Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Beadle's dime classic stories
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073554/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Beadle's dime classic stories
Uniform Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 54, <2> p., <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
White, George G ( George Gorgas ), d. 1898 ( Illustrator )
Orr, Nathaniel ( Engraver )
Thacher, Charles ( Printer )
Beadle and Company ( Publisher )
Publisher: Beadle and Co., General Dime Book Publishers
Place of Publication: New York (No. 118 William Street)
Publication Date: <1864>
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Dime novels -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
Dime novels   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; illustrated with 28 designs by George G. White.
General Note: Caption and running title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Publication date and series information from: The house of Beadle and Adams / Albert Johannsen.
General Note: Series from cover. "Apparently the only number <of this series> issued."--Johannsen.
General Note: Variant of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 462.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by N. Orr.
General Note: "Charles Thacher, Boston, Mass."--Cover.
General Note: Publishers' advertisements <1> p. at end and p. <2-4> of cover.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe, abridged.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073554
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 07517958

Table of Contents
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    Title Page
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        Page 4
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 5
        Page 6
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Full Text











called the upper station of loiw life, which he had found,
by long experience, was the best in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the miseries
and hardships, the labor and sufferings of the mechanic,
and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, and envy
of the upper part of mankind. lie told me I might judge
of the happiness of tils state by this one thing, viz.:
that this was the state of life which all other people
envied; that kings have frequently lamented the miser-
able consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of the two
extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard
of true felicity, when he prayed neither to have poverty
Snor riches. fle bade me observe it, and I should always
find that the calamities of life were shared among the
-- -- .- upper and lower part of mankind; but that the middle
r stations had the fewest disasters, and were not exposed
--~- to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of
mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many dis-
S, tempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as
those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extrava-
SJ '" gances, on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessa-
ries, and mean or insufficient diet, on the other hand,
S- bring distempers upon themselves by the natural conse-
quences of their way of living; that the middle station
.;. .- of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending
I WAs born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a the middle station of life; that this way men went
good family, though not of that country, my father being silently and smoothly through the world, and comforta-
a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. ie got bly out of it; not embarrassed with the labors of the
a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving off his trade, hands or of the head; not sold to the life of slavery for
lived afterward at York; from whence ha had married daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
my mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest; not
good family in that country, and from whom I was called enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning
Robinson Krutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of lust of ambition for great things; but in ear circum-
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call our- stances, sliding gently through the world, anFensibly
selves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my compan- tasting the sweets of living without the bitter, feeling
ions always called me. that they are happy, and learning by every day's expe-
I had two elder brothers; one of whom was lieutenant- rience to know it more sensibly.
colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, for- After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
merely commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and affectionate manner, not to precipitate myself into mise-
was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the Span- ries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
lards. What became of my second brother I never knew, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
any more than my father or mother did know what was *necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well
become of me. for me, and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any of life which he had just been recommending to me and
trade, my head began to be filled very early with ramb- that if I were not very easy and happy in the world, it
ling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had must be my mere fate, or fault, that must hinder it;
given me a competent share of learning, as far as house and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
education and a country free-school generally goes, and thus discharged his duty in warning me against meas-
designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with ureas which he knew would be to my hurt. In a word,
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led that as he would do very kind things for me, if I would
me so strongly against the will, nay, commands of my stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not
father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be encouragement to go away; and, to close all, he told me
something fatal in that propension of nature, tending I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he had
directly to the life of misery which was to befall me. used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail,
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my de- his young desires prompting him to run into the army,
sign. He called me one morning into his chamber, where where he was killed; and thongh he said he wbuld not
he was confined by the gout, and expostulated very cease to pray for me yet he would venture today to me,
warmly with me upon the subject. He asked me what that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
reasons, more than a wandering inclination, I had for me; and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
leaving my father's house and my native country, where having neglected his counsel, when there might be none
I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising to assist in my recovery.
my fortune by application and industry, with a life of I observed in thislast part of discourse, whichwas truly
ease and pleasure. He told me tlat ia ui men of dea- prophLeit. ihoogh T anppoce my father did not know it
operate fortunes on one hand, or of i-p.rin.: Eupnrior for- to be so himselfT-I fay. I observed the tears run doWn
tunes on the other, whowent abroad apo'ad, ucntares to his face icry plent.fully, especially when he spokabf
rise by enterprise, and make themenl..r famous in nn- my brother who was killed. and that when he spoke
dertakings of a nature out of the c-:ommon road; that my having leienre ta. pepent and Done to assis .
these things were all too far above me. or too far osi was so moved that I el ke of t1 discourae, a'
me; that mine was the middle stale, or what migbt be me hi bhuar w!a p w lm 9 eI ao mao


I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as, indeed,
who'could be otherwise? And I resolved not to think
of going abroad any more, but to settle at home accord-
ing to my father's desire. But, alas, a few days wore it
all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks I resolved to run
quite away from him. However, I did not act so hastily,
neither, as the first heat of my resolution prompted, but
1 took my mother at a time when I thought ner a little
pleasanter than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to any thing with resolution enough
to go through with it, and my father had ,1. ..- me
his consent, than force me to go without r r ..I I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go ap-
prentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney; that I was1
sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time, hut I
should certainly run away from my master Iefore my
time was out, and go to sea; and if slte would speak to
my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came
home again, and did not like it, I would go no more, and
I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the
time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She told me
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any such subject; that he knew too well
what was my interest to give his consent to anything
so much for my hurt; and that site wondered how I
could think of any such thing. afterthe discourse I had
with my father, and such kind and teller expressions as
she knew my father had used to me; and that, in short,
if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me, but I
might depend I should never have their consent to it;
that. for her part, she would not have so much hanl d in
my destruction, and I should'never have it to say that
my mother was willing whllen my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet Iheard afterwards that she reported all the discourse
to him, and that my father, after showing a great con-
cern at it, said to her, with a sigh: "That the boy might
be happy, if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch that ever
was. I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the mean time I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclination prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any
purpose of making an clopement that time--but, I say,
being there, and one of my companions beint 'oiin by
sea to London, in his father's ship. and i .-,,... me
to go with them, with the common allurement of a sea-
faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing, or my father's, without any consideration of circumn-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the first of September, 1651, 1 went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued longer
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of tlie
Number, but the wind began to blow and the sea to rise,
in a moat frightful manner; and as I had never been at
sea before, 1 was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how j stly I was overtaken by the
judgment of Heaven for my wickedness in leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty. All the good
counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my motEer's
entreaties, came now fresh into into my mind; and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and
my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since-no, nor what saw a few days after. But it
was enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor,
and had never known anything of the matter. I expected
every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every
time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that
if it pleased God to spare my life in this one voyage, if
ever 1got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go
directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship
again while I lived: that I would take his advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations about
the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortable he
had lived all his days, and never been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and, in short, I resolved that
I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home to my

These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while
the storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the
next day the wind was abated, and the sea calmer, and I
began to be a little inured to it. However, I was very
grave all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite
over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun
went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning;
and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-
sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the
sea, that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my resolution should continue, my com-
panion, who indeed had enticed me away, comes to me.
Well, Bob," says he. clapping me upon the shoulder,
l how do you do after it ? 1 warrant you were frighted,
wa'n't yon. last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?"
A capful do you call it?" said I. "'Twas a terrible
"A storm, you fool youl" replies he. "Do you call
that a storm? Why, it was nothing at all. Give us but
a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that. But you're but a fresh-water
sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and
we'll forget all that. D'you see what charming weather
'ti now"
To make short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made
half drunk with it, and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon my
past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of sur-
face and settled calmness, by the abatement of that storm,
so the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and
apprehensions of being swallowed up by the sea being
:" .... r, ,...1 r l.. current of former desires returned, I
I. ,.. I, tI ... vows and promises that I made in my
J- -, i- ....i... indeed, some intervals of reflection,
and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to
return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and roused
myself from them, as it were from a distemper; and
applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered
the return of those fits (for so I called them); and I had,
in five or six days, got as complete a victory over con-
science as any young fellow that resolved not to be trou-
bled with it could'desire. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for
if I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to
be such a one as the worst and most hardened wretch
among us would confess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we caine into Yar-
mouth Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the storm.
Here we were obliged to come to an anchor; and here we
lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at southwest, for
seven or eight days; during which time a great many
ships from cewcastle came into the same roads, as the
common harbor where the ships might wait for a wind
for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a
harbor, the anchorage good, ant our ground-tackle very
strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day in
the morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon, the sea went very high indeed and our ship rode
forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once
or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our
master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we rode with
two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the
better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to him-
self, say several times: "Lord, be merciful to us! We
shall be all lost-we shall be all undone!" and the like.
During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in my
cabin, which was in the steerage, and can not describe
my temper. I could ill resume my first penitence, which
I had so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against. I thought the bitterness of death had been past,
and that this would be nothing, too. like the first. But
when the master himself came y me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted.
I got up out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dis-
mal sight I never saw. The sea went mountains high,


and br )ke upon us every three or four minutes. When I
could look about, Icould see nothing but distress around
us. Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deepladen; and ourmen cried
out, that a ship, which rid about a mile ahead of us, was
foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adven-
tures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships
fared the best, as not so much laboring in the sea; but
two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running
away, with only their sprit-sail out, before the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the foremast,
which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him, that if be did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away the
foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and shook the
ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also,
and make a clear deck.

\ ,. ,

Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at
all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been
in such a fright before at but a little. But, if I can ex-
press at this distance the thoughts I had about meat that
time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account
of my former convictions, ald the having returned from
them to the resolutions I had wickedly taken at first,
than I was at death itself; and these, added to the terror
of the storm, put me into such a condition that I can by
no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet;
the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen
themselves acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
swallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and
then cried out she would founder. It was my advantage
in one respect, that I did not know what they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others more sensible than the rest,
at their prayers, and expecting, every moment that the
ship would go to the bottom. fn the middle of the night,
and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said, there were four feet water
in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within
me; and I fell backward upon the side of the bed where
I sat, in the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told
me that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well
able to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was
doing, the master, who, seeing some light colliers, which,
not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and
run away to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire
a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what
that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I
was so surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of,
nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but an-
other man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though
the storm began to abate a little yet as it was not possi-
ble she could swim till we might run into any port, so
the master continued firing guns for help; and a light
ship, who had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat
out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat
came near us; but it was impossible for as to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship-side, till at last
the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives

o save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern
vith a buoy to it and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after much labor and hazard, took holdof;
and we hauled them close under our stern, and got into
heir boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after
we were in the boat, to think of reaching to their own
ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull her
n towards shore as much as we could; and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore,
he would make it good to their master. So partly row-
ing, and partly driving, our boat went away to the north-
ward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as Winter
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour ont
of our ship, but we saw her sink; and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering
in the sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to
look up, when the seamen told me she was sinking; for,
from that moment, they rather put me into the boat, than
that I might be said to go in ; my heart was, as it were,
dead within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of
mind, and the thoughts of what was before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet laboring
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see
(when our boat mounted the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand
to assist us when we should come near. But we made
but slow way towards the shore, nor were we able to
reach the shore, till, being past the light-house at
Winterton, the shore falls of to the westward towards
Cromer; and so the land broke off a little the vio-
lence of the wind. Iere we got in; and, though not
without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the
magistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and ow ners of ships; and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to London,
or back to Hull. as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull.
and have gone home. I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even
killed the fatted calf fur me; for, hearing the ship I went
away in was cast away in Yarmouth loads, it was a
great while before he bad any assurances that I was not
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist; and though I had several times
loud calls Irom my reason, and my more composed judg-
ment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
not what to call this; nor will I urge, that it is a secret
overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instru-
ments of our own destruction, even though it be before
us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Cer-
tainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery attending, and which it as impossible for me to
escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts,
and against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son. was now less forward than I.
The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were sepa-
rated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first
time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered: and,
looking very melancholy, and shaking his head, asked
me how I did: and telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
further abroad; his father, turning to me with a very
grave and concerned tone:
Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to sea
any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
"Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no more?"
"That is another case," said he; "it is my calling,
and, therefore, my duty; but, as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of
what you are to expect if you persist: perhaps all this
has befallen us on your account, like Jonah, in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continued he, what are you ? and
on what account did you go to sea?"
Upon that I told him some of my story at the end of
which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
"What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy
wretch should come into my ship ? I would not set my
foot in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits,
which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss. and was
farther than he could have authority to go, However,
he afterwards talked very gravely to me, exhorting me
to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my
ruin; told me I might see the visible. hand of Heaven
against me:
And, young man," said he, "depend upon it, if you
do not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with



nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your
father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went, I know not.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I traveled
to London by land; and there, as well as on the road,
had many struggles with myself, what course of life I
should take, and whether I should go home, or goto sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred
to me how I should belaughed at among the neighbors,
and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else. From whence I have
since observed how incongruous and irrational the com-
mon temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that
reason that ought to guide them in such cases, viz.: that
they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to re-
pent I not ashamed of the actions for which they ought
justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the re-
turning, which only can make them esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however. I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life
to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off; and as that abated, the
little motion I had in my desires wore off with it, till at
last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out
for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, which hurried me into the wild and indi-
gested notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed
those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf
to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the
commands of my father; I say, the same influence, what-
ever it was, presented the most unfortunate of all enter-
prises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound
to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a
voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures,
I did not ship myself as a sailor: whereby, though I
might indeed have worked a little harder than ordinary,
yet at the same time I had learned the duty and office of
a foremast man, and in time might have qualified myself
for mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was
always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for,
having money in my pocket, and good clothes to my back,
I would always go on board in the habit of a gentleman:
and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
lose and unguided young fellows as I then was; the
devil not omitting to lay some snare for them very early:
but it was not so with me. I first fell acquainted with
the master of the ship, who had been on the coast of
Guinea, and who, having very good success there, was
resolved to go again. This captain, taking a fancy to my
conversation, which was not disagreeable at that time,
hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me, if
I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no ex-
pense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.
Embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friend-
ship with this captain, who was an honest, lain-dealing
man, went the voyage with him; and carried a small ad-
venture with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of
my friend, the captain, I increased very considerably; for
I carried about 40, in such trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 40 1 had mustered together by the as-
sistance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who, I believe, got my father, or, at least, my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first ad-
This was the only voyage which I may say was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integ-
rity and honesty of my friend, the captain; under whom
I also got a competent knowledge of the mathematics,
and the rules of navigation; learned how to keep an ac-
count of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in
short, to understand some things that were needful to be
understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage
made me both a sailed and a merchant; for I brought
home five pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adven-
ture, which yielded me in London, at my return,-almost
300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes, too;
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the cli-
mate, our principal trading being upon the coast, from
the latitude of 15 degrees N., even to the line itself.
I was now set upfor a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I
resolvedd to go the same voyage again; and I embarked

in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship.
This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made'
for though I did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained
wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which I lodged with
my friend's widow, who was very just to me yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and the first
was this, viz.: our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning
by a Moorish rover of Sallee, who gave chase to us with
all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much
canvas as our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to
have got clear: but, finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the
rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our
quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we
brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured
in a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again
after returning our fire, and pouring in also his small
shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but, laying us on board the next time upon
the other quarter, he entered ninety men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks
and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our decks of
them twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part
of our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our
men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield;
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belong-
in" to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended; nor was I carried up the country, to the
emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize, and
made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his
business. At this surprising change of my circumstances,
from a merchant to a miserable slave, 1 was perfectly
overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my father's
prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me, which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse'
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I
was undone without redemption. But alas I this was but
a taste of the misery I was to go through, as will appear
in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would be
some time or other his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portuguese man of war; and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away;
for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after
his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened one day, after I had been
with him about two years, that he had appointed to go
out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two
or three Moors of some distinction, and for whom he had
provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on
board the boat over night a larger store of provisions
than usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship;
for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready, as he had directed; and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ancient and pendants out, and everything to accommo-
date his guests; when, by and by, my patron came on
board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
upon some business thai. fell out, and ordered me with
the man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat, and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at
his house. He commanded me too, that as soon as I had got
some fish, I should bring it. All which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I
prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing, but for a
voyage: though I knew not, neither did Iso much as
consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere to get out
of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
board: for I told him we must not presume to eat of our
patron's bread. He said that was true; so he brought a
large basket of rusk or biscuit, of their kind, and three
jars with fresh water, into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which


it was evident by the make, were taken out of some Eng-
lish prize, and I conveyed them into the boat, while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before for
our master. I conveyed also a great lump of beeswax into
the boat, which weighed about a half a hundred weight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a
hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards-
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His name
was Ishmael, whom they called Muley, or Moley; so I
called to him: Moley,' said I, "our patron's guns are
all on board the boat. Can you not get a little powder
and shot ? It may be we may kill some alcomies (a fowl
like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, "I'll bring
some." Accordingly, he brought a leather pouch, which
held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more;
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same time
I had found some powder of my master's in the great
cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it
into another; and thus furnished with everything need-
ful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is
at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and took
no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port, before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N. N. E., which was contrary to
my desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to
have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the
bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way
it would, I would be gone from that horrid place where I
was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing
(for when I had fish on my hook, I would not pull them
up, that he might not see them,) I said to the Moor:
"This will not do; our master will not be thus served.
We must stand farther off." lie, thinking no harm,
agreed; and being in the head of the boat, set the sails,
and, as I had the helm, I run the boat out near a league
farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish; when,
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the
Moor was, and making as if 1 stooped for something be-
hind him I took him by surprise with my arm under his
twist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. lie
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to
me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go all over
the world with me. HIe swam so strong after the boat,
that he would have reached me very quickly, there being
but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at him,
and told him I had done him no hurt and if he would be
quiet, I would do him none. "But,' said I, "you swim
well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm;
make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you
through the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty."
So he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and
I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with
me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no ventur-
ing to trust him. When he was gone I turned to the boy,
whom they called Xury, and said to him: "Xury, if you
will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if
you will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is,
swear by Mahomet, and his father's beard, I must throw
you into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and
spoke so innocently that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching
to windward, that they might think me gone towards the
Strait's mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the
truly Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes
were sure to surround us with their canoes, and destroy
us; where we could never once go on shore, but we should
be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little towards the east that I might keep
in with the shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe,
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than 150 miles
south of Sallee, quite beyond the emperor of Morocco's
dominions, or indeed of any other king thereabouts, for
we saw no such people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and
the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their
hands, t at I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to
an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in
that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the

southward, I concluded also, that if any of our vessel.
were in chase after me, they also would now give over;
so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what
river. I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as
soon as it was dark and discover the country; but as
soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises
of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of
we knew not what kinds, and the poor boy was ready to
die with fear and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. Well, Xury," said I "then I won't but it may be
we may see men by day who will be as bad to us as those
lions." "Then we may give them the shoot gun," says
Xury, laughing; "make them run way." Such Inglish
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I
was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron's case of bottles)'to cheer him up. After
all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we
slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great
creatures, we knew not what to call them, of many sorts,
come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wal-
lowing and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling
themselves; and they made such hideous howling and
yelling, that I never heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I, too;
but we were both worse frighted when we heard one of
the mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat;
we could not see him, but we might hear him by his blow-
ing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and that it might be for aught I know.
Poor Xury cried out to me to weigh the anchor, and row
away. "No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our cable with
a buoy to it, and go to sea; they can not follow us far."
I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature
(whatever it was) within two oar s length, which some-
thing surprised me. However, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him, upon
which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again.

