The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe


Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
viii, 312 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 18 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Dalziel, Edward, 1817-1905 ( Engraver )
Dalziel, George, 1815-1902 ( Engraver )
Ward & Lock ( Publisher )
Ward, Lock, & Tyler ( Publisher )
Camden Press ( Printer )
Ward & Lock
Place of Publication:
London (158 Fleet Street)
Camden Press
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London


NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility:
illustrated with one hundred and ten wood engravings.
General Note:
On spine: Robinson Crusoe. Ward, Lock, & Tyler.
General Note:
Some ill. engraved by Dalziel.
General Note:
Date estimated from several sources. The text matches the description in NUC cited below, which is dated ca. 1858? and Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 446, dated 1858, except that the Lovett copy has no front. The publisher used the name Ward & Lock from 1854-1865 and the name Ward, Lock & Tyler from 1865-1873. Cf. Brit. literary pub. houses, 1820- 1880. See also Library's copy note below.
General Note:
"The original text <part I and II>, slightly shortened, has been adhered to. ... The drawings are from an eminent German pencil ..."--Biog. notice, p. viii.
General Note:
Publisher's advertisement (4 p.) at end.
General Note:
University of Florida library's copy inscribed 1868 and bound with later form of publisher's name on spine.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 28239063
System ID:

Full Text



R~obllnson Crusoe ;nstructlng Friday









Robinson's Family, Ac.--His Elopement from his Parents ........................... 1

First Adventures at Bea, and Experience of a Maritime Life.-Voyage to
Guinea ...................................................................... 5

R~obinson's Captivity at Sallee.-Escape with lury.-Abrrival at the Brazils. 11

He settles in the Brasils as a Planter.-Makes another Voyage, and is Bhip-
wrecked .................................................................... zS

R~obinson finds himself in a Desolate Island.-Procures a Stock of Artiles
iiom the Wreek.-Caonstructs his Habitation ......................................... 31

Carries all his Rliches, Provisions, &o. into his Habitat~ion,-Dreariness of
Bolitude.-Coneolatory~lefections ................................................. a

Robinson's Mode of R~eckoning TPime.--Diflieulties arising from want of
Tools.-He arranges hi s Habittion................................... 49

Robinson's Journal....Details of his Domestic Economy and Contrivances.
-Bhook ofan Earthquake ........................................ ......---***** 4

Robinson obtains mr rilsfom te Wrtceek.-K Illessa Aw ction 5

His Recovery.-His Comfort in Bleading the Boriptures.-M~akes an Excur-
sion into the Interior of the Island.-Porms his Bower ..................... 57


mmakes a Tour to Explore his Island .......................................... 65

Heto his Cave.-H~is Agricultural Labours and Success .................. 69

His MIanufacture of Pottery, and Contrivance for baking Bread.................. 16

Meditates his Escape from the Island.--Builds a Canoe.-Fasilure of his
Scheme.-Reasignation to his Condition.-Makes himself a new Dress ...... 18

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the Island.
--His perilous situation at Sea.-He returns home..................................... 841

He rears a Flock of Goats.--His Diary.-His Domestic habits and Style of
Living.-InreasingProsperity .................................................... 80

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension.-He Fortifies his Aboder- 98

Precautions against Surprise.--Robinson discovers that his Island has been
visitedby Cannibals........................................................ 8o

Robinson discovers a Cave which serves him as a Retreat against the
Savage es9.................................................................. 103

Another visit of the Savages.-R~obinson sees them dancing.-Perceives the
W reck of a Vessel........................................................... 108

He visits the Wreck and obtains many Stores from it.-Abgain thinks of
quitting the Island.-Has a remarkable Dream...................................... 112

Rtobinson rescues one of their Captives from the Savages, whom he names
Friday, and makes his Servatnt................................................ 116

Robinson instructs and civilizes ;lirnann Friday-Endeavours to give him
an Idea of Christianity....:.. ......,.. ... ........................................~.... 18


~Robinson and Friday build a Canoe to carry them to Priday's
TPheir Beheme prevented by the arrival of a Party of Savages............ ~. 181

Robinson releases a Spaniard.--Eriday discovers his Fahr
tion provided for these new Guests--who are afterwards sent to
the other Spaniards.-Arrival of an English Vessel ........................$.s....... 137

Bobinson discovers himself to the English Captain.-Assists him in reducing
his mutinous Orw,;-who submit to him ............................................. 152

A~tkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life.--The latter recovers his Vessel
from the IMutineters.-Abnd R~obinson leaves the Island.............................. 168

Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain, who renders
him an Account of his Property in the Brazils.--Sets out on his Return to
England by Land.............................................................. 111

Friday's Encounter with a Bear.-RBobinson and his fellow Travellers
attacked by a Flock of Wolves.- Hiir ALrrangement of his Aaf~irs, and
Marriage after his Beturn to England............................................ 179

He is seized with a Desire to revisit his Island.--Loses his WRifeis tempted
to go to Bea again.-Takes out a Cargo for his Golony .............................. 181

Robinson's ship relieves the Crew of a Prench Vessel that~ had caught Fire... 190

Relieves the Grew of a Bristol Bhip, who are starving.-rives at his
Island .............. .......********v*******-**********---*****................ 9

Robinson and Friday go ashore.--The latter meets with his Pather.-Aco~unt
of what passed on the Island alter Robinson's quittinlg it ........................ 109

The Account continued.-Quarrels between the E~nglishmen.-A~ Battle
between two Parties of savages who visit the Island.-Presh Hutinyp
among the settlers .................. .... ... .................................... 205


The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the Island.-REeturn with
several captive savages.-Take the Females as Wives .............................. 222

Several Savages killed; the Remainder leave the Island.-Ah Pleet of them
afterwards arrive.--A general Battle.--the Savages are overcome, and
Tranquilityrestored ............,............................... ................. 2

Robinson learns from th~e Spaniards the Diffculties they had to enlcounter.--
He furnishes the People with Tools, &c.-The French Ecclesiastic............ 2456

Encounter with Savages at Sea.-PFriday's Death.-Robinson fmndshis former
Partner in the Brazils.--Sails for the East Inldies .................................... 2546

The Vessel touches at Mandagacsclr.Ar.-Affr with the Natives,--who are mas-
sacred by the Crew.-The Sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinlson,
who is left by his Nephew, the Captain, in Bengal................................... 259

Meets with an English Merchant with whom he makes some trading
Voyages.-They are mistaken for Pirates.--Vanquish their Pursuers.--
Voyage to China.-Recontre with the Cochin-Chinese.-Island of Formosa.
--Gulf of N'anquin.-Apprehensionl of falling into the Hands of the Dutch. 263

Journey to Pekin.--Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to Moscow.--Ren-
contres with the Tartars ........................................................24

Route through Muscovy.-Robinson and a Scots Merchant destroqy an Idol.
--The whole Caravan in great Peril from the Pursuit of the Pagans.-
Tobolski.-Departure from Tobolski.--Encounter with a Troop~ of R~obbers
in the Desert.-Rlobinson reaches Archangel, and finally arrives in England 295~



DANJIEL DEFOE, il6 auhilor Of numerORs WOrks of fiction, among
whlich the History of the Plague has attained a certain popularity,
and Rtobinson Crusoe a lasting and world-wide renown, was born
in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, izi the city of London, in the
year 1661. He was educated at a dissenting; school at Newington
Green; his father, a strict dissenter, intendinglum for the priesthood.
But this project seems to have been abandoned, for some unknown
reason, and young Daniel became a tradesman, like his father. Some-
thing of the roving, restless nature, so admirably described in
" Rodbinson Crusoe," seems to have been inherent in Defoe himself ;
for his life is full of strange vicissitudes, and he appears contnal
involved in trouble on one account or another. We fmnd him takn
part in the most ill-considered and unfortunate enterprise of i
time, the Rebellion of Monmoouth, and narrowly escaping what the
cynical spirit of the time dubbed a merry go-round at rope fair,"
namely, death by strangulation, for the offence. In after-life he
was hotly embroiled in the political quarrels of his age. At one
time he was compelled to stand in the pillory, as a pumishment for
rtitmg a well-timed and thoughtful pamphlet on The shortest way
with the Dissenters." The populace, synpathizing with and ad-
miring him, crowned the plo with nobwers, andT converted his
penance into a triumph; b tis could not relieve him from the
burden of the heavy fine he was compelled to pay, and which ham-
pered him for years afterwardsj. At another time he suffered along
imprisonment, obtaining his release after two years by the interven-
tion of Harley, Earl of Oxford. But he had not the art of advancing
his fortunes, though his evident merit procured him epoment in
several matters of conse uence; and, at the end of his Ioglife, he
was in poverty and n dect. He died in his native p 's~ of St.
Giles, Ciplegate, Apri SA, 1781, at the age of seventy, and was
interred inBunhill Fields burial-ground.
The political works of Defoe are numerous, and ha~d a sensible
effect on the times in which he lived. A thorough Englishman, out-
spoken, vehement, and uncompromising, he shounted. out lustily
against abuses and wrong-doing wherever he found them; and in many
respects his ideas were greatly in advance of his time. some of his
schemes may have been visionary and impracticable; but it is pleasant
to hear his sturdy voice raised, and to see his nervous pen wielded so
unfinchingly in advocacy of his prmociples, and to mark howunvarymngly
those principles point tfo moderation, mercy, and the law of kindness.


His Review, which he conducted for nine years, may certainly be
considered as the pioneer of the Spectator, Tatler, Gucardian, and
other collections of essays which enriched the literature of the fist
half of the eighteenth century.
His political writings, however, have mostly passed away with the
troublous times which gave them birth, and to which their interest
was confined. It was as a writer of Action that Defoe was to
achieve more lasting fame. Two, at least, of his works have a value
and a significance quite irrespective of time and place,--the one as a
record of a national calamity, the other as a wonderful piece of ima-
gmryatobiogaph These two books are the "History of the
Plgeof 1665"an the Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
At the time when the scourge was decimating London, Daniel
Defoe was only four years old. It could not, therefore, be from
memory that he so vividly described its incidents; though, doubtless,
in his youth he heard many an anecdote about the pestilence and its
ravages, from men of maturer years, on whose memories it must have
made an indelible impression. But his chief talent lay in the
management of detail and accurate description; and it is difficult to
unagine, as we read the graphic record of the state of the terror-
stricken, desolate city, that we have not before us the real daily
notes of an actual indweller in the city of the plague. In Robinson
Crusoe the same marvellous power is shown, but in a much higher
degee With matchless skill the doubts and sorrows, the shifts
adexpedients, the little domestic triumphs and disappointments of
the ship-wrecked mariner in his solitary home are put before the
reader mn the very form most calculated to enlist his interest and
sympathies. So thoroughlly has the author identified himself with thle
hero of his romance, that Defoe disappears, and it is Robinson Crusoe
himself who becomes a living personality, and moves and speaks
before the reader, and becomes as clearly and distinctly personified

aT~he ~first ~jr edition of Robinson Crusoe was published in 1719. In
the century and a half that has since elapsed, hundreds of edi-
tions have appeared in all European languages. Everywhere the
book has worked its way; and as for the German version, Robinson
de Jungere" is chronicled as one of the greatest successes of the
eminent H~amburgh firm of Campe and Co.
In the present volume, the original text, slightly shortened, has
been adhered to. The operation of modernizing the language, ne-
cessary, perhaps, in a scientifle work, would have taken away one of
the chief charms from the narrative of the simple sailor, who is
therefore left to tell his tale in his own rough, pathetic, old-fashioned
way. The drawings are from an eminent 6'erman pencil, and apart
from their artistic value, serve the purpose of thoroughly illustrating
the text.



I WAS born in the year 1832, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,
named K~reutznaer, who settled first at Hull. He got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York;
from whence he had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a very good family in that country, and after whom I was
so called, that Is to say, Robinson K~reutznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay, we call
ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my compamious always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the
famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near D~unkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother, I never
knew, any more than my father and mother did know what was
become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my~
head began to be fdled very early with rambling thoughts. Myq
father, who was very aged, had gien me a competent share of
learning, as far as house education and a country free school generally
go, and designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with
nohnbut going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
stro against the will, nay, the commands of myfather, and
against al he entreaties and persuasions of m~y mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that propension of
nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to befall me.


