would be ,
of some use or other to me.




MaY 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beaml through,
which I thought hecld some of the upper part or quarter-deck to-
gocther ; and when I had cut it through, Icleared awray the sand as well
as I could from the side whlich lay highest; but thre tide comingin, I
was obliged to give over for that time.
AfAY 4. I Went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, tillI was weary of my sport; when just going to leave off,I
caught a young dolphin. Ihad made a long line of some rope-yarn,
but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all of which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
MAsy 5 to 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wvreck~;
and with hard labour I loosened some thimngs so much, with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from shore, nothing came to
land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, except the time necessary to get food; which I always
appointed, dulringr this part of my employment to be when the tide
was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this
time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work, enough to have
built a good boat, if I had known how; and I also got, at several
times, and inl several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-
JUNE 16. Going down to thle seaside, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only to
mny misfortune, not anly defect of the place or scarcity; for had I
happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.
JUNE 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found inl her three-
score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury
and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life; having had no flesh, but
of goats and fowls, since. I landed in this horidplce
JUNE 18. Rained all day, and I stayed wti.I thought at
this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.
JUNE 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
JUNE 20. N'o rest ali night; violent pains in my head, and feverish.
JUNE 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help; prayed to God,
for the first time since thle storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
JUNE 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
JUNE 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent


JNE 24. Much better.
JUNE 25. An ague very violent; the lit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
JUNE 26. Better; and having no vituals to eat, took my gun, but
found myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with
much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of It, and ate. I
would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
JUNE ne i 18911 a gen~le~h t~~e~~ ain so violently that I lay a-bed all day,
andneiheratenordrak.I was ready to perish for thirst; but so
weak, I had not the strength to stand up, or: get myself any-water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was ligh~t-headed; and when I
was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only lay
and cried, "Lord, look upon me!i Lord, pity me!i Lord, have mercy
upon me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till
the fit wearing off, Ifell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habita-
tion, I was forced to lie till morning.
Ihad, alas!i no divine knowledge: what I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an uninterrupted
-series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant
conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and
profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all
that time, one thought that so much as tended either to looking
upward towards God, or inward towards a reflection upon my own
ways, but a certain stupidity of soul without desire of good, or
consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the mlost hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors, canl be supposed to be; not havirig the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him, in
It is true, when I fist got on shore here, and found all my ship's
crEw~ drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of
ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which, hiad the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; bjut it ended
where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
bemng glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the dlis tin-
gxushed goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
singled me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or
an inquiry why providence had been thus merciful to me; just the
same common sort of joy which seamen have, after they are got safe
ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl of
P~unch, and forget almost as soon as It is over; and all the rest of my
hife was like it, Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition,--how I was cast air on this dreadful
place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
~prospect of redemption,--as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,


and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of
affliction wore off, and I became to be very easy, applied myself to
the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from heaven, or
as the hand of G~od against me; these were thoughts which very
seldom entered into my heald.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a, leisure view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under thle burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted with thle violence of thle fever; conscience, that hIad
slept so long, beganl to awakec; and I reproached myself with my
past life, in whlich I had so cridenltly, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of G~od to lay me under uncommon strokes, and
to deal with me mn so vindictive a manner.
Now," said I, aloud, my dear father's words are come to pass ;
God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me mna
station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I
would neither see it myself, nor learnl from my parents the blessing
of it. Ileft thecm to mnourn over my folly; and now I am left to
mourn under the conseqjuences of it." Then I cried out, Lord, be mly
help, for I am in great distress.": This was the first prayer, if I may
call it so, that I had made for many years. But I return to my


JUNE 25. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up, and considered now
was my time to get something to refresh and support myself
when I should be ill. The first thing I did was to fdll a large
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed;
and to tak~e off the chill or agnuish disposition of the water, Ipu
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together.
Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and
withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my miserable con-
dition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified
me very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take
no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and I had a
piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite
cured; and some also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before,
and which, to this time, I had not found leisure or so much as
inclination, to look into. I say, I took it out, and brought both
that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of


the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor whether it was
good for it or not; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I
was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of
a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at fist, almost
stupified my brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such
as I had not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it
an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down: and lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it; as
well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read: but my head was
too much disturbed by the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that
time; only, having opened the book casually, the fist words that
occurred to me were these: Call on me in the day of trouble, and
I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words were
very apt to my case; and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of readings them, though not so much as they did atfter-
wards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no souna, as I may
say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
htension of things, that, as the children of Israel said when they
were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness ?" so I began to say, Can even God himself deliver me from
this place?" Anrd as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It now grew late: and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep : so I left my lamp
burning m the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life: I kneeled down, and~ prayed to God to fulfil the
promise to me, that if I called upon~ lum in efeth dae ofs roube, h
would deliver me. After my broknadipretryewaovr
I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco ; which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it
down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I found presently the
rum flew up, into my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep,
and waked no more till by the sun, it must necessarily be near three
o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly
of opinion, that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared
some years after I had done; for ifi I had lost it by crossing and
re-crossing the Line, I should have lost more than one day; but
certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one wayv or the other, when I awaked I found
myefexceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful:
whnIgot up 1 was stronger than I was the day before, and my


stomach better, for I was hungry: and, in short, I had no fit the
next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a seafowl or