But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises
and hideous cries and cowlings that were raised, as well
upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country,
upon the noise or report of a gun; a thing, I have some
reason to believe, these creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for
us in the night upon that coast, and how to venture on
shore in the day, was another question, too; for to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been as
bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers-at
least we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint in
the boat; when or where to get it was the point. Xury
said if I would let him go on shore with one of the jars,
he would find if there was any water, and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go, why I should not go,
and he stay in the boat. The boy answered with so much
affection that made me love him ever after. Says he: "If
wild mans come, they eat me; you go way. "Well;
Xury," said I, "we will both go, and if the wild mans
come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of'us."
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned be-
fore, and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we
thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying noth-
ing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the


boy seeing a low place, about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it, and by and by I saw him come running towards
me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or fright-
ed with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards him
to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw some-
thing hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature
that he had shot, like a hare, but different in color, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water for a little higher up the creek where we
were, we found the water fresh when the tide was out,
which flows but a little way up. So we filled our jars,
and feasted on the hare we had killed, and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But
as I had no instruments to take an observation to know
what latitude we were in, and did not exactly know, or at
least not remember what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea
towards them, otherwise I might now easily have found
some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their usual
design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country which, lyine between the em-
peror of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste
and uninhabited, except by wild beasts, the Negroes hav-
ing abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the
Moors; and the Moors not thinking it worth inhabiting,
by reason of its barrenness, and indeed both forsaking it
because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leop-
ards, and other furious creatures which harbor there so
that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they
go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time;
and indeed for near a hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but howlings and roarings of
wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime, I thought I saw the Pico
of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain Tnerilfe
in the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out in
hopes of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was
forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too
high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first
design, and keep along the sore.
Several times we were obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular, being
early in the morning, we came to an anchor under a little
point of water, which was pretty high, and the tide begin-
ning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose
eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls
softly to me, and tells me that we hi'l F-. :t further oilf
the shore. "For," says he, "look, -.l i Ir. dreadful
monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed;
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as
it were, a little over him. Xury," said I, "you shall go
on shore and kill him." Xury look frighted, and said:
" Me kill! lie eat me at one mouth!" One mouthful he
meant. However, I said no more to the boy, but bade
him be "till, and took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder,
and with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets, and the third (for we had
three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him
into the head; but he lay so with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slug hit his leg about the knee,
and broke the bone. Hie started up growling at first, but
finding hii. leg broke, fell down again, and tten got upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I
heard. i was a little surprised that I had not hit him on
the head; however, I took up the second piece immedi-
ately and, though he began to move off, fired again, and
shot him in thehead, and had the pleasure to see him
drop, and making but little noise, he lay struggling for
life. Then Xury took heart, and would let me have him
go on shore. "Well, go," said I. So the boy jumped
- nto the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam
to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot
him in the head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and
I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot,
upon a creature that was good for nothing to us. How-
ever, Xury said he would have some of him; so he comes
on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. "Foi
what, Xury?" said I. "Me cut off his head," said he
However, Xury could not cut off his head; but be cut off

a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous
great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of
him might one way or other be of some value to us; and
I resolved to take off the skin if I could. So Xury and I
went to work with him, but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed,
it took us up the whole day; but at last we got off the
hide of him, and, spreading it on the top of our cabin, the
sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward contin-
nally, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our
provisions, which began to abate very much, mid going
no oftener in to the shore than we were obliged to for
fresh water. My design in this was to make the river
Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, anywhere about the
Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet with some
European ship, and if I did not, I knew not what course I
had to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Eu-
rope, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Bra-
zil, or to the East Indies, made this cape or those islands,
and, in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this
single point, either that I must meet with some ship or
must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we
saw people stand upon the shore to look at us; we could
also perceive they were quite black, and stark naked. I
was once inclined to have gone on shore to them, but
Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me: No go,
no go." However, I hauled in nearer the shore, tliat
I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the
shore by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons
in their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick,
which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw
them a griesl ; i aim; so Ikept at a distance
but talked .11,1 I ..,. ., -.j ns as well as I could, and par-
ticularly made signs for something to eat. They beck-
oned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me
some meat.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we .had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were
lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures, one pur-
suing the other (as we took it) with great litry, from the
mountains towards the sea; at last one of them began to
come nearer our boat than at first I expected: but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon
as he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him
directly into the head. Immediately he sunk down into
the water, but he rose instantly, and plunged up and
down as if he was struggling for life; and so indeed lie
was. lie immediately niade to the shore; hut, between
the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling
of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of
them were ready even to die for fear, and fell down as
dead with the very terror. iunt when they saw the crea-
ture dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs
to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came
to the shore, and began to search for the creature. I
found him by his blood staining the water, and by the
help of a rope, which I flung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they draggcdl him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted and line to an
admirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands
with admiration, to think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up
directly to the mountains from whence they came; nor
could I, at that distance, know what it was. I found
quickly the Negroes were for .i- the flesh of this
creature, so I wais willing to halv i .. take it as a favor
from me, which, when 1 mna'-1 'i-'l t' them that they
might take him, they were .. iI.. ...1 for. Immedi-
ately they fell to work with them; and though thly had
ino knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took
off his skin as readily-nay, much more rendily-than we
would have done with a knife. They ofltrcd mei some
of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give
it them; but made signs for the skin. which they gave
me very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their
provisions, which, though I did not understand, yet I
accepted. Then I made signs to them for some water,
and held out ine of my jars to them, turning its bottom
upward, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to
have it filled. They called immediately to some of their
friends, and there came two women, and brought a great
Vessel, made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the
sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three.
The women were as stark naked as the men.


I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I
made forward about eleven days more without offering
to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great
length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five
leagues before me, and, the sea being very calm I kept a
large offin to make this point; at length, doulin the
point at about two leagues from the land, I saw mainly
land on the other side, to seaward; then I concluded-as
it was most certain, indeed-that this was the Cape de
Verd, and those the islands, called from thence Cape de
Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance,
and I could not tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh wind, I might neither reach one
nor other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when,
on a sudden, the boy cried out: "'Master, master, a ship
with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his
wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's
ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far
enough out of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin,
and immediately saw, not only the ship, but what she
was, viz.: that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon
convinced they were bound some other way, and did not
design to go any nearer to the shore, upon which I
stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to
speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone
by before I could make any signal to them; but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me by the help of their perspective glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which they sup-
posed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. Iwas encouraged with
this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made
a waft of it to them for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun. both of which they saw; for they told me they saw
the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon
these signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by
for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with
They asked me what Iwas, in Portuguese, and in Span-
ish, and in French ; but I understood none of them; but
at last a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me,
and I answered him, and told him I was an Englishman,
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors,
at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board, and very
kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered as I esteemed it, from
such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as I was
in. I immediately offered all I had to the captain of the
ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously
told me lie would take nothing from me, but that all I
had should be delivered safe to me when I came to the
Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life on no
other terms than as I would be glad to be saved myself;
and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up
in the same condition. Besides," says he, when I carry
you to the Brazils, so great a way from your own coun-
try, if I should take from you what little you have, you
will be starved there, and then I only take away that life
I have given. No, no," says he, Signor Inglese (Mr.
Englishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help you to buy your subsistence there,
and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just
in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen
that none should offer to touch anything I had; then he
took everything into his own-possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them
again, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he saw
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and
asked me what I would have for it. I toldthim he had
been so generous to me in everything, that I could not
offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him; upon which he told me he would give me a note of
his hand to pay me 4O pieces of eight for it at Brazil, and
when it came there, if any one offered to give more, he
would make it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight
more for my boy, Xury, which I was loath to take; not
that I w-as not willing to let the captain have him, but I
was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had as-
sisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. However,
when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just,
and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian. Upon this, Xury saying he was willing to go
to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived
in the Bay te Todos los Santos, or all Saints' Bay, in
about twenty-two days after. And now I was once more

delivered from the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself, I was to consider
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of me
for my passage, gave me 20 ducats for the leopards skin,
and 40 for the lion's skin, which I had in the boat, and
caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually de-
livered to me; and what I was willing to sell he bought,
such as the case of bottles two of my guns, and a piece
of the lump of bees'-wax, for I had made candles of the
rest: in a word, I made about 220 pieces of eight of all
my cargo; and with this stock I went on shore in the
I had not been long here, but, being recommended to
the house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had
an ingenio, as they call it-that is, a plantation and a
sugar-house-I lived with him some time, and acquainted
myself, by that means, with the manner of their planting
and making of sugar: and, seeing how well the planters
lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, if I
could get license to settle there, I would turn planter
among them; resolving, in the meantime, to find oat
some way to get my money which I had left in London
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was nn-
cured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement, and such a one as might
be suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to re-
ceive from England.
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much
such circumstances as I was. I call him neighbor, be-
cause his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on
very sociably together; my stock was but low, as well as
his, and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase,
and our land began to come into order, so that the third
year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a
large piece of ground ready for planting cans in the
year to come: but we both wanted help; and now I
found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury,
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I
had gotten into an employment quite remote to my ge-
nius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and
for which I forsook my father's house, and broke through
all his good advice; nay, I was coming into the very
middle station, or upper degree of low life, which my
father advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to
go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and
never fatigued myself in the world, as I have done: and
I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as
well in England, among my friends, as have gone 5,000
miles off to do it, among strangers and savages in a wil-
derness, and at such a distance as never to hear from any
part of the world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with
the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but
now and then this neighbor no work to be done, but bg
the labor of my hands ; and used to say, I live just like
a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had no-
body there but himself. But how just has it been, and
how should all men reflect, that when they compare their
present condition with others that are worse, Heaven may
oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced of
their former felicity, by their experience I I say, how
just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on
in an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who.
had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I
then led; in which, had I continued, I had, in all proba-
bility, been exceedingly prosperous and rich
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the
ship remained there, in providing her loading and pre-
paring for her voyage, near three months; when telling
him what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
gave me his friendly and sincere advice: "Signor In-
glese," says he, (for so le always called me.) if you will
give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me,
with orders to the person who has your money in London
to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country,
I will bring you the produce or them, God willing, at my
return ; but, since human affairs are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders for 100 ster-
ling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the haz-
ard be run for the first; so that if it come safe, you may
order the rest in the same way; and if it miscarry, yon
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was such wholesome advice, and looked so-
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared let.
ters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money,.
and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as be de


I wrote the English captain' s widow a full account of
all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I had
met with the Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of
his behavior, and what condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this
honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some
of the English merchants there, to send over, not the or-
der only, but a full account of my story, to a merchant in
London, who presented it effectually to her; whereupon
she not only delivered the money, but out of her own
pocket sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 100 in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them di-
rectly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me to the Brazils; among which, without my directions,
(for I was too young in my business to think of them,)
he had taken care t4 have all sorts of tools, iron-work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation, and which were
of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made.
I was surprised with the joy of it; and mygood steward,
the captain, had laid out the 5 which my friend had
sent him for a present for himself, to purchase and bring
me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and
would not accept of any consideration, except a little
tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my
own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, found
means to sell them to a great advantage; so that I may
say, I had more than four times the value of my first
cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbor
-I mean in tte advancement of my plantation; for the
first thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and a Euro-
pean servant also: I mean another besides that which
the captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very
means of our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I
went on the next year with great success in my planta-
tion; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries
among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls being each of
above 100 lbs. weight, were well cured, and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now,
increasing in business and wealth,my head began to be full
of projects a:d undertakings beyond my reach-such as
are indeed, of en the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet,
retired life, and which he had so sensibly described the
middle station of life to be full of; but other things at-
tended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my
own miseries: and particularly to increase my fault, and
double the reflections upon myself, which, in my future
sorrows, I should have leisure to make. All these mis-
carriages were procured by my apparent obstinate ad-
hering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life,
which Nature and Providence concurred to present me
with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now; but I must go
.and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and thriv-
ing man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash and
immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the
thin" admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into
the deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into,
or perhaps could be consistent with life and a state of
health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of this
S.art of my story: You may suppose that, having now
ived almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to
thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation, I had
not only learned the language, but had contracted ac-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as
well as among the merchants of ,t. Salvadore, which was
our port; and that, in my discourse among them, I had
frequently given them an account of my two voyages to
.the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Ne-
groes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the
coast, for trifles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like, not only gold-dust,
Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes for the
service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads; but especially to that part which related
to the buying Negroes, which was a trade, at that time,
not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by the assientoes, or permission of the
,kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public
so that few Negroes were bought, and those excess-
ively dear. #

It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me
the next morning and told me they had been musing
Very much upon what I had discoursed of with them the
s last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to
me; and, after enjoining on me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were strait-
ened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they
desired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on
shore privately, and divide them among their own plan-
tations; and, in a word, the question was, whether I
would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered
me that I should have my equal share of Negroes, with-
out providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, which was in a fair
way of coming to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it. But for me, who was thus established,
and had nothing to do but to go on as I had begun for
three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
100 from England, and who, in that time, and with that
little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
3,000 or 4,000 sterling, and that increasing too; for me
to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous
thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could be
guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain my first ram-
bling designs, when my father's good counsel was lost
upon me. In a word, I told themI would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my planta-
tion in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I
should direct, ifI miscarried. This they all engaged to
do, and entered into writings, or covenants to do so; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects in case of my death-making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had di-
rected in my will; one-half of the produce being to him-
self, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my ef-
fects, and to keep up my plantation. Had I used half as
much prudence to have looked into my own interest, and
have made a judgment of what I ought to have done, and
not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from
so prosperous an undertaking; leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say no-
thing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfor-
tunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason; and, accordingly
the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all
things done as my agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st of
September, 1659, being the same day eight years that I
went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about 120 tons burden carried six guns
and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy and my-
self. We had on board no large cargo of goods, except
of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes;
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles-es-
pecially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets
and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with a design
to stretch over for the African coast, when they came into
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which,
it seems, was the manner of their course in those days.
We had very good weather, only excessively hot all the
way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the Isle of Fernand de Norouba; holding our course
N. E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east. In this
course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and
were, by our last observation in 7 degrees, 22 minutes,
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane,
took us quite out of our knowledge; it began from the
south-east, came about to the north-west, and then set-
tled into the north-east -from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner that for twelve days together, we could
do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it let it
carry us wherever fate, and the fury of the winds, di-
rected: and during these twelve days I need not say that
I expected every day to be swallowed up: nor did any in
the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm
one of our men died of the calenture, and one man and

RoBN8OIfr OB U90E.

the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the
weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about 11
degrees of north latitude, but that he was 22 degrees of
longitude difference west from Cape St. Augustino; so
that he found he had gotten upon the coast of Guiana,
or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
towards that of the river Oronoque, commonly called the
Great River; and now he began to consult with me what
course he should take; for the ship was leaky, and very
much disabled, and he was for going directly back to the
coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we con-
cluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribee
Islands; and, therefore, resolved to stand away for Bar-
badoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-
draught of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we might very
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas, we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa, without some assistance, both to our
ship, and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course and steered
away N. W. by W., in order to reach some of our English
islands, where I hoped for relief; but our voyage was
otherwise determined; for being in the latitude of 12
degrees, 18 minutes, a second storm came upon us, which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the very way of all human com-
merce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea,
we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages,
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men, early one morning, cried out, Land I" and
we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out in
hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but
the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, her mo-
tion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a
manner, that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were even driven into close quar-
ters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like
condition, to describe or conceive the consternation of
men in such circumstances. We knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven-
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not
inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still great,
though rather less than at first, we could not so much as
hope to have the ship hold many minutes without break-
ing in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat look-
ing one upon another, and expecting death every mo-
ment, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing
for another world; for there was little or nothing more
for us to do in this; that which was our present comfort,
and all the comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the.ship, having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we
were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to
do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm; but
she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rudder,
and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk,
or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope for her.
We had another boat on board; but how to get her off
into the sca'was a doubtful thing. However, there was
no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute; and some told us she was actu-
ally broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, they got

her flung over the ship's side; and getting all into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy, and the wild sea; for though the storm
was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully high
rpon the shore, and might well be called, "Der wild zee,"
as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar
towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution; for we all knew, that when the boat
came near the shore, she would be dashed into a thousand
pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed
our souls to God, in the most earnest manner; and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our de-
struction with our own hands, pulling, as well as we
could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not: the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation, was,

if we happen to get into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where by great chance, we might have ran
our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps
made smooth water. But there was nothing of this ap-
peared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the
land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave. mountai-
like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us ex-
pect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the boat at once, and, separating us
as well from the boat as from one another, gave us not
time hardlyto say, 0 God 1' for we were all swallowed
up in a moment.

6" ^- ".- -' -

iN .

Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very
well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavored to make towards the land as fast
as I could, before another wave should return and take
me up again. But I soon found it was impossible to avoid
it; for f saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy, which I fhad no means or
strength to contend with; my business was, to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could, ana
so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot my-
self towards the shore, if possible; my greatest concern
now being, that the wave, as it would carry me a great/
way towards the shore when it came on, might carry me
back again with it, when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave then came upon me again, buried meat once
twenty or thirty feet in its own body and I could feel my-
self carried, with a mighty force and swiftness, towards
the shore a very great way; but I held my breath, and
assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might.
I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when as I
felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I iound
my head and hands shoot out above the surface of the
water and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly-gave me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with water
a good while, but not so long but I held it out; and find-
ing the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt
ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments
to recover breath, and till the water went from me, and
then I took to my heels, and ran with what strength I
had, farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring
in after me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the
waves, and carried forwards as before, the shore being
very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me; for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of rock and that
with such force that it left me senseless, and, indeed,
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking
my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out
of my body; and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I
should be covered again with theater, I resolved to
hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath,
if possible, till the wave went back. Now, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being near land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,.
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as-



to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to the
main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up
the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass,
free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look
up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case
wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce any room
to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to the life,
what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are when it
is so saved, as I may say, out of the grave; and I do not
wonder now at that custom, viz., that when a malefactor,
who has the halter about his neck, is tied up, and just
going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him,
I say, I do no w hat der that they bring a surgeon with it,
to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from
the heart, and overwhelm him:
For suddn joys ie grie, eeconfound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I might say, wrapped up in the con-
templation of my deliverance, m making a thousand gestures
and motions which I cannot describe-reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I
never saw them afterwards, nor any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach
and froth of the sea being so bi, I could hardly see it-it
jy so far off; and considered, Lord I how was it possible
I could get on shore?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my condition, I began to look around me to see what
kind of place I was in, and what was next to ble done, and
I soon found my comforts abate, and that in a word I had
a dreadful deliverance; for 1 was wet, had no clothes
to shift me, nor anything, either to cat or drink, to com-
fort me; neither did I see any prospect lIbure me, but
that of perishing with hunger, or being dc--iroured by wild
beasts; and that which was particularly at!:' ting to me
was, that I had no weapon either to lhunt or kill any
creature for my sustenance, or to defend iyself against
any other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs.
In a nord, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my pro-
vision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts
in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.

: ,


All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that tim(
was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but
thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to sis
all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die; for, as yet, I saw no prospect of life. I walk(
about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find anj
fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy: anm
having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth, t<
prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up inti
it, endeavored to place myself so as that if I should sleep
I might not fall; and. having cut me a short stick, like
truncheon, for my defence. I took up my lodging; an
having been excessively fatigued, I fell asleep, and slep
as comfortably as I believe few could have done in m:
condition; and found myself the more refreshed with i
than I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather cleaz

and the storm abated so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off, in the night, from the sand
where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven
up almost as far as the rock which I first mentioned,
where I had been so bruised by the dashing me against
it. This being within about a mile from the shore where
I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that, at least, I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looked about me again; and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had thrown
her upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the shore, to get to her, but
found a neck or inlet of water between me and the boat,
which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for
the present, being more intent upon getting at the ship,
where I hoped to"Bnd something for my present subsist-
A little after noon I found the sea very calm; and the
tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief: for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board we had all been safe, that is to say, we had all got
safe on shore and I had not been so miserable as to be
left entirely destitute of all comfort and company, as I
now was. This forced tears from my eyes again; but as
there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible to
get to the ship; so I pulled offlmy clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water; but when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high
out of the water, there was nothing within my reach to
lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
time I espied a small piece of rope which I wondered I
did not see at first, hanging down by the fore chains, so
low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and, by
the help of that rope, got up in the forecastle of the ship.
Here I found that the ship was bulged. and had a great
deal of water in her hold, but that sihe lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to the
water; by this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search and see what was spoiled and
what was free; and first I found that all the ship's pro-
visions were dry and untouched by the water; and being
very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and
filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram. and
which I had indeed need enonih of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat to fur-
nish myself with many things which I foresaw would be
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to
be had; and this extremity roused my application. We
had several spare yards, and two large squares of wood,
and a spare topmast or two in the ship; 1 resolved to fall
to work with these and flung as many of them overboard
as I could manage for their weight; tying every one with
a rope, that they might not drive away. When this was
done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them to
me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends, as well
as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying two or three
short pieces of plank crossways, I found I could walk
upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to
work with a carpenter's saw, and cut a spare topmast into
three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labor and pains; but the hope of furnishing my-
self with necessaries encouraged me togo beyond what
I should have been able to have done upon another oc-
My raft was new strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I had laid upon it from the surface of the
sea; but I was not long considering this; I first laid all
the planks or boards upon it I could get, and having con-
i sidered well what I most wanted I first got three of the
Sseamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied,
t and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these
I I filled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three Dutch
1 cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived
r much upon, and a little remainder of European corn,
1 which had been laid by for some fowls which we had
o brought to sea with us; but the fowls were killed: there
o had been some barley and wheat together, but to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
a eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
1 cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, andin all above five or six gallons
Sof arrack: these I stowed by themselves, there being no
t need to put them Into the chest nor any room for them.
While I was doing this I found the tide began to flow,
,though very calm, and I had the mortification to see my

r' I~

coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on shore upon
the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were
only linen and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them and
my stockings. However, this put me on rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than
I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon; as first, tools to work with on shore,
and it was after long searching I found out the carpen-
ter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me,
and much more valuable than a ship-loading of gold would
have been at that time. I got it down to my raft, even
whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I
knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols: these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty
swords. 1 knew there were three barrels of powder in
the ship, hut knew not where our gunner had stowed
them, but with much search I found them, two of them
dry and good, the third had taken water; those two I got
to my ralt with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, or rudder,
and tie least capful of wind would have overact all my
I had three encouragements. 'First, a smooth and calm
sea. Secondly, the tide rising and setting into the shore.
Thirdly, what little wind there was, blew me towards the
land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws an ax and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. Ior a mile, or thereabouts,
my raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before, by
which I perceived there was some indraught of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to land
with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was there appeared before me a
little opening of tie land. found a strong current of the
tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could, to
keep in the middle of the stream. But here I had liked
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which if I had, I
think verily would have broken my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft run aground, at one end of
it, upon a shoal not being aground at the other end, it
wanted but a little that my cargo had slipped off towards
that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water: I
did my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off tihe
raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from the
posture I was in, but, holding up the chests with all my
might, stood in that manner near half an hour, in which
time the rising of the water brought me a little more
ulon a level; and a little after, the water still rising my
raft floated again, and I thrust ier off with the oar Inad,
into the channel, and then driving up higher, I at length
found myself in tie mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current of tide running up. I
looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for
I was not willing to be driven too high up the river,
hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and therefore re-
solvcdto place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on tle right shore of the
creek, to which with great pain and difficulty, I guided
my raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in: but here I
had liked to have dipped all my cargo in the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping,
there was no place to land, but where one end of the loat,
if it ran on shore, would be so high, and the other sink
lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece
of ground, which I expected the water would flow over;
and so it did. As soon as I found water enough (for my
raft drew about a foot of water), I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened and moored her,
by sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one
on one side near one end, and one on the other side
near the other end; and thus I held it until the tide
ebbed away and left my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen.
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the continent
or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited;
whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a
hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder, and, thus armed, I traveled for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great
labor and difficulty got up, I immediately saw my fate, to



my great affliction, viz.: that I was in an island, envi.
roned every way with the sea; no land to be seen, ex
cept some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two
small islands less than this, which lay about three leagues
to the we-t.
I found also that the island that I was in was barren,
and, as 1 saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except
by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none; yet I saw
abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither,
when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for food and
what not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird,
which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a large
wood. I believe it was the first gun that had been fired
there, since the creation of the world. I had no sooner
fired, but from all parts of the wood there arose an extra-
ordinary number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying every one according to his
usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew.
As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of hawk,
its color and beak resembling it. but it had no talons or
claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and fit
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself at
night, I knew not, nor indeed where to rest, for I was
afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but what
some wild beast might devour me, though I afterwards
found there was really no need of those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for
food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except
that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to hand, and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible;
and as I knew the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces. I resolved to set all other things
apart, till I got every thing out of the ship that I could
get; then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when tie tide
was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
went from my lint, having nothing on but a checked
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my
I got on board the ship as before, and prep.d a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, 1 neither
made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard; but yet I
brought away several things very useful to me : as first,
in the carpenter's store I found two or three bags full of
nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a
grind-tone; all these I secured, together with several
things belonging to the g r particularly two or three
iron crows, and two barr mm t bullets, seven
muskets and another fo 0th some small
quantity of powder more: of small shot,
and a great roll of sheet le; is last was so
heavy, I could not hoist it up to git over the ship's
Besides these things, I took all the men's othere
I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, h al
some bedding; and with this I loaded m raft,
and brought them also safe on shore, to great
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be de-
voured on shore; but when I came back, I found no sign
of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild-cat
upon one of the chests, which when I came towards it ran
swa3) .. i little distance, and then stood still. She sat
,ry ....i..posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I
presented my gun at her; but as she did not understand
it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer
to stir away: upon which Itossed her a bit of biscuit,
though by the way I was not very free of it, for my store
was not great. However, I spared her a bit, I say, and
she went to it, smelled it, and ate it, and looked, as if
pleased, for more, but I thanked her, and could spare no
more; so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, being large casks), I
went to work to make a little tent with the sail and some
poles which I cut for the purpose; end into this tent I
brought every thing that I knew would spoil, either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks
up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden
attempt, either from manor beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set up


on one end without, and spreading one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and
my gun at length by me, I went to bed, for the first time,
and slept very quietly all night, being very weary and
heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and labored
very hard all day, as well to fetch those things from the
ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, Ibelieve, for one man; but I was not satis-
fied still, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get every thing out of her that I could;
so every day at low water I went on board, and brought
away something or other. But particularly the third
time I went, I brought away so much of the rigging as I
could, as also all the small ropes, and rope-twine I could
get, with a piece of spare canvas, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and a barrel of wet gunpowder. In
a word, I brought away all the sails, first and last, only
that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much
at a time as I could; for they were no more useful to me
for sail-, but as mere canvas only.