My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was contined by thle gout, and
expostilated very warmly with me upon this subject; he asked me
whlat reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving his house, and my native country, where I might be well
introduced, and hlad a prospect of raising my fortune, by application
and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was
men of desperate fortunes, on one hand, or of superior fortunes, on
the other, who went abroad upon adventures, aspiring to rise by
enterprise, and makre themselves famous in undertakings of nature
out of the common road; that these things were all either too far
above me, or too far below me; that mine was the middle state, or
what might be called the upper station of low life, which he hlad
found, by long experience, was the best state in the world, thle most
suited to human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hasrd-
ships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mlalnkind,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind : he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by one thing, viz., that this was the state of life
which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequences of being born to great thmgs, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of two extremes, between the
mean and the great; that thle wise man gave his testimony to this
as the just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calami-
ties of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station hasd the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man-
kind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers and
uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one hand, or, by hard labour,
want of necessaries, and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand,
bring distempers upon themselves by thle natural consequences of
their way of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the middle
station of life; that this wa men went silently and smoothly through
the world, and comfort by'out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob
the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion
of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensib~ly

tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are
happy, an learning by~ every day's exrperience,e to know it more
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born m seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking
my bread; that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly into the station of life which he had been just recommending
to me; and that if i was not very easy and happy in the world, it
must be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he
should have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty
mn warming me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt;
mna word, that he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed; he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, who had run into the army, where he was
killed during the Low Country wars; that if I did take this foolish
step, God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter,
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed the tears run down his face? very plentifully, especially
when hle spoke of my brother who was killed, and that, when he
spoke of my hang ~leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was
so moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was
so full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely~ affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad an
more, but to settle at home, according to my father's diesire.Bu
alas a few days wore it all of : and, in short, to prevent any of
my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I resolved
to run quite away from him. However, I did not act so hastily,
neither, as mry first heat of resolution prompted; but I took my
mother, at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary,
and told her that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing
the world, that I should never settle to anything with resolution
enough to go through with it, and my father had better give me his
consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or elerk to
an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out
my time, and I should certarinly run away from my master before my
time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to
let me make but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise by a double
diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother in a great passion: she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a sub-
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent


to anything so much for my hurt; anld that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing, after such a discourse as I had from
my father, and such kind and tender expressions as she knew mly
father had used : that for her part, she would not have so much hand mn
my destruction; anld I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I have
heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to lum; and that
my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh :
" That. boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born;
I cannot give consent to it."

It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose; thloughl
in the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulatin$ with my father
and mother about their being so positively determmed against what
they knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at
Hull, whether I went casually, and without any purpose of mlaklng
an elopement at that time, and one of my companions then going
to London by sea, in his father's ship, and prompting me to go withl
them by the common alhirement of seafaring men, viz., that it should
cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but left
them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing,
or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
qluences, and in an ill hour, God knows.



ON the 1st September, 1651, I went on board a ship hound for
London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or contmhued longer, than mine. The ship had no
sooner got out of the H~umber, than the wind began to blow, and the
waves to rise, in a most frightful manner; and as I had never been
at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrilled in
mind; I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and
how justly I was overtaken bsthe judgment of Heaven, for wickedly
leaving my father's house. 8 the good counsels of my parents, my
father's tears, and mqy mother's entreaties, came now fresh to m
mind; and my consexence, which was not yet come to the pitch o~f
hardness to which it has been since, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the abandonment of my duty.
Althis while the storm increased, and th ea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what
I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few days after;
but, such as it was, enough to airect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I expieted
ee wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the
shpfell down, as I thought, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
shud never rise more; and in this agony of mind I made mny
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my lf
this voyage, if ever I got my foot once on dry, land, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while


I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into
such miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness
of his observations about the middle station of life; how easy, how
comfortable, he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would,
like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm, and
indeed sometime after; but the next day as the wind was abated,
and the sea, calmer, I began to be a little inured to it. However, I
was very grave that day, being also little sea-sick still; bu~t towards
night th~e weather cleared up, the w-ind was quite over, and a charm-
ing fine evening followed: the sunl went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth
sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept. well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, lookting with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
terrible the day before, and could be so cahn and pleasant ina
little time after.

And now, 1est my good resolutions should continue, my companion,
who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and said, Well, Bob,"
clapping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant
you you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew a cap-
full of wind ?"-" A cap-full, do you callit?" said I; "'twas a terrible
storm.''-" A storm you fool?" replies he, do you call that a storm !
Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a good ship, and sea-room,
and we think nothing of such a squall of wmnd as that; you are but
a fresh water sailor, Bob; come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that. D'ye see what charming weather 'tis now ?"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way of all
sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with it; and in
one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflec-
tions upon my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future.
In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and


settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts bemg' over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of mly former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and pronuses I had
made in my distress.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind hanmg been contrary and the weather calm, we had
made but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to
come to an anchor, and here we lay, the wind contmnump contrary,
viz. at south-west, for seven or eight~ days, during which tune a great
many ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as a common
harbour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river Thames.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we had lam
four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads being reckoned
as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground tackle
very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least appre-
hensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice our
anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and cables veered
out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves.
The master was vigilant in the business of preserving the ship; but,
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly
say to himself several times, Lord, be merciful to us i we shall be
all lost; we shall be all undone;" and the like.
The storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the
master, the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting every moment the ship would go to
the bottom. In the middle of the might, and unnder all the rest of
our distresses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, We have sprung a leak!" another man said there was
four foot water in the hold." Then all hands were called to the
pup t that very word my heart as I thought, died within me,
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, who was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at
which I stirred upand went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
While this was dong the master seein some light colliers, who,
not able to ride out t storm, were obli ed to slip and run away to
sea, and would not come near us, ordered us to Are a gun as a signal


of distress. I, who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised,
that I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened.
In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down mna swoon. ABs this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no one
minded me, or what was become of me; but another man stepped
up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot, let me h'e,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great, while before I came to
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began
to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we
might run into a port;-so the master continued firing guns for help;
ana a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat
out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near
us, but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat, to
lie near the ship's side; till at last thle men rowing very heartily,
and venturing their lives to save ours, our men cast them a. rope
over our stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great
length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took hold of, and
we hauled them close under our stern, and got all into the boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
onlly to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if thle boat were stayed upon shore, he
would make it good to their master; so partly rowing and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards th~e
shore almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
when we saw her sink; and then I understood, for the first time,
what was meant by a ship forundering in the sea. I must acknow-
ledge, I had hardly eyes to look up wlsen the seamen told me she was
sinking; for, from that moment, they rather put me into the boat
than that I might be said to go in.. Mky heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the
thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar
to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people running along the strand, to assist us when we should come
near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we
able to reach it, til being past the lighthouse at Winterton, the
shore falls off to the westward, towards Cromer, and so the land
broke offa little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
thought not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth ; where, as unfortunate men, we were
used ipith great humanity, as well by the ma istrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchails and owners


of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Eull, and have
gone home, I had been happy : and my father, an emblem of our

blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for,
hearing the ship I went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was
a great while before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was
the master's son, was now less forward than I; the first time he spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three
days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters ; I say the
first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking
very melancholy, and shaking his head, he asked me how I did,
telling his father who I was, and hlow I had come this voy~age only
for a trial, in order to go farther abroad. His father talked very
gravely to me; exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt
Providence to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of
Heaven against me; and, youngman," said he, dependonit, if
you do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nobut;
disasters and disappointments, til your father's words are e
upon you."
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him
no more; which way he went, I know not; as for me, having some
money mn my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself what course of
life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea. As
to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my


thoughts ; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed
at among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even everybody else. From whence 'I
have often observed, how incongruous and irrational the common
temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, vis., that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for
.which they ought justly to be esteemed fools; but are ashamed of
the retiring, which onlly can make them be esteemed wise men.
I went on board a vessel bound to thle coast of Africa; or as the
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good company in Lon-
don; I became acquoainted withl the master of a ship, who hlad been
on the coast of Gumnea,' and who having had very good success there,
was resolved to go again. H~e, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not at all disagreeable at that time, and hearing me say I
had a mind to see the world, told me, that if I would go that voyage
with him, I should be at no expense; I should be hris messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have
all thle advantage of it the trade would admit; and perhaps I might
meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and, entermgR
into strict friendship witil this captain, who was an honest and plain-
dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me; which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the cap-
tain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about forty pounds
in such toys and trifles as thle captain directed me to buy. This
forty pounels i mustered together by the assistance of some of my
relations whom I corresponded with; and who I believe, got my
father, or at least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure. This was thle only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my advoutures, and which I owe to the intgrity and
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of mathematics and the rules of navigation,
learned how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an ob~serva-
tion, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful to
be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct me, I
took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London, on
my return, almost three hundred pounds, and this filled me with
those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet
even in this voyage I had my misfortunes, too; particularly that I
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calenture bythe ex-
cessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line itself.



i WAs nOw set up for a Gfuinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same
voyage agamn; and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
hris mate m the former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhap iest voyage that ever man made; for
through I did not carry qie ahundr~ed pounds of my new-gained
weltsotatIha woudrdpounds let n hc odeda
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me, yet I fell into
terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first was this, viz.--our
ship, making her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised, in the
grey of the morning,, by a Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase
to us, with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to gt clear;
but finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certnil come
up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having
twelve guns and the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon
he came up with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pourmng in also his small shot from near two hundred men
whom he Ead on board. However, we had not a man touched, all

~" F!


our men keeping close. He: prepared to attack us agamn, and we to
defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time upon our
other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and riggmng. We plied them
with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and such~ like, and cleared
our decks of them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy
part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men
kled, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port b elogn t h oors.
The usage I had there was not so reduasat fist I appre-
hended; nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court,
as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the
rover as his proper prize and made his slave, being young and nimble,
and fit for his business. At this surprising change of my circum-
stances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly over-
whelmed; and now looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse
to me, that I should be miserable, and have none to relieve me;
which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that it could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone, writhoult redemption. But, alas i this was but a taste
of the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of
this story.
As my .new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he went to sea
agnbelieving that it would, some time or other, be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and that then I
away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore to look after his
little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house;
and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie
in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I
m~ipht take to effect it, but found no way that had the least proba-
bihrty i it. Nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational;
for I had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me;
no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but
myself ; so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with
the imagination, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of
putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for myliet
agaik into my head. MyT patron .lying at home longer than uul
without fitting out his sliip, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener,
if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnacle, and go out into
,the road a fishing; and as he always took me and a young Moresco
'with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved


very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he would
send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It ~happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a league
from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we knew not
whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all the next night,
and when the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,

instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at least two
leagues from the shore; however, we got well in again, though with
a great deal of labour, and some danger, for the wind began to blow
pretyfresh in the morning; but particularly we were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-
boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolveda he would not go
a fishing any more without a, compass and some povialon; so he
ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was au Enlsh slave, to
build a little state-room or cabin in the middle of the longboat, like
that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it, to steer and haul
home the main sheet, and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails. She sailed with what we called a leg-of-mutton
sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread,
rice, and coffee.
We went freguentlyg out with this boat a fishing, and as I was


most dexterous to catch fish for him, hie never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction
in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily, and
had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight, a larger store of
provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me to pet ready three
fusees, with powder and shot, which were on board lus ship, for that
they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited thle next morziing
with the boat wvashled clean, her ensigrn and pendants out, and every-
thing to accommodate his guests: when, by and by, my patron came

on board alone, and told me his guests had put off going, upon some
business that fell out, and ordered me, with a man and boy, as
usual, to go out with the boat, and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded, that as soon
as I had got some fish, I should bring it home to his house; all
which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,
not for a fishing~ business, but~ for a voyage; though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I should steer; for any
where, to get out of that place, was my way,
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get somethings for our subsistence on board; for I told him we
must not presume to eat of our patron's bread; he said, that was
true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind,
and three Jars with fresh water, into the boat. .I knew where m~y
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident, by the make,
.were taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before


for our master. I conveyed also a great Inmp of bees-wax into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of
twine or~ thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of
great use to us afterwards, espeexally the wax, to make candles.
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also;
his name was Ishmael, whom they call M~uley, or Moley; so I called to
him; Moley," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat, can
you not gtalittle powder and shot ? It may be we may kill some
alcamies (fwslike our ourlews)for ourselves, and I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship."--" Yes," says he, I will bring some;"
and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about
a pound and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with shot,,
that hlad five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat; at the same time I found some powder of my master's in
the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was mn it into another;
and thus furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out
of the port, when we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish.
The wind blew from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for,
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of
Spain, and at last reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions
were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from the horrid
place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I
had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see
them, I said to the Moor : This will not do; our master will nlot be
thusq served; we must stand further off." He, thinking no harm,
agreed; and being at the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I
had the helm, I run the boat near a league farther, and then brought
to, as if I would fish. Then giving the boy the helm, I stepped for-
ward to where the Moor was, and I took ~him by surprise, with my
arm under his waist, and tossed him clean overboard into the sea.
He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, and told me he would go all the world over
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have
reached me very quickly, there being but little wind; uon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetclung one of the fo ln-pleces,
I presented it at him, and told him, I had done him no aurt, and
if he would be quiet, I would do him none. But," said I, you
swim well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but if you
come near the boat, I will shoot you through the head; for I am
resolved to have my liberty." Bo he turned hunself about, and awam
for the shore; and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.

I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
WChen he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called Xury,
and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will make you
a great mlan; but if you will uot stroke your face to be true to me
(that is, swear by Maihomet and his father's beard), I must throw you
into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, anid spoke so innocently,
that I could not mistrust himn; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.