two, something like a brand goose, and brought them home; but
was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle's
eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine,
which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz, the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I
chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke: however, I
was not so well the next day, wluch was the 1st of July, as I hoped
I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not
JULY 2 and 3. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at fist, and doubled the quantity which I
JULY 4, In (116 molming I took the Bible; and beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed~ ~o
myself to read a while every mormng and every night; not bindn
myself to the number of chapters, but as long as ~my though
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this
work, that I found my heart sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The words, "All these things have not brought thee to
repentatnce,"l rau seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly beggmng
of God to gve me repentance, when it happened providentially, the
very same da.that, reading the scripture, I came to these words,
He is exalted da Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to


give remission." I threw down the book; and writh my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of jos I
cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of David Jesus, thou ex ~ted
Prince and Sav-iour i give me repentance." TIhis w-as the first time
in all my life I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed; for nowr I prayed writh a sense of my condition, and with a
true scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the
wrord of God : and from this time, I may say, I begann to have hope
that God would heanr me.

FrmteAh fJi o h 4h wscify mlydi

neither can recommend i to an n opati 4l n ss heg by this expei-
melrnt: andtough rit m ~u did cry of he i, ye lit rther contr.ibtte d
toe eakenin me; fot r Is gahadin feuen covusion ingt myerveft fs and
limss for somes tndvt eime arned fromr ialsom Ithis, ipartcuar th Fat
healthes tha cos ulcd. be, epcallyicnthosrins which c ame attendeda
wifeth storms and pehricnes ofla ind; focr as te rain which cae in
nethery seaon wa alcmosd t toalays acc ompranised with suc storms s

bIn found tha this rain esn wras muhe more danerncous thantering which

fell in September and October.
T had now been in this unhappy island above tenl months: all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape had ever
set foot upon that place. Havingr secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more


perfect discovery of the Island, and to see what other productions
I~ might fmd, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
suvyof the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hnine, I brought my rafts on shore. ~I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good:
but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it; at least, not any stream. On the banks of this brook
I: found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds (where the water, as It might be supposed, never
overfowed), I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a very great and strong stalk : and there were divers other plants,
which I had no knowledge of, or understanding about, -and that
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not fmd
out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that ,
climate, make their bread of 3 but I could fmd none. I saw large'
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-
canes, but wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue
and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover;
but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so
little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the
plants in the fields; at least, very little that might serve me to any
purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after
g~omg something farther than I had gone the day before, I found the
bokadthe savannahs begin to cease, and the countirybecome
more woody than before. In this part I found different fruit~s; and
particularly I found melons upon the ground in great abundance,
and grapes upon the trees: the vines, iudeed, had spread over the
trees, and the clusters of grapes were now just in their prune, very
ripe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was ex-
ceedingly glad of them, but I was warned by my experience to eat
sparingly of them; remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary,
the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were
slaves there, by throwing them into flxes and fevers. I found,
however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that was to cure or
dry them mn the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raismns are
kept; which I thought would be (as indeed they were) as whole-
some and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes were to be had.
Having spent three days in this jounmey, I came home, so I must
now call my tent and my cave.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the


situation; the security from storms on that side ; the water and the
wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode in, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to.

look out for a. place equally safe as where I was now situate; if
possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the month of July; and
though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a.
strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked, and filled between with brushwood. Here I lay very secure
sometimes two or three nights together; always gomng over it with
a ladder, as before: so that I fancied now I had my country and
my sea-coast house. This work took me up to the begiuming of
AbuAOt the beginning of Au ust, I had finished my bower, and
bean to enjoy myself. The 3rd of August, I found the grapes I
hadhug u wreperfectly dried, and indeed were ecletgood
ra~isinso thPesun; so I began to take them downl from the trees;
and it was very happy that I did so, as the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I should have lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them
home to my cave, but it began to rain: and from hence, which was
the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle
of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of
my cave for several days.


In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no
more of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home with three
kittens. This was the mnor'e strange to me, because, about the end

of August, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my
gun, yet I thought it was quite a different kind from our European
cats: yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one; and both of my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered
with cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts,
and to drive them from my house as muchl as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this conlfinement, I began to be straitened for food, but venturing out
twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day, which was thle 24th,
found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me. My food was
now regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a
piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, broiled for my dinner, (f'or,
to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything,)
and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement inl my cover from thle rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave; and by degrees worked it
on towards one side, till I came to the outside of thle hill: and made
a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open: for as I had managed myself before, I was mlla perfoot
enclosure; whereas now, I thought I lay exposed; and yet I could
not perceive that there was any living thing to fear, the biggest
creature that I had as yet seen upon the island being a goat.
SEPTEMrBER 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of
my landing : I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had


been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing
my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me,
and praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; anc.
having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till
the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omlitted to distingouishl
the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the sabbath-
day, and so did not really know what any of the days were: but
now having cast up the days, as above, I found I had been there a
year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a sabbath: though I found, at the end of my account, I had lost a
day or two in my reckoning. A little after this, my ink beginning
to fail me, I contented myself to use it more sparingly; and to
write down only the most remarkable events of my life.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular
to mue, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them
accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it.
While my corn was growmng, I made a little discovery, which was
of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of November,
I made a visit up the country to my bower; where, though I had
not been for some months, yet I found all things just as 1 had left
them. The circle or double hedge that I hlad made was not only fim
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew
thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches, as
much as a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its
head; but I could not tell wrhat tree to call it that these stakes were
cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the
young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to grow as
much~ alike as I could: and it, is scarce credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge
made a. circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a com-
plete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made
me resolve to cut come more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in
a semicircle roundi my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which
I did: and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my fence, they grew presently; and were at
first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also; as I shall observe in its order.