'- .

But ihilt which comforted me more still, was that at
-.at of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as
these, and thought I had nothing more to expect from the
ship that was worth my meddling with, I say, after all
this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three large run-
letsgfrum spirits, a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flor: this was surprising to me, because I had given
over expecting any more provisions, except what was
spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapt it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of
the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this
safe on shore, also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable, and fit to hand
ut, I began with cao -e and cutting the great cable
into pieces, su l a n ove, I got two cables and a
hawser on shor th ame iron-work I could get; and
having cut down t1s Bpritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard,
and everything I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with all those heavy goods and came away. But my good
Inck egan to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so den, that after I had entered the little cove,
where I a landed the rest of my goods, not being able
to guide itso handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water. As for myself it
was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great hse to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labor, for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued me very much. After this I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and been eleven
times on board the ship, in which time I had brought
away all that one pair of hands could well be supposed
capable to bring, though I believe, verily, had the calm
weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on
board, Ifound the wind began to rise: however, at low
water, I went on board; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectuallv, as thaatnothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker, with drawers in it, in
one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissors, with ten or a dozen good knives and forks:
in another, I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of
eight, some gold, some silver.
When I was gotten home to my little tent, I lay with all
my wealth about me very secure; it blew very hard all
that night; and in the morning, when I looked out, be-
hold, no more ship was to be seen I I was a little

surprised, but recovering myself with this satisfactory
reflection, viz.: that I had lost no time, nor abated any
diligence, to get every thing out of her that could be use-
ful to me; and that indeed there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time. I now
gave over any more thought of the ship, or of anything
of her except what might drive on shore from her wreck,
as indeed divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those
things were of small use to me.
Some days after this, after I had been on board the
ship, and had got all I could out of her, I could not for-
bear getting up to the top of a little mountain, and look-
ing out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then-fancy, at a
vast distance, I spied a sail; please myself with the hopes
of it and then, after looking steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep like a child,
and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things, in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome about
me as I could, I began, I say, to keep a journal, of which
I shall here give you the copy, (though in it will be told
all these particulars over again,) as long as it lasted; for
at last, having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
SEPTrzsma 30,1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm in the ofilng,
came en shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, which
I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the ship's
company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstance I was brought to, viz.: I had neither
food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to, and in
despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before me
either thatI shouldbe devoured by wild beasts, murdered
by savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the
approach of night, I slept in a tree, for fear of wild crea-
tures, but slept soundly, though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning, I saw to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven
on shore again, much nearer the island, which, as it was
some comfort on the one hand, (for seeing her sit upright,
and not broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, 1
might get on board and get some food and necessaries
out of her for my relief,) so, on the other hand, it renewed
my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagtled, if
we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship,
or at least that they would not have been all drowned, as
they were; and that, had the men been saved, we might
perhaps have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship,
to have carried us to some other part of the world. I
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on
these things; but at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I
went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also continued raining, though with no
wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every tide of
flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though
with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems, this
was the rainy season.
October 24. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it; and being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.
October 25. It rained all night, and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only
at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I saved, that the rain might not spol
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day to
find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to
secure myself from any attack, in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper
place under a rock and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work
or wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined
within with cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carry-
ing all my goods to my new habitation, though some part
of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to see for some food and discover the coun-
try; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me
home, which I afterwards killed, also, because it would
not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes, driven in to swing my hammock upon.
November 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.


November 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the af- in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold
ternoon, I went to work to make me a table, my goods commodiously.
November 4. This morning I began to order my time Note, during all this time I worked to make this room,
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a ware-
time of diversion-viz., every morning L walked out with house, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cel-
my gun, for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then lar; as for a lodging, I kept to the tent, except that some-
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then times in the wet season of the year it rained so hard that
eat what I had to live on: and from twelve to two, I lay I could not keep myself dry; which caused me after-
down to sleep, the weather being excessively hot, and wards to cover all my place within my pale, with long
then in the evening to work again. The working part of poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
this day and the next, were wholly employed in making and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman thatch.
though time and necessity made me a complete natural December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
mechanic, soon after, as I believe it would do any one finished, when, on a sudden, (it seems I had made it too
else. large,) a great quantity of earth fell down from the top
November 5. This day I went abroad with my gn and and one side, so much that in short, it frighted me,
my dog, and killed a wild-cat; her skin pretty soft, but and not without reason, for if I had been under it I had
her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed, I took never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster I hada
off the skins and preserved them. Coming back, by the great deal of work to do over again; for I had the loose
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not earth to carry out, and, which was of more importance, I
understand; but was surprised, and almostfrighted, with had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
two or three turtles, which, while I was gazing at, not more would come down.
well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and es- December 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
caped me for that time. ingly, and got two shores or posts, pitched upright to the
November 6. After my morning walk, I went to work top, with two pieces of board across over each post.
with my table again, and finishing it, though not to my This I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it. with boards, in about a week more I had the roof so-
November 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather, cured; and the posts, standing in rows, served me for
The 7th, 81h, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th, (for the 11th partitions to part off my house.
was Sunday, according to my reckoning,) I took wholly December 17. From this day to the 20th I placed
up to make me a chair, and, with much ado, brought it shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts, to hangeve-
to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and even in ry thing up that could be hung up; and now I began to
the making I pulled it to pieces several times. Note, I be in some order within doors.
soon neglected keeping my Sundays; for, omitting my December 20. Now I carried everything into the cave,
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which. and began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces
November 13. This day it rained, which refreshed me of board, like a dresser. to order my victuals upon; but
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompa- boards began to be very scarce with me. Ialso mademe
nied with terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted another table.
me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it December 24. Much rain all night and all day; no
was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder stirring out.
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not December 25. Rain all day.
be in danger. December 26. No rain, and the earth much cooler than
November 14,15, 16. These tree days I spent in mak- before, and pleasanter.
ing little square chests or boxes, which might hold about
a pound, or two pounds at most. of powder; and so put-
ting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but af
I knew not what to call it.
November 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my further convenency.
Note, three things I wanted exceedingly, for this work,
viz.: a pick-ax, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow or basket;
so I desisted Irom my work, and began to consider how
to supply that want, and make me some tools. As for
the pick-ax, I made use of the iron crows, which were
proper enough. though heavy; but the next thing was a I
shovel or spade; this was so absolutely necessary that
indeed I could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make, I knew not..
November 18. The next day. in searching the woods,
I found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Bra- '
zils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness:
of this, with great labor, and almost spoiling my ax, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty s
enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood and having no
other way, made me a long while upon thismachine: for December 27. Killed a young goat, aud lamed another
I worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form so that I caught it, and led it home, in a string; when I
of a shovel-or spade, the handle exactly shaped like ours got it home I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
in England. only that the broad part having no iron shod broken, and I took such care of it that it lived, and the
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; how- leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but by nursing it
ever,it served well enough for the uses which Ihad oc- so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
casion to put it to: but never was a shovel, I believe, door, and would not go away. This was the first time
made after that fashion, or so long a making. that I had entertained a thought of breeding up some
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheel- tame creatures, that I might have food when my powder
barrow; a basket I could not make, by any means, hav- and shot were all spent.
ing no such things as twigs that would bend, to make December 28, 29, 30. Greatheats and nobreeze, so that
wicker-ware, or, at lea-t, none yet found out; and, as to there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for
the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could make all but the food. This time I spent inputting all my things in order
wheel; but that I had no notion of, neither did I know within doors.
how to go about it: besides, I had no possible way to January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early
make iron gudgeons, for the spindle or the axis of the and late, with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
wheel to run in, so I gave over: and, for carrying away day. This evening, going farther into the valleys, which
the earth whic-h I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing lay to the center of the island, I found there were plenty
like a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in, when they of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at;
serve the bricklayers, however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to
This was not so difficult to me as the making the sho- hunt them down.
vel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went ont with
I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took me up no my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mistaken,
less than four days: I mea always excepting my morn- for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew hi
ing walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and very danger too well, for he would not come near them.
seldom failed also of bringing home something fit to eat. January 3. I began my fence or wall, which, bethg still
November 25. My other work having stood still be- jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished make very thick and strong. I was no less time than
I went on; and, working every day as much as my from the 3d of January to the 14th of April, working,


finishing, and perfecting this wall, though itwas no more wall, by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the out-
than about twenty-four yards in lengh,being at half-cir- side, of my habitation.
cle.from one place in the rock to another place about April l6. I finished the ladder; soI went up with the
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the cen- ladder to the top, and then pulled it upafter me, and let it
tre behind it. down on the outside. This was a complete enclosure to
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me; for within I had room enough, and nothing could
me many days, nay, sometimes, weeks together; butI come at me from without, unless it could first mount my
thought I never should be perfectly secure till this wall wall.
was finished; and it is scarcely credible what inexpres- May 1. In the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
sible labor everything was done with, especially the the tide being low, I saw somethinglie on the shore, big-
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into ger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask; when I
the ground; for I made them much bigger than I needed came to it I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces
to have done. of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by
When this wall was finished, and the outside double a hurricane; and, looking towards the wreck itself, I
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded thought it seemed to lie higher out of water than it used
myself, that if any people were to come on shore there, to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on shore,
they would not perceive anything like a habitation; and and soon found that it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it
it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
upon a very remarkable occasion, stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the pres-
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for ent, and went on upon the sands, as neitr as I could to the
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made wreck of the ship, to look for more.
frequent discoveries in these walks of something or other When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild moved: the forecastle, which lay before buried in the
pigeon, which built not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern,
rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and which was broken to pieces and parted from the rest by
taking some young ones, I endeavored to breed them up the force of the sea. soon after I had left rummaging of
tame, and did so; but when they grew older, they'll flew her, was tossed, as it were, up. and cast on one side;
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding and the sand was thrown so high on that side next the
them, for I had nothing to give them: however, I fre- stern, and whereas there was a great place of water be-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, fore. so that I could not come within a quarter of a mile
which were very good meat. of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite
And now in the managing my household affairs, I up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed as to earthquake, a violent shock of which I had felt some
some of them it was for instance, I could never make a days previously; and as by this violence the ship was
cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I ob- more broken upon than formerly, so many things came
served before, but I could never arrive at the capacity of daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.
it; I could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves Having resolved to pull everything to pieces that I
so true to one another as to make them hold water; so I could of the ship, concluding that everything I could get
gave that over also. from her would be of some use or other to me-
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
that as soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven through, which I thought held some of the upper part, or
o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. 1 remembered the quarter-deck, together; snd when I had cut it through, I
lump of bees'-wax, with which I made candles in my Af- cleared away the sand as well as I could, from the side
rican adventure; I had none of that now. The only which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved to give over for that time.
the tallow, and with a little dish added a wick of some I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
oakum, and made me a lamp; and this gave me light, except the time necessary to get food, which I always
though not a (lear steady light, like a candle. In the appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
middle of all my labors it happened that, rummaging my when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was
things I found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had ebbed out; and by this time, I had gotten timber and
been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for plank, and iron work enough to have built a good boat,
this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the -lip if I had known how; and also I got at several pieces,
came from Lisbon; what little remainder of corn had near one hundred weight, of sheet-lead.
been in the bag, was all devoured by the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husksand dust; and being willing
to have the bag for some other use, (I think it was to put
powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or
some such use,) I shook the husks of corn out of it, on
one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of
anything, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown anything there; when, about a month after, or
thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of something green :
shooting up on the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen ; but I was surprised, and per-
fectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect
green barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as
our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had '
very few notions of religion in my head, nor had I enter-
tained any sense of anything that had befallen me, other- "
wise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God; but now I thought these the pure productions of June 16. Going down on the sea-side, I found a large
Providence, for my support, tortoise or turtle; this was the first I had seen, which, it
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you maybe sure, seems was only my misfortune, not any defect of the
in their season, which was about the end of June; and, place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again, side of the island, I might have had hundreds of them
hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply every day, as I found afterwards; but. perhaps, had paid
me with bread: but it was not till the fourth year that I dear enough for them.
would allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
even then but sparingly, threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at that time the
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same having had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I landed
care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the in this horrible place.
same purpose, viz.: to make me bread, or, rather, food; June 18. Iaiued all day, so that I staid within. I
for I found ways to cook it up without baking, though thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
I did that also, after some time. But to return to my thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
Journal. June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, been cold.
to get my wall done; and, the 14th of April. I closed it June 20. No rest all night,"violent pains in the head,
Up, contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the and feverish.


June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with the appointedall this to befal me that I was brought to this
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the
help. Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm sole power, not of me only, but'of everything that hap-
off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why; my opened in the world. Immediately it followed:
thoughts being all confused. Why has God done this to me? What have I done to
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful apprehen- be thus used?
sions of sickness. My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry,
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then as if I had blasphemed; and methought it spoke to me
a violent headache. like a voice: Wretch, dost thou ask what thouhapt done ?
June 24. Much better. Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask thyself
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me seven what thou hast done I Ask why is it that thou wert not
hours, cold fit with faint sweats after it. long ago destroyed? Why wert thou not drowned in
June 26 Better; and having no victuals to eat took my Yarmouth roads killed in the fight when the ship was
gun, but found myself very weak; however, I killed a taken by the Sallee men of war ? evoured by wild beasts
she-goat, and, with much difficulty, got it home, and on the coasts of Africa? or, drowned here, when all the
broiled some of it, and ate it. I would fain have stewed crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask, What have I
it, and made some broth, but had no pot. done
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay abed all I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one as-
day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish tonished, and had not a word to say, no, not to answer
for thirst, but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, myself; but rose up, pensive and sad, walked back to my
or to get myself any water to drink; prayed to God again, retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had been going
but was light-headed; and when 1 was not, I was so to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, andI had
ignorant, that I knew not what to say; only I lay and no inclination to sleep; so I sat down in my chair and
cried: "Lord, look upon mel Lord, pity mel Lord, lighted my lamp for it began to be dark. Now, as the
have mercy upon me 1" I suppose I did nothing else for apprehensions o the return of my distemper terrified me
two or three hours, till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, very much, it occurred to my thought that the Brazilians
and did not awake till far in the night. When I waked, take no physicbut their tobaccoforalmost all distempers ;
1 found myself much refreshed, but weak and exceedingly and I had a piece of roll of tobacco in one of the chests,
thirsty; however, as I had no water in my whole habita- which was quite cured, and some also that was green,
tion, I was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep and not quite cured.
again. I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
The good advice of my father now came to my mind, I found a cure for both soul and body. I opened the
and presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the chest, and found what I looked for, viz.: the tobacco;
beginning of this story, viz.: That, if I did take this fool- and as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took
ish step, God would not bless me, and I should have leis- out one of the Bibles which I had mentioned before, and
ure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, which to this time, I had not found leisure, or so much
when there might be none to assist me in my recovery, as inclination, to look into; I say I took it out and
"Now," said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are come brought both that and the tobacco with me to the table.
to pass; God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to m
to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence distemper, or whether it was good for me or not; but
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station of tried several experiments with it, as if I was resolved it
life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but I should hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a
would neither see it myself nor learn to know the bless- leaf, and chewed it in my mouth which indeed, at first
in" of it from my parents; I left them to mourn over my almost stupefied my brain, the tobacco being green and
folly, and now I am left to mourn under the consequences strong, and not having been much used to t ; then I took
of it. I refused their help and assistance who would some, and steeped it an hour or two in rum and resolved
have lifted me into the world, and would have made to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I burnt
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close over
struggle with, too great for even nature itself to support, the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, as well for the
and no assistance, no help, no comfort, no advice." heat as the virtue of it and I held it, almost to suffocation.
Then I cried out: "Lord, be my help, for I am in great In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
distress I" and began to read; but my head was too much disturbed
This was my first prayer, if I might call it so, that I had with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time;
made for many years. But I return to my journal. only, having opened the book casually, the first words
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the that occurred to me were these: "Call on me in the day
sleep 1 had had, and the fit being entirely off I got up; of trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify
and the first thing I did I filled alarge square case bottle me."
with water, and set it upon my table, in reaclhof my The words were very apt to my case, and made some
bed; and to take off the chill or agunish disposition of impression upon my thoughts at the time of reading
the water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, them, though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as
and mixed them together; then I got me a piece of goat's to being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say, to
flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad hension of things, that I began to say as the children of
and heavy-hearted, in the sense of my miserable condi- Israel did, when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can
tion, dreading the return of my distemper the next day; God spread a table in the wilderness?" So I began to
at night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs, say, can God himself deliver me from this place ? And
wlicn I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the as it was not for many years that any hope appeared,
shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked this prevailed very often upon my thoughts. But, how-
God's blessing to, that I could remember, in my whole ever, the words made a great impression upon me, and
life. I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so the tobacco had, as I said, dozed my head so much, that
weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went I inclined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in the
out without that); so I went but a little way, and sat cave, lest I should want anything in the night, and went
down upon the ground, looking out upon the sea which to bed; but before I lay down, I did what I never had
was just before me, and very calm and smooth. As I sat done in all my life, I kneeled down, and prayed to God
he;e, some such thoughts as these occurred to me: to fulfill the promise made to me, that, if I called upon
What is the earth and sea, of which I have seen so him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me. After
much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal, rum in which I had steeped the tobacco which was so
whence are we ? strong and rank of the tobacco, that indeed I could scarce
Such we are all made by some secret power, who formed get it down. Immediately upon this I went to bed, and
the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is that P I found presently it flew up into my head violently; but
Then it followed most naturally: it is God that has I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till by the
made it all. Well, but then it came on strongly: if God sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
has made all these things, he guides and governs them afternoon, the next day; nay, to this hour, Iam partly
all, and all things that concern them; for the Being that of the opinion that I slept all the next day and night,
could make all things, must certainly have power to and till almost three the day after; for, otherwise, I
guide and direct them. knew not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning
If so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of his in the days of the week, as it appeared, someyears after,
works, either without his knowledge or appointment. I had done* for if I had lost it by crossing and recrossing
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he the line, I should have lost more than one day- but
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; certainly, I lost a day in my account, and I never new
and if nothing happens without his appointment, he has whichiwag.
appointed all this to befal me. Be that as it may, one way or other, when I awaked I
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any of found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spiritstlively
these conclusions; and therefore it rested auon me with and cheerful. When 1 got up I was stronger than I was
the greater force, that it must needs be, that God has the day before, and my stomach better; for I washungry,


and, in short, I had no fit the next day, but continued
much altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 80th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed
a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and
brought them home, but was not very forward to eat
them; so I eat some more of the turtles' eggs, which
were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine,
which I had supposed did me good the day before, viz.,
the tobacco steeped in rum, only I did not take so much
as before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head
over the smoke. However, I was not so well the next
day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways,
and dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceed-
ingly upon this Scripture, 'q will deliver thee;" and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I was discourag-
ing myself with such thoughts it occurred to my mind,
that I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I disregarded the deliverance I had re-
ceived; and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such
questions as these, viz.: Have I not been delivered, and
wonderfully too, from sickness; from the most distressed
condition that could be, and that was so frightful to me ?
And what notice had I taken of it? Had I done my part ?
God had delivered me; but I had not glorified him; that
is to say, I had not owned and been thankful for that as
a deliverance; and how could I expect greater deliver-
This touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down, and gave God thanks aloud, for my recov-
ery from sickness.
July 4. In the morning, I took the Bible and begin-
ning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read it,
and imposed upon myself to read every morning and
every night, not tying myself to a number of chapters,
but as long as my thoughts should engage me. It was
not long after I set seriously to this work, but I found my
heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wick-
edness of my past life. The impression of a dream re-
vived, and the words "All these things have not brought
thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I
was earnestly begging of God to give me repentance,
when it happened providentially, the very day, that read-
ing the Scripture, I came to the words, "He is exalted a
Prince, and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give
remission." I threw down the book, and, with my heart
as well as my hands lifted up to Heaven, in a kind of
ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud: "Jesus, thou Son of
David, Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me
repentance I"
This was the first time that I could say, in the true
sense of the word, that I prayed in all my life; for now I
prayed with a sense of my condition, and with a true
Scripture view of hope, founded on the encouragement
of the word of God; and from this time, I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above,
"Call on me, and I will deliver you," in a different sense
from what I had ever done before; for then I had no no-
tion of anything being called deliverance, but my being
delivered from the captivity I was in; for though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense of the word;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now, I
looked back upon my past life with such horror, and my
sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing
of God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life it was
nothing; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from
it, or think of it; it was all of no consideration in com-
parison of this; and I add this part here, to hint to who-
ever shall read it, that whenever they come to a true
sense of things, they will find deliverance from sin a
much greater blessing, than deliverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.
My condition began now to be, though not less miser-
able as to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind;
and my thoughts being directed, by a constant reading
of the Scriptures, and praying to God, to things ofa higher
nature I had a great deal of comfort within, which till
now I knew nothing of. Also, as my health and strength
returned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with every-
thing that I wanted, and make my way of living as regu-
lar as 1 could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed
in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a
little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness; for it is hardly to be
imagined how low I was, and to what weakness I was