While I was in view of the Moor that was swimrmin, I stood out
directlJ: to sea with the boat, rather stretching to wmdward, that
they might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any
one that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for
who would have supposed we were sa~iling on to the southward, to the
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could never
once go on shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or
more merciless savages of h~uman kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little
towards the east., that I might keep in with the shore; and having a
fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet seas, I made such sail,
that I believe by the next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and
fifty miles south of Sallee, quite beyond thre Emperor of Moroeco's


dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabout; for we saw no
peo .sucohwasa the irgtI had taken at the Mdoors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had offlig into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to
the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in
chase of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make
to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river;
I knew not what or where, neither what latitude, what country,
what nation, or what river. I neither saw~, nor desired to see, any
people; the principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
mto this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon
as it was dark, and discover the country; but as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, then I wil not ; but it may be
we shall see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then we may gilve them the shoot-gRun," says Xury,1laughing, make
them run awy"Such English Xury spoke by conversmng among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I
gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We dropped our
little anchor, and lay still all1mght ; I say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast creatures (we knew not what to call
them), of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the
water, wallowmng and washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such howlings and yelhings, that I never
indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frightened when we heard one of these creatures
swnnnung towards our boat; and we could hear by his blowing that
he was a monstrous, huge and furious beast. Poor Zury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away. No," says I, Xury, we can slip
our cable with7a buoy to it, and go off to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but Iperceived the creature within two
oars' length, which surprised me; however, I immediately stepped
to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him; upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam to the shore
It is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries
and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the g~un; a
thmg, I believe, those creatures had never heard before. TIhis con-
vinced me there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast; and how to venture on shore in the day, wpas another question


too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the savages, hlad
been as bad as to have fallen into the paws of hions and tigers; at
least, we weree equally i apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be ha asitwoudwe were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and
where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on
shoe wth ne f te ars, he would find if there was any water, and
bhring someto mhe: asked him why he would go; why I should
not go, and he stay inl ther boat. The boy answered with so much

affection, that he made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild
mans come, they eat me, you go away.--" Well, Xury," said I, we
will both go; and if the wild mans come, we will kill them; they shall
eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and
a dram out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before;
and we hauled in the boat as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and
two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by,
I saw him come runmng towards me. I thought he was pursued by
some savage, or frightened by some wild beast, and I therefore ran
forwards to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had
shot, like a hare, but different in colour and longer legs; however,
we wrere very glad of it, and it was very good meat; but the great
joy that poor lury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.


As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far from the coast. But as I had no instruments totake an
observation, to fmnd what latitude we.were in, and did not exactly
know, or ast least remember, what latitude they were in, I knew not
where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might now have easily found some of these islands. But
my hope was that if I stood along this coast till I came to the part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was, must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes, hies waste, and unmnhabited, except by
wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors use
it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time; and, idefor near a hundred miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of
wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Canaries,
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary wmnds; the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my first design, and keep along the shore.
After this stop we made on to the southward continually, for ten
or twelve days, having very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and gomg no oftener mnto shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water.~ My design in this, was to make the
river Gambia. or Senegal; that is to say, anywhere about the Cape
de Verd, where I was m hopes to meet some European ship; and if
I did not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
~isadsorperish amons the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from
Euroe, wichsailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to B~rael or
to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and in a word
I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that I
must meet some ship, or perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to
look at us; we could also perceive they were quite black and stark
naked. I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but
lurywas mybetter ounse~llorand said tome, "No go,no g. How-


ever, I hauled in nearer the shore;, that I might talk to them; and 1
found they ran along the shore by me a good way. I observed
they had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a ln
slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and thatt they ~ould
throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance, but
talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and particularly made
signs for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat,
and they would fetch me some meat; upon this I lowered the top of
my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country; and
in less than hallf an hour came back, and brought with them two
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. 13ut how to come at it was our
next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and
stood a great way off' till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great
fury, from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange; but I believe it was the latter, because, in the first place,
these ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the
second place we found the people terribly frightened, especially the:
women. The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as thle two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the Negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had
come for their diversion; at last, one of them be an to come nearer
our boat than I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bde Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and
shot him directly in the head; immediately he sunk down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was
struggling for life, and so indeed he was; he immediately made to
the shore; but between the would which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangingp of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It Is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor crea-
tures, at t~he noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even
ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror;
but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and
that I made signs for them to come to the shore, they took heart
and came to the shore, and began to search~ for the creature. I


found hlim by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a
rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard,
spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to tlunkr what it was I had killed him
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what
it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this

creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
wluch, when I made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him;
and though they had no knife, get with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought me a
great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
stand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water,
and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I
suppose, mn the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filed them all three.


I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, andl~
water; and leaving my friendly Negrroes, I made forward for eleven
ilays more, without offering to go near the shore, till 1 saw the land
run a great length~ into the sea, at about the distance of four
or five leagues before mle; and the sea being very calm, I kept a
large ofling, to matke this point. At length, doubling the point, at
about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly land on thle other
side, to seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Ver~d Islands. How-ever, they were at a great dis-
tunce, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I
should be taken with a Leale of wind, I might reach neither.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
ndsat me down, Xury having the hlelm; when, on a sudden, the
bycried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish
boy ws frightened out of his wits, thinkling it must needs be some
of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz. that
it was a Portuguese ship, and, as 1 thloughlt, was bound to thle
Coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to
come in their way; but after I had crowded to the utmost,
and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European boat which, they
supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost; so they shortened
sail; and in about three hours' time 1 came up with themn.
They asked me whlat I was in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French; but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch
sailor who was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told
him I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moo0rs, at Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and
very kindly took mle in, and all my goods.
It ws a inxprssile oy to me, which any one will believe, that
It was thus deivenrred, as esteemed it, from such a miserable, and
almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all
I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but
hie generously told me, he would take nothing from me, but that all
I had should be delivered safe to me, when 1 came to the Brazils.
1 will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home agamn.



As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the perform-
ance, to a tittle : for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer
to touch anything I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and g~ave mle back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even so much as my three earthen jars..
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay
de Todos los Santos, or all Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two day
after. And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable
of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself, I was nowv
to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I cLn never enough
remember : he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skrin, and forty for the lion's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to
be punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell, he
bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two of my guns, and a
piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest ;
m a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good honest man, like himself, wh6 had an ingenio as they call
it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house.) I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of
planting and of making sugar; and seeing how well the planters


lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a
license to settle there, I would turn planlter among them: endeav-
ouring, in the meantime, to find out some way to get mly money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable t~o
the stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as
I. was. I call hlim my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but
low, as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything
else, for about two years. However, we began to increase, anld our
land beganto come into order; so that thle third year we planted
sometobcco an mad eah o usa large piece of ground ready for
planting canes the next year.
I was, in some degree, setttled in my measure for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, mn providing
his landing, and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when
telling hlim what little stock I had left behind me in Lonldon, he
gave me this friendly and sincere advice: Senhlor Inglez," says he
(for so hie always called mle,) "if you will give me letters, and a pro-
curation here in form to me, with orders to thle person who had your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and inl such goods as are proper for this country, I
will brings you the produce of thlem, God willing, at my return: ~but
since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I
would have you give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling,
which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first, so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way;
and, if it miscarry, you may have thle other half to have recourse to
for your supply." This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the best course I
could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese
captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; whereupon shte not only delivered the money, but, out
of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
godsuch as the captain Itad written for, sent them directly to
lu tLisbon, and he brought them ali safe to me at the Brazils: I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo,


and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the
advancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Negro slave, and a European servant also, I mean another
besides one whom the captain brought me from Lisbon.
Having lived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I. had not only
learned the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among the mer-
chants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my dis-
courses among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase on the coast for
trifles--such as beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like--not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth,
&2c., but Negroes, for the service of th~e Bra~zils, in great numbers.

They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but ~especially to that part which related to the buying
Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered
mnto, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or
permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed from
t public; so that few Negroes were bought, and those excessively
It happened, being in company with some merchants and banters
of my acquaintance, and talkmg~ of those things very earnestly three
of them came to me the next morning, and told me they hd been
rmusmg very much upon what I, had discoursed with them of the
last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and,


after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all1 plant~t~ions as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as
it was a trade that could not be earned on, bcausnet theoy could not
publicly sell the Negroes when thley cameo homne, so they! desired to
make but one voyagre, to brings thle Negroes onl sh~ore privately, and
divide them among their own planltlt~ions; andI1, inl a word, the
question was, whether I would go as their su~percario inl thet ship, to
manage the trading part~ upon thle coast olF thumca; antd they offered
me that I should have an equal share of thle Negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.
I, that was born to be my ownu dostroyer, could no more resist the
offer, than 1 could restrain my first ralmbling designs. In a word, I
told thlem I woulld go with ll my1 heaIlcrt, if they would ulndertake to
look after my planta~tion in my ab~senlce, andt would dispose of it ats I
should direct, If 1 milscarried. This thecy all engaged to do, and en-
tered into writings or covenantlts to do so, in case of my death;
makings thle cap~tain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir; but ob~fgingr him to dispose of mry effects as I had
directed in myq will, one-half of the produce beingr to himself, anid thle
other to be sh~ippe~d to England.
The ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things
done as by agreement, by partners in the: voyage, I went on board in
anl evil hour again, the first, of September, 1659l, being the same day
egtyears that I enlt fromn my parents at Hull, in order to ac~t the
rblto their authority, anld thle fool to my own interest.
We passed the Linle in about twelve days' time, and were, by our
last observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern lati-
tude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our
knowledge; it began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled in the north-east ; from whence it blew in
such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we could do
nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and, during
these twelve days, I need not say thlat I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their
About thle twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could. Hie found that he had got
upon the coast of Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the
river Amazon, toward that- of the Oronoco, commonly called the
Great River; and as the ship was leaky and very much disabled he
was for going back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that ; and looking over the charts of the
sea-coast of Amenica with him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barba-


doeP; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid the indraft of the bay or
gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about
fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to
the coast' of Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N. W.
by W. in order to reach some of our Englishl islands, where I hoped
for relief; but our voyage was otherwise determined; for in the
latitude of twelve degrees eighteeunminutes a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away withl the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human commerce, that
had all our lives beer saved, as to thle sea, we stood a greater chance
of being devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
InI this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
aryin the morning, cried out, Land!" and we had no sooner run out
oftecabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world
we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her
motion beings so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished immediately; and we
were unmediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
The ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a, dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving out lives as
well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the storm,
but she was first stayed by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the
next place, she broke away, anld either sunk, or was driven off to
sea; so there was no hope from her; we had another boat on board,
b~ut how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in
pieces every minute, and somle told us she was actually broken
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over the
ship's side; and getting all into her, we let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea;
for though the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went
dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be well called den roild
zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a ragmng wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern
of us, and plainly bade us expect the coupo de gracee. In a word, it
took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at onee; and separa-
tmng us, as well fom the boat as from one another, gave us time
hardly to say, "0 God!" for we were all swallowed up in a


Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet Icould not
deliver myself from the waves so as to drawv my breath, till that
wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way onl towards
the shore, and having spent itself, went batck, and left me upon the
land almost dry, but half dead with thle water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breathl left, that seeing myself
endavoredtomak ontoard th lnd s fstas I could, etbeforesn
another wave should return and tak~e mle up aggain; but I soon found
it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as
high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy whlich I had no
means or strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath, and raise, myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swvim-
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if
possible; my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it camec~on, might not
cryme back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
Thr'e' wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself carried
with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a very great
way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward
with all my light. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so,
yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath,
and till the water went from me, and then took to my heels, and ran
with what strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me ; for the
sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed
me, against a piece of rock, and that with such force, that it left me
senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the
blow, taking mlyside and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quit
out of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I must hv
been strangled in the water; but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves; and, seeing I should again be covered with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of rock, and so to hold my
breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves were
not so hig as the first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the


wave abated, and then fetched another run, whlichl brought me so
near the shore, that the next wav-e, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took,
Igo tothemai lad! her, t mygreat comfort, I clambered up
the cliffs of the shore, and sat me dw pntegas refo
danger, and quite out of thle reachl of the water.
I.was now landed, and safe on shorc; and began to look up and
thank God that mly life was saved, in a case wherein there was,
some minutes before, scarcely anly room to hope. I believe it is im-
possible to express, to thle life, what the ecstasics and transports of
the soul are, when it is so saved, as I mnay say, out of the grave; and

I did not wonder now at the cu~stom, viz., that when a mnalefactor,
who hlas the halter about his necki, is tied up, and just going to be
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to himn-I say, I do not
w~onder that they brings a surgeon with it, to let blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
anlimal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, likep griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapped up in tThe contemplation of my deliver-
ancre; making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot des-
cribe; reflecting upon my comrades that were drowned, and that
there should not be one soul saved but myself ; for, as for them, I
never saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of
their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.


I cast my cyes to the stranded vessel-whecn the breach and froth
of thle sea bcmng so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off-and
.. considered, Lord hlow was it possible I could get on shore ? "

i begann to look around mle to see wallt kind of a place I was
in, and what was next. to be done; and I soon found mry comforts
abate, and thatt, in a word, I ha~d a dreadnful deliverance; for I was
wet, ha~d no clothes to shift me, nor anythlingr either t~o eat or drink,
to comfort me; neither did I see anly prospect before me, but that
of perishing with hunger, or beings devoured by wild beasts; and that
which was particularly affictingr to mec was, that I had no weapon
either to hlunt and kill any crealture for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creatures that mightC desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about~ me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco. Night coming upon me, I began, with a
heavy heart, to consider what would be mly lot if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, was, to get up into a
thick bushy tree. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if I could find any fresh water; which I did, to my great joy; and
having drunk, an~d put a little tobacco into my mouth to prevent
hner, I went to th~e tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
pae myself so as that, if I should fall asleep,T~ might not fall; and
haing cut me a stick, for my defence, I took up mqy lodging; and
have been excessively fatigued, I fell asleep, and slept as com-
fortable as, I believe, few could have done in my condition; and
found myself much refreshed.