I rownI now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
andl the dry seasons, which were generally thus: From the middle
of February to the middle of April, rainy; the sun being then on
or near the equinox. From the middle of April till the middle of
August, dr; the sun being then north of the Line. From the middle
Austilthe middle of October, rainy; the sun being then come
back to~ the Line. From the middle of October till thek middle of
February, dry; the sun being then to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and sometimes shorter,
as the winds happened to blow; but this was the general observationl
I made. After I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of
being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out; and I sat within
doors as much as possible during the wet months. In this time I found
much employment, and very srutable also to the time; as I found
great occasion for many things which I had no way to furnish mysl
with, but by hard labour and constant application; particulary
tried many ways to make myself a basket; but all the twigs I coul
get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothing.I
proved of excellent advant ge to me now, that when I was a by
used to take great deih in standing at a basket-maker's in h
town where my father lvd, to see them make their wicker-ware;


and beinga, as boys usually are, very officious to help, and a great
observer of the manner how they worked those things, anld sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods
of it, so that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew, might possibly be as tough as thle sallows, willows, and
osiers, in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next
day, I went to my country-house, as I called it, and cutting some of
thle smaller tw-ias, I found them to my purpose as much as I could

desire; whlereupon I came the next time prepared with a. hatchet to
cut down a quantity, which~ I soon found, for there was great plenty
of them. These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge; and
when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and there,
during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well ase
T could, several baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up
any~thingr I had occasion for. Thloughl I did not finish them very
hlandsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for my purpose;
and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and as
mny wicker-ware decayedl, I made more; especially strong deep
b~askets to place my corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come
to have any quantity of it.
I mentioned before, that I had great mind to see thle whole island;
and that I had travelled up thle brook, and so on to where I had
built my bowrer, and where I had an opening quite to the sea, on the
other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to
the sea-shore, on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, an~d a larger quantity of powder and shot. than usual, with two
biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for my store,


I bega my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower
stood as above, I came within view of the sea, to the west; and it
being a clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or con-
tinent I could not tell;. but it lay very high, extending from W. to W;.
S.W. at a very great distance; by my guess, it could not be less
than fifteen or twenty leagues off.~

I could not tell what part of the world this might be; otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and as I concluded
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions; and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, If I should have landed,
I had been in a worse condition than I was now. I therefore a~c-
quiesced in the disposition of Providence, which I began now to
own and to believe ordered everything for the best ; I say, I quieted
my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes
of being there. Besides, after some reflection upon this affair,
I considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly
one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other;
but if not, then it was a savage coast between the Spamish country
and the Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst of savages;
for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all human beings that fall into their hands.
'e With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward, Ifound
this side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter than mine;
the open or savannah fields sweetly adorned with flowers and grass,
and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots; and fain
;would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to .be tame, and
.taught it to speak to me. I did, after taking some pains catch a
young parrot ; for I knocked it down with a stick, and, having recov-
ered it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I could
make him s eap; however, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very fmlay.


I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes ; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need to
be venturous; for I had no want of food, and of that whlich~ was very
good too, especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle,
or tortoise.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island; for here indeed
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on the
other side I had found but three inl a year and a. half. Here was
also an infmite number of fowls of many kinds; some of which I had
not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
yet I had not thle least inclination to remove; for as I was fixed in my
habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while Iwas
here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I
travelled along the seashore towards the east, I suppose about twelve
miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the seashore for a mark,
I concluded I would go home again; and that the next journey 1
took should be on thle other side of the island, east, frommIly dwelling,
and so round till I camne to my post again; of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, think~ing I could
easily keep so much of the island in my view, that I could not miss
findingR my first dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself
mistaken; for being come about two or three miles, I found myself
descended in a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and
those hLills covered wuithP wood, that I could not see which was my way
by any direction but that of thle sun, nor even then, unless I knew
very well the position of the sun at that time of the day. And it
happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for
three or four days while I was in this valley; and not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last was
obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then by easy journeys I turned homeward,
the weather beings exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things very hleavy.



I?; this journey, my dog surprised a young kid and seized upon it;
and I runlning to take hold of it, caught it and saved it alive from
the dog". I had a great mind to bring it home if I could; for I had
often been musing whether it light not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me with
food when my powder and shot were all spent. I made a collar for
this little creature, and with a string which I hlad made of some rope
yarn, which I always carried about me, I led hlim along, though with
siome difficulty, till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed him
and left him; f~or I was very patientt to be at home, from whence
I had been absent above a month.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my 1on
journey; during which, most of the time was taken up in the weigt
affair of makmn a cage for my Poll, who began now to be more o
mestie, and to be mighty well~ acquainted with me. Then I began to
think of the poor kid which I had penned within my little circle, and
resolved to fetch it home, or give It some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it (for indeed it could not get out,) but was
almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees,
and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and having fed
it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it, for it
followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature be-
came so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it was from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.