reduced. The application which I made use of was
perfectly hew, and perhaps what had never cured an ague
before; neither can I recommend it to any one to prac-
tice, by this experiment; and though it did carry off the
fit, yet it rather contributed to weaken me: for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten
months: all possibility of deliverance from this condi-
tion seemed to be entirely taken from me; and I firmly
believed that no human shape had ever set foot upon that
place. Having now secured my habitation, as I thought,
fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other
productions I might find, which yet 1 knew nothing of.
It was the 15th of July that Ibegan to make a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little
brook of running water, and very fresh and good; but
this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in
some parts of it, at least not enough to run in any per-
ceptible stream.
On the bank of this brook I found many pleasant savan-
nas or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass;
and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds, where the water, as it might be supposed, never
overflowed, I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and
growing to a great and very strong stalk. There were
divers other plants, which I had no notion of, or under-
standing about; and might, perhaps, have virtues of
their own, which I could not find out.
I searched for the Cassava root, which the Indians, in
all that climate, make their bread of; but I could find
none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not then under-
stand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild, and for
want of cultivation, imperfect.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way again:
and, after going something farther than 1 had gone the
day before, I found the brook and the savannas began to
cease, and the country became more woody than before.
In this part I found different fruits, and particularly I
found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and
grapes upon the trees: the vines had spread indeed over
the trees, and the clusters of grapes were just now in
their prime, very ripe and rich. This was a surprisingg
discovery, and I was exceedingly glad of them; but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparingly of them, re-
membering that when 1 was ashore in Barbary, the eating
of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were
slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers;
but I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as
dried raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as in-
deed they were, as wholesome, and as agreeable to eat,
when no grapes might be had.
I speat all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as I
might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took my
first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well, and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery,
travelling near four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still due north, with a ridge of hills
on the north and south side of me.
At the end of this march, I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east: and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every-
thing being in constant verdure, or flourish of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden.
1 descended a little on the side of that delicious valley
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed
with other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all
my own; that I was a king and lord of all this country
indefeasibly, and I had a right of possession; and, if I
could convey it, I might have it in inheritance, as com-
pletely as any lord of a manor in England. I saw here
abundance of cocoa-trees; orange, and lemon, and citron
trees: but all wild, and few bearing any fruit, at least not
then. However, the green limes that I gathered were not
only pleasant to eat but very wholesome; and I mixed
their juice afterwards with water, which made it very
wholesome, and very cool and refreshing.
I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, as well of grapes
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching.
In order to do this, I gathered a great heap of grapes
in one place, and a lesser heap in another place, and a
great parcel f limes and lemons in another place; and
taking a few of each with me, I travelled homeward, and
resolved to come again, and bring a bag or sack, or what
I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in my journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave;)


but, before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the
richness of the fruit, and the weight of the Juice, having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little
or nothing: as to the limes, they were good, but 1 could
bring but few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made
me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was
surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which
were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found them
all spread abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about, some
here, some there, and abundance eaten and devoured.
By this, I concluded there were some wild creatures
thereabouts, which had done this; but what they were, I
knew not.
However, as I found there was no laying them up on
heaps, and no carrying them away in a sack; but that
one way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out-branches of the trees that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes, and
lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated
with great pleasure, the fruitfulness of that valley, and
the pleasantness of the situation, the security from
storms on that side of the water, and the wood; and
concluding that I had pitched upon a place to fix my
abode, which was, by far, the worst part of the country.
Upon the whole, I began to consider of removing my
habitation, and to look out for a place equally safe as
where I now was situate, if possible, In that pleasant
fruitful part of the island.
This thought run long in my head, and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time; the pleasantness of the place
tempted me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, and
to consider that I was now by the sea-side where it was
at least possible that something might happen to my
advantage, and that the same ill fate which brought me
hither, might bring some other unhappy wretches to the
same place; and though it was scarce probable that any
such thing should ever happen, yet, to enclose myself
among the hills and woods, was to render such an affair
not only improbable, but impossible; and that therefore
I ought not, by any means to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place, that I
spent much of my time there, for the whole remaining
part of the month of July: and though, upon second
thoughts I resolved as above, not to remove, yet I built
me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded it at a dis-
tance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as high
as I could reach, well staked and filled between with
brushwood; and here I lay very secure, sometimes two
or three'nights together always going over it with a
ladder, as before, so that I fancied now had my country
house, and my sea-coast house; and this work took me
up to the beginning of August.,
I had but newly finished my fence, and began to enjoy
my labour, when the rains came on, and made me stick
close to my first habitation; for though I had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me
from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into, when
the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said. I had finished
my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of Au-
gust, I found the grapes I had hung up were perfectly
dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins of the sun;
so I began to take them down from the trees; and it was
very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
would have spoiled them and I had lost the best part of
my winter food; for I had above two hundred large
bunches of them. No sooner had I taken them all down,
and carried most of them home to my cave, but it began
to rain; and from hence, which was the 14th of August,
it rained more or less every day till the middle of Octo-
ber; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out
of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase
of my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one
of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead; and I heard no more tale or tidings of her
till, to my astonishment, she came home about the end
of August with three kittens.
This was the more strange to me, because, though I
had killed a wild cat, as I called it with my gun, yet I
thought it was quite a different kind from our European
cats* yet the young cats were the same kind of house-
breed, like the old one; and both my cats being females,
I thought it very strange. But from these three cats I
afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that I was
forced to kill them like vermin, or wild beasts, and to
drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be
much wet. In this confinement I began to be straitened
for food; but ventured out twice, and one day killed a goat;

and the last day, which was the 26th, found a very large
tortoise, which was a treat to me; and my food was reg.
ulated thus: I eat a bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a
piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
broiled, (for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to
boil or stew anything,) and two or three of the turtle's
eggs for supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave;
and, by degrees worked it on towards one side, till I
came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way
out, which came beyon my fence or wall, and so I came
in and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at
laying so open; for as I had managed myself before, I
was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now, I thought I lay
exposed; and yet, I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet
seen upon the island, being a goat.


S/ .

September the 30th. I was now come to tho unhappy
anniversary of my landing. I cast up the notches on my
post, and found I had been on shore three hundred and
sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, setting
it apart to religious exercise, prostrating myself on the
ground with the most serious humiliation, confessed my
sins to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments
upon me and praying to him to have mercy on me,
through Jesus Christ; and not having tasted the least
refreshment for twelve hours, even till the going down of
the sun, I then eat a biscuit cake, and a bunch of grapes,
and went to bed, fishing the day as I began it.
I had all this time observed no Sabbath-day; for as at
first I had no sense of religion upon my mind, I had, after
some time omitted to distinguish the weeks, by making
a longer notch than ordinary for the Sabbath-day, and so
did not really know what any of the days were; but now
having cast up the days as above, I found I had been
there a year so I divided it into weeks, and set apart
every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my amount, I lost a day or two in my reckoning.
A little after this my ink began to fail me, and so I con-
tented myself to use it more sparingly, and to write down
only the most remarkable events of my life, without con-
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.
I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the
whole island, and that I had travelled up the brook, and
so on to where I had built my bower, and where I had an
opening quite to the sea, on the other side of the island.
I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore on
that side; so taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and
a larger quantity of powder and shot than usual, with
two biscuit cakes, and a great bunch of raisins in my
pouch, for my store, I began my Journey. When I had
passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
in view of the sea, to the west; and it being a very clear
day, I fairly described land, whether an island or a conti-
nent, I could not tell: but it lay very high, extending
from the west, to the W. S. W., at a very great distance:
by my guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty
leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than that I knew that it must be part of Amer-
ica and as I concluded, by all my observations, must
be near the Spanish dominions, and perhaps was all in-
habited by savages,.where, if I should have landed, I had
been in a worse condition than I was now; and there-
fore I acquiesced in the dispositions of Providence, which
I began now to own, and to believe, ordered everything


for the best; I say, I quieted my mind with this, and
left afflicting my mind with fruitless wishes of being
Besides, after some pause upon this affair, I considered,
that if this land was the Spanish coast, I should some
time or other see some vessels pass or repass one way or
other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
thb Spanish country and Brazils, which were indeed the
worst of savages, for they are cannibals, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies
that fall into their hands.
With these considerations I walked very leisurely for-
ward. I found that side of the island where I now was
much pleasanter than mine, the open or savanna fields
sweet, adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very
fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain would
I have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some pains
taken, catch a young parrot; for I knocked it down with
a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home, but
it was some years before I could make him speak. How-
ever, at last I taught him to call me by my name, very
familiar. But the accident that followed, though it be a
trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds, hares, as I thought them to be, and
foxes, but they differed greatly from all other kinds I had
met with; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them, though
I killed several. But I had no need to be venturous, for
I had no want of food, and of that which was very good,
too: especially these three sorts, viz.: goats, pigeon, and
turtle or tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhall
market could not have furnished a table better than I, in
proportion to the company. And though my case was
deplorable enough, yet 1 had great cause for thankful-
ness, that I was not driven to any extremities for food,
but had rather plenty, even to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns
and returns, to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down for all night; and then I either reposed myself in a
tree, or surrounded myself with a.row of stakes set
upright in the ground, from one tree to another, so as no
wild creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to
see that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island; for here indeed the shore was covered with in-
numerable turtles; whereas on the other side I had found
but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number offowls, of many kinds, some of which I had
seen, and some of which I had not seen before, and many
of them very good meat; but such as I knew not the
names of, except those called penguins.
I could have shot as many as Ipleased, but was very
sparing of my powder and shot and therefore had more
mind to kill a she-goat if I could, which I could better
feed on. And though there were many goats here more
than on my side of the island, yet it was with much more
difficulty that I could come near them, the country being
flat and even, and they saw me much sooner than when'I
was on the hills.
I confess this side of the country much pleasanter than
mine, but yet I had not the least inclination to remove ;
for, as I was fixed in my habitation, it became natural to
me; and I seemed all the while I was here, to be, as it
were, upon journey, and from home. However, I trav-
elled along the shore of the sea, towards the east, I sup-
pose about twelve miles; and then, setting up a great
pole upon the shore, for a mark, I concluded I would go
home again; and that the next journey I took, should be
on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round, till I came to my post again; of which in
its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep all the island so much in my
view, that I could not miss finding my first dwelling, by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken: for,
being come about two or three miles, I found myself de-
scended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hills, and those hills covered with woods, that I could
not see which was my way by any direction but that of
the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the posi-
tion of the sun at that time of the day.
It happened to my farther misfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days, while I was in this
valley; and, not being able to see the sun, I wandered
about very uncomfortable, and at last was obliged to find
out the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then, by easy journeys, I turned
homeward, the weather being exceedingly hot, and
my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very
In this journey my dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and I, running in to take hold of it,
caught it and saved it alive from the dog. I had a
great mind to bring it home, if I could for I had often

been musing whether it might not be possible to get a
kid or two, and to raise a breed of tame goats, which
might supply me when my powder and shot should ball
I made a collar to this little creature and with a string
which I made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried
about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty,
till I came to my bower, and there I enclosed him, and
left him; for I was very impatient to be at home, from
whence I had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-
bed. This little wandering journey, without any settled
place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my
own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settle-
ment to me, compared to that; and it rendered every-
thing about me so comfortable, that I resolved I would
never go a great way from it again, while it should be my
lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself herea week, to rest and regale myself
aftermy long journey, during which most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my
poll who began now to be a mere domestic, and to be
mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think
of the poor kid, which I had pent in within my little cir-
cle, and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some
food: accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for
indeed it could not get out, but was almost starved for
want of food. I went and cut boughs of trees, and
branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over;
and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it
away; but it was so tame, with being hungry, that I had
no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog;
and as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving,
so gentle, and so fond that it was from that time
one of my domestics, also, and would never leave me
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now
come, and I kept the 30th of September in the same
solemn manner as before, being the anniversary of my
landing on the island, having now been there two years,
and no more prospect of being delivered than the first
day I came there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mer-
cies which my solitary condition was attended with, and
without which it might have been infinitely more
miserable. I gave humble thanks that God had been
pleased to discover to me, even that it was possible I
might be more happy in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in a liberty of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world; that he could fully make up to
me the deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of
human society, by his presence, and the communications
of his grace to my soul, supporting, comforting, and en-
couraging me to depend upon his providence here, and
hope foris eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much
more happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable
circumstances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life
I led all the past part of my days: and now having
changed both my sorrows and my joys, my very desires
altered, my affections changed their guests, and my
delights were perfectly new, from what they were at my
first coming, or indeed for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my con-
dition would break out upon me on a sudden, and my
very heart would die within me, to think of the woods,
the mountains, the deserts I was in: and how I was a
prisoner locked up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without redemption.
In the midst of the greatest composures of mind, this
would break out upon me, like a storm, and make me
wring my hands, and weep like a child. Sometimes it
would take me in the middle of my work, and I would
immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground
for an hour or two together, and this was still worse to
me; for if I could burst out into tears, or vent myself by
words, it would go off, and the grief, having exhausted
itself, would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts.
I daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts
of it to my present state. One morning, being very sad,
I opened the Bible upon these words, "I will never,
never leave thee, nor forsake thee!" Immediately it
occurred that these words were tome; why else should
they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment I
was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of
God and man I "Well, then," said I, if God does not
forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what
matters it, though the world should all forsake me, see-
ing, on the other hand, if I.bad all the world, and should
lose the favor and blessing of God, there would be no
comparison in the loss ?"
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind
that it was possible for me to be more happy in this for-
saken, solitary condition, than it was probable I should


have ever been in any other particular state in the world
and with this thought, I was going to give thanks to God
for bringing me to this place.
I was now in the months of November and December
expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured or dug up for them was not great; for my seed
of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I
had lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season, but
now my crop promised very well, when, on a sudden, I
found I was in danger of losing it all again, by enemies
of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep
from it; as first, the goats, and wild creatures which I
called hares, who, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay
in it night and day, as soon as it came up, and ate it so
close that it could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure
about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of
toil, and the more because it required speed, the crea-
tures daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable
land was but small, suited to my crop, I got it tolerably
well fenced in about three weeks' time; and shooting
some of the creatures in the day-time, I set my dog to
guard it in the night, tying him up to'a stake at the gate,
where he would stand and bark all night long; so, in a
little time, the enemies forsook the place, and the corn
grew very strong and well and began to ripen apace.
But, as the beasts ruined me before while my corn was
in the blade, so the birds were likely to ruin me now,
when it was in the ear; for going along by the place to
see how it throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with
fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it
where, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
fly among them (for I always had my gun with me). I
had no sooner shot, but there rose up a little cloud of
fowls, which I had not seen at all, from among the corn

This touched me sensibly: for I foresaw that, in a few
days, they would devour all my hopes; that I should be
starved, and never be able to raise a crop at all; and
what to do I could not tell. However, I resolved not to
lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it night
and day. In the first place, I went among it to see what
damage was already done, and found they had spoiled
a good deal of it; but that, as it was yet too green for
them, the loss was not so great, but that the remainder
was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.
I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I
could easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees
about me, as if they only waited till I was gone away,
and the event proved it to be so; for as I walked off as
if I were gone I was no sooner out of their sight, but
they dropped down one by one, into the corn again. I
was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain that they
eat now, was, as might be said, a peck loaf to me in the
consequences; but, coming up to the hedge, I fired again,
and killed three of them. This was what I wished for;
so I took them up, and served them as we serve notorious
thieves in England, viz., hanging them in chains for a
terror to others. It is almost impossible to imagine that
this should have such an effect as it had: for the fowls
would not only not come at the corn but, in. short, they
forsook all that part of the island, and I could never see a
bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung there.
This I was very glad of, you may be sure; and, about
the latter end of December, which was our second har-
vest of the year, I reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe, or a sickle, to cut it
down, and all I could do was to make one as well as I
could, out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which
I saved among the arms out of the ship. However, as
my crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it
down. In short, I reaped it my way; for I cut nothing
off but the ears, and carried it away in a great basket
which I had made, and so rubbed it out with my bands.
And at the end of all my harvesting, I found that out of

my half peck of seed, I had near two bushels of rice, and
above two bushels and a half of barley; that is to ay,
by my guess, for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me; and I
foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply me
with bread. And yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or
indeed how to clean it, and part it; nor, if made into
meal, how to make bread for of it I knew not how to
bake it. These things being added to my desire of hav-
ing a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant
supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to
preserve it all for seed against the next season, and, in
the meantime, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing
myself with corn and bread.
When my corn was growing and grown, I have ob-
served how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it,
mow or reap it, cure and carry it home, thresh, part it
from the chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into
bread, and an oven to bake it in; and yet all these things
I did without, as shall be observed; and the corn was an
inestimable comfort and advantage to me too. All this,
as I said, made everything laborious and tedious to me,
but that there was no help for: neither was my time so
much loss to me, because as I had divided it, a certain
part of it was every day appointed to these works; and,
as I resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a
greater quantity by me, I had the next six months to
apply myself wholly by labor and invention to furnish
myself with utensils proper for the performing all the
operations necessary for the making the corn, whenI had
it fit for my use.
But first, I was to prepare moreland, for Ihad now seed
enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this,
I hada week's work at least to make me a spade, which,
when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and very
heavy and required double labor to work with it. How-
ever, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two
large flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could
find them to my mind, and fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood
which I had set before, which I knew would grow; so
that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repair. This
work was not so little as to take me up less than three
months, because great part of that time was of the wet
seasons, when I could not go abroad.
Within-doors, that is, when it rained, and I could not
go out, I found employment on the following occasions
always observing, that all the while I was at work, I
diverted myself with talking to my parrot, and teaching
him to speak; and I quickly taught him to know his own
name, at last to speak it out pretty loud, "Poll;" which
was the first word had ever heard spoken in the island
by any mouth but my own. This, therefore, was not my
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I
had a great employment upon my hands, as follows, viz.,
I had long studied, by some means or other, to make my-
self some earthen vessels, which indeed I wanted sorely,
but knew not where to come at them. However, consid-
ering the heat of the climate, I did not doubt but, if I
could find out any such clay, I might botch up some such
pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard enough and
strong enough, to bear handling, and to hold anything
that was dry, and required to be kept so; and as this was
necessary in preparing corn, mea &c., which was the
thing I was upon, I resolved to make some as large as I
could, and fit only to stand like jars to hold what should
be put in them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at
me, to tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this
paste; what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how
many of them fell in, and how many fell out, the clay not
being stiff enough to bear its own weight; how many
cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only re-
moving, as well before as after they were dried; and, n
a word, how, after having labored hard to find the clay
to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home and work it I
could not make above two large, earthen, ugly things, I
cannot call them jars, in about two months' labor.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and
hard, I lifted them very gently up, and set them down
again in two great wicker-baskets, which I had made on
purpose for them, that they might not break; and as
between the pot and the basket there was a little room to
spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw; and
these two pots being to stand always dry, I thought
would hold my dry corn, and perhaps the meal when the
corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large
pots, yet I made several smaller things with better suc-
cess such as little round pots, fat dishes, pitchers and
kns, and anything my and turned to; and the hat
heun baked them extremely hard.