.i' \;

!r II
m ~;




WHIEN I woke it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted off in the
night from thle sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and
was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned,
where I had` been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it.
This being within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
slup seenung to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, that
at least I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the fist thing I found was the boat; which lay, as
the wind and sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles
on my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to
have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet, of water, between me
and the boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back
for the present, b 'n more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find aoetm for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, rfud the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed

'17 .


so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship:
and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief ; for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe; that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I now was.
This forced tears from my eyes agamn; but as there was little relief
in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to thle ship: so I pulled off
ruy clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water : but when 1 came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater
to know how to get on board: for as she lay aground, and hig out
of thle water, there was nothing in my reach to lay hold of. swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-
chlains so low, as that wvith great diffculty I got hold of it, adb
the help of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Hr
found tllint thle ship was bilgred, and had a, great deal of water in her
hold ;but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
carth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low,
almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and
all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work
was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was free: and,
first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
ov the water; and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
breadt-rooml, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I hlad no time to lose. I also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I
had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before me.
Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit stil and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application: we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare topmast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as
many overboard as I could manage for their weight, tying every one
with a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was done,
I went down thle ship' side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of
thlem fast together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a
raft, anld laying two or three short pieces of plauk upon them, cross-
ways, I found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went
to workr, and with thle carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour
and pains. B3ut the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
Mly raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and hlow to preserve what I


laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was not long considering
this. I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; these I filed with provisions, viz. bread,
rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn, which
had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters; and, in all, ~fi~ve or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chests, nlor any room for them. Whule I was domng this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the mortifica-
tion to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore,
upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in them, and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work
with on shore: and it was after long searching that I found the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been
at that time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols;
these I secured first, with some powder-horns and ae small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty ell freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, hang neither
sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least capful of wind would have over-
set all my navigation. I hoped to fmd some creek or river which I
might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagm" ed, so it was; there appeared before me a little
opening of th~e land, and I found a strong current of the tide set
mnto it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a second
shipwreck, which, if 1 had, I think it verily would have broken my
heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground at
one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being aground at the other end,


It wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the
end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did mly utmost,
by setting my back against the chersts, to keep them in their places,
but could not thrust off the ralft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir froml thre posture I was in, but hloldinlg up the chests with all
my mnight, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time
the rising of thle water brought mec a little more upon a level; and
a little after`l, theC waiter still r~ismgl, mly raft floated again, and I
thrust her off with the oar I hlad into thle channel, and thenl driving
up hligher, I at lengrth found mryself in the mouth of a, little river,
wilth lanrd on b~othl sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
I looked on both sides forz a proper place to get to shore, for I was
not willing to be driven too h~igh up the river; hoping, in time, to
see some shipr at sea, anld thlerefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
Ait length~ I sp~ied aI little cove on the right shore of the creck, to
whlich, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so nlear, as thatt, reaching groundt with my oar, I could thrust
her directly in; b ut here I habd like to have dipped all my cargo into
thle sea agar~in; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say,
slopilgr, there wans no place to la~nd, but where one end of mny float,
if it ra~n on shore, would lie so hlighl, and the other sinkr lower, as
before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do
wvas to wait till the tide was at thle highest, keeping the raft with my~
oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a
flat piece of ground, w-hich I expected thle water would flow over;
and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
aIbout a foot of water, I thrust her upon that liat piece of ground,
and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars
into thle ground, one on one side, near one end, and one on the other
side, near the other end: and thus I lay till the water ebbed away,
and left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view thle country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever mighlt happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether
on thle continent, or on an island; whether inhabited, or not in-
habited; whether in danger of wild beasts, or not. There was a
hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep and high,
and whlich seemed to overtop some other hills, which lay as in a
ridge from it, northward. I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and
one of the pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled
for discovery up to the top of that hill; where, after I had, with
great labour and difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my
great affliction, viz. that I was in an island, environed m every way
with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about
three leagues to the west.


I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit
for food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I
believe it was the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world: I h6ad no sooner fired, but; from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls, of many
sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying, every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew.
As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more
than common. Its flesh was carrion, and ftit for nothing.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as might come to
land; and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel,
if possible. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must
necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things
apart, till I got everything out of the ship that I could get. Then
I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I should
take back the raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved
to go as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I
stripped before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a
chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the fist, I neither made this so un-
wieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things
very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two
or three bags of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful thing called a grind-
stone. A11 these I secured together, with several t~ns belonging
to the gunner; particularly, two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with
some small quantity of powder more; a large bag full of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things,
I took all the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-top-
sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my
second raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
~,Having got my second cargo on shore--though I was fain to open
the barrels of powder, and brmng them by parcels, for they were too
heavy, being large easks--I went to work to make a little tent, with
the sails, and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into


this tent I brought every thing that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all thle empty chests and caskts up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from
muan or beast.
When I hand done this, I blockedl up thle door of the tent with
some boards withlin, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of thle beds upon thle ground, laying my two pistols
just at mly head, anld mly grun at length by me, I went to bed for the
first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very weary and
heavy; for thle nighlt before I hand slept little, and had latboured very
hard all day, as wel~l to fetch all1 those thlingrs from thle ship, as to get
them on sh~ore.

I had the biggest magazine of all kindls now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still; for while
the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get every
thing out of her that I could; so every day, at low water, I went
on board, and brought away somethings or other : but particularly
the third time I went, I.brought away as much. of the rigging asI
could, as also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a
piece of spare canvass, wNhich was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away all
the sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and brings as much at a time as I could; for they were no more
useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that whlich comforted me still more was,that1srt of allns afe


I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling~
with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and
three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprismng to me, because I had given over
expecting any more provisions, except what was spoiled by the
water. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it
up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in
a word, I got all this sate on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces such as I could move,
I o two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I
could, ge; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-
aradeverything I could, to make a large raft, I loaded it with
all those heavy goods, and came away : but, my good luck began now
to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy., nd so overladen, that
after I was entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of
my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great use to me : however, when the
tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to go for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very mucht. After this I went
every day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship; in which time I had brought away al that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable to brmng; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought
away the whole ship, piece by piece, but preparing the twelfth time,
to go on board, I found the wmnd began to rise: however, at low
water, I went on board; and though I thought I had rummaged the
cabin so effectually, as that nothing could be found, yet I discovered
a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissars, with some ten or a dozen of
good knives and forks; mn another I found about thirty-six pounds
m money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; O drug !" I ex-
claimed, what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me, no,
not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this
heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en remain where thou
art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth
saving." However, upon second thoughts, I took it away; and
wrappine all this in a piece of canvass, I began to think of making


another raft; but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-
cast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that It
was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood bepn or
otherwise I nu~ht not be able to reach the shore at all. Accorviy
I let myself down into the water, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enouh partly with the w-eighlt of the things I had about
me, and partly te roughness of the water; for the wmnd rose very
hastily, and fore it was quite high water it blew a storm.

But I was got home to my little tent, whei~re I lay, with all m
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night,an
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be
seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no
diligence, to get everything out of her, that could be useful to me,
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring
away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything
out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her wreck; as,
indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were
of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if ~any should apear, or wild beasts, if any
were in the island; and I had many thuhs of the method how to
do this, and what kind of dwelling to m ke, whether I should make
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, L resolved
uppon both; the manner andl description of which, it may not be
unproper to give an account of.
I onfound the place I was in was not for my settlement, par-
ticularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea,


and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more particularly
because there was no fresh water near it: so I resolved to find a
more healthy and convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things m my situation, which I found would
be proper for me; fist, air and fresh water, I just now mentioned :
secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly, security from
ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts: fourthly, a view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advan-
tage for mly deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my
expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the
side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep
as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the
~top. On the side of th is ock, there was a hollow place, worn a
liteway in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not
really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On he latofthegrenjust before this hollow place, I resolved
to pimat)tch my epnt.Ti in wasr not above one hundred yards
broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door;
and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the
low ground by the seaside. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill;
so that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
W. and by S. sun or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near
the setting.
Before I set up .my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took~ in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground til11they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of the ground, about five feet and a half, and
sharpened on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaning against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to
a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast
could get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and
labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring them to the
place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but bya
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was m, I
lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified,
as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution against
the enemies that I apprehended danger from.



INTo this fence, or fortress, with infmnite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me
from the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent there, I
made double, viz., one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above
it, and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought
on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
made up the entrance, which till now I had left open, and so passed
and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
WThen I had done this I began to work my~ wayito therock, an
bringing all the earth and stones that Idgdonothrghm
tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so
that it raised the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
to my house. It cost me much labour and many days, before al

these things were brought to perfection; and therefore, I must go
back to some other things which took up some of my thoughts. A
the same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up of my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
tli from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened,
and afer that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect ofE
it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning as Iwas with
a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the a hnn
itself : O my powder Mdy very heart sunk within me when I togt
that at one blast all my powder might be destroyed; on which not
my d~efee only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely-
dpde.I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger,
though, had the powder taken fire, I should never have known who
had hurt me.
Such impressions did this make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes to separate the powder, and
to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fie another.
I finished this work in about a fortnight; and I think my powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds wih was
divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the bare that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it in my new cave, which, i my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the
rest I hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was do' gem I went out at least
once every day with my gun. One day I killed a she-goat, which
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her,
till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the
old one with me, upon mye shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and eat it
myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat
spa inly, and pesere my provisions (my bread especially) as
And now bemg about to enter into a melancholy relation of a
scene of silent life, such perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginmang and continue it in its
order. It was, by mly account, the 30th ofi September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island; when
the sun being to us in its autumnal equinox, was almost just over
my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude
of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.

c ~=1\



AFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckonings of time for want of books,
and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath days from the
working days: but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife into a
large post, in capital letters; and making it into a great cross, I set
it up on the shore where I first landed, viz., "I came on shore here
on the 30th of September, 1659." Upon the sides of this square
post I cut every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh notch
was as long agamn as the rest, and every first day of the month as
long again as that long one: and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened, that among the many things which I brought out
of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned, I
made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less
useful to me, which I found some time after, in rumlmaging the chests :
as in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's,
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four-compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation; all of which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no : also I found three very good Bibles, which came to
me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my


things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or three
popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing, in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; an~d as for
the dog he Jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore the
day after I went on shore with my first eargo, and was a trusty ser-
vant to me for many years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to me, I only wanted
to have him talk to me, but that he could not do. As I observed
before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the
utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept things
very exact, but after that was gone I could not; for I could not
make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstand-
ing all that I had amassed together; and of these, this of ink was
one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the
earth; needles, pmns, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want
that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily: and it
was nearly a whole year before I had entirely finished my little pale,
or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as
heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing
in tl~e woods, and more by far inl bringing home; so that I spent
sometimes two days in cutting and bringmlg home one of those posts,
and a third in drivmg'' it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a
heavy peace of wood at first, but at last bethought me of one of the
iron crows; which, however, though I found it answer, made driving
these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in; nor had Ianohe
employment, if that had been over, at least that I could,
except the ranging the island to seek for food; which I did more or
less, every day.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall
against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside: and after
some time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rook, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found,
at some times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must ob-
serve, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as
they lay in no order, so they took pall my place; I had no room to
turn myself : so I set myself to e~remy cave, and work further


into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to
the labour I bestowed upon it; and when I found I was pretty
safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right handI,

into the rock, and then turning to the right again, worked quite
out, and made me a door to come out in the outside of my pale or
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back way
tmytent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my
And now I began to apply myself to mare such necessary things as
I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world;
I could not write, or eat, or do several things with so much pleasure,
without a table; so I went to work. And here I must need ob-
serve, that as reason is the substance and original of mathematics,
so that by stating and squarmng everything by reason, and by making
the most rational judgment of tlungs, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my
life; and yet, mn time, by labour, application, and contrivance I found
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made, especially if I
had had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a haltchet, which
perhap were never made that way before, and that with `infmnite
laor.Ior example, if I wanted a board, I had no other way but
to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on
either side with my axe, tilllIhad brought it to be as thin as a plank,

and then dubit smooth with my adze. It is true, this method, I
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy
for but patience, any more than I had for a prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one
I ademe a~S table and a chair, in the fist place; and this I did
out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft from the
hi.But when I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large
shles, of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all
along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work
on; and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into
the wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a general
magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing so ready
at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods
in such order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's em-
ployment; for, indeed, at fist, I was mn too much hurry, and not
only as to labour, but in much discomposure of mind; and my
journal would, too, have been full of many dull things.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship and
got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting up to the
to of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a
s i: then fancy that, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please my-
sel with the hopes of it, and, after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus
mecrease my misery by my folly.
But harmng got over these tlungs in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all about me as handsome as I could, I b an to keep my
journal: of which I shall here give you the copy (thoug in it will be
told all these particulars over again) as long as it last a; for, having
no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.