It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the
life I nowF led was, w-ith all its miserable circumstances, than the
w-ickied, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days;
anld now having changed both my sorrows and my joys: my very
desires altered, my affections, changed and my delights were per-
f'ectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the
twTo years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting,
or for viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was
il and how I was a prisoner, locked up with 'the eternal bars and
b~olts of thle ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption.
In thle midst of the greatest composures of my mind this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and
wecep like a chlild: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my
wrorki, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
g~round for an hour or two together: and this was still worse to me;
b~ut if I could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings by words,
it would gro off ; and my grief having exhausted itself would abate.
Thus, an~d in this disposition of mmnd, I began mly third year; and
thloughl I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first, yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very seldom idle, having regularly divided my
timec, according to thle several daily employment that were before me;
suchl as, first, M\y duty to God, and reading the scriptures, which
I constantly set apart some time for, thrice every day : secondly,
Going abroad withl my gun for food, which generally took me up three
hours every morning, whlen it did not rain: thirdly, The orderingr,
curing, preserving, and cooking what I had killed or catched for my
supply; these took up great part of thle day, when the sun was mn
thle zenith the violence of the hleat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in thle evenling was 6ll the time I could be supposed
to work in; wit h this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours
of hunting and working, and went to work in thre morning, and
abroad w~ith my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceedinlgly laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for
wrant of tools, wanlt of help, and want of skill, ever~ythlingr I did took
up out of my time : for example, I was full two and forty days
making me a, board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
wrhereas, two sawy~ers, with their tools and a satwpit, would cut six
of them out of the same tree in half a day.
Mly case was this; it was a large tree that was to be cut down,
because my board was to be a, broad one. This tree I was three
lays cutting down, and two more in cutting off the boughs, and
reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking
and hewmig, I reduced both the sides of it into chips, till it was light


cnoug~h to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth
and flat as a board, from end to end; then turning that side down-
ward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank to be about three
inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may juldge the
labour of my hands in such a piece of work; but labour and patience
carried me through that, and many other things; I only observe
this in particular, to showv the reason why so much of my time went
away with so little work, niz. that what might be a little to be done
with help and tools, was a vast labour, and required a prodigious
time to do alone, and by hand. Notwithstanding this, writh patience
and labour I went through many things; and, indeed, everything
that my circumstances made necessary for me to do, as will appear
.by what follows.

I was now, in the months of November and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up
:for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
more than half a peck, having lost one whole crop by sowing in the
dry season : but now my crop promised very well; when, on a sudden,
I found I was in danger of losing it again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep from it; as, first, the
goats, and wild creatures wmhich I called hares, who, tasting the
sweetness of the blade, lay in -it night and day, as soon as it came
up, and ate it so close, that it .couId get no time to shoot up into
I saw no~remedy .for .this, but by making an enclosure about it


with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably well fenced in about
three weeks' time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day~-
time, I set my dog to guard it at night, tying him up to a stake at
the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a
little time the enemies forsookr the place, and the corn grew very
strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were likely to ruin me now, when it was in the
ear; for going along by thle place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowrls, I know not of how many sorts, who
stood, as it were, wattchlingr till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among themu, for I always had myS gun wth me, and killed three
ofthem. I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz. hanged them in chains, for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as it
hlad; for the fowls not only never came to the corn, but, in short,
they forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there. This- I
was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter end of
December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my
I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down: and all
I could do was to make one as well as I could, out of one of the
broad swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However as my fist crop was but small, I had no great
difficulty to cut it down: in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which
I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands ; and at the end of


all my harvested' I found that out of my half peck of seed I had
near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of
barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread; yet here
I was perplexed again; for I neither knew how to grind, or make
meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it; nor if made
into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the meantime, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of providI-
mng myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a
little wonderful, and what Ibelieve few people have thought much
upon, viz. the strange multitude of little things necessary in the pro-
viding, producing, curing, dressing, making, and fmishmg this one
article of bread. I that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the fist handful of seed corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth, no spade or shovel
to dig it; well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I
observed before; but this did my work in but a wooden manner. Thle
corn was sown; I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it
may be called, rather than rake or harrow it. Then I wanted a mill
to grind it, sieves to dressit; yeast and salt to make it into bread,
and an oven to bake it; and yet all these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and the corn was an mnestimable comfort and
advantage to me; and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread
till I had a greater equity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly bylabour and invention, to furnish myself with
utensils proper for te performing all the operations necessary for
making corn fit for my use.