But all this would not answer my end, which was to
get an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the
fre, which none of these could do. It happened after
some time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my
meat, when I went. to put it out, after I had done with it,
I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I
was agreeably surprised to see it, and said to myself,
that certainly they might be made to burn whole, if they
would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to
make it burn me some pots. I had no notion of a kiln,
such as the potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead,
though I had some lead to do it with; but I placed three
large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile one upon
another, and placed my fire-wood all round it with a
great heap of embers under them. I piled the fire with
tresh fuel round the outside, and upon the tow, till I saw
the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and observed
they did not crack at alL When I saw them a clear red,
I let them stand in that heat about five or six hours, till
I found one of them, though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted
with the violence of the heat, and would have run into
glass, if I had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually,
ill the pots began to abate of the red color, and watch-
ing them allnight, that I might not let the fire abate too
fast, in the morning I had three very good, I will not say
handsome pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard
burnt as could be desired; and one of them perfectly
glazed with the running of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no
sort of earthenware for my use; but I must needs say, as
to the shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any
one may suppose, when I had no way of making them,
but as the children make dirt-pies, or as a woman would
make pies that never learnt to raise paste.
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to
mine, when I found I had made an earthen pot that would
bear the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they
were cold, before I set one upon the fire again, with some
water in it, to boil me some meat, which it did admirably
well; and, with a piece of kid, I made some very good
broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and several other in-
gredients requisite to make it as good as I would have
Ead it.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortarto stamp
or beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no
thought of arriving to that perfection of art with one pair
of hands. To supply this want I was at a great loss; for,
of all trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter, as for anything whatever: neither had
I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to
find out a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make
lit for a mortar, and could find none at all, except what
was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to dig or
cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the island of hard-
ness sufficient, but were of a sandy, crumbling stone,
which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle,
nor would break the corn without filling it with sand. So
after a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone,
gave it over, and resolved to look for a great block of hard
wood, which I found indeed much easier; and getting
one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it, and
formed it on the outside with my axe and atchet; and
then, with the help of fire, and infinite labor, made a hol-
low place in it, as the Indian s in Brazil make their canoes.
After this I made a great heavy pestle or beater, of the
wood called the iron-wood, and this I prepared and laid
by against I had my next crop of corn, when I proposed
to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal, to
make my bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or scarce, to
dress my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk,
without which I did not see it possible I could have any
bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but
to think on; for, to be sure, I had nothing like the neces-
sary thing to make it with, I mean fine, thin canvass, or
stuff to scarce the meal through. And here I was at a full
stop for many months; nor did I really knowwhat to do.
Linen I had none left, but what was mere rags. I had
goat's hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it;
and had I known how, here were no tools to work it with
all the remedy that I found for this, was, that at last I did
remember I had, among the seamen's clothes, which were
saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or mus-
lin; and with some pieces of these, I made three small
sieves, but proper enough for the work; and thus I made
shift for some years. How I did afterwards, I shall shows
in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered,
and how I should make bread when I came to have corn;
for, first, I had no yeast. As to that part, as there was
no supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it; but for an oven, I was indeed in great pain.
At length I found out an expedient for that also, which
was this: I made some earthen vessels, very broad but
not deep; that isto say, about two feet diameter, and not

above nine inches deep; these I burnt in the fire, as I
had done the other, and laid them by, and when I wanted
to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles, of my own making and
burning, also: but I should not call them square.
When the fire-woodwas burntpretty much into embers.
or live coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth so
as to cover it all over; and there I let them lie, till the
hearth was very hot; then sweeping away all the embers,
I set down my loaf, or loaves, and whelming down the
earthen pot upon them, drew the embers all round the
outside of the pot to keep in, and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, Ibaked my
barley-loaves, and became, in a little'time. a good pastry-
cook into the bargain; for I made myself several cakes
of the rice. and puddings; indeed, I made no pies neither
had I anything to put into them, supposing I had, except
the flesh either of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me
up most part of the third year of my abode here ; for it is
lo be observed, that, in the intervals of these things, I
had my new harvest and husbandry to manage, for I
reaped my corn in its season, and carried it home as well
as could, and laid it up in the ear in my large baskets,
till I had time to rub it out: for I had no floor to thresh
it on, or instrument to thresh it with.
And now indeed my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted to build my barns bigger. I wanted a place to
lay it up in; for the increase of the corn now yielded me
so much, that I had of barley about twenty bushels and
of the rice as much or more; insomuch that now I re-
solved to begin to use it freely, for my bread had been
quite gone a great while; also I resolved to see what quan-
tity would be sufficient for me a whole year, and to sow
but once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of bar-
ley and rice were much more than I could consume in a
year; so I resolved to sow just the same quantity every
year that I sowed the last, in hopes that such a quantity
would fully provide me with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure
my thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land,
which I had seen from the other side of the Island; and
I was not without secret wishes that I were on shore
there, fancying that seeing the main land, and an inhab-
ited country, Imight find some way or other to convey
myself farther, and perhaps at last find some means of
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers
of such a condition, and how I might fall into the hands
of savages, and perhaps such as I might have reason to
think far worse than the lions and tigers of Africa; if I
once came into their power, I should run a hazard more
than a thousand to one of being killed, and perhaps of
being eaten; for I had heard, that the people of the Car-
ribean coast were cannibals, or men-eaters; and I knew
by the latitude, that I could not be far off from that shore
that, suppose they were not cannibals, yet they might kill
me, as many Europeans who had fallen into their hands
had been served, even when they had been ten or twenty
together; much more I, that was but one, and could make
little or io defense. All these things, I say, which I
ought to have considered well of, and did cast up in my
thoughts afterwards, yet took up none of my apprehen-
sions at first; and my head ran mightily upon the thought
of getting over to that shore.
Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat, with
the shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a
thousand miles on the coast of Africa, but this was in
vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship's
boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore,
a great way, in the storm, when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds, al-
most bottom upwards, against a high ridge of beachy,
rough sand, but no water about her, as before.
If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done
well enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils
with her easily enough; but I might have easily foreseen
that I could no more turn her, and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the island. However I
went to the woods, and cut levers and rollers, and brought
them to the boat, resolved to try what I could do, sug-
gesting to myself, that if I could but turn her down,
Might easily repair the damage she had received, and she
would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in her
Very easily.
I spared no pains indeed in this piece of fruitless toil,
and spent, I think, three or four weeks about it: at last,
finding It impossible to heave it up with my little strength,
I fell to digging away the sand to undermine it, and so to
i make it fall down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and
I guide it right in the fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up
Again, or get under it, much less to move it forward to-
wards the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet,
though I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to


venture over for the main increased, rather than de-
creased, as the means for it seemed impossible.
This at length set me upon thinking, whether it was
not possible to make myself a canoe, or periagna, such
as the natives of those climates make; even without
tools, or, as I might say, without hands, viz.: of the
trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible,
but easy; and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts
of making it, and with my having much more conve-
nience for it than any of the negroes or Indians, but not
at all considering the particular inconveniences which I
lay under more than the Indians did, viz.: want of hands
to move it into the water, when it was made; a difficulty
much harder for me to surmount, than all the conse-
quenct~ of want of tools could be to them; for what was
it to me, that when I had chosen a vast trade in the woods,
I might with great trouble cut it down, if after I might
be able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into
the proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside
to make it hollow, so to make a boat of it, if after all
this, I must leave it just where I found it, and was not
able to launch it into the water?
One would have thought, I could not have had the least
affection upon my mind of my circumstances, while I
was making this boat, but I should have immediately
thought how I should get it into the sea; but my thoughts
were so intent upon my voyage over the sea in it, that I
never once considered how should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to
guide it over forty-five miles of sea, than about forty-five
fathom of land, where it lay, to set it afloat in the water.

I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did who had any of his senses awake. I pleas-
ed myself with the design, without determining whether
I was ever able to undertake it; not but that the diffi-
culty of launching my boat came often into my head; but
I put a stop to my own enquiries Into it, by this foolish
answer, which I gave myself: "Let me first make it; I'll
warrant I'll find some way or other to get it along, when
it is done."
This was a most preposterous method; but the eager-
ness of my fancy prevailed, and to work I went, and
felled a cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon
ever had such a one for the building the temple of Jeru-
salem; it was five feet ten inches diameter, at the lower
part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches diam-
eter, at the end of twenty-two feet; after which it less-
ened for a while, and then parted into branches. It was
not without infinite labor that I felled this tree. I was
twenty days hacking and hewing it at the bottom. I wa
fourteen more getting the branches, and limbs, and the
vast spreading head of it cut off, which I hacked and
hewed through with my axe and hatchet, and inexpress-
ible labor. After this it cost me a month to shape it,
and dub it to a proportion, and to something like the
bottom of a boat, that it might swim upright as it ought
to do. It cost me near three months more to clear the
inside, and work it out so as to make an exact boat of it.
This I did indeed without fire, by mere mallet and chisel,
and by the dint of hard labor, till I had brought it to be
a very handsome periagua, and big enough to have car-
ried six-and-twenty men, and consequently big enough
to have carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than
I ever saw a canoe, or periagua, that was made of one
tree, in my life; many a weary stroke it had cost, you
may be sure, and there remained nothing but to get it
into the water; and had I gotten it into the water, I
make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever
was undertaken.

But all my devices to get it into the water failed me,
though they cost me Infinite labor too; it lay about one
hundred yards from the water, and not more; but the
first inconvenience was, it was uphill towards the creek.
Well, to take away this discouragement, I resolved to
dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity.
This I began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains;
but who grudge pains that have their deliverance in view?
But when this was worked through, and this difficulty
managed, it was still much the same; for I could no
more stir the canoe, than I could the other boat.
Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved
to cut a dock, or canal, to bring the water up to the
canoe, seeing that I could not bring the canoe down to
the water. Well, I began this work, and when I begaan
to enter into it, and calculated how deep it was to be dug,
how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found
that, by the number of hands I had, being none but my
own, it must have been ten or twelve years before I
should have gone through with it; for the shore lay high,
so that at the upper end it must have been at least
twenty feet deep; so at length, though with great reluc-
tancy, I gave this attempt, over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too
lale, the folly of beginning a work before we count the
cost, and before we judge rightly of our own strength to
go through with it.
In the middle of this work, I finished my fourth year
in this place, and kept my anniversary with the same
devotion and with as much comfort, as ever before; for
by a constant study, and a serious application of the
word of God, and by the assistance of his grace I gained
a different knowledge from what I had before. I enter-
tained different notions of things. I looked now upon
the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do
with, no expectation from, and indeed no desire about;
in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with it, nor was
ever like to have, so I thought it looked, as we perhaps
may look upon it hereafter, viz.: as a place I had lived
in, but was come out of it; and well might I say as father
Abraham to Dives, "Between me and thee is a great
gulf fixed."
In the first place, I was removed from all the wicked-
ness of the world here. I had neither the "lust of the
flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life." I had
nothing to covet; for I had all I was capable of enjoying;
I was lord of the whole manor, or, if I pleased, I might
call myself King or emperor over the whole country
which I had possession of. There were no rivals. I had
no competitor; none to dispute sovereignty or command
with me. I might have raised ship-loads of corn, but I
had no use for it, so I let as little grow as I thought
enough for my occasion. I had tortoises or turtles
enough; but now and then one was as much as I could
put to any use. I had timber enough to have built a fleet
of ships. I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to
have cured into raisins, to nave loaded that fleet when
they had been built.
But all that I could make use of, was all that was
valuable. I had enough to eat, and to supply my wants,
and what was all the rest to me? If I killed more flesh
than I could eat, the dog must eat it, or the vermin. I I
sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be spoiled.
The trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the ground.
I could make no more use of them than for fuel; and that
I had no occasion for, but to dress my food.
These reflections made me verysensible of the goodness
of Providence to me, and very thankful for my present
condition, with all its hardships and misfortunes.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being en-
tirely composed, by resigning to the will of God, and
throwing myself wholly upon the disposal of his provi-
dence. This made my life better than sociable; for when
I began to regret the want of conversation, I would ask
myself, whether thus conversing mutually with my own
thought s, and, as I hope I may say, with even my Maker,
by ejaculations and petitions, was not better than the
utmost enjoyment of human society in the world?
I cannot say that after this, for five years, any extra-
ordinary thing happened to me; but I lived on in the
posture and place just as before. The chief thing I was
employed in, besides my yearly labor of planting my bar-
ley and rice, and curing my raisins, of both which I
always kept up just enough to have sufficient stock of
one year's provisions before-hand; I say, besides this
yearly labor, and my daily labor of going out with my
gun, I had one labor to make me a canoe, which at last
finished. So that by digging a canal to it six feet wide
and four feet deep. I brought it into the creek, almost
half a mile. As for the first, that was so vastly big, as I
made it without considering before-hand as I ought to do,
how I should be able to launch it, so never being able to
bring it to the water, or bring the water to it I was
obliged to let it lie where it was, as a memorandum to
teach me to be wiser next time. Indeed, the next time,
though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a
place where I could not get the water to it, at any less


distance than, as I have said of nearly half a mile, yet
as I saw it was practicable at last, I never gave it over;
and though I was near two years about it, yet I never
grudged my labor, in hopes of having a boat to go off to
sea in at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet
the size of it was not at all answerable to the design
which I had in view, when I made the first, I mean of
venturing over to the terra firm, where it was above
forty miles broad: accordingly, the smallness of my boat
assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought
no more of it. But as I had a boat, my next design was
to make a tour round the island; for as I had been on the
other side in one place, crossing as I have already de-
scribed it, over the land, so the discoveries I made in that
journey made me very eager to see other parts of the
coast: and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but
sailing round the island.
For this purpose, and that I might do everything with
discretion and consideration, I fitted up a little mast to
my boat, and made a sail to it out of some of the pieces
of the ship's sail, which lay in store, and of which I had
a great stock by me.
Having fitted my mast and sail, and tried the boat, I
found she would sail very well. Then I made little lockers
or boxes at either end of my boat, to put provisions,
neces-aries, and ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry,
either from rain or the spray of the sea, and a little long
hollow place I cut in the inside of the boat, where I could
lay my gun, making a flap to hang over it to keep it dry.
I fixed an umbrella of my own manufacture also in a
step of the stern, like a mast, to stand over my head, and
to keep the heat of the sun off me, like an awning; and
thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon the
sea, but never went far out, nor far from the little creek.

I was something impatient to have the use of my boat,
though very loath to run any hazards; and therefore
sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the
island, and at other times I sat myself down contented
enough without her. But I had a strange uneasiness in
my mind to go down to the point of the island, where, as
I have said, in my last ramble, I went up the hill to see
how the shore lay, and how the current set, that I might
see what I had to do. This inclination increased upon
me every day, and at length I resolved to travel thither by
land; and, following the edge of the shore, I did so; but
had any one in England been to meet such a man as I was,
it must either have frightened him, or raised a great deal
of laughter; and as I Irequently stood still to look at my-
self, I could not but smile at the notion of my travelling
through Yorkshire with such an equipage, and in such a
dress. Be pleased to take a sketch of my figure, as
I hada great, high, shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin,
with a flap hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun
from me as to shoot the rain off from running into my
neck; nothing being so hurtful, in these climates, as the
rain upon the flesh under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming
down to about the middle of my thighs; and a pair of
open-kneed breeches of the same: the breeches were
made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose hair hung
down such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons,
it reached to the middle of my legs. Stockings and shoes
I had none; but I had made me a pair of something, I
scarce know what to call them, like buskins, to flap over
my legs, and lace on either side like spatterdishes, but of
a most barbarous shape, as indeed were all the rest of my
I had on a broad belt of goat's skin dried, which I drew

together with two thongs of the same, instead or buckles
and, in a kind of a frog, on either side of this, instead of
a sword and dagger, hung a little saw and a hatchet, one
on one side, one on the other. I had another belt not so
broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung
over my shoulder; and at the end of it, under my left
arm, hung two pouches, both made of goat's skin too:
in one of which hung my powder, in the other my shot.
At my back I carried my basket, on my shoulder a gun,
and over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat's-skin um-
brella, but which, after all, was the most necessary thing
I had about me, next to my gun. As for my face, the
color of it was really not so mulatto-like as one might
expect from a man not at all careful of it, and living
within nine or ten degrees of the equinox. My beardI
had once suffered to grow till it was about a quarter of a
yard long; but as Ihad both scissors and razors suffi-
cient, I had cut it pretty short, except what grew on my
upper lip, which I had trimmed into a large pair of Ma-
hometan whiskers, such as I had seen worn by some
Turks, whom I saw at Sallee; for the Moors did not wear
such, though the Turks did. Of these mustachios, or
whiskers, I will not say they were long enough to hang
my hat upon them; but they were of a length and shape
monstrous enough, and such as in England would have
passed for frightful.
But all this is by the bye: for as to my figure, I had so
few to observe me, that it was of no manner of conse-
quence; so I say no more to that part. In this kind of
figure I went my new journey, and was out five or six
days. I travelled first along the sea-shore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to anchor, to get upon
the rocks; and, having no boat now to take care of, I
went over the land a nearer way, to the same height that
I was upon before, when looking forward to the point of
the rocks which lay out, and which I was to double with
my boat, as I said above, I was surprised to see the sea
all smooth and quiet: no rippling, no motion, no current,
any more there than in other places.
I was at a strange loss to understand this, and resolved
to spend some time in observing it, to see if nothing
from the sets of the tide had occasioned it. But I was
presently convinced how it was, viz., that the tide of ebb
setting from the west, and joining with the current of
waters from some great river on the shore, must be the
occasion of this current: and that, according as the wind
blew more forcibly from the west, or from the noith, this
current came near, or went farther from the shore; for,
waiting thereabouts till evening, I went up to the rock
again, and then the tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw
the current again as before, only that it ran farther off,
being near half a league from the shore; whereas, in my
case, it was set close upon the shore, and hurried me in
my canoe, along with it, which at another time it would
not have done.
This observation convinced me that I had nothing to
do but to observe the ebbing and flowing of the tide, and
I might very easily bring my boat about the island again;
but when I began to think of putting it into practice, I
had such a terror upon my spirits at the remembrance of
the danger I had been in, that I could not think of it
again with any patience; but, on the contrary, I took up
another resolution, which was more safe, though more
laborious, and this was, that I would build, or rather
make me another periagua, or canoe, and so have one for
one side of the island, and one for the other.
You are to understand that now I had, as I may call it,
two plantations in the island; one, my little fortification
or tent, with the wall about it under the rock, with the
cave behind me, which, by this time I had enlarged into
several apartments or caves, one within another. One
of these, which was the driest and largest, and had a door
out beyond my wall or fortification, that is to say, beyond
where my wall joined to the rock, was all filled up with
large earthen pots, of which I have given an account
and with fourteen or fifteen great baskets, which would
hold five or six bushels each, where I laid up my stores
of provisions, especially my coru, some in the ear cut
off short from the straw, and the other rubbed out with
my hand.
As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or
piles, those piles grew all like trees, and were by this
time grown so big, and spread so very much, that there
was not the least appearance, to any one's view, of any
habitation behind them.
Near this dwelling of mine, but a little farther within
the land, and upon lower ground, lay my two pieces of
corn ground, which I kept duly cultivated and sowed,
and which duly yielded me their harvest in its seasons;
and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more
land adjoining as fit as that.
Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a
tolerable plantation there also. For, first, I had my little
bower, as I called it, which I kept in repair; that is to
say, I kept the hedge which circled it in constantly fitted
up to its usual height, the ladder standing always in the
thoughts, like a man perfectly confused and out of myself


inside. I kept the trees, which at first were no more thoughts,like a man perfectly confused and out o myself,
than my stakes, but were now grown very firm and tall, I came home to my fortification, not feeling, as we say,
I kept them always so cut, that they might spread and the ground I went on, but terrified to the last degree,
grow thick and wild, and make the more agreeable shade, looking behind me at every two or three steps, mistaking
which they did effectually to my mind. In the middle of every bush.and tree, and fancying every stump at a dis-
this I had my tent always standing, being a piece of a tance to be a man. Nor is it possible to describe how
sail spread over poles set up for that purpose, and which many various shapes an affrighted imagination repre-
never wanted any repair or renewing; and under this I sented things to me in; how many wild ideas were
had made me a squab or couch, with the skins of the formed every moment in my fancy, and what strange
creatures I had killed, and with other soft things, and a unaccountable whimsies came into my thoughts by the
blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-bed- way.
ding, which I had saved, and a great watch-coat to cover when I came to my castle, for so I think I called it
me: and here, whenever I had occasion to be absent ever after this, 1 fled into it like one pursued: whether I
from my chief seat, I took up my country habitation. went over by the ladder, as first contrived, or went in at
Adjoining to this, I had my enclosures for ny cattle, the hole in the rock, which I called a door, I cannot
that is to say, my goats: and as I had taken an incon- remember; for never frighted hare fled to cover, or fox
ceivable deal of pains to fence and enclose this ground to earth, with more terror of mind than I to this retreat.
I was so uneasy to see it kept entire, lest the goats should I had no sleep that night. The farther I was from the
break through, that I never left off, till. with infinite occasion of my fright, the greater my apprehensions
labor, I had stuck the outside of the hedges so full of were; which is something contrary to the nature of such
small stakes, and so near to one another, that it was things, and especially to the usual practice of all crea-
rather a pale than a hedge, and there was scarce room to tures in fear. But I was so embarrassed with my own
put my hand through between them; which afterwards, frightful ideas of the thing, that I formed nothing but
when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next rainy dismal imaginations to myself, even though I was now a
season, made the enclosure strong like a wall, indeed great way off it.
stronger than any wall. Abundance of such things as these assisted to argue
This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I me, that it must be some of the savages of the main land
spared no pains to bring to pass whatever appeared over against me, who had wandered out to sea in their
necessary for my.comfortable support; for I considered canoes, and, either driven by the current, or by contrary
the keeping up a breed of tame creatures thus at my winds, had made the island; and had been on shore, but
hand, would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter, gone away again to sea, being as loath, perhaps, to have
and cheese for me, as Tong as I lived in the place, if it staid in this desolate island, as I would have been to have
were to be forty years; and that keeping them within my had them.
reach depended entirely upon my perfecting my enclo- While these reflections were rolling upon my mind, I
sures to such a degree that I might be sure of keeping was very thankful in my thoughts, that I was so happy
them together; which by this method indeed I so effec- as not to be thereabouts at that time, or that they did not
tually secured, that when these little stakes began to see my boat, by which they would have concluded that
grow, I had planted them so very thick I was forced to some inhabitants had been in the place, and perhaps
pull some of them up again. have searched farther for me. Then terrible thoughts
In this place also I fad my grapes growing, which I racked my imaginations about their having found my
principally depended on for my winter-store of raisins, boat, and that there were people here; and that, if so, 1
and which'I never failed to preserve very carefully, as the should certainly have them come in greater numbers,
best and most agreeable dainty of my whole diet; and and devour me; that if it should happen so that they
indeed they were not agreeable only, but physical, whole- should not find me, yet they would find my enclosure,
some, nourishing, and refreshing to the last degree, destroy all my corn, carry away all my flock of tame
As this was also about half way between my other goats, and I should perish at last for mere want.
habitation and the place where I had laid up my boat, I In the middle of my cogitations, apprehensions, and
generally staid and lay here in my way thither; for I used reflections, it came into my thoughts one day that all this
frequently to visit my boat, and I kept all things about might be a mere chimera of my own, and this foot might
or belonging to her in very good order. Sometimes I be the print of my own foot, when I came on shore from
went out inler to divert myself; but not any hazardous my boat. This cheered me up a little too, and I began
voyages would I go, nor scarce ever above a stone's cast to persuade myself it was all a delusion; that it was
or two from the shore, 1 was so apprehensive of being nothing else but my own foot; and why might not I come
hurried out of my knowledge by the currents, or winds, that way from the boat, as well as I was going that way
or by other accident. But now I come to a new scene of to the boat ? Again, I considered also, that I could by no
my life. means tell for certain where I had trod, and where I had
not; and that if at last this was only the print of my own
foot, I had played the part of those fools, who strive to
make stories of spectres and apparitions, and then are
themselves frighted at them more than anybody else.
Now I began to take courage, and to peep abroad again:
for I had not stirred out of my castle for three days and
nights, so that I began to starve for provision, for I had
little or nothing within doors, but some barley cakes and
S- water. Then I knew my goats wanted to be milked too,
which usually was my evening diversion.
Heartening myself therefore with the belief, that this
was nothing but the print of one of my own feet (and so
I might be truly said to start at my own shadow,) I began
to go abroad again, and went to my country house to
milk my flock; to see with what fear I went forward,
Show often I looked behind me, how I was ready, every
now and then, to lay down my basket and run for my life,
it would have made any one thought I was haunted with
S an evil conscience, or that I had been lately most ter-
ribly frighted; and so indeed I had.
However, as Iwent on thus two orthree days, and had
S.seen nothing, I began to be a little bolder, and to think
there was really nothing in it but my own imagination;
Sbut I could not persuade myself fully ofthis, till I should
go down to the shore again, and see this print of a foot,
and measure it by my own, and see if there was any si-
militude or fitness, that I might be assured it was my
It happened one day about noon, going towards my own foot. But when I came to the place first, it ap-
boat. I was exceedingly surprised with the print of a peared evidently to me, that when I laid up my boat, I
man's naked foot on the shore which was very plain to could not possibly be on shore any where thereabouts.
be seen in the sand. I stood like one thunderstruck, or Secondly, when I came to measure the mark with my
as if I had seen an apparition. I listened, I looked round own foot, I fonnd my foot not so large by a great deal:
me: I could hear nothing, nor see anything. I went up both these things filled my head with new imaginations,
to the rising ground to look farther. Iwentnp the shore, and gave me the vapors again to the highest degree, so
and down the shore, but it was all one; I could see no that r shook with cold, like one in an agne, and I went
other impression but that one. I went to it again to see home again, filled with the belief that some man or
if there were any more, and to observe if it might not be men -had been on shore there; or, in short, that the
my fancy; but there was no room for that, for there was island was inhabited, and I might be surprised before I
exactly the very print of a foot, toes, heal, and every was aware; and what course to take for my security, I
part of a foot: how it came thither Iknew not, nor could knew not.
in the least imagine. But after innumerable fluttering This confusion )f my thoughts kept me waking all