SEPTEMBER 30th, 1859. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore
on this dismal unfortunate island, which I called the IsLAND or
DESPAIR, all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself almost dead.
OCTOBER. 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore agamn much
nearer the island. I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on
board, and get some food and necessairies out of her for my relief.
I spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these things;'
but, at length, seeing the ship almost dy went upon the sand as
,near as I could, and then swam on board.~ This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship;


which I brought on shore, every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain
also in these days, though with some intervals of fair weather: but
it seems this was the rainy season.
OcT. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind blowing
a little harder than before) and was no more to be seen, except the
wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and securing the goods which I had saved, that the rain
might not spoil them.
From the 26th~ to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my habitation, though some part of the time it rained ex-
ceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also,
because it would not feed.
NOVEM[BER 1. I set up my tent under a rook, and lay there for
the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in
to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz.,
every morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if
it did not ramn; then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock; then eat what I had to live on; and from twelve to two I
lay9 down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in
teevening, owrkagain. Working part of this day and the
next was wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but
a very sorry workman: though time and necessity made me a
complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any
one else.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with terrible thunnder
and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my
powder. As soon as it was over I resolved to separate my stock
of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that it rmght not
be in danger.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock,
to make room for my further convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket: so I desisted from
my work and began to consider how to supply these wants, and make
me some tools. As for pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which
were proper enough, though heavy: but the next thing wasa
shovel or apade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, deed, I
could do nothing effeetually without it; but what kind of one to
make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of


that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron tree,
from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought it home, too, with diffi-
culty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness
of thle wood, and my having no other way, made me a long while
upon this machine: for I worked it effectually by little and little,
into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped
like ours in ~England, only that the broad part having no iron shlod
upon it at the bottom, it would not last me so longT; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to;
but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
in making.

Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on; and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
DECEMBER 10. I began now to think my cave or vault finished;
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity
of earth fell down from the top and one side; so much, that, mn short,
it frightened me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under
it, I should never have wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster,
I had a, great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose
earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
DEc. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly; and got


two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of
board across over each post: this I fmished the next da; and
setting more posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured; and the posts standing in rows, served me for parti-
tions to part off my house.
DEC. 17. I'rom this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hiang eeyhgupthat could be hung up :
and now I began to be in some oerwithin doors.
DEc. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to order
my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also
I made me another table.
DEc. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats and no breeze; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I
spent in putting all my things in order within doors.

JarvaRY 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gunand lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, gomng
further ~into the vall ys which lay towards the centre of the island,
I found there were plny of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard
to come at;f however, resolved to try if I could not bring my dog
to hunt them down. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with my
dog, and set him upon the goats: but I was mistaken, for they alP
faced about upon the dog: and he knew his danger too well,, for he
would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous of`
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and'
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries, mn
these walks, of something or other to my advantage ; particularly, L.


found a kind of wild pigeons, who build, not as wood-pigeons, in a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks: and,
taking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and
did so; but when they grew older, they flew all away; which, per-
haps, was, at fist, for want of feeding them, for I had nothmg to
give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat. In the middle o~f all my
labours it happened, that in rummagmng my things, I found a little
bag; which, as I hinted before, had been filed with corn, for the
feeding of poultry; not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose,
when the shi came from Lisbon. What little remainder of corn
had been in th bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing
in the bag but husks and dust: and being willing to have the bag
for some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook the husks of
corn out of it, on one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain now mentioned, that I threw
this stuff away; taking no notice of anything, and not so much as
remembering that I had thrown anythn there: when, about a month
after, I saw some few stalks of somethn geen shooting out of the
ground, which I fancied might be some pln I had not seen; but I
was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
I at first thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support; and, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went
over all that part of the island where I had been before, searching in
eeycrner, and under every rock, for more of it; but I could not
find ny. t last it occurred to my thoughts, that I had shaken out
a bag of chicken's-meat in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this
was nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been
as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had
been miraculous: for it was really the work of Providence, as to me,
that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it
had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it
out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a
high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown
it anywhere else, at that time, it would have been burned up and
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be "sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; andj laying up every corn,
I resolved to sow them all again; hoing in time, to have some
quantity sufficient to supply me with bra.But it was not till the


fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn
tetand even then but sparingly, as I shall show afterwards in its
order; for I lost all that I sowed the fist season, by not obserymqg
the proper time; as I sowed just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which
in its place.
}Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks
of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and whose use was
of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make me bread,
or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without bakin,
thoughlI did that also after some time.--But to return to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my
wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving to get
into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there
might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
APRnn 16. I fished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside: t~ns was a- complete enclosure to me; for within I had room
enough, and nothing could come at me from without, unless it could
fist mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was fmished, I had almost all
my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was
ths -s I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the
entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened by a shock of an
earthquake !
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was like one dead
or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick, like
one that was tossed at sea: but the noise of thefaln of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stu &e condition
I was in, filed me with horror, and I thought of notm but the hill
falling upon m~y tent and my household goods, and burying all at
once; this sunk my very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to go over my9
wall again, for fear ofbeing buried alive; but sat still upon the
ground greatly cast down and disconsolate, not knwn what to do.
Ahll this while I had not the least serious religious t ogt; nothing
but the common L~ord, have mecy on mze!" and whnit was over
that went away too.
This set me thinking about what I had best do; conclud-
ing, that if the island was subject to earthquakes, there would be
no living for me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some
little hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as I
had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men;
for if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be
buried alive.


With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the place
where it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice of the
hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upoan mytent. I spent the next two days, being the 19th and 20th
oAplin contriving where and how to remove my habitation. I
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall
with piles and cables, &c. in a circle as before, and set my tent in it
when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where I was
till it was ready, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
APRIL 29. The next morning I began to consider of means to put
this measure into execution; and I was at a great loss about the

tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but with much
chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches,
and dtull: and though I had a grindstone, I could nor turn it and
grind my tools too. This caused me as much thought as a states-
man would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge
upon the life and death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel
with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
APRan 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
APRma 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a great
while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.





M6AY 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side, the tide
being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary,
and It looked like a cask; when I came to it I found a small barrel,
and two or three pieces of the wreek of the ship, which were driven
on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreek itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it used to do.
I exarmmed the barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barre of gunpowder; but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on the
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could
to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay buried in the sand, was heaved up at least
six feet; and the stern (which was broke to pieces, and parted from
the rest, by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummagmg her)
was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side: and the saud was
thrown so high on that side next her stern, that I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the desig of remvn my
habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that d especily
searching whether I could make any way mnto the shl; but I on
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship
was chokedup with sand. However, as Ihad learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of
the ship, co~ncluding that everything I could get from her would be
of some use or other to me.


Mnay 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I thought held some of the upper part or quarter-deck to-
gether; and when I had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well
as I could from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I
was obliged to give over for that time.
MAY 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, ti I was weary of my sport; when just going to leave off, I
cag~ht a young dolphin. I had made a lo~line of some rope-yarn,
btIhdno hooks; yet I frequently cangh fsh enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all of which I dried in the sun, and ate them dry.
Mau 5 to 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labour I loosened some things so much, with the crow,
that the fist blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the
seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from shore, nothing came to
land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some
Brazil pork in it. I continued this work every day to the 15th of
June, exce t the time necessary to get food; which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment to be when the tide
was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out; and by this
time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron work, enough to have
built a gooodboat, if I had known how; and I also got, at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-
JUNE 16. Going down to the seaside, Ifound a large tortoise, or
turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was only to
my misfortune, not any defect of the place or scarcity; for had I
happened to be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had
paid dear enough for them.
JUNE 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs > and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury
and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life; having had no flesh, but
of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
JUNE 18. Itained all day, and I stayed within. I thought at
this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which I
knew was not usual in that latitude.
JUNE 19. V6Ty ill, 114 Shivering, as if the weather had been
JUNE 20. No rest all night; violent pains in myhead, and feverish.
JUNE 21. Very ill; frigiltened almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help; prayed to God,
for the first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I
said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
JUNE 22. A little better; b)1t under dreadful apprehensions of
JUmiE 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a violent

JUNE 94. Muchlbetter.
JUNE 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
JUNE SC). Better; aDd having nO Vituals t0 eat, t00kmy gun, but
found myself very weak; however, I killed a she-goat, and with
much diflieulty got it home, and broiled some of It, and ate. I
would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
JUNE 27. The age gan so violenlyl that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor rak I was ready to perish fo~r thirst; but so
weak, I had not the strength to stand up, or get mpyself any water
to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed; and when I
was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only lay
and cried, "Lord, look upon me!i Lord, pity me!i Lord, have mercy
upon me !" I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till
the fit wearing off, Ifell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night.
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habita-
tion, 1 was forced to lie till morning.
Ihad, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an unmiterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant
conversation with none but such as were, like myself, wicked and
profane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all
that time, one thought that so much as tended either to looking
upward towards God, or inward towards a reflection upon my own
ways; but, a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or
consciousness of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all
that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature among our
common sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him, in
It is true, when I fist got on shore here, and found all my ship's
crc v drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a land of
ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended
where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
ben ~dI was alive, without the least reflection upon the distin-
gasia goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had
siged mre out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or
au mquiry why providence had been thus merciful to me; just the
same common sort of joy which seamen have, after they are got safe
ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next bowl of
punch, and forget: almost as soon as It is over; and all the rest of my
life was like it, Even when I was, afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my conditio~n,-how I was cast off on this dreadful
place, out of the reach of-human kind, out of all hope of relief, or
prospect of redemption,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living,


and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of
affliction wore off, and I became to be very easy, applied myself to
the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was far enough
from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from heaven, or
as the hand of God against me; these were thoughts which very
seldom entered into my head.

But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure view of the
miseries of death came to place itself before me; when my spirits
began to sink under the burden of a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted w~ith the violence of the fever; consexence, that had
slept so long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my
past life, in wGhich I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice of God to lay me under uncommon strokes, and
to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. .-:- i-
Now," said I, aloud, my dear father's words are come to pass;
God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me mna
station of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I
would neither see it myself, nor learn from my parents the blessing
of it. Ileft them to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to
mourn under the consequences of it." Then I cried out, Lord, be my
help, for I am in great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may
call it so, that I had made for many years. yBut I return to my


JUNE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep Ihad
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up, and considered now
was my time to get somethmg to refresh and support ayel
when I should be il. The fist thing I did was to fdl an
case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach of my b~
and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put
about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed them together.
Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little. I walked about, but was very weak, and
withal very sad and heavy-hearted in the sense of my rmserable con-
dition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified
me very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take
no physic but their tobacco for almost all distempers; and I had a
piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite
cured; and some also that was green, and not quite cared
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in this chest I found a
cure both for soul nd body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, vis., the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay
there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I mentioned before,
and which, to this time, I had not found leisure or so -mech as
inclination, to look into. I say, I took it ourt, and brought both
that and the tobacco with me to the table. What use to make of


the tobacco I knew not, as to my distemper, nor whether it was
good for it or not; but I tried several experiments with it, as if I
was resolved it should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of
a leaf, and chewed it in my mouth; which, indeed, at fist, almost
stupified my brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such
as I had not been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it
an hour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when
I lay down: and lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of coals, and held
my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I could bear it; as
well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the interval of this
operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read: but my head was
too much disturbed by the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that
time; only, having opened the book casually, the fist words that
occurred to me were these: Call on me in the day of trouble, and
I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words were
very apt; to my case; and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did after-
wards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may
say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that, as the children of Israel said when they
were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in the wilder-
ness?" so I began to say, Can even God himself deliver me from
this place ?" And as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however,
the words made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon
them very often. It now grew late: and the tobacco had, as I said,
dozed my head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I left my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and
went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never had done
in all my life: I kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfi the
promise to me, that if I called upon lum m the day of trouble, he
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer was over,
I drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco; which was so
strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce get it
down; immediately upon this I went to bed. I found present the
rum flew up into my head violently; but I fell into a sound seep,
and waked no more till by the sun, it must necessarily be near three
o'clock in the afternoon the next day; nay, to this hour, I am partly
of opinion, that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should lose a
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared
some years after I had done; for if I had lost it by crossing and
re-crossing the Line, I should have lost more than one day; but
certainly I lost a day in my account, and never knew which way.
Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked I found
myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful:
whnIgot up I was stronger than I was the day before, and my


stomach better, for I was hungry: and, in short, I had no fit the
next day, but continued much altered for the better. This was the
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a seafowl or

two, something like a brad goose, and brought them home; but
was not very forward to eat them; so I ate some more of the turtle's
eggs, which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine,
which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz. the tobacco
steeped in rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I
chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke: however, I
was not so well the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped
I should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but it was not
JULY 2 and 3. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at fist, and doubled the quantity which I
JULY 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning at the
New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and unposed uo
myself to read a while every mormng and every night; not idn
myself to the number of chapters, but as long as .my theuht
should engage me. It was not long after I set seriously to this
work, that Ifound my heart sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The words, "All these things have not brongh thee to
repeutance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestyegn
of God to gie me repentance, when It happened providetal h
very same dt~hat, reading the scriipture, I came to these words,
" He is exalts da Prince and a Saviour; to give repentance and to


give remission." I threw down the book; and with my heart as
well as my hands lifted up to heaven, in a kind of ecstasy of joy, I
cried out aloud, Jesus, thou son of IDavid i Jesus, thou exalted
Prince and Saviour give me repentance." This was the first time
in all my life I could say, in the true sense of the words, that I
prayed;~ for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a
true scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement of the
word of God: and from this timue, I may say, I began to have hope
that God would hear me.