BUT now I was to prepare more land; for I had seed enough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's work at
least to make mle a spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry
one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to work with
it; however, I went through that, anld sowved my seed in two large
flat, pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my
mind, and fenced them mn with a good hedge; the stakes of which
were all cut off that wood which I had set before, anld knew it would
grow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This work took me
up full three months ; because a great part of the time was in the wet
season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors, that is, when it
rained, and I could not go out, I found employment on the following
occasions; always observing, ta hl a twrIdvre
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I
quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it
out pretty loud, Poll; which was the first word I ever heard spoken,
in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not
my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a
great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied,
bysome means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which
indeed I wanted much, but knew not where to come at them; how-


ever, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I
could find out any elay, I might botch up some such pot as migt
bengs dried in the sun, be hard and strong enough to bear hadng
and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; n
as this was necessary mn preparing corn, meal, &2c., which was the
thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and
fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, mis-
shapen ugly things I made; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, the clay not being stiff enough to bear its own weight;
how many cracked by the over violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily ; and how many fell in pieces w-ith only removing, as well
before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having
laboured hard to find the elay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it, I could not make above two large earthern ugly
things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months' labour.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted
them very gently up, and set them down agamn m two great wicker
baskets, which I ha~d made on purpose for them, that they might not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a little
room to spare, I stuffed it, full of the rice and barley straw; and
these twso pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my
dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when tecorn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
made several smaller things with better success; such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and everything my hand turned
to; and the beat of the sun baked them very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen
pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which nonle of these could do.
It happened some time after, making a pretty large fie for cooking
my meat, when I went to put it out after I had done with it, I
found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire,
burnt as hard as a stone, and red~ as a tile. I was agreeably sur-
prised to see it; and said to myself, that certainly they might be
made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fie, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters brnm in,
or of gazmng them with lead, though 1 had some lead to do it with;
but I placed three large pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one
upon another, and placed my fire-wood all round it, with a great
heap of embers under them. I plied the fie with fresh fuel round
the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when
I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted byj the


violence of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots began to abate of the red
colour; and wvatchling them all night, that I might not let thle fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will not say
handsome, pipkins, and twro other earthern pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired; and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar to beat some corn in;
for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection
of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great
loss; for, of all trades in the world, I. was as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter as for anly whatever; neither had I any tools to go
about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big
enough to cut hollowr, and make 11t for a mortar ; but could find none

at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way
to dig or cut out; nor, indeed, wKere the rooks in the island of
sufficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which
would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break
the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great deal of time
lost in looking for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out
for a block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier; and
getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded and formed
It on the outside with my axe and hatchet; and then with the
help of the fie, and infinite labour, made a hollow in it, as the


Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great
heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called iron-wood; ~and this I
prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when
I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.
The baking partwas the next thing to beconsidered, and howlIshould
make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast;
as to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not con-
cern myself much about it; but for an oven I was indeed puzzled.
At length I found out an expedient for that: also, which was this: I
made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say,
about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I
burned in the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and
when I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upan my hearth, which
I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and burning
also; but I should not call them square. When the firewood was
burned into embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon the
hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there let them lie till the hearth
was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers, I set down my
loaf, or lorives, a'nd covermg them with the earthen pot, drew the
embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the
heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley loaves, and became, in a little time, a good psrycook mnto
the bargain; for I made myself several cakes and pu igs of the
rice; but made no pies, as `I had nothing to put ino them except
the flesh of fowls or goats.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in; for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of rice as much, or more, insomueb
that now I resolv-ed to begin to use it freely; for my bread had
been quite gone a great while; I resolved also to see what quantity
would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice
were much more than I could consume in a year; so I resolved to
sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &0c.



ALt the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
run many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island; and I was not without some secret wiche
that I was on shore there; fancying, that seeing the main land, and
an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to convey
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain; then I thought I
would go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were
fist cast away. She layv nearly where she did at first, but not quite,
having turned by the force of the waves and the winds, almost
bottom upward, against a lug h ridge of beachy rough sand; but no
water about her as before. If I had had hands to have refitted her,
and to have launched her into the water, the boat would have done
very well, and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her


easily enough; but I might have foreseen that I could no more trnm
her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, and repair
the damage she had received, she would be a very good boat, and I
might venture to sea in her.
I spared no pains, indeed in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent
I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible
to heave her up with my little strength, 1 fell to diggmng away the
sand, to undermine her, and so as to make her fall down, setting
pieces of wood to thrust and guide her right in the fall. But when
i had done this, I was unable to stir her up again, or to get under
hler, much less to move her forward towards the water; so I was
forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the
boat, my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than
diminished, as the means for it seemed impossible.
At length, I began to think whether it was not possible to make
myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates
make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the
trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy,
and pleased myself extremelywith the idea of main it, and with
my having much more convemence for it than any of th Negroes or
Indians; but not at all considering the particular inconvenience
which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz. the want of hands
to move it into the water when it was made.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was able to undertake it; not
but that the difficulty of launchinkgmy boat came often into my head;
but I put a stop to my own inquires mnto it, by this foolish answer:
Let us first make it; I warrant I will find some way or other to
get it along when it is done.
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and to work I went. I felled a cedar tree, andI
question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at
the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, where it lessened and then parted into
branches. It was not withouti~nfite labour that Ifelled this tree;
I was twenty days hacking and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen
more getting the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head of
it, cut off; after this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub3 it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might
swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it;
this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by


the dint of hard labour, til I had brought it to be a very hand-
some periagrua, and big enough to have carried me and all my
- But all my devises to get it into the water failed me; though they
cost an inexpressible labour too. It lay about one hundred yards
from the water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it
was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouraged
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a
declivity; this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains
but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ?We
this was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still
much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the
other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved

to cut a dock, or canal, to bring thle water up to the canoe, seeing I
could not bring thle canoe down to the water. Well, I began this
work; and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep
it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I
found by the number of hands I had, having none but my own, that
it must have been ten or twelve years before I could have gone
through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it
must have been at least twenty feet deep; this attempt;, though with
great reluctancy, I was at length obliged to give over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
fl of beginning a work before we count the cost, and before we
jd rightly of our own strength to go through with it,
Inthe middle of this work, I fmished my fourth year in this place,


and kept mly anniversary with the same devotion and with as much
comfort as before; for, by a constant study and serious application
to the word of God, and by the assistance of his grace, I gained a
different knowledge from what I had before; I entertained different
notions of things; I looked now upon thle world as a thingo remote,
which I had nothling to do with, no expectation from, and indeed, no
desires about: in a word, I had nothing to do withl it, nor was even
likely to have; I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon
it hereafter, viz. as a place I hlad lived inl, but was come out of it
and well might I say, as father Abrahaml to D~ives, Between me and
thee is a great gulf fixed."

I ~ ~ L spn hl orI a hl asi ersnigt

o pen io at thoe fleush frm th skin whland th e boels, oir to ti
upel, bu th mustnait with my teethr, and pullt tov pictes wit Ih
clas, ikeou a f eat.esi.IcudntIav omc sf~
dence to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with aU it
hardsf hips an misfotunaeers;ed anda eesaae thisprtas Icano bu reomed
oe to rpr the rflectio of thoewoae aptin n their miaese ry to sa, "Is

anys afflction lk mine ?e ey themcnsidero th gowns mc wroreth


cases of some people are, and their case would have been, if Provi-
dence had thought fit.
W~ith these reflections I wIorked my mind up, not only to a resigr-
nation to the will of Glod in the present disposition of mny circum-
stances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition; and
that I, who was yet a livingr man, ought not to complain, seeing
I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed so many
mercies that I had no reason to have expected in that place, that I
ought never more to repinle at myg condition, but to rejoice, and to
give daily thanks for thant daily bread, which nothing but a. crowd

of w-onders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been~
fed byamiracle (even as great as that of feedings Elijah by ravens),
my, by long series of miracles; and that I could hardly have
namned a place, in the uninhabited part of the world, where I
could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I
had no society, which was my affliction on one hand, so I found no
rav-enous beasts, no furious wrolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no
venomous or poisonous creatures, which I might feed on to mny hurt;
no savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a
life of sorrow one wray, so it was a life of mercy another; and I
wanted nothing to make it a life of comfort, but to make myself
sensible of God's goodness to me, and care over me in this condition ;
and after I did make a just improvement of these things, I went
away, and was no more sad.
My clothes now began to decay mightily; as to linen, I had
none for a great while, except some chequered shirts which I
found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully


preserved, because many times I could bear no clothes on but a
shirt, and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all
the men's clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I
called clothes, into some order. I had worn out, all the wvaistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets
out of the great watch-coats that ILhad by me, and with such other
materials as I had; so I set to work a tailoring, or rather, indeed, a
btching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made
shift to mnake two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would
serve me a great while.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all thle creatures that
I killed, I mean four-footed ones ; and I had hung them up, stretched
out withl sticks, in the sun,.hy whichl means some of them were so
dry and hiard that they were fit for little, but others I found very
useful. The first thing I made of these was a great cap for my
head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this I
performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of clothes wholly
of the skins, that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the
knees, and both loose; for they were rather wanting to keep me cool
than warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor
However, they were such as Imade very good shift with; and when
I was abroad, if it happened to rain, the luur of my waistcoat and
cap being uppermost, I was kept vefy~n dry. tomkema
After this, I spent a great deal of timeanpistomemen
umbrella. I made one and covered it with skins, the hair upwards,
so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house, and kept offrthe sun
so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest; and
when I had no need of it, could close it and carry it under my
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely com-
posed by resigning to the will of God, and throwing myself
wholly upon the disposal of his providence. This made my life
better than sociable; for when I began to regret the want of
conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus convers-ing mutu-
ally with my own thoughts, and as I hope I may say with even
God himself, by ejaculations, was not better than the utmost
enjoyment of human society in the world ?



I CassoT say that after thlis, for five years, any extraordinary thing
happened to me, but I lived on in thle same course, in the same pos-
ture and place, just as before; the chief things I was employed in,
besides my yearly labour of planting my barley and rice, and curmng
my raisins, of both which I always kept up just enough to have suffi-
cient stock of one year's provision beforehand; I say, besides this
yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going out with my gun, I had
one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I finished; so that by
diggings a canal to it six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought it
into the creek, almost half a mile.
However, though my little periagua was fmished, yet the size of
it was not at all answverable to the design which I had in view when
I made thle first; I mean, of venturing over to thle terra firma, where
it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my
boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no
more of it. As I had a boat, my next design was to make a cruise
around the island; for as I had been on the other side in one place,
crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the dis-
coveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see
other parts of the coast: and now Ihad a boat, I thought of nothing
but sailing round the island.