night; but in the morningI fell asleep, and having by the
amusement of my mind, been, as it were, tired, and my
spirits exhausted, I slept very soundly and awoke much
better composed than I had ever been before. And now
I began to think sedately; and upon the utmost debate 1
with myself I concluded that this island, which was so
exceeding pleasant, fruitful. andno further from the main
land than as Ihad seen, was not so entirely abandoned
as I might imagine; that although there were no stated
inhabitants who lived on this spot, yet there might
sometimes come boats off from the shore, who, either
with design, or perhaps never but when they were driven
by cross winds, might come to this place: that I had
lived fifteen years now, and had not met with the least
shadow or figure of any people before; and that if at any
time they should be driven here, it was probable they
went away again as soon as ever they could, seeing they
had never thought fit to fix here, upon any occasion, to
this time; that the most I could suggest any danger
from, was, from any such casual accidental landing of
straggling people from the main; who, as it was likely,
If they were driven hither, were here against their wills,
so they made no stay here, but went offagain at all possi-
ble speed, seldom staying one night on shore, lest they
should not have the help of the tides and daylight back
again: and that therefore I had nothing to do but to con-
sider of some safe retreat, in case I should see any sav-
ages land upon the spot.
Now I began sorely to repent that I had dug my cave
so large as to bring a door through again, which door as
I said, came out beyond where my fortification joined to
the rock. Upon maturely considering this, therefore, I
resolved to draw me a second fortification, in the same
manner of a semicircle, at a distance from my wall, just
where I had planted a double row of trees, about twelve
years before, of which I made mention. These trees
having been planted so thick before, there wanted but
a few piles to be driven between them, that they might
be thicker and stronger, and my wall would be soon
So that I had now a double wall, and my outer wall was
thickened with pieces of timber, old cables, and every-
thing I could think of to make it strong; having in it
seven little holes, about as big as I might put my arm out
at. In the inside of this I thickened my wall to about
ten feet thick, continually bringing earth out of my cave,
and laying it at the foot of the wall, and walking upon it :
and through the seven holes I contrived to plant the
muskets, o which I took notice that I got seven on shore
out of the ship; these, I say, I planted like my cannon,
and fitted them into frames that held them like a carriage,
that so I could fire all the guns in two minutes' time.
This wall I was many a weary month in finishing, and
yet never thought myself safe till it was done.
When this was done, I stuck all the ground without
my wall, for a great way every way, as full with stakes or
sticks of the osier-like wood which I found so apt to
grow, as they could well stand; insomuch that I might
set in twenty thousand of them, leaving a pretty large
space between them and my wall, that I might have room
to see an enemy, and they might have no shelter from the
young trees if they approached my outer wall.
Thus, in two years I had a thick grove; and, in five or
six years' time, I had a wood before my dwelling grown
so monstrous thick and strong that it was indeed per-
fectly impassable; and no man of what kind soever,
would ever imagine that there was anything beyond it,
much less a habitation. As for the way I proposed to
myself to go in and out, (for I left no avenue,) it was by
setting two ladders; one to a part of the rock which was
low, and then broke in, and left room to place another
ladder upon that; so that, when the two ladders were
taken down, no man living could come down to me with-
out mischiefing himself; and if they had come down, they
were still on the outside of my outer wall.
Thus I took all the measures human prudence could
suggest for my own presevation; and it will be seen, at
length, that they were not altogether without just reason,
though I foresaw nothing at that time, more than fear
suggested to me.
While this was doing, Iwas not altogether careless of
my other affairs; for I had a great concern upon me for
my little herd of goats: they were not only a present
supply to me upon every occasion, and began to be suffi-
cient to me without the expense of powder and shot, but
also abated the fatigue of my hunting after the wild ones,
and I was loath to lose the advantage of them, and to
have them all to nurse up over again.
To this purpose, after long consideration, I could think
of but tito ways to preserve them: one was to fnd an-
other convenient place to dig a cave under ground, and
to drive them into it every night: and the other was to
enclose two or three little bits of land, remote from one
another, and as much cOncealed as I could, where I might
keep about half a dozen young goats in each place, so
that if any disaster happened o the flock in general, I
might be able to raise them again with little trouble

and time; and this, though it would require a great
deal of time and labor, I thought was the most rational
Accordingly I spent some time to find out the most re-
tired parts of the island; and I pitched upon one which
was private Indeed as my heart could wish; for it was a
little damp piece of ground in the middle of the hollow
and thick woods, where, as is observed, I almost lost
myself once before, endeavoring to come back that way
from the eastern part of the island. Here I found a clear
piece of land near three acres, so surrounded with woods,
that it was almost an enclosure by nature; at least, it did
not want near so much labor to make it so, as the other
pieces of ground I had worked so hard at.
I immediately went to work with this piece of ground;
and, in less than a month's time, I had so fenced it round,
that my fock or herd, call it which you please, which
were not so wild now as at first they might be supposed
to be, were well enough secured in it. So, without any
further delay, I removed ten she-goats and two he-goats
to this piece; and when they were there, I continued to
perfect the fence till I made it as secure as the other,
which, however, I did at more leisure, and it took me up
more time by a great deal.
All this labor I was at the expense qf purely from my
apprehensions on account of the print of a man's foot
which I had seen; for as yet I never saw any human
creature come near the island; and I had now lived two
years under these uneasinesses, which indeed made my
life much less comfortable than it was before, as may
well be imagined by any who knows what it is to live in
the constant snare of the fear of man; and this I must
observe with grief too, that the discomposure of my mind
had too great impressions also upon the religious part of
my thoughts; for the dread and terror of falling into the
hands of savages and cannibals, lay so upon my spirits,
that I seldom found myself in a due temper for applica-
tion to my Maker, at least, not with the sedate calmness
and resignation of soul which I was wont to do.
But to go on. After I had thus secured one part ofmy
little living stock, I went about the whole island, search-
ing for another private place, to make such another de-
posit when, wandering more to the west point of the
island than I had ever done yet, and, looking out to sea,
I thought I saw a boat upon the sea, at a great distance.
I had lound a perspective glass or two, in one of the sea-
men's chests, which I saved out of our ship; but I had it
not about me, and this was so remote, that I could not
tell what to make of it, though I looked at it till my eyes
were not able to hold to look any longer. Whether it was
a boat or not, I do not know; but as I descended from
the hill, I could see no more of it, so I gave it over; only
I resolved to go no more without a perspective glass in
my pocket.
When I was come down the hill, to the end of the island,
where, indeed, I had never been before, I was presently
convinced that the seeing the print of a man's foot was
not such a strange thing in the island asI imagined: and
but that it was a special providence that I was cast upon
the side of the island where the savages never came, I
should easily have known that nothing was more frequent
than for the canoes from the main, when they happened
to be a little too far out at sea, to shoot over to that side
of the island for harbor; likewise, as they often met, and,
fought in their canoes, the victors, having taken any
prisoners, would bring them over to this shore, where,
according to their dreadful custom, being all cannibals,
they would kill and eat them: ofwhich, hereafter.

When I was come down the hill to the shore, as I said
above, being the south-west point of the island, I was
perfectly confounded and amazed; nor is It possible for
me to express the horror of my mind, at seeing the shore


spread with skulls, hands feet, and other bones of human
bodies, and particularly I observed a place where there
had been a fire made, and a circle dug in the earth, like a
cockpit, where, it is supposed, the savage wretches had
sat downv to their inhuman feastings upon the bodies of
their fellow-creatures.
I was so astonished with the sight of these things, that
I entertained no notion of any danger to myself from it
for a long while. All my apprehensions were buried in
the thoughts of such a pitch of inhuman, hellish brutality,
and the horror of the degeneracy of human nature, which,
though I had heard of often, yet I never had so near a
view of before; in short, I turned away my face from the
horrid spectacle, my stomach grew sick, and I was just at
the point of fainting, when nature discharged the disor-
der from my stomach; and, having vomited with an un-
common violence, I was a little relieved but could not
bear to stay in the place a moment; so I got me up the
hill again, with all the speed I could, and walked on to-
wards my own habitation.
When I came a little out of that part of the island, I stood
still awhile, as amazed; and then, recovering myself, I
looked up with the utmost affection of my soul, and, with
a flood of tears in my eyes, gave God thanks that I had
cast my first lot in a part of the world where I was dis-
tinguished from such dreadful creatures as these, and that,
though I had esteemed my present condition very mise-
rable, had yet given me so many comforts in it, that I had
still more to give thanks for than to complain of; and
this, above all, that I had, even in this miserable condi-
tion, been comforted with the knowledge of Himself, and
the hope of his blessing, which was a felicity more than
sufficiently equivalent to all the misery which I had suf-
fered, or could suffer.
In this frame of thankfulness I went home to my castle,
and began to be much easier now as to the safety of my
circum-tances, than ever I was before; for I observed
that these wretches never came to this island in search
of what they could get; perhaps not seeking, not want-
ing, or not expecting anything here; and having often,
no doubt, been up in the covered woody part of it, with-
out finding anything to their purpose. I knew I had been
here now almost eighteen years, and never saw the least
footsteps*of human creature there before; and might be
here eighteen more as entirely concealed as I was now,
if I did not discover myself to them, which I had no
manner of occasion to do-it being my only business to
keep myself entirely concealed where I was, unless I
found a better sort of creatures than cannibals to make
myself known to.
Yet I entertained such an abhorrence of the savage
wretches that I have been speaking of, and of the
wretched inhuman custom of their devouring and eating
one another up, that I continued pensive and sad, and
kept close within my own circle for almost two years
after this. When I say my own circle, I mean by it my
three plantations-viz., my castle, my country seat which
I called my bower, and my enclosure in the woods; nor
did I look after this for any other use than as an enclo-
sure for my goats: for the aversion which nature gave
me to these hellish wretches was such, that I wasas lear-
ful of seeing them as of seeing the devil himself. Nor
did I so much as go to look after my boat all this time,
but began rather to think of making me another; for I
could not think of ever making any more attempts to
bring the other boat round the island to me, lest I should
meet with some of these creatures at sea, in which, if I
had happened to have fallen in their hands, I knew what
would have been my lot.
Time, however, and the satisfaction I had that I was in
no danger of being discovered by these people, began to
wear off my uneasiness about them; and I began to live
just in the same composed manner as before-only with
this difference, that I used more caution, and kept my
eyes more about me than I did before, lest I should hap-
pen to be seen by any of them; and particularly I was
more cautious in firing my gun, lest any of them being
on the island should happen to hear it; and it was, there-
fore, a very good providence to me that I had furnished
myself with a tame breed of goats, that Ineeded not hnnt
any more about the woods, or shoot at them: and if I did
catch any of them after this, it was by traps and snares,
as I had done before; so that for two years after this, I
believe I never fired my gun once off, though I never
went out without it; and, which was more, asIhad saved
three pistols out of the ship, I always carried them out
with me, or at least two of them, sticking them in my
goat-skin belt. I likewise furbished up one of the great
cutlasses that I hal out of the ship, and made me a belt
to put it on also; so that I was now a most formidable
fellow to look at when I went abroad, if you add to the
former description of myself the particular of two pistols
and a great broadsword hanging at my side in a belt, but
without a scabbard.
Things going on thus, as I have said, for some time, I
seemed, exception these cautions, to be reduced to my
former calm, sedate way of living. All these things

tended to showing me, more and more, how far my con-
dition was from being miserable, compared to some
others, nay, to many other particulars of life, which it
might have pleased God to have made my lot. It put me
upon reflecting how little repining there would be among
mankind, at any condition of life, if people would rather
compare their conditions with those that are worse, in
order to be thankful, than be always comparing them
with those which are better, to assist their murmurings
and complaining.
As in my present condition there were not really many
things which I wanted, ed indeed I thought that the
frights I had been in about these savage wretches, and
the concern I had been in for my own preservation, had
taken off the edge of my invention for my own conve-
niences; and I had dropped a good design, which I had
once bent my thoughts upon, and that was, to try if I
could not make some of my barley into malt and then
try to brew myself some beer. This was really a whim-
sical thought, and I reproved myself often for the sim-
plicity of it; for I presently saw there would be the want
of several things necessary to the making my beer that it
would be impossible for me to supply; as, first, casks to
preserve it in, which was a thing that, as I have observed
already, I could never compass; no, though I spent not
many days, but weeks, nay months, in attempting it, but
tono purpose. In the next place I had no hops to make
it keep, no yeast to make it work, no copper or kettle to
make it boil; and yet had not all these things intervened
(I mean the frights and terrors I was in about the
savages), I had undertaken it, and perhaps brought it to
pass too; for I seldom gave anything over without
accomplishing it, when once I had it in my head enough
to begin it.
But my invention now ran quite another way; for night
and day I could think of nothing but how Imight destroy
some of these monsters in their cruel, bloody entertain-
ment, and, if possible, save the victim they should bring
hither to destroy. It would take up a larger volume than
this whole work is intended to be, to set down all the
contrivances I hatched, or rather brooded upon, in my
thoughts, for the destroying these creatures, or at least
frightening them, so as to prevent their coming hither
any more. But all was abortive; nothing could be pos-
sible to take effect, unless I was to be there to do it my-
self. And what could one man do among them, when,
perhaps, there might be twenty or thirty of them together
with their darts, or their bows and arrows, with which
they could shoot as true to a mark as 1 could with my
Sometimes I thought of digging a hole under the place
where they made their fire, and put in five or six pounds
of gunpowder, which, when they kindled their fire, would
consequently take fire, and blow up all that was near it.
But as, in the first place, I was loath to spend so much
powder upon them, my store being now within the quan-
tity of one barrel, so neither could I be sure of its going
off at any certain time, when it might surprise them, and
at best it would do little more than just blow the fire
about their ears and frighten them, but not sufficient to
make them forsake the place; so I laid it aside, and then
proposed I should lay myself in ambush, in some conve-
nient place, with my three guns, all double loaded, and in
the middle of their bloody ceremony hlt fly at them, when
I should be sure to kill or wound perhaps two or three at
every shot and then falling in upon them with my three
pistols and sword I made no doubt but that if there were
twenty I should kill them all. This fancy pleased my
thoughts for some weeks, and I was so full that I often
dreamed of it, and sometimes that I was ust going to let
fly among them in my sleep.
I went so far with it in my imagination, that I employed
myself several days to find out a proper place to put my-
self in ambuscade, as I said, to watch for them; and I
went frequently to the place itself which was now grown
more familiar to me, and especially while my mind was
thus filled with thoughts of revenge, and of putting twenty
or thirty of them to the sword, as I will call it but the
horror I had at the place, and at the signals of the bar-
barous wretches devouring one another, abated my
Well at length I found a place in the side of the hill,
where I was satisfied I might securely wait till I saw any
of their boats coming, and might then, even before they
would be ready to come on shore, convey myself unseen
into the thickest of the trees, in one of which there was
a hollow large enough to conceal me entirely, and where
I might sit and observe all their doings, and take my full
aim at their heads, when they were so close together that
it would be next to impossible that I should miss my
shot, or that I could fail wounding three or four of them
at the first fire.
In this place, then, I resolved to fix my design, and
accordingly I prepared two muskets and my ordinary
fowling-piece. The two muskets I loaded with a brace
of slugs each, and four or five small bullets, about the
size of pistol bullets; and the fowling-piece I loaded


with nearly a handful of swan shot, of the largest size.
I also loaded my pistols with about four bullets each;
and in this posture, provided with ammunition for a
second and third charge, I prepared myself for my expe-
After I had thus laid the scheme for my design, and,
in my imagination, put it in practice, I continually made
my tour every morning up to the top of the hill, which
was from my castle (as I called it) about three miles, or
more, to see if I could observe any boats upon the sea
coming near the island, or standing over towards it;
but I began to tire of this hard duty, after I had for two
or three months constantly kept watch, and come always
back without any discovery, there having not in all that
time been the least appearance, not only on or near the
shore, but not on the whole ocean, so far as my eyes or
glasses could reach every way.
As long as I kept up the daily tour to the hill to look
out, so long also I kept up the vigor of my design; and
my spirits seemed to be all the while inia suitable frame
for such an outrageous execution as the killing of twenty
or thirty naked savages.
I believe the render of this will not think it strange if
I confess that these anxieties, these constant dangers
that I lived in, and the concern that was now upon me,
put an end to all invention, and to all the contrivances
that I had laid for my future accommodation and con-
veniences. I had the care of my safety more now upon
my hands than that of my food. I cared not to drive a
nail, or chop a stick of wood now, for fear the noise I
made should be heard much less would I fire a gun for
the same reason: and, above all, I was very uneasy at
making any fire, lest the smoke. which is visible at a
great distance in the day, should betray me; and for
this reason I removed that part of my business which
required fire, such as the burning of pots, pipes, &c.,
into my new apartment in the woods, where, after I had
been some time, I found, to my unspeakable consolation,
a mere natural cave in the earth, which went in a vast
way, and where I dare say no savage, had he been at the
mouth of it, would be so hardy as to venture in; nor,
indeed, would any one else but one who, like me, wanted
nothing so much as a safe retreat.
The mouth of this hollow was at the bottom of a great
rock, where, by mere accident I would say (if I did not
see abundant reason to ascribe all such things now to
Providence), I was cutting down some thick branches of
trees to make charcoal.
I was afraid of making a smoke about my habitation,
as I said before, and yet I could not live there without
baking my bread, cooking my meat, &c.; so I contrived
to burn some wood here, as I had seen done in England
under turf, till it became chark, or dry coal; and then
putting the fire out, I preserved the coal to carry home,
and performed the other services for which the fire was
wanting, without danger of smoke.
But this by the bye. While I was cutting down some
wood here, Iperceived that, behind a very thick branch
of low brush-wood or under-wood there was a kind of a
hllow place. I was curious to look into it, and getting
with difficulty into the mouth of it, I found it was pretty
large-that is to say, sufficient for me to stand upright
in it, and perhaps another with me; but I must confess
to you I made more haste out than I did in, when look-
ing farther into the place, which was perfectly dark, I
saw two broad shining eyes of some creature, which
twinkled like two stars; the dim light from the cave's
mouth shining directly in, and making the reflection.
However, after some pause I recovered myself- and
plucking up courage, I took a great firebrand, and in I
rushed again, v~h the stick flaming in my hand. I had
not gone three steps in, but I was almost as much fright-
ed as I was before; for I heard a very loud sigh, like
that of a man in some pain, and it was followed by a
broken noise, as if of words half expressed, and then a
deep sigh again. I stepped back, and was indeed struck
with such a surprise that it put me into a cold sweat;
and if Ihad had a hat on my head, I would not answer
for it that my hair had not lifted it off. But still pluck-
ing up my spirits as well as I could, and encouraging
myself a little with considering that the power and
presence of God was everywhere, and was able to protect
me, I stepped forward again, and by the light of the fire-
brand, holding it a little over my head, I saw, lying on
the ground, a most monstrous frightful old he-goat, just
making his will, as we say, gasping for life, and dying,
indeed, of mere old age.
I stirred him a little to see if I could get him out, and
he essayed to get up, but was not able to raise himself;
and I thought with myself he might even lie there* for
if he had frighted me so, he would certainly frighten
any of the savages, if any of them should be so hardy
as to come in there, while he had any life in him.
I was now recovered from my surprise, and began to
look around me, when I found the cave was but very
small ; that is to say, it might be about twelve feet over,

but in no manner of shape, either round or square, no
hands having ever been employed In making it than
those of mere nature. I observed, also, that there was
a place at the further side of it that went in farther, but
it was so low that it required me to creep upon my hands
and knees to go into it, and whither it went I knew not;
so, having no candle, I gave it over for some time, but
resolved to come again the next day, provided with can-
dles and a tinder-box, which I had made of the lock of
one of the muskets, with some wildfire in the pan.
Accordingly, the next day, I came provided with six
large candles of my own making, for I made very good
candles now of goat's talldv; and going into this low
place I was obliged to creep upon all fours, as I have said,
almost ten yards, which, by the way, I thought, was a
venture bold enough, considering that I knew not how
far it might go, or what was beyond it. When I was got
through the strait, I found the roof rose higher up, I be-
lieve near twenty feet; but never was such a glorious
sight seen in the island, I dare say, as it was, to look
round the sides and roof of this vault or cave. The
walls reflected a hundred thousand lights to me from my
two candles; what it was in the rock, whether diamonds,
or any other precious stones, or gold, which I supposed
it to be, I knew not.
The place I was in was a most delightful cavity, or
grotto, of its kind, as could be expected, though per-
fectly dark; the floor was dry and level, and had a sort
of small loose gravel upon it, so that there was no nau-
seous or venomous creatures to be seen; neither was
there any damp or wet on the sides or roof. The only
difficulty in it was the entrance, which, however, as it
was a place of security, and such a retreat as I wanted,
I thought that was a convenience; so that I really re-
joiced at the discovery, and resolved, without any delay,
to bring some of those things which I was most anxious
about to this place; particularly I resolved to bring
hither my magazine of powder, and all my spare arms,
viz.. two fowling-pieces (for I had three in all.) and three
muskets (for of them I had eight in all); so I kept at my
castle only five, which stood, ready mounted, like pieces
of cannon, on my outmost fence, and were all ready to
take out upon any expedition.
Upon this occasion of removing my ammunition, I
was obliged to open the barrel of powder which I took
up out of the sea, and which had been wet; and I found
that the water had penetrated about three or four inches
into the powder on every side, which caking and grow-
ing hard, had preserved the inside like a kernel in a shell,
so that I had sixty pounds very good powder in the centre
of the cask; and this was an agreeable discovery to me
at that time: so I carried all away thither, never keep-
ing above two or three pounds of powder with me in my
castle, for fear of a surprise of any kind. I also carried
thither all the lead I had left for bullets.
I fancied myself now like one of the ancient giants,
which were said to live in caves and holes in the rocks,
where none could come at them; for I persuaded myself,
while I was here, if five hundred savages were to hunt me,
they could never find me out; or if they did, they would
never venture to attack me.