From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a
time, as a man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sick-
ness: for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was, and to what
weakness I was reduced. The application which I made use of was
perfectly new, and perhaps what had never cured an ague before:
neither can I recommend it to any one to practise, by this experi-
ment: and though it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed
to weakening me; for I had frequent convulsion in my nerves and
limbs for some time: I learned from it also this, in particular; that
being abroad in the rainy season was the most pernicious thing to my
health that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in
the dry season was almost always accompanied with such storms, so
I found that this rain was much more dangerous than the rain which
fell in September and October.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
taken from me; and I firly believed that no human shape had ever
set foot upon that place. Having secured my habitation, as I
thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more


perfect discovery of the Island, and to see what other productions
I might fmd, which I yet knew nothing of.
It was onl the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
suvyof the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
hite, I rogh my rafts on shore. ~I found, after I came about
two miles up, that the tide did not flow any higher; and that it was
no more than a little brook of running water, very fresh and good:
but this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some
parts of it; at least, not any stream. On the banks of this brook
I found many pleasant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and
covered with grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the
higher grounds (where the water, as It might be supposed, never
overfowed), I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a very great~ and strong stalk: and there were divers other plants,
which I had no knowledge of, or understanding about, and that
might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not fmnd
out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of ; but I could fmd none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-
canes, but wild; and, for want of cultivation, imperfect. I con-
tented myself with these discoveries for this time; and came back,
musing with myself what course I might take to know the virtue
and goodness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover;
but could bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so
little observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the
plants in the fields; at least, very little that might serve me to any
purpose now in my distress.
T Ihe next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again; and after
gooigsomething farther than I had gone the day~ before, I found the
bokand the savannahs begin to cease, and the country become
more woody than before. In this part I found different fruits; and
particularly I found melons upon the ground in great abundance,
and grapes upon the trees: the vines, indeed, had spread over the
trees, and the clusters of grapes were now just in their prune, very
nipe and rich. This was a surprising discovery, and I was ex-
ceedingl glad of them, but I was warned by my experience to eat
sparinl of them; remembering that when I was ashore in Barbary,
the e ~ing of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were
slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers. I found,
however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that was to cure or
dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins are
kept; which I thought would be (as indeed theyg were) as whole-
some and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes were to be had.
Having spent three days in this journey, I came home, so I must
now call my tent and my cave.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness'of that valley, aind the pleasantness of the


situation; the security from storms on that side; the water and the
wood; and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode in, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon
the whole, I began to consider of removing my habitation, and to

look out for a place equally safe as where I was now situate; if
possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of the island.
I was so enamoured of this place, that I spent much of my time
there for the whole remaining part of the month of July; and
though, upon second thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a
strong fence, being a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked, and filed between with brushwood. Here 11lay very secure
sometimes two or three nights together; always going over it with
a ladder, as before: so that I fancied now I had my country and
my sa-oast house. This work took me up to the beginning of
About the beginning of August, I had fmished my bower, and
bgnto enjoy myself. The 3rd of Auptst, I found the grapes I
hadt Phu p were perfectl dried, and indeed were excellent good
raiinsof hesun; so I began to take them down from the trees;
and it was very happy that I did so, as the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I should have lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them.
No sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them
home to my cave, but it began to rain: and from hence, which was
the 14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day til the middle
of October; and sometimes so violently, that I couk1 not stir out of
my cave for several days.


In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who
ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead; and I heard no
more of her, till, to my astonishment, she came home with three
kittens. This was the more strange to me, because, about the end

of August, though I had ki ed a wild cat, as I called it, with my
gun, yet; I thought it was quite a different kind from our European
cats: yet the young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the
old one; and both of my cats being females, I thought it very
strange. But from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered
with cats that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts,
and to drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so that I
could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food, but venturing out
twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last day, which was the 24eth,
found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me. My food was
now regulated thus: I ate a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a
piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, broiled for my dinner, (for,
to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew anything,)
and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover from the rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlarging my cave; and by degrees worked It
on towards one side, til I came to the outside of the liul : and made
a door, or way out, which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lyg' so
open: for as I had managed myself before, I was ma etc
enclosure; whereas now, I thought I 1a exosed; and yet I could
not perceive that there was any living ti to fear, the biggest
creature that I had as yet seen upon the isadbeing a go~at.
SEPTEMBER, 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of
my landing : I cast up the notches on my post, and found I had


been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as
a solemn fast setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating
myself on the ground with the most serious humiliation, confessing
my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me,
anid praying to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and
having not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till
the going down of the sun, I then ate a biscuit and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no sabbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of
religion upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish
the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the sabbath-
day, and so did not really know what any of the days were: but
now having cast up the days, as above, I found I had been there a
year; so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day for
a sabbath: though I found, at the end of my account, I had lost a
day or two mn my reckoning. A little after this, my ink beginning
to fail me, I contented m;Yself to use it more s~;paigly and to
write down only the most remarkable events of mylie
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear regular
to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for them
accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it.
While my corn was growmig, I made a little discovery, which was
of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over, and the
weather begans to settle, which was about the month of November,
I made a visit up the country to my bower; where, though I had
not been for some months, yet I found all things just as I had left
them. The circle or double hedge that I had made was not only firm
and entire, but the stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew
thereabouts, were all shot out and grown with long branches, as
much as a wilow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its
head; but I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakres were
cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see the
young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to grow as
much alike as I could: and it, is scarce credible how beautiful a
figure they grew into in three years: so that, though the hedge
made a circle of about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees,
for such I might now call them, soon covered it, and it was a com-
plete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season. This made
me resolve to cut some more stakes, and make me a hed e like this, in
a semicircle round my wall (I mean that of my first deln), which
I did: and placing thie trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards distance from my fence, they grew presently; and were at
first a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a
defence also; as I shall observe in its order.


I Fouse now that the seasons of the year might generally be divided,
not into summer and winter as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
and the dry seasons, which were generally thus: From thie middle
of February to the middle of April, rainy; the sun being then on
or near the equmox. From the middle of April till the middle of
August, dr; the sun being then north of the Ltine. From the middle
Auuttathe middle of October, rainy; the sun being then come
bctothe Line. From the middle of October till the middle of
February, dry; the sun being then to the south of the Line.
The rainy seasons held sometimes longer and sometimes shorter,
as the winds happened to blow; but this was the general observation
I made. After I had found, by experience, the `ll consequences of
bemng abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions
beforehand, that I might not be obliged to go out; and I sat within
doors as much as possible during the wet months. In this time I found
much employment, and very suitable also to the time; as I found
great occasion for mainy tlungs which I hadno way to furnish msl
with, but by hard labour and constant application; patclry
tried many ways to make myself a basket;i but all the twigs I ole
get for the purpose proved so brittle that they would do nothn.I
proved of excellent advantage to me now, that when I was a by
used to take great delight mn standing at a basket-maker's in h
town where my father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware;


and being, as boys usually are, very offieious to help, and a great
observer of the manner how they worked those things, and sometimes
lending a hand, I had by these means full knowledge of the methods
of it, so that I wanted nothing but the materials; when it came into
my mind, that the twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes
that grew, might possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and
osiers, in England, and I resolved to try. Accordingly, the next
day, I went to my country-house, as I called it, and cutting some of
the smaller twigs, I found them to my purpose as much as I could

desire; whereupon I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to
cut down a quantity, which I soon found, for there was great plenty
ofthem. These I set up to dry within my circle or hedge; and
when they were fit for use, I carried them to my cave; and there,
during the next season, I employed myself in making, as well as
I could, several baskets; both to car earth, or to carry or lay up
anything I had occasion for. Though I did not fish them very
handsomely, yet I made them sutlicie tly serviceable for my purpose;
and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be without them; and as
my wicker-ware decayed, I made more; especially strong deep
baskets to place mqy corn in, instead of sacks, when I should come
to have any quantity of it.
I mentioned before, that I had great mind to see the whole island;
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where I had
built my bower, and where I~ had an opening quite to the sea, on the
other side of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to
the sea-shore, on that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my
dog, and a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two
biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my pouch, for my store,


I~ began my journey. When I had passed the vale where my bower
stood, as above, I came within view of the sea, to the west; and it
beinga lerday Ifal described land, whether an island or con-
tinnt culdno tel; utit ayvery high, extending from W. to W.
S.W. at a very great distance; by my guless, it could not be less
than fifteen or twenty leagues off.

I could not tell what part of the world this might be; otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and as I concluded
by all my observations, must be near the Spanish dominions; and
perhaps was all inhabited by savages, where, If I should have landed,
I had been in a worse condlition than I was now. I therefore ac-
quiesced in the disposition of Providence, which I began now to
own and to believe ordered everything for the best ; I say, I quieted
my mind with this, and left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes
of being there. Besides, after some reflection upon this affair,
l considered that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly
one time or other, see some vessel pass or repass one way or other;
but if not, then it was a savage coast between the Spamsh country
and the Brazils, whose inhabitants are indeed the worst of savages;
for they are cannibals, or men-eaters, and fail not to murder and
devour all human beings that fall into their hands.
With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward, Ifound
this side of the island, where I now was, much pleasanter than mine;
the open or savannah fields sweetly adorned with flowers and grass,
and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots; and fain
.would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame, and
taught it to speak to me. I did, after taking some pains catch a
youn parrot; for I knocked it down with a stick, and, harma' recov.
ered It, I brought it home; but it was some years before I could
make him aeak; however, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very fmlay.


I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares, as I thought them to be, and foxes; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with; nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need to
be venturous; for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good too especially these three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle,
or tortoise.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island; for here indeed
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles; whereas, on the
other side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was
also an i~nfite number of fowls of many kinds ; some of which I had
not seen before, and many of them very good meat, but such as I knew
not the names of, except those called penguins.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
yet I had not the least inclination to remove; for as I was fixed in my
habitation, it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while Iwas
here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However, I
travelled along the seashore towards the east, I suppose about twelve
miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the seashore for a mark,
I concluded I would go home again; and that the next journey I
took should be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round till I came to my post again; of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I could
easily keep so much of the island in my view, that I could not miss
finding my fist dwelling by viewing the country; but I found myself
mistaken; for being come about two or three miles, I found myself
descended in a very large valley, but so surrounded with hills, and
those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which was my way
by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew
very well the position of the sun at that time of the day. And it
happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for
three or four days while I was in this valley; and not being able to
see the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last was
obliged to find out the seaside, look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then by easy journeys I turned homeward,
the weather being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet,
and other things very heavy.


~1~5~a~I~ ~c~,,,



IN this journey, my dog surprised a young kid and seized upon it;
and I running to take hold of it, caught it and saved it alive fromt
the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home if I could; for I had
often been musing whether it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me with
food when my powder and shot were all spent. I made a collar for
this little creature, and with a string which I had made of some rope
yarn, which always carried about me, I led him along, though with
some difficulty, ti~llI came to my bower, and there I enclosed him
and left him; for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence
I had been absent above a month.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest aud regale myself after my ln
journey; during which, most: of the time was taken up in the wegt
affair' of making ac ~e for m Poll, who began now to be more o
mestic, and to be welacquainted with me. Then Ibegan to
think of the poor jiciI had penned within my little circle, and
resolved to fetch it home, or give it some food; accordingly I went,
and found it where I left it (for indeed it could not get out,) but was
almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees,
and branches of such shrubs as I could fmd, and having fed
it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but it was so tame
with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied it for it
followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the creature be-
came so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it was from that time
one of my domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.