It was on the sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or
my captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I
found it, much longer than I expected ; for though the island itself
was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a
great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
sbove water, some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry hlalf a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out
to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was gongs to give over my enter-
prise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me
to go out to sea, and above all, doubting how I should get back
again; so I came to an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling
whichl I got out of thle ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climb-
mgup on a hlill, which! seemed to overlooki that point, where I saw
the full extent of it, andresolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hlill where I stood, I perceived a
strong, and indeed a most furious current, whichl ranl to the east, anld
even came close to thle point; and I took the more notice of it,
because I saw there might be some danger that, when I came into
it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again; and, indeed, had I not got first upon
this hill, I believe it would have been so; for there was the same
current on the other side of the island, only that it set off at a farther
distance, and I saw there was a strong edldy under the shore; so I
had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E. S. E., and that being just contrary to the said current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that it was not
safe for me to keep too close to the shore, for thle breachl, nor to go
too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in. thle morning, the wind having abated overnight,
the sea was calm, and I ventured; but I am a warnings piece again to
all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point,
when I was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a
mill; it carried my boat along with it with such violence, that all I
could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I
found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was
on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I
could do with my paddles signified nothing; and nowK I begnto give
myself over for lost; for as the current was on both idsof the
island, I knew in a few leagues' distance they must jomn agamn, and
then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did Isee any possibility of avoid-
mgh it; so that I had no prospect before me but of perishing, not by
tesea, for that was calm enough, but of starving for hunger. I


hlad indeed found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of freshl
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this
to being driven into the vast ocean, w-here there was no shore, no
main land or island, for a thousand leagues at least?
It is scarce possible to imagine thle consternation I was now in,
being driven from my beloved island (for so it, appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, hnlost tw-o ]cagrues, and in the utmost
dlespair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard, till
indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as
much to the northward, that is, towards thle side of the current
which the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the
sun "passethe meridian, I thloughlt I felt a little breeze of wind in
myfcsringmng up from S.S.E. This cheered my heart a little,
and% especially when, in about hlalf an hour more, it blew a pretty
gentle gale. By this time I was got at a frightful distance from the
island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had
been undone another way too; for I hlad no compass on board, and
should never have knaownl how to have steered towards the island, if
I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I
applied myself to get up mly mast; again, and spread my sail, stand-
ing away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and thle boat began to stretch
away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of
the current was near; for where thle current was so strong, the
water was foul; but perceivingr the water clear, I found thle current
abate; and presently I found to thle east, at about half a mile, a
breach of the sea upon some rocks; these rocks I found caused the
current to part agam, and as thle main stress of it ranl away more
southerly, leaving the rocks to thle north-east, so the other returned
by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back
again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream.
They who know what it is to have reprieve brought to thlem
u~pon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder
them, or who have been in such-like extremities, may guess what
mly present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into
the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I
spread my sail to it, runlningr cheerfully before the wmnd, and with a
strong tide or eddy under foot.
Tlus eddy carried me about a league in my way back again directly
towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northwardl
than the current wh~lich carried me away at first; so that when I
came near thle island, I found myself open to the northern shore of
it, that is to say, the other end of the island, opposite to that which
I went out from.
Wh~len I had made something more than a league of way by the


help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no
farther. However, I found that being between two great currents,
viz. that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and that on
the north, which lay about a league on the other side; I say,
between these two, mn the wake of the island, I found the water at
least still, and running no way; and having still a breeze of wind
fair for me, I kept onl steering directly for the island, though not
making such fresh way as I did before.
About four o'clock in the evening, being then within a league of
the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this dis-
nster stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and
r;astinga off thle current more southerly, hand, of course, made another

eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not directly
setting the way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full
north. However, having a fresh gale I stretched across this eddy,
slanting north-west; and, in about an hour, came within about a
mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gae God thanks
for my deliverance, resolving to lay aside all tho ghs of my deliver-
ance by my boat; and refreshing myself with sueh things as I had, I
brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied
under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with'
the labour and fatigue of the voyage.


I now Ilac enoughl of rambling to sea for some time, and had
enoughr to do for many days to sit still, and to reflect upon the
danger 1 hlad been in. Iwud have been vecry gad to hlave had my
boat again on m7y side of thle island; but I ne not how it was
practicable to get it about. As to thle east side of the island, which
I hlad gone round, I knewv well enough there was no venturing that
wap; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill, but
to think of it ; and as to thle other side of thle island, I did not know
hlow it might be there; but supposing thle current ranl with the same
force against thle shore at thle cast as It passed by it on thle other, I
mighlt r~un the same risk of being driven down thle stream, and
calrrid by thle island, as I hand becen before of being carried away
from it; so, withl these thloulghts, I contented myself to be without
anly boat, though it hlad been thle product of so many months' labour
to make it, and of so many more to get it into thle sea.
In this government of my temper I remained near a year, lived a
very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my throughlts
being very much composed, as to mly condition, and fully comforted
in resignmgr myself to thle dispositions of Providence, I thought I
lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.
I implroed myself in this time in all thle mechanic exercises whlicht
my necessities put me upon applying myself to ; and I believe I could,
upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially consider-
ing howm few tools I had.
1ecsides this, I arrlived at an unexpected perfection in my earthena-
ware, anld contrived well enoualh to mrake them w~ithl a whleel, whichl
I found infinitely easier and better; because I made things round
and shlapeable, wh~lich before were filthy things indeed to look upon.
Bult I think I was never more vain of my performance, or more joy-
ful for annythinng I found out, thlan for my beings able to make a
tobacco-pipe: a~nd though it was a very ugly clumsy thling when it
w-as done, and only burned red, like other earthlenwfare, yet it was
hanrd and firm, and would draw thle smoke, I was exceedingly com-
f'orted withl it, for I hlad always been used to smoke.
I began n~ow to perceive myg powder abated considerably ; this was
a ryanlt whlich it was impossible for me to supply, and I began ser-
iously to consider what I must do when I should haive no more
powder, that is to say, h1ow I should do to kill anly goats. I had, as
is observed, in thle third year of my beings here, kept a young kid,
and bred hier up tamne, andl I w1as in hopes of grettingr a he-goeat; but
I culdnotbyany means bring it to pass, tillm kid grew an old
~goat; and asI could never find in my h~eart to kill hler, shte died at
last of mere aee.