The old goat, whom-I found exprin, died in the mouth
of the cave, the next day after I made this discovery;
and I found it much easier to dig a great hole there, and
throw him in, and cover him with earth, than to drag
him out; so I interred him there, to prevent offence to
my nose.
Iwas now in my twenty-third year of residence in this
island, and was so naturalized to the place, that I began


to be very wellcontented with the life I led, if it might
but have been secured from the dread of the savages.
But it was otherwise directed; and it may not be amiss
for all people who shall meet with my story to make this
just observation from it,viz.: how frequently, inthe course
of our lives, the evil, which in itself we seek most to
shun and which, when we are fallen into, is the most
dreadful to us, Is oftentimes the very door of our deliver-
ance, by which alone we can be raised again from the
affliction we are fallen into. I could give many examples
of this in the course of my unaccountable life; but in
nothing was it more particularly remarkable, than in the
circumstances of the last years of my solitary residence
in this island.
It was now the month of December, as I said above, in
my twenty-third year: and this being the southern sol-
stice, for winter I cannot call it, was the particular time
of my harvest, and required my being pretty much abroad
in the fields; when going out pretty early in the morning,
even before it was thorough daylight, I was surprised
with seeing a light of some fire upon the shore, at a dis-
tance from me of about two miles, towards the end of the
island where I had observed some savages had been as
before; but not on the other side, but, to my great afflic-
tion, it was on my side of the island.
I was indeed terribly surprised at the sight, and stop-
ped short within my grove, not daring to go out, lest I
might be surprised; and yet I had no more peace within
from the apprehensions I had that if these savages, in
rambling over the island, should find my corn standing.
or cut or any of my works or improvements, they would
immediately conclude that there were people in the place,
and would then never give over till they found me out.
In this extremity I went back directly to my castle, pulled
2p the ladder after me, having made all things without
took as wild and natural as I could.
Then I prepared myself within, putting myself in a pos-
ture of defense. I loaded all my cannon, as I called them,
that is to say, my muskets, which were mounted upon
my new fortification, and all my pistols, and resolved to
defend myself to the last gasp; not forgetting seriously
to commend myself to the Divine protection, and earn-
estly to pray to God to deliver me out of the hands of
the barbarians and in this posture I continued about
two hours, but began to be mighty impatient for intelli-
gence abroad, for Ihad no spies to send out.
After sitting awhile longer, and musing what I should
do in this case, I was not able to bear sitting in ignorance
longer; so setting up my ladder to the side of the hill,
where there was a flat place, as I observed before, and
then pulling the ladder up after me, I set it up again, and
mounted to the top of the hill; and pulling out my per-
spective glass, which I had taken on purpose, I laid me
down flat on my belly, on the ground, and began to look
for the place. I presently found there were no less than
nine naked savages sitting round a small fire they had
made; not to warm them, for they had no need of that,
the weather being extremely hot, but, as I supposed, to
dress some of their barbarous diet of human flesh, which
they had brought with them, whether alive or dead, I
could not know.
They had two canoes with them, which they had hauled
up on the shore and as it was then tide of ebb, they
seemed to wait the return of the flood to go away again.
It is not easy to imagine what confusion this sight put
me into, especially seeing them come on my side the
island, and so near me, too; but when I observed their
coming must be always with the current of the ebb, I
began afterwards to be sedate in my mind, being satis-
fled that I might go abroad with safety all the time of
tide of flood, if they were not on shore before; and hav-
ing made this observation, I went broad about my har-
vest-work with the more composure.
As I expected so it proved; for as soon as the tide
made to the westward, I saw them all take boat, and row
(or paddle, as we call it,) all away. I should have ob-
served, that for an hour and more before they went off,
they went to dancing, and I could easily discern theit
pastures and gestures bymy glasses; I could not per
ceve, by my nicest observation, but that they were
stark naked, and had not the least covering upon them;
but whether they were men or women, that Icould not
As soon as I saw them shipped and gone, I took two
guns upod my shoulders, and two pistols at my girdle.
and my great sword by my side, without a scabbard, anc
with all the speed I was able to make, I went away tE
the hill, where I had discovered the first appearance of
all. As soon as I got thither, which was not less that
two hours, (for I could not go apace, being so loaded
with arms as I was,) I perceived there had been threat
canoes more of savages on that place; and looking oul
farther, I saw they were at sea together, making over fot
the main.
This was a dreadful sight to me, especially, when goint
down to the shore I could see the marks of horror whicl
the dismal work they had been about had left behind it

viz.: the blood, the bones, and part of the flesh of human
bodies, eaten and devoured by those wretches, with mer-
riment and sport. I was so filled with indignation at-the
sight, that I began now to premeditate the destruction
of the next that I saw there, let them be who or how
many soever.
It seemed evident to me, that the visits which they thus
made to this island, were not very frequent; for it was
above fifteen months before any more of them came on
shore there again; that is to say, I never saw them, or
any footsteps or signals of them, in all that time; for, as to
the rainy seasons, then they are sure not to come abroad,
at least not so far, yet all this while I lived uncomforta-
bly, by reason of the constant apprehensions I was in of
their coming upon me by surprise; from whence I ob-
serve that the expectation of of evil is more bitter than
the suffering, especially if there is no room to shake off
that expectation, or those apprehensions.
During all this time, I was in the murdering humor;
and took up most of my hours, which should have been
better employed, in contriving how to circumvent and
fall upon them the very next time I should see them, es-
pecially if they should be divided, as they were at the
last time, into two parties; nor did I consider at all, that
if I killed one party, suppose ten or a dozen. I was still
the next day, or week, or month, to kill another, and so
another, even ad ijtinitum, till I should be no less a mur-
derer than they were in being man-eaters, and perhaps
much more so.
I spent my days now in great perplexity and anxiety
of mind, expecting that I should one day or other fall into
the hands of these merciless creatures. If I did at any
time venture abroad, it was not without the greatest care
and caution imaginable; and now found, to my greatest
comfort, how happy it was that I had provided a tame
flock or herd of goats for I durst not, upon any account,
fire my gun, especially near that side of the island,
where they usually came, lest I should alarm the savages;
and if they had fled from me now, I was sure to have
them come back again, with perhaps two or three hun-
dred canoes with them, in a few days, and then I knew
what to expect.
However, I wore out a year and three months more,
before I ever saw any more of the savages; and then I
found them again as I shall soon observe. It is true,
they might have been there once or twice; but either
they made no stay, or at least I did not hear them; but,
in the month of May, as near as I could calculate, and in
my four-and-twentieth year, I had a very strange encoun-
ter with them, of which in its place.
The perturbation of my mind, during this fifteen or six-
teen months' interval, was very great. I slept unquiet,
dreaming always frightful dreams, and often started out
of my sleep in the night; in the day, great troubles over-
whelmed my mind ; n the night I dreamed often of kill-
ing savages, and the reasons why I might justify the
doing of it. But, to waive all this for a while, it was in
the middle of May, on the sixteenth day, as well as my
poor wooden calendar would reckon, for I marked all
upon the post still; I say, it was on the sixteenth of
May, that it blew a very great storm of wind all day,
with a great deal of lightning and thunder, and a very
foul night was after it. I know not what was the partic-
ular occasion of it; but as I was reading in the B:ble,
and taken up with serious thoughts about my present
condition, I was surprised with the noise of a gun, as I
thought, fired at sea.
This was, to be sure, a surprise of quite a different na-
ture from any I had met with before; for the notions
this put into my thoughts were quite of another kind. 1
started up in the greatest haste imaginable: and, in a
trice clapped up my ladder to the middle place of the
rock, and pulled it after me, and, mounting it the second
Time, got to the top of the hill; that very moment a
flash of fire bade me listen for a second gun, which,
accordingly, in about half a minute, I heard; and
by the sound knew that it was from that part of the
sea where I was driven out with the current in my
I immediately considered that this must be some ship
in distress, and that they had some comrade, or some
other ship in company, and fired these guns for signals
of distress, and to obtain help. I had the presence of
i mind, at that minute, as to think that, though Lcould
Snot help them, it maybe they might help m so I
Brought together all the dry wood I could get at hand,
and making a good handsome pile, I set it on fire upon
the hill; the wood was dry, and blazed freely; and, though
Sthe wind blew very hard, yet it burnt fairly out, so that I
I was certain, if there was any such thing as a ship, they
i must needs see it, and no doubt they did; for, as soon as
t my fire blazed up, I heard anothergun, and afterthat sev-
r eral others, all from the same quarter. Iplied my fire all
nighIt lone, till day broke; and when it was broad day,
and the air cleared up, I saw something at a great dis-
i tance at sea, full east of the island, whether a sail, or a
, hull, I could not distinguish, no, not with my glasses, the


distance was so great, and the weather still something
hazy, also; at least, it was so out at sea.
I'looked frequently at it all that day, and soon per-
ceived that it did not move; so I presently concluded
that it was a ship at anchor; and being eager, yon may
be sure, to be satisfied, I took my gun in my hand, and
ran towards the south-east part of the island, to the
rocks, where I had been formerly carried away with the
current; and getting up there, the weather by this time
being perfectly clear, I could plainly see, to my great
sorrow, the wreck of a ship cast away in the night upon
these concealed rocks, which I had found when out in
my boat: and which rocks, as they checked the violence
of the stream, and made a kind of counter-stream, or
eddy, were the occasion of my recovering then from the
most desperate, hopeless condition that ever I had been
in all my life.
Thus, what is one man's safety, is another man's de-
struction; for it seems these men, whoever they were,
being out of their knowledge, and the rocks being wholly
under water, had been driven upon them in the night,
the wind blowing hard at E. and E. N.E. Had they seen
the island, as I must necessarily suppose they did not,
they must, as I thought, have endeavored to have saved
themselves on shore by the help of their boat; but their
firing of their guns for help, especially when they saw,
as I imagined, my fire, filled me with many thoughts.
First, I imagined that, upon seeing my light, they might
have put themselves into their boat, and have endeav-
ored to reach the shore, but that the sea going veryiigh,
they might have been cast away. Other times I imag-
ined that they might have lost their boat before, as
might, be the case many ways; as particularly by the
breaking of the sea upon their ship, which many times
obliged men to stave, or take in pieces their boat, and
sometimes to throw it overboard with their own hands.
Other times I imagined they had some other ship or ships
in company, who. upon the signals of distress they had
made, had taken them up, and carried them off. Other
whiles I fancied they were all gone off to sea, and, being
hurried away by the current that I had been formerly in,
were carried out into the great ocean, where there was
nothing but misery and perishing; and that perhaps they
might, by this time, think of starving, and of being in a
condition to eat one another.
It was not, however, till the last year of my being in
this island, that I ever knew whether any were saved out
of that ship or no: and had only the affliction, some days
after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come on shore,
at the end of the island which was next the shipwreck.
He had on no clothes but a seaman's waist-coat, a pair
of open-kneed linen drawers, and a blue linen shirt;
but nothing to direct me so much as to guess what nation
he was of. He had nothing in his pocket but two pieces
of eight, and a tobacco-pipe; the last to me of ten times
more value than the first.
It wa- now calm, and I had a great mind to venture
out in my boat to this wreck, not doubting but I might
find something on board that might be useful to me;
but that did not altogether press me so much as the pos-
sibility that there might be yet some living creature on
board, whose life I might not only save, but might, by
saving that life, comfort my own to the last degree: and
this thought clung so to my heart, that I could not be
quiet, night or day, but I must venture out on board this
wreck; and, committing the rest to God's providence, I
thought the impression was so strong upon my mind,
that it could not be resisted, that it must come from
some invisible direction, and that I should be wanting
to myself if I did not go.
Under the power of this impression, I hastened back
to my castle, prepared everything for my voyage, took a
quantity of bread, a great pot of fresh water, a compass
to steer by, a bottle of rum (for I had still a real deal of
that left) and a basket full of raisins: and thus loading
myself with everything necessary, I went down to Imy
boat, got the water out of her, and got her afloat, loaded
all my cargo in her, and then went home again for more.
My second cargo was a great bag full of rice, the um-
brella to set up over my head for shade, another large pot
full of fresh water, and about two dozen of small loaves,
or harley cakes, more than before, with a bottle of goat's
milk, and a cheese; all which, with great labor and sweat,
I bro uht to my boat, and praying to God to direct my
voyage. I put out; and rowing or paddling the canoe
along the shore. I came at last to the utmost point of the
island, on that side, viz., N. E. And now I was to launch
out into the ocean; and either to venture, or not to ven-
ture. I looked on the rapid currents which ran con-
stantly on both sides of the island, at a distance, and
which were very terrible to me, from the remembrance
of a hazard I had been in before, and my heart began to
fail me; for I foresaw that, if I were driven into either
of those currents, I should be carried a vast way out to
sea, and perhaps out of my reach, or sight of the island
again; and that then, as my boat was but small, if any
little gale of wind should rise, I should be inevitably lost.

These thoughts so oppressed my mind,that I began to
give over my enterprise, and, having hauled my boat into
a little creek on the shore, I stepped out., and sat me
down upon a little spot of rising ground, very pensive
and anxious, between fear and desire, about my voyage;
when, as I was musing, I could perceive that the tide was
turned, and the flood came on, upon which my going was
for so many hours impracticable. Upon this, it presently
occurred to me that I should go up to the highest piece
of ground I could fnd, and observe, if I coufd, how the
sets of the tides or currents lay, when the flood came in,
that I might judge whether, if I were driven one way
out, I might not expect to be driven another way home,
with the same rapidness of the currents. This thought
was no sooner in my head, but I cast my eye upon a little
hill, which sufficiently overlooked the sea both ways, and
from whence I had a clear view of the currents, or sets
of the tide, and which way I was to guide myself in my
return. Here I found, that as the current of the ebb set
out close by the south point of the island, so the current
of the flood set in close by the shore of the north side;
and that I had nothing to do but to keep to. the north of
the island in my return, and I should do well enough.
Encouraged by this observation, I resolved, the next
morning, to set out with the first of the tide; and repos-
ing myself for that night under the great watch-coat I
mentioned, I launched out. I made first a little way out
to sea, full north, till I began to feel the benefit of the
current which set eastward, and which carried me at a
great rate, and yet did not to much hurry me as the
southern side current had done before, and so as to take
from me all government of the boat; but, having a strong
steerage with my paddle, I went, I say, at a great rate,
directly for the wreck, and in less than two hours I came
up to it.
It was a dismal sight to look at: the ship, which by
the building was Spanish, stuck fast, jammed in between
two rocus; all th- stern and quarter of her were beaten
to pieces by the sea; and as her forecastle, which stuck
in the locks, had run on with great violence her main-
mast and foremast were brought by the board, that is to
say, broken short off; but her bowsprit was sound, and
the head and bow appeared firm. When I came close to
her, a dog appeared upon her, who, seeing me coming
yelped and cried; and as soon as I called him, jumped
into the sea to come to me; and I took him into the boat,
but found him almost dead for hunger and thirst. Igave
him a cake of my bread, and he eat like a ravenous wolf
that had been starving a fortnight in the snow. I then
gave the poor creature some fresh water; s ith which if
I would have let him, he would have burst himself.
After this I went on board. The first sight I met with
was two men drowned in the cock-room, or forecastle of
the ship, with their arms fast about one another. I con-
cluded, as is indeed probable, that, when the ship struck,
it being a storm, the sea broke so high that the men were
not able to bear it, and were strangled with the constant
rushing in of the water, as much as if they had been
under water. Besides the dog, there was nothing left in
the ship that had life ; not any goods that Icould see, but
what were spoiled by the water. There were some casks
of liquor, whether wine or brandy, I knew not, which
lay in the lower hold, and which, the water bemng ebbed
out, I could see; but they were too hig to meddle with.
I saw several chests, which, I believed, belonged to some
seamen; and I got two of them in the boat, without ex-
amining what was in them.
Had the btern of the ship been fixed, and the fore part
broken off, I am per-naded I might have made a good
voyage; for, by what I found in these two chests, I had
room to suppose the ship had a great deal of wealth on
board: and if I may guess by the course she steered, she
must have been bound from Buenos Ayres, or tle Bio de
la Plata, in the south part of America, beyond the Bra-
zils, to the Havana, in the Gulf of Mexico, and so per-
haps, to Spain. She had, no doubt, a great treasure in
her, but of no use, at that time, to anybody; and what
became of the rest of her people, I knew not.
I found, besides these chests, a little cask full of liquor,
of about twenty gallons, which I got into my boat with
much difficulty. There were several muskets in a cabin,
and a great powder-horn, with about four pounds of
powder in it: as for the muskets I had no occasion for
them: so I left them, but took thle powder-horn. I took
a fire shovel and tongs, which I wanted extremely; as
also two little brass kettles, a copper pot to make choco-
late, and a gridiron: and with this cargo, and the dog, I
came away, the tide beginning to make home again : and
the same evening, about an hour within night, I reached
the island again, weary and fatigued to the last degree.
I reposed that night in the boat; and in the morning
I resolved to harbor what I had gotten in my new cave,
not to carry it home to my castle. After refreshing my-
self, I got all my cargo on shore, and began to examine
the particulars. The cask of liquor I found to be a kind
of rum, but not such as we had at the Brazils; and, in a
word, not at all good. But when I came to open the


chests, I founa several things which I wanted; for ex-
ample, I found in one a fine case of bottles of an extra-
ordinary kind, and filled with cordial waters, fine and
very good: the bottles held about three pints each, and
were tipped with silver. I found two pots of very good
succades, or sweetmeats so fastened also on top that the
salt water had not hurt them; and two more of the same
which the water had spoiled. I- found some very good
shirts, which were very welcome to me, and about a
dozen and a half of white linen handkerchiefs, and col-
ored neckcloths; the former were also very welcome,
being exceedingly refreshing to wipe my face in a ho
day. Besides this, when I came to the till in the chest, I
found there three great bags of pieces of eight, which
held about eleven hundred pieces in all; and in one of
them, wrapt up in a paper, six doubloons of gold, and
some small bars or wedges of gold; I suppose they
might all weigh near a pound.
he other chest I found had some clothes in it, but of
little value, but by the circumstances it must have be-
longed to' the gunner's mate, though there was no pow-
der in it, but about two pounds of grazed powder, in three
small flasks, kept, I suppose, for charging their fowling-
pieces on occasions. Upon the whole, got very little
by this voyage, that was of much use to me; for as to the
money, I had no manner of occasion for it; it was to me
as the dirt under my feet, and I would have given it all
for three or four pair of English shoes and stockings,
which were things I greatly wanted, but had not had on
my feet now for many years. I had, Indeed, gotten two
pair of shoes now, which I took off the feet of the drown-
ed men whom I saw in the wreck; and I found two pair
more in one of the chests, which were very welcome to
me; but they were not like our English shoes, either for
ease or service, being rather what we call pumps than
shoes. I found in this seaman's chest about fifty pieces
of eight in royals, but no gold; I suppose this belonged
to a poorer man than the other, which seemed to belong
to some officer.
Well, however, I lugged-this money home to my cave
and laid it up, as I had done that before, which I had
brought from our own ship; but it was a great pity, as I
said, that the other part of the ship had not come to my
share, for I am satisfied I might have loaded my canoe
several times over with money: which, had I ever
escaped to England, would have laid here safe enough,
till Imight have come again and fetched it.
Having now brought all my things on shore, and se-
cured them, I went back to my boat, and rowedor pad-
dled her along the shore to her old harbor, where I laid
her up, and made the best of my way to my old habitation,
where I found everything safe and quiet; so I began to
repose myself, live after my old fashion, and take care of
my family affairs; and for a while I lived easy enough,
only that I was more vigilant than I used to be, looked
out often and did not go abroad so much; and if at any
time I did stir with any freedom, it was always to the
east part of the island,.where I was pretty well satisfied
the savages never came, and where I could go without so
many precautions, and such a load of arms and ammuni-
tion as I always carried with me if I went the other way.
I lived in this condition near two years more; but my
unlucky head, that was always to let me know it was
born to make my body miserable, was all those two years
filled with projects and designs, how, if it were possible,
I might get away from this island; for sometimes I was
making another voyage to the wreck, though my reason
told me that there was nothing left there worth the
hazard of my voyage; sometimes for a ramble one way,
sometimes another; and I believe verily, if I had had the
boat that I went from Sallee in, I should have ventured
to sea bound anywhere, I know not whither.
I am now to be supposed to be retired into my castle,
after my late voyage to the wreck, my frigate laid up, and
secured under water as usual, and condition restored to
what it was before. I had more wealth, indeed, than I
had before, but was not at all the richer; for I had no
more use for it than the Indians of Peru had before the
Spaniards came thither.
About a year and a half after I was surprised one morn-
ing early, with seeing no less than five canoes, all on
shore together, on my side the island, and the people
who belonged to them all landed and out of my sight.
The number of them broke all my measures; for seeing
so many, and knowing they always came four or six, or
sometimes more, in a boat, I could not tell what to think
of it, or how to take my measures to attack twenty or
thirty men single-handed; so I lay still in my castle, per-
plexed and discomforted. However, I pt myself into all
the same postures for an attack that I had formerly pro-
vided and was just ready for action, if anything had pre-
sented. Having waited a good while listening to hear
if they made any noise, at length being very impatient, I
set my guns at the foot of the ladder, and clambered up
to the top of the hill by my two stages, as usual; stand-
ing so, however, that my head did not appear above the
l; so that they could not perceive me, by any means.