It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy the
life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than the
wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the past part of my days;
and now having changed .both my sorrows and my. Joys: my very
desires altered, my affections, changed and my delights were per-
fectly new from what they were at my first coming, or indeed for the
two years past. Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting,
or for viewing the country, theaguh of my soul at my condition
would break out upon me on a udeand my very heart would die
within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the deserts I was
in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up with the eternal bars and
bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited w-ilderness, without redemption.
In the midst of the greatest composures of my mind this would
break out upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands and
weep like a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my
work, and I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together : and this was still worse to me;
but if I could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings by words,
it would go off ; and mry grief having exhausted itself would abate.
Thus, and in1 this disposition of mind, I began my third year, and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the first, yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very seldom idle, having regularly divided my
tune, according to the several daily employment that were before me;
such as, fist, Mly duty to God, and reading the scriptures, which
I constantly set apart some time for, thrice everydy:seody
Going- abroad with lmy gun for food, whlich generlly took me p thre
hours every morning, when it did not rain: tidy h reig
curmng, preserymng, and cooking what I had killed or catched for my
supply; these took up great part of the day, when the sun was in
the zenith the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be supposed
to work in; with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours
of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and
abroad with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceedingly laboriousness of my work; the many hours which, for
want of tools, want of help, and want of skill, everything I did took
up out of my time: for example, I was full two and forty days
making me a ~board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave;
whereas, two sawyers, with their tools and a sawpit, would cut six
of them out of the same tree in half' a day.
My case was this; it was a large tree that was to be cut down,
because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was three
days cutting down, and two more in cutting off the boughs, and
,reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hackn
and hewmng, I reduced both the sides of it into chips, till it was ih


enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it smooth
and flat as a board, from end to end; then turning that side down-
ward, cut the other side, till I brought the plank to be about three
inches thick, and smooth on both sides. Any one may ju e the
labour of my hands in such a piece of work; but labour an aience
carried me through that, and many other things; I only serve
this in particular, to show the reason why so much of my time went
away with so little work, viz. that what might be a little to be done
with help and tools, was a vast labour, and re red a~ prodigious
time to do alone, and by hand. Notwithstandn this, with patience
and labour I went through many things; and, indeed, everything
that my circumstances made necessary for me to do, as will appear
by whalt follows.

I was now, in the months of Novemnber and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured or dug up
for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
more than half a peck, havinglost one whole crop by sowing in the
dry season : but now my crop promised very well; when, ona sudden,
I found I was in danger of losing it again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep fr~om it; as, fist, th:
goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting the
sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as it came
up, ad ate it so close, thart it could get no time to shoot up into
I saw no remedy for this, but by making an enclosure about it

with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of toil; and the more,
because it required speed. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably well fenced in about
three weeks' time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day-
time, I set my dog to guard it at night, tying himt up to a stake at
the gate, where he would stand and bark all night long; so in a
little time the enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very
strong and well, and began to ripen apace.

But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the
blade, so the birds were likely to ruin me now, when it was in the
ear for going along by the place to see how it throve, I saw my
little crop surrounded with fowls, I know not of how many sorts, who
stood, as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
lyamong them, for I always had my gun with me, and killed three
ofthem. I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz. han ed them in chains, for a terror to others.
It is impossible to imagine that this should have such an effect as it
had; for the fowls not only never came to the corn, but, in short,
they forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a bird
near the place as long as mly scarecrows hung there. This I
was very glad of, you may be sure; and about the latter end of
December, which was our second harvest of the year, I reaped my
1 was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it: down: and all
I could do was to make one as well, as I could, out of one of the
broad swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
ship. However as my fist crop was but small, I had no great
dif eulty to cut it down: in short, I reaped it my way, for I cut
nothing off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket which
I had made, and so rubbed it out with my hands ; and at the end of


all mly harvesting, I found that out of my half peek of seed I had
near two bushels of rice, and above two bushels and a half of
barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread; yet here
I was perplexed again; for I neither knew how to grind, or make
meal of my corn, or indeed how to clean it and part it;; nor if made
into meal, how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it; these things being added to my desire of
having good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the meautune, to employ all my
study and hours of working to accomplish this great work of provid-
mng myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It is a
little wonderful, and what Ibelieve few people have thought much
opn, viz. the strange multitude of little things necessary in the pro
vdu producing, curing, dressing, making, and fmislung this one
article of bread. I that was reduced to a mere state of nature,
found this to my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible
of it every hour, even after I had got the fist handful of seed corn,
which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed to a
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel
to dig it; well, this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I
observed before; but this did my work in but a wooden manner. The
corn was sown; I had no harrow, but was forced to go over it myself,
and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to scratch it, as it
may be called, ratherthan rake or harrow it. Then Iwanted amill
to grind it, sieves to dressit; yeast and salt to make it into bread,
and an oven to bake it; and yet all these things I did without, as
shall be observed; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and
advantage to me; and as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread
till I had a greater equity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly by labour and invention, to furnish myself with
utensils proper fo the performing all the operations necessary for
making corn fit for my use.



BuT now I was to prepare more land; for I had seed enough to sow
above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's work at
least to make me a spade; which, when it was done, was but a sorry
one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to work with
it; however, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my
mind, and fenced them in with~ a good hedge; the stakes of which
were all out off that wood which I had set before, anld knew it would
gow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
lv hedge, that would want but little repair. This work took me
u i three months ; because a great part of the time was in the wet
season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors, that is, when it
rained, and I could not go out, I found employment on the folloing
occasions; always observing, ta hl a twrIdvre
myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I
quickly taught him to know his own name, and at last to speak it
out pretty loud, Poll; which was the fist word I ever heard spoken,
in the island by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not
my work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a
'P employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long studied,
some means or other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which
ided I: wanted much, but knew not where to come at them; how-


ever, considering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but if I
could find out any clay, I might botch up some such pot as qgt
bemng dried in the sun, be hard and strong enough to bear adig
and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so; n
as this was necessary in preparmg corn, meal, &ec., which was the
thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I could, and
fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me, to tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste; what odd, mis-
shapen ugly thng I made; how many of them fell in, and how
many fell out, th ca not being stiff enough to bear its own weight;
how many cracked by the over violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell in pieces with only remoymng, as well
before as after they were dried; and, in a word, how, after having
laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it, to te per it, to bring it
home, and work it, I could not make above two lr earthern ugly
things (I cannot call them jars) in about two mo th' labour.
Whoever, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted
them very gently up, and set them down again m two great wicker
baskets, which I ha~d made on purpose for them, that they might not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a little
room to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw; and
these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my
dry corn, and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
made several smaller things with better success; such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and everything my hand turned
to; and the heat of the sun baked them very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen
pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none of these could do.
It happened some time after, making a prtty large fie fr o okmg
my meat, when I went to put it out atrIhad done with it, It
found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fie,
burnt as hard as a stone, and red~ as a tile. I was agreeably sur-
prised to see it; and said to myself, that certainly they night be
made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in,
or of glzn them with lead, though Ihad some lead to do it with;
but I plcdthree lr pipkins and two or three pots in a pile, one
upon another, and de my fire-wood all round it, with a great
heap of embers nd them. ~I plied the fie with fresh fuel round
the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-
hot quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when
I saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the


violence of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots began to abate of the red
colour; and watching them all night, that I might not let the ~fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good, 1 will not say
handsome, pipkins, and two other earthern pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired; and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
Miy next concern was to get a stone mortar to beat some corn in;
for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving to that perfection
of art with one pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great
loss; for, of all trades in the world, Iwas as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter as for any whatever; neither had I any tools to go
about it with. I spent many a day to find out a great stone big
enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar; but could find none

at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way
to dirt or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of
suficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy crumbling stone, which
would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break
the corn without filling it with sand; so, after a great deal of time
lost in looking for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look out
for a block of hard wood, which I found indeed much easier; and
getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded and formed
It on the outside~ with my axe and hatchet; and then with the
help'of the fire, and infinite labour, made a hollow in it, as the


Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a areat
heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called iron-wood; and tfus I
prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when
I proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into
meal, to make my bread.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I should
make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no yeast;
as to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not con-
cern myself much about it; but for an oven I was indeed puzzled.
At length I found out an expedient for that also, which was this: I
made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is to say,
about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep; these I
burned in the fie, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and
when I wanted to bake, I made a great fie upon my hearth, which
I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making and brnmig
also; but I should not call them square. When the firewood was
burned into embers, or live coals, I drew them forward upon the
hearth, so as to cover it all over, and there let them lietill the hearth
was very hot; then sweepimg away all the embers, I set down my
loaf, or loaives, and covermg them with the earthen pot, drew the
embers all round the outside of the pot, to keep in andL add to the
heat; and thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley loaves, and became, in a little time, a goo patyook into
the bargain; for I made myself several cakes an ~ndns of the
rice; but made no pies, as I had nothing to put ino them except
the flesh of fowls or goats.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to a it up m; for the
increase of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the
barley about twenty bushels, and of rice as much, or more, insomuch
that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had
been quite gone a great while; I resolved also to see what quantity
would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and rice
were much more than I could consume m a year; so I resolved to
sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &0c.



ALL the while these things were doing, youmay be sure my thoughts
run many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island; and I was not without some secret wishes
that I was on shore there; fancymng, that seeing the main land, and
an inhabited country, I might find some way or other to convey
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of escape.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which ~I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain; then I thought I
would go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was
blown up upon the shore a great way, in the storm, when we were
fist cast away. She lay nearly where she did at first, but not quite,
having turned by the force of the waves and the winds, almost
bottom upward, against a hihridge of beachy rough sand; but no
water about her as before. IfI had had hands to have refitted her,
and to have launched her into the water, the boat would have done
very well, and I might ~have gone back into the Brazils with her


easily enough; but I might have foreseen that I could no more tunm
her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the
island; however, I went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers,
and brought them to the boat, resolving to try what I could do;
suggesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down, and repair
the damage she had received, she would be a very good boat, and I
might venture to sea in her.
I spared no pains, indeed in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent
I think, three or four weeks about it; at last, 'nin it impossible
to heave her up with my little strength, 1 fell to diging away the
sand, to undermine her, and so as to make her dal~own, setting
pieces of wood to thrust and guide her right in the fall. But when
I had done this, I was unable to stir her up again, or to get under
her, much less to move her forward towards the water; so I was
forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of the
boat, my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than
diminished, as the means for it seemed impossible.
At length, I began to think whether It was not possible to make
myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those climates
make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands, of the
trunk of a great tree. This I not only thut possible, but easy,
and pleased myself extremely with the idea ofmkn it, and with
my having much more convenience for it than any of t Negroes or
Indians; but not at all considering the particular inconvenience
which I lay under more than the In 'an did, viz. the want of hands
to move it into the water when it was made..
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of his senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without determining whether I was able to undertake it; not
but that the difficulty of launching my boat came often into my head;
but I put a stop to my own inqunres into it, by this foolish answer :
Let us first make it; I warrant I will fmd some way or other to
get it along when it is done.
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness of my
fancy prevailed, and~ to work I went. I felled a cedatr tree, and I
question much whether Solomon ever had such a one for the building
of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet ten inches diameter at
the lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diameter
at the end of twenty-two feet, where it lessened and then parted into
branches. It was not without infmnite labour that Ifelled this tree;
I was twnydays hacking and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen
more gettn the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading' head of
it, cut off; afer this, it cost me a month to shape it and du'b it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it might
swumnupright as it ought to do. It cost me near three months more
to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it -
this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by


the dint of hard labour, til I had brought it to be a very hand-
some periagua, and big enough to have carried me and all my
carB all my devises to get it into the water failed me; thou h they
)ost an inexpressible labour too. It lay about one hundred yard
from the water, and not more; but the fist inconvenience was, it
was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away this discouraged
ment, I resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a
decliity; this I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains
but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view ?We
this was worked through, and this diffloulty managed, it was still
much the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the
other boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved

toctadco aa, obigtewtru t h aosen

ioct wa tock be dua, how broad ho the saterufwa to be thrown outn I

found by the number of hands I had, having none but my own, that
it must have been ten or twelve years before I could have gone
through with it; for the shore lay so high, that at the upper end it
must have been at least twenty feet deep ; this attempt, though with
great reluctancy, I was at length obliged to give over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the
folly of beginningg a work before we count the cost, and before we
judge-rightly of our own strength to go through with it.
In the middle of this work, I fnished my fourth year in this place,


and kept my anniversary with the same devotion and with as much
comfort as before; for, bya constant study and serious application
to the word of God, and by the assistance of his grace, I gie
dilferent knowledge from what I had before; I entertained hern
notions of things; I looked now upon the world as a thing remote,
which I had nothing to do with, no expectation from, and indeed, no
desires about : in a word, I had nothing to do with it, nor was even
likely to have; I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look u on
it hereafter, viz. as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it
and well might I say, as father Abraham to Dives, Between me and
thee is a great gulf fixed."