13IzNG HOW In the eleventh year of my residence, and as I have said
myl ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap
and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them
azlive. I dug several large pits in the earthly, in places where I had
observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles,
of my own making too, with a great weight upon them; and several
times I put ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and
I could easily perceive that thle goats had gone in rand eaten up the
corn, for I could see the marks o~f their feet. At length I set three
traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found them all
standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very discourag-
ing~: however, I altered my traps; and one morning I found in one
ofthem a large old he-goat, and in one of the others three kids,a
male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so
fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about
to bring him away alive, which was what I wanted. I could have
killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my
end; so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if he had been
frightened out of his wits. I went to the three kids, and taking them
one by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some dillculty
broug~ them all home.


It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And
now I found that if I expected to supply myself with goats' flesh
when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was my
only way; when, perhaps, I mighlt have them about my house like a
flock of sheep. But then it occurred to me, that I must keep the
tame from the wild. or else they would always run wild whlen they
grew up; and the only way for this was, to have some enclosed piece
of ground, well fenced, either writhl hedge or pale, to keep them in so

ef~fectually, that those within might not break out, or those without
break in.
But this was not all; for nowv I not only had goats' flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but, milk too; a thing which, indeed, in the be-
ginning, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into
my thoughts, was really an agreeable surprise; for now I set up my
dairy, andhad sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as
Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even
naturally how to make use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow,
much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, only when I was a
boy, after a great many essays and miscarriages, made me both butter
and cheese at last, and also salt (though I found it partly made to my
hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the rocks of the sea), and
never wanted it afterwards.


It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and mly little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island; I had thle lives of all my subjects at my
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it
away; and no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a kmng I dined too, all alone, attended by my
servants; Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown very old and
crazy, and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of
special favour.
My own figure was aneouth enough. I had a great high shapels
cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap hanging down behind, as well
to keep the sun from me as to shoot the ramn off from running into
my neck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as thle rain upon
the flesh, under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming down to
aIbout the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of
the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like panta-
loons, it reached to the middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I
hlad none, but had made me a pair of somethings, I scarcee-know what
to call them, like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either
side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed
were all the rest of my clothes.
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew together
with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of
frog on either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a
little saw and a hatchet; one on one side and one on the other. I
hlad another belt, not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat's skin too; in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. Alt my backI carried
lmsy basket, nonm sho~ulder my gun; and over my head a great
clusy glygoa's kinumbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary tlubg I had about me, next to my gun. As for my face,
the colour of it was not so mulatto-like as one might expect from
mran not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of
thle equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow tiuit was about
a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both scissars and razors
suffcient, Ihad cut it pretty short, except what grew onmy upper lip,
which I had tr m: ed into a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such
as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee; for the Moors did not
~ear such, though the Turks did; of these mustachios or whiskers,
I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but
thev were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as, in
En and, would have passed for frightful.


You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two
plantations in the island; one my little fortification or tent with the
wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me, which, by
this time, I had enlarged into several apartments or caves, one within
aInother. One of these, which was the driest, and largest, and had a
door out beyond my wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond
where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up with the large
earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with fourteen or
fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where 11laid up my stores of provision, especially my corn, some in
thle ear, cut off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with
my hand.
As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those
piles grrew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and
spread so very much, that there was not the least appearance, to
any one's view, of any habitation behind th~em.
NXear this dwellings of mine, but a little farthler within thle land,
and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of corn land, which I
kept duly cultivated and sowed, and which duly yielded me their
hlarvest in its season; and whelnever I had occasion for more corn, I
hlad more land adjoining as fit as that.
Besides this, I had my country seat; and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also: for, first, I hlad my little bower, as I called it,
whichl I kept in repair; thart is to say, I kept the hedge which
encircled it in constantly fitted up to its usual hleight, thle ladder
standing always in the inside: I kept the trees, which at first were
no mor~e than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall,
always cut so, that they might spread and grow thick and wild, anld
make thle more agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my
mind. In the middle of this I hlad my tent always standing, being a
piece of a sail spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and whichl
never wanted anly repair or renewing; and under this I had made
me a squab or couch, with the skinls of thle creatures I hlad killed,
and with other soft things; and a blanket laid on them, such as be-
longed to our sea bedding, which I had saved, and a great watchl-
coat to cover me; and here, whenever I htad occasion to be absent
from my chief seat, I took up my country hlabitation.