I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had
got nothing out of the ship. I could not have so much as got any
food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long before I found
any of them, I must have perished, like a mere savage; that if I had
Ialed a goat or a fowl, by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or
open it, or part the flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut it
up, but must gnaw it with my teeth, and pull it to pieces with my
claws, like a beast.
These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Provi-
dence to me, and very thlankful for my present condition, with all its
hardships and misfortunes; and this part also I cannot but recommend
to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to say, Is
any affliction like mine ? Let them consider how much worse the


cases of some people are, and their case would have been, if Provi-
dence had thought it.
With these reflections I worked my mind up, not only to a resig-
nation to the will of God in the present disposition of my circum-
stances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition; and
that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, seeing
I had not the due punishment of my sins; that I enjoyed so many
mercies that I had no reason to have expected in that place, that I
ought never more to repine at my condition, but to rejoice, and to
give daily thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd

of wonders could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been
fed b a miracle (even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens),
nay, bya long series of miracles; and that I could hardly have
named a place, in the uninhabited part of the world, where I
could have been cast more to my advantage; a place where, as I
had no society, which was my affiction on one hand, so I found no
ravenous beasts, no furious wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no
venomous or poisonous creatures, which I might feed on to my hurt;
no savages to murder and devour me. In a word, as my life was a
life of sorrow one way, so it was a life of mercy another; and I
wanted notlung to make it a life of comfort, but to make mypself
sensible of God's goodness to me, aild care over me in this condition;
and after I did make a just improvement of these things, I went
away, and was no more sad.
Mdy clothes now began to decay mightily; as to linen, I had
none for a great while, except some chequered shirts which I
found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I carefully


preserved, because many times I could bear no clothes on but a
shirt, and it was a very great help to me that I had, among all
the men's clothes of the ship, almost three dozen of shirts.
I began to consider about putting the few rags I had, which I
called clothes, into some order. I had worn out all the waistcoats
I had, and my business was now to try if I could not make jackets
out of the great watch-coats that Cha~d by me, and with such other
materials as I had; so I set to work a t 'orn or rather, indeed, a
botching, for I made most piteous work of i However, I made
shift to make two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would
serve me a great while.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that
I killed, I meanfour-footed ones ; and I had hung them up, stretched
out with sticks, in the sun, by which means some of them were so
dry and hard that they were ft for little, but others I found very
useful. The fist thing I made of these was a great cap for my
head, with the hair on the outside, to shoot off the rain; and this II
performed so well, that after this I made me a suit of clothes wholly
of the skins, that is to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the
kn~ees, and both loose; for they were rather wanting to keep me cool
than warm. I must not omit to acknowledge that they were
wretchedly made; for if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor
However, they were such as I made very good shift with; and when
I was abroad, if it happened to rain, thie hair of my waistcoat and
cap being uppermost, I was kept very dry.
After this, I spent a great deal of tlune and pains to make me an
umbrella. I made one and covered it with skins, the hair upwards,
so that it east off the rain like a pent-house, and kept off the sun
so effectually, that I could walk out in the hottest of the weather
with greater advantage than I could before in the coolest; and
when I had no need of it, could close it and carry it under my
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind beisg entirely com-
posed by resigning to the will of God, and -throwmng myself
wholly upon thle disposal of his providence. This made my lie
better than sociable; for when I began to regret the want of
conversation, I would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutu-
ally with my own thoughts, and as I hope I may say with even
God himself, by ejacula~tions, was not better than the utmost
enjoyment of human society in the world P

,- II_



I ca~no~r say that after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing
happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same pos-
ture and place, j st as before; the chief things I was employed in,
besides my yeal labour of planting my barley and rice, and curmng
mqy raisins, of bohwhich I always kept up just enough to have sufft-
cient stock of one year's provision beforehand; I say, besides this
yearly labour, and my daily pursuit of going out with my gun, I had
one labour, to make me a canoe, which at last I finished; so that by
diggmng a canal to it six feet wide, and four feet deep, I brought it
into the creek, almost half a mile.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of
it was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when
I made the fist ; I mean, of venturing over to the terra jirma, where
it was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my
boat assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought .no
more of it. As I had a boat, my next design was to make a cause
around the island; for as I had been on the other side in one place,
crossing, as I have already described it, over the land, so the dis-
coveries I made in that little journey made me very eager to see
other parts of the coast: and now Ihad a boat, I thought of nothing
but sailing round the island.


It was on the, sixth of November, in the sixth year of my reign, or
mDPy~ catviyhich you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I
fudit much longer than I expected ; for though the Island itself
was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a
great ledge of rooks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
above water, some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out
to sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enter-
prise, and come back again, not knowing how far it might oblige me
to go out to sea, and above all, doubtmng how I should get back
agamn; so I came to an anchor with a piece of a broken grappling
which I got out of the ship.
Having secured my boat, I took my gun and went on shore, climb-
mgup on a hill, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw
thI~e f~ul extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewing the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a
strong, and indeed a most furious current, which ran to the east, and
even came close to the point; and I took the more notice of it,
because I saw there might be some danger that, when I came into
it, I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be
able to make the island again; and, indeed, hail I not got first upon
this bill, I believe it would have been so; for there was the same
current on the other side of the island, only that it set off at a farther
distance, and I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I
had nothing to do but to get out of the first current, and I should
presently be in an eddy.
SI lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E. S. E., and that being just contrary to the said current,
made a great breach of the sea upon the point; so that it was not
safe for me to keep too close to the shore, for thle breach, nor to go
too far off, because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight,
the sea was calmn, and I ventured; but I am a warning piece again to
all rash and ignorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point,
when I was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found
myself in a great depth of water, and a current like the slice of a
mill; it carried my boat along with it with such violence, that all I
could do could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I
found it hurried me farther and farther out from the eddy, which was
on my left hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I
could do with my paddles signified nothing; and now I beganto give
myefover for lost; for as the current was on both sides of the
sldI knew in a few leagues' distance they must join again, and
then I was irrecoverably gone; nor did Isee any possibility of avoid-
ingit; so that I hadno pospectbefore mebut ofperishing, not by
tesea, for that was calmn enough, but of starving for hunger. I


had indeed found a tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could
lift, and had tossed it into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh
water, that is to say, one of my earthen pots; but what was all this
to being driven into the vast ocean, where there was no shore, no
main land or island, for a thousand leagues at leastP
It is scarce possible to imagine the consternation I was now in,
being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared to me now
to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the utmost
despailr of ever recovering it again. Hoowever, I worked hard, till
indeed myg strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as
much to the northward, that is, towards the side of the current
which! the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the
sun pasdthe meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in
my face, sprmgmig up. from S.S.E. This cheered my ear a liettle
especially when, in about half an hour more, i lwapet
gentle gale. By this time I was got at a frightful distance from the
island, and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had
been undone another way too; for I had no compass on board, and
should never have known how to have steered towards the island, if
I had but once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I
applied myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, stand-
mng away to the north as much as possible, to get out of the
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch
away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of
the current was near; for where the current was so strong, the
water was foul; but perceiving the water clear, I found the current
abate; and presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a
breach of the sea upon some rocks; these rocks I found caused the
current to part, agamn, and as the main stress of it ran away more
southerly, leaving the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned
by the repulse of the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back
again to the north-west, with a very sharp stream.
Thhey who know whlat it is to have reprieve brought to them
upon the ladder, or to be rescued from thieves just going to murder
them, or who have been in such-like extremities, may guess what
my present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into
the stream of this eddy; and the wind also freshening, how gladly I
spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wmd, and with a
strong tide or eddy under foot.
This eddy carried me about a league mn my way back again directly
towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward
than the current which carried me away at fist; so that when I
came near the island, I found myself open to the northern shore of
it, that is to say, the other end of the Island, opposite to that which
I went out from.
Whlen I had made something more than a league of way by the


help of this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no
farther. However, I found that being between two great currents,
viz. that on the south side, which had hurried me away, and that on
the north, which lay about a league on the other~ side; I say,
between these two, m the wake of the island, I found the water at
least still, and runmnng no way; and having still a breeze of wind
fair for me, I kept on steering directly for the island, though not
making such fresh way as I did before.
About four o'clock m the evening, being then within a league of
the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this dis-
aster stretching out, as is described before, to the southward, and
casting off the current more southerly, had, of course, made another

eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not directly
setting the way my course lay, which was due west, but almost full
north. However, having a fresh gale I stretched across this eddy,
slanting north-west; and, in about an hour, came within about a
mile of the shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon got to
When I was on shore, I fell. on my knees, and gave God thanks
for my deliverance, resolviur to lay aside all thoughts of my deliver-
auce by my boat; and refres~un'g myself with such things as I had, I
brought my boat close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied
under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with
the labour and fatigue of the voyag~e.


I now had enough of rambling to sea, for some time, and had
enough to do for many days to sit still, and to reflect upon the
danger 1 had been in. I would have been very glad to have had my
boat again on my side of the island; but I knew not how it was
practicable to get it about.. As to the east side of the island, which
I had gone round, I knew well enough there was no venturing' that.
way; m~y very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chill, but
to think of it; and as to the other side of the island, I did not know
how it might be there; but supposing the current rau with the same
force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and
carried by the island, as I had been before of being carried away
from it; so, with these thoughts, I contented myself to be without
any boat, though it had been the product of so many months' labour
to make it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.
In this government of my temper I remained near a year, lived a
very sedate, retired life, as you may well suppose; and my thoughts
being very much composed, as to my condition, and fully comforted
in reslglnmg myself to the dispositions of Providence, I thought I
lived really very happily in all things, except that of society.
I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which
my necessities put me upon applying myself to ; and I believe I could,
upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter, espeelally consider-
mng how few tools I had.
Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-
ware, and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which
I found infnitely easier and better; because I made things round
and sa eable, which before were filthy things indeed to look upon.
But I t 'n I was never more vain of my performance, or more loy-
fhi for anything I found out, than for my being able to make a
tobacco-pipe: and though it was a very ugly clumsy thing when it
was done, and only burned red, like other earthenware, yet it was
hard and firm, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly com-
forted with it, for I had always been used to smoke.
I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; this was
avant which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began ser-
iously to consider what I must do when I should have no more
powder, that is to say, how I should do to kill any goats. I had, as
is observed, in the third year of my being here, kept a. young kid,
and bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of getting ahe-goat; but
I could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old
goat; and as I could never find in my heart to kill her, she died at
last of mere age.



BEING ROW in the eleVenth year Of my residence, Ran as I haV6 said
my ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to trap
and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of them
alive. I dug several large pits in the earth, in places where I had
observed the goats used to feed, and over those pits I placed hurdles,
of my own makn too, with a great weight upon them; and several
times I put ears ofbarley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and
I could easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the
corn, for I could see the marks of their feet. At length I set three
traps in one night, and going the next morning, I found them all
standing, and yet the bait eaten and gone. This was very discorg
ing: however, I altered my traps; and one morning If~ound mn one
of them a large old he-goat, and in one of the others three kids, a
male and two females.
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so
fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, to go about
to bring him away alive, which. was what I wanted. I could have
killed him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer my
end; so I even let him out, and he ran away, as if he had been
frightened out of his wits. I went to the three kids, and takmngthem
one by one, I tied them with strings together, and with some dimeiulty
bog them all home.


It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And
now I found that if I expected to supymyself with goats' flesh
when I had no powder or shot left, bredn some up tame was my
only way; when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a
flock of sheep. But then it occurred to me, that I must keep the
tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they
grew up; and the only way for this was, to have some enclosed piece
of ground, well fenced, either with hedge or pale, to keep them m so

effectually, that those within might not break out, or those without
break mn.
But this was not all; for now I not only had goats' flesh to feed
on when I pleased, but milk too; a thing which, indeed, in the be-
gmmnni I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into
my th uhs, was really an agreeable surprise; for now I set up my
dairy, nhad sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as
Nature, who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even
naturally how to make use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow,
much less a goat, or seen butter or cheese made, only when I was a
boy, after a great many essays and miscarriages, made me-both butter
and cheese at last, and also salt (though I found it partly made to my
hand by the heat of the sun upon some of the rocks of the sea), and
never wanted it afterwards.


It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and mly little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prmee and
lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all my subjects at mp
absolute command; I could hang, draw, give liberty, and take it
away; and no rebels among all my subjects.
Then to see how like a kg I dined too, aill alone, attended by my
servants; Poll, as if he had been my favourite, was the only person
permitted to talk to me. My dog, who was now grown very old and
crazy, and two cats, one on one side of thle table, and one on the
other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of
special favour.
My own figure was ancouth enough. I had a great high shapeless
cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap hanging down behind, as well
to keep the sun from me as to shoot the ramn off from running into
myneck; nothing being so hurtful in these climates as the rain upon
th fesh, under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming down to
about the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed breeches of
the same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat,
whose hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like panta-
loons, it reached to the middle of my le s; stockings and shoes I
had none, but had made me a pair of somet gs, I scarce know what
to call them, like buskins, to flap over my 1 gs, and lace on either
side like spatterdashes, but of a most barbarous shape, as indeed
were all the rest of my clothes.
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew together
with two thongs of the same, instead of buckles; and in a kind of
frgon either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a
litesaw and a hatchet; one on one side and one on the other. I
had another belt, not so broad, and fastened in the same manner,
which hung over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat's skin too; in one of
which hung my powder, in the other my shot. At my backI carried
my basket, and on my shoulder my gun; and over my head a great
clumsy ul goat's skin umbrella, but which, after all, was the most
necessary ti I had about me, next to my gun. As for my face,
the colour of Itwas not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a
man not at all careful of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of
the equinox. My beard I had once suffered to grow tillit was about
a quarter of a yard long; but as I had both seissars and razors
suicient, Ihad cut it pretty short, except what grew onmgy upper hip,
which I had tr arred mnto a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such
as I had seen worn by some Turks at Sallee; for the Moore did not
wear such, though the Turks did; of these mustachios or whiskers,
I will not say they were long enough to hang my hat upon them, but
they were of a length and shape monstrous enough, and such as, in
England, would have passed for frightful.