Here I observed, by the help of my perspective glass,
that there were no less than thirty in number; that they
had a fire kindled, and that they had meat dressed; how
they cooked it, that I knew not, or what it was; but they
were all dancing, in I know not how many barbarous
gestures and figures, their own way, round the fire.


While I was thus looking on them, I perceived, by my
perspective, two miserable wretches dragged from the
boats, where it seems, they were laid by, and were now
brought out for the slaughter. I perceived one of them
immediately fell, being knocked down, I suppose, with
a club, or wooden sword, for that was their way; and
two or three others were at work immediately, cutting
him open for their cookery, while the other victim was
left standing by himself, till they should be ready for
him. In that very moment this poor wretch seeing him-
self a little at liberty, nature inspired him with hopes of
life, and he started away from them, and ran with incred-
ible swiftness along the sands, directly towards me, I
mean towards that part of the coast where my habitation
I was dreadfully frighted (that I must acknowledge),
when I perceived him to run my way; and especially
when, as I thought, I saw him pursued by the whole
body. However, I kept my present station, and my
spirits began to recover, when I found that he outstripped
them exceedingly in running, and gained ground of them,
so that if he could but hold it out about half an hour, I
saw easily he would get away from them all.
There was between them and my castle the creek,
which I mentioned often at the first part of my story
when I landed my cargoes out of the ship; and this I
knew he must necessarily swim over, or the poor wretch
would be taken there; but when the savage escaping
came thither, he made nothing of it, swam through in
about thirty strokes, or thereabout, landed, and ran on
with exceeding strength and swiftness. When the three
pursuers came to the creek, I found that two of them
could swim, but the third could not, and that he standing
on the other side, looked at the others, but went no
farther; and soon after went softly back again, which, as
it happened was very well for him in the main.
I observed that the two who swam, were yet more than
twice as long swimming over the creek, as the fellow was
that fled from them. It came now very warmly upon my
thoughts, and indeed irresistibly, that now was my time
to get me a servant, and perhaps a companion or assist-
ant and that I was called plainly by Providence, to save
this poor creature's life. I immediately got down the
ladders, with all possible expedition, fetched my two
guns, for they were both at the foot of the ladders, as I
observed above; and getting up again with the same
hlste to the top of the hill, crossed towards the sea;
and, having a very short cut all down hill, clapped my-
self in the way between the pursuers and the pursued,
hallooing aloud to him that fled, who, looking back was
perhaps as much righted at me as at them; but I beck-
oned with my hand to him to come back, and, in the
mean time, I slowly advanced towards the two that fol-
lowed: then rushing at once upon the foremost, I knock-
ed him down with the stock of my piece; I was loath to
fire because I would not have the rest hear- though a
that distance it would not have been easily heard; and
being out of sight of the smoke too they would not
know what to make of it. Having knocked this
down, the other who pursued him stopped, as if he
been frighted, and I advanced apace towards hin;
as I came nearer, I perceived presently he had a bow
W, and was fitting it to shoot at ve; so I was

necessitated to shoot at him first, which I did, and killed
him at the first shot. The poor savage who fled, but had
stopped, though he saw both his enemies fallen and killed
(as he thought), yet was so frighted with the fire and
noise of my piece, that he stood stock-still, and neither
came forward, nor went backward, though he seemed
rather inclined to fly still, than to come on. I hallooed
again to him, and made signs to come forward, which he
easily understood, and came a little way, then stopped
again, and then a little farther, and stopped again; and I
could then perceive that he stood trembling, as if he had
been taken prisoner, and had just been about to be killed,
as his two enemies were. I beckoned him again to come
to me, and gave him all the signs of encouragement I
could think of; and he came nearer and nearer, kneeling
down every ten or twelve steps, in token or acknowledg-
ment for saving his life. I smiled at him, and looked
pleasantly, and beckoned to him to come still nearer. At
length he came close to me, and then he kneeled down

again, kissed the ground, and laid his head upon the
ground, and taking me by the foot, set my foot upon his
head; this, it 'eems was in token of swearing to be my
slave for ever. I took him up. and made much of him,
and encouraged him all I could. But there was more
work to do yet; for I perceived the savage whom I
knocked down was not killed but stunned with the blow,
and began to come to himself. So I pointed to him, and
showing him the savage, that he was not dead; upon this
he spoke some words to me, and though I could not un-
derstand them, yet I thought they were pleasant to hear,
for they were the first sound of a man's voice that I had
heard, my own excepted, for above five-and-twenty years.
But there was no time for such reflections now.. The
savage who was knocked down recovered himself so far
as to sit upon the ground: and I perceived my savage
began to be afraid; but when I saw that, I presented-my
other piece at the man, as if I would shoot him; upon
this my savage, for so I call him now, made a motion to
me to lend him my sword, which hung naked in a belt by
my side; so I did. He no sooner had it, but he runs to
his enemy, and, at one blow, cut off his head so cleverly,
no executioner in Germany could have done it sooner or
better; which I thought very strange for one, who I had
reason to believe, never sawa sword in his life before,
except their own wooden swords. However, it seems,
as I learned afterward, they make their wooden swords so
sharp, so heavy, and the wood is so hard, they will cut
off heads even with them, aye, and arms, and that at one
blow too. When he had done this, he comes laughing to
me in sign of triumph, and brought me the sword again,
and with abundance of gestures, which I did not under-
stand, laid it down, with the head of the savage that he
had killed, just before me.
But that which astonished him most was to know how
I had killed the other Indian so far off; so pointing to
him, he made signs to me to let him go to him; so I bade
him go, as well as I could. When he came to him, he
stood like one amazed, looking at him; turned him first
on one side, then on the other; looked at the wound the
bullet had made, which, it seems, was just in his breast,
where it had made a hole, and no great quantity of blood
had flowed, but he had bled inwardly, for he was quite
,dead. Then he took up his bows and arrows and came
back; so I turned to go away, and beckoned to him to
ftlow me, making signs to him that more might come
r them.
pon this, he signed to me that he should bury them
sW h and, that they might not be seen by the rest, if they
lowed; and so 1 made signs again to him to do so; he

fell to work, and in an instant he scraped a hole in the
sand with his hands, big enoug to bury the first- in, and
then dragged him into it, and covered him; and did so
also by tfe other. I believe he had buried them both in
a quarter of an hour; then calling him away, I carried
him, not to my castle, but quite away to my cave, on the
farther part of the island; so I did not let my dream come
to pass in that part, viz., that he came into my grove for
Here I gave him bread, and a bunch of raisins to eat,
and a draught of water, which I found he was indeed in
great distress for, by his running; and, having refreshed
him, I made signs for him to go lie down and sleep, point-
ing to a place where I had laid a great parcel of rice
straw, and a blanket upon it, which f used to sleep upon
myself, sometimes; so the poor creature lay down, and
went to sleep.
He was a comely, handsome fellow; perfectly well
made. with straight, long limbs, not too large; tall, and
well-shaped, and, as I reckon, about twenty-six years of
age. He had a very good countenance, not a fierce and
surly aspect, but seemed to have something very manly
in his face, and yet he had all the sweetness and softness
of an European in his countenance, too, especially when
he smiled. His hair was long and black, not curled like
wool; his forehead very high and large, and a great vi-
vacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. The color
of his skin was not quite black, but very tawny, and yet
not of an ugly, yellow, nauseous tawny, as the Brazilians
and Virginians, and other natives of America are, but of
a bright kind of a dun olive color, that had in it some-
thing very agreeable, though not very easy to describe.
His lace was round and plump, his nose small, not flat
like the Negroes, a very good mouth, thin lips, and his
teeth fine, well set, and white as ivory. After he had slum-
bered,rather than slept, about half an hour,he waked again
and comes out of the cave to me, for Ihad been milking my
goats, which I had in the enclosure just by. When he
espied me he came running to me, laying himself down
again upon the ground, with all the possible signs of an
humble, thankful disposition making many antic ges-
tures, to show it. At last he lays his head hat upon the
ground, close to my foot, and sets my other loot upon his
ead, as he had done before; and, after this. made all the
signs to me of subjection, servitude, and submission
imaginable, to let me know how much he would serve
me as long as he lived. I understood him in many things,
and let him know I was very well pleased with him. In
a little time I began to speak to him, and teach him to
speak to me; and first, I made him understand his name
should be Friday, which was the day I saved his life; and
I called him so for the memory of the time; I likewise
taught him to say "Master," and let him know that was
to be my name. I likewise taught him to say, "Yes,"
and "No and to know the meaning of them. I gave him
some milk in an earthen pot, and let him see me drink it
before him, and sop my bread in it; and I gave him a
cake of bread, to do the like, which he quickly complied
with, and made signs that it was very good for him.
I kept theie with him all that night; but as soon as it
was day, I beckoned to him to come with me, and let
him know I would give him some clothes; at which he
seemed very glad, for he was stark naked. As we went
by the place where we had buried the two men, lie pointed
exactly to the spot, and showed me the marks he had
made to find them again, making signs to me that he
would dig them up again and eat them ; at this I appeared
very angry, expressed my abhorrence of it, made as if I
would vomit at the thought of it, and beckoned with my
hand to him to come away. which he did immediately
with great submission. I then led him up to the top of
the hill, to see if his enemies were gone, and pulling out
my glass, I looked, and saw plainly the place u here they
hadbeen, but no appearance of them, or of their canoes;
so that it was plain that they were gone. and had left
their two comrades behind them, without any search
after them.
But I was not content with this discovery; but having
now more courage, and consequently more curiosity, I
took my man Friday with me, giving him the sword in
his hand, with the bow and arrows at his back, which I
found he could use very dexterously, making him carry
one gun for me, and I two for myself, and away we
marched to the place where these creatures had been; for
I had a mind now to get some fuller intelligence of them.
When I came to the place, my very blood ran chill in my
veins, and my heart sunk within me at the horror of the
spectacle. Indeed, it was a dreadful sight, at least, it
was so to me, though Friday made nothing of it; the
place was covered with human bones, the ground dyed
with the blood, great pieces of flesh left here and there,
half eaten, mangled, and scorched; and, in short, all the
tokens of the triumphant feast they had been making
there, after a victory over their enemies. I saw three
skulls, five hands, and the bones of three or four legs and
feet, and abundance of other parts of the bodies; and
Friday, by his signs made me understand that they

Li-V ffi AZ,- P --, __


brought over four prisoners to feast upon; that three of
them were eaten up, and that he, pointing to himself,
was the fourth; that there had been a great battle be-
tween them and their next king, whose subjects, it seems,
he had been one of* and that they had taken a great num-
ber of prisoners, all which were carried to several places
by those that had taken them in the fight, in order to
feast upon them, as was done here by these wretches
upon those they brought hither.
I caused Friday to gather all the skulls, bones, flesh, and
whatever remained, and lay them together on a heap, and
make a fire upon it and burn them all to ashes. I found
Friday had still a hankering stomach after some of the
flesh, and was still a cannibal in his nature; but I dis-
covered so much abhorrence at the very thought of it,
and at the least appearance of it, that he durst not dis-
cover it; for I had, by some means, let him know, that I
would kill him if he offered it.
When lie had done this, we came back to our castle.
and there I fell to work for my man Friday. And first of
all, Igave him a pair of linen drawers, which I had out
of the gunner's chest I had mentioned, and which I found
in the wreck: and which, with a little alteration, fitted
him very well; then I made him a jerkin of goat's skin,
as well as my skill would allow, and I was now grown a
tolerably good tailor; and I gave him a cap which I had
made of a hare-skin, very convenient, and fashionable
enough; and thus he was dressed, for the present, tole-
rably well; and mightily was he pleased to see himself
almost as well clothed as his master. It is true, he went
awkwardly in these things at first; wearing the drawers
was very awkward to him; and the sleeves of the waist-
coat galled his shoulders, and the inside of his arms;
but after a little casing them where he complained they
hurt him, and using himself to them, at length he took to
them very well.
The next day after I came home to my hutch with him
I began to consider where I should lodge him; and that
I might do well for him, and yet be perfectly easy myself,
I made a little tent for him, in the vacant place between
my two fortifications, in the inside of the last, and in the
outside of the first; and as there was a door or entrance
there into my cave I made a formal framed door-case,
and a door to it, of boards, and set it up in the passage, a
little within the entrance: and, causing the door to open
on the inside, I barred it up in the night, taking in my
ladders too; so that Friday could no way come at me in
the inside of my innermost wall, without making so
much noise in getting over. that it must needs awaken
me; for my first walfhad now a complete roof over it of
long poles, covering all my tent, and leaning up to the
side of the hill, which was again laid across with small
sticks instead of laths, and then thatched over a great
thickness with the rice straw, which was strong, like
reeds; and at the hole, or place which was lelt to go in
or out by the ladder, I had placed a kind of trap-door,
which, if it had been attempted on the outside, would
not have opened at all, but would have fallen down, and
made a great noise; and, as to weapons, I took them all
in to my side every night.
But I needed none of all this precaution; for never had
man a more faithful, loving, sincere servant than Friday
was to men without passions, sullenness, or design;
perfectly obliged and engaed--his very affections were
tied to me, like those of a child to a father; and, I dare
say, he would have sacrificed his life for the saving mine,
upon any occasion whatsoever. The many testimonies
he gave me of this, put it out of doubt, and soon con-
vinced me, that I needed to use no precautions as to my
safety on his account.
I was greatly delighted with him, and made it mybusi-
ness to teach him al that was proper to makehim useful,
handy, and helpful; but especially to make him speak,
and understand me when I spoke; and he was the aptest
scholar that ever was, and particularly was so merry, so
constantly diligent, and so pleased when he could but
understand me or make me understand him, that it was
very pleasant for me to talk to him. And now my life
began to be so easy, that I began to say to myself, that
could I but have been safe from more savages, I cared
not if I was never to remove from the place while I
After I had been two or three days returned to my cas-
tle, I thought, that in order to bring Friday off from his
horrid way of feeding, and from the relish of a cannibal's
stomach. I ought to let him taste other flesh. So I took
him out with me one morning to the woods; I went, in-
deed, intending to kill a kid out of my own flock, and
bring it home and dress it; but, as I was going, I.saw a
she-goat, lying down in the shade, and two young kids
sitting by her. I caught hold of Friday: "Hold said I,
stand still," and made signs to him not to stir: imme-
diately Ipresented my piece, shot and killed one of the
kids. The poor creature who had, at a distance, indeed,
seen me kill the savage, his enemy, but did not knownor
could imagine how it was done, was sensibly surprised,
trembled and shook, and looked so amazed, that I

thought he would have sunk down. He did not see the
kid had shot at, nor perceive I had killed it, but ripped
up his waistcoat to feel if he was not wounded; and, as
I found presently, thought I was resolved to kill him;
for he came and kneeled down to me and embracing my
knees, said a great many things I did not understand;
but I could easily see, that his meaning was to pray me
not to kill him.
I soon found a way to convince him that I would do
him no harm; and, taking him up by the hand, laughed
at him, and pointing to the kid which I had killed, beck-
oned to him to run and fetch it, which he did; and while
he was wondering and looking to see how the creature
was killed, I loaded my gun again, and by-and-by I saw
a great fowl, like a hawk, sit upon a tree within shot;
so, to let Friday understand a little what I would do, I
called him to me again, pointing at the fowl, which was
indeed a parrot, though I thought it had been a hawk; I
say, pointing to the parrot and to my gun. and to the
ground under the parrot. to let him see I would make him
fall, I made him understand that I would shoot and kill
that bird; accordingly, I fired, and made him look, and
immediately he saw the parrot fall. He stood like one
frighted again, notwithstanding all that I had said to
him; and I found he was the more amazed, because he
did not see me put anything into the gun; but thought
there must be some wonderful fund of death and destruc-
tion in that thing, able to kill man, beast, bird, or any-
thing near or far off; for the astonishment this created
him was such as could not wear off for some time; and
I believe, if I would have let him, he would have wor-
shipped me and my gun: as for the gun itself, he would
not so much as touch it for several days after; but would
speak to it, and talk to it as if it had answered him, when
he was by himself, which, as I afterwards learned of him,
was to desire it not to kill him.

Well after his astonishment was a little over at this, I
pointed to him to run and fetch the bird I had shot, which
e did, but staid some time; for the parrot, not being
quite dead, had fluttered a good way off from the place
where she fell. However, he found her, took her up, and
brought her to me; and as I had perceived his ignorance
about the gun before, I took this advantage to charge the
gun again, and not let him see me do it, that I might be
ready for any other mark thatmight present; but nothing
more offered at that time. So f brought home the ki
and the same evening I took the skin off, and cut it out
as well as I could; and having a pot fo that purpose, I
boiled or stewed some of the flesh, and made some very
good broth: after I had begun to eat some I gave some

to my man who seemed very glad of it, and liked it very
well; but that which was the strangest to him was to see
me eat salt with it. He made a sign to me, that the salt
was not good to eat, and putting a little into his own
mouth, he seemed to nauseate it, and would spit and
sputter at it, washing his mouth with fresh water after
it; on the other hand, I took some meat in my month
without salt, and I pretended to spit and sputter for
want of salt, as fast as he had done at the salt: but it
would not do; he would never care for salt with meat,
or in his broth, at least, not for a great while, and then
but a very little.
Having thus fed him with boiled meat and broth, I was
resolved to feast him next day with roasting a piece of
the kid: this I did by hanging it before the fire in a
string, as I had seen many people do in England, setting
two poles up, one on each side of the fire, and one across
on the top, and tying the string to the cross stick, letting
the meat turn continually. This Friday admired very
much; but when he came to taste the flesh, he took so
many ways to tell me how well he liked it, that I could


not but understand him: and at last, he told me he would
never eat man's flesh any more, which I was very glad to
The next day I set him to work to beating some corn
out, and sifting it in the manner I used to do, as I ob-
served before; and he soon understood how to do it as
well as I, especially after he had seen what the meaning
of it was, and that it was to make bread of for after that
I let him see me make my bread, and bake it too; and
in a little time Friday was able to do all the work for me,
as well as I could do it myself.
I began now to consider, that, having two mouths to
feed instead of one, I must provide more ground for my
harvest, and plant a larger quantity of corn than I used
to do, so I marked out a larger piece of land, and began
to fence in the same manner as before, in which Friday
not only worked very willingly, and very hard, but did it
very cheerfully; and I told him what it was for, that it
was for corn to make more bread, because he was now
with me, and that I might have enough for him and my-
self too. He appeared very sensible of that part, and let
me know that he thought I had much more labor upon
me on his account than I had for myself, and that he
would work the harder for me, if I would tell him what
to do.
This was the pleasantest year of all the life I led in this
place. Friday began to talk pretty well, and understand
the names of almost everything I had occasion to call
for, and of every place I had to send him to, and talk a
great deal to me: so that in short I began now to have
some use for my tongue again, which indeed 1 had very
little occasion for before; that is to say about speech.
Besides the pleasure of talking to him, 1 had a singular
satisfaction in the fellow himself: his simple, unfeigned
honesty, appeared to me more and more every day, and I
began really to love the creature; and, on his side, I be-
lieve he loved me more than it was possible for him ever
to love anything before.
I had a mind once to try if he had any hankering in-
clination to his own country again; and having taught
him English so well that he could answer me almost any
questions, I asked whether the nation he belonged to
never conquered in battle. At which he smiled and said,
"Yes, yes: we always fight the better;" that is, he meant,
always get the better in a tight: and so we began the
following discourse: You always fight the better 1" said
I. "How came you to be taken prisoner then, Friday?"
Friday. My nation beat much for all that.
Master. How beat? If your nation beat them, how
came you to be taken ?
Friday. They more than my nation in the place where
me was: they take one, two, three and me. My nation
over-beat them in the yonder place, where me no was:
there my nation take one, two great thousand.
Master. But why did not your side recover you from
the hands of your enemies then?
Friday. They run one, two, three, and me, and make
go in the canoe: my nation have no canoe that time.
Master. Well, Friday, and what does your nation do
with the men they take? Do they carry them away, and
eat them as these did?
Friday. Yes, my nation eat mans too, all up.
Master. Where do they carry them?
Friday. Go to other place where they think.
Master. Do they come hither?
Friday. Yes, yes, them come hither: come other else
Master. Have you been here with them?
Friday. Yes, I been here. (Points to the N. W. side of
the island. which it seems was their side.)
By this I understood that my man Friday had formerly
been among the savages who used to come on shore, on
the farther part of the island, on the said man-eating oc-
casion that he was now brought for: and some time after,
when I took courage to carry him to that side, being the
same I formerly mentioned, he presently knew the place,
and told me he was there once, when they eat up twenty
men, two women, and one child: he could not tell twenty
in English, but he numbered them by laying so many
stones in a row, and pointing to me to tell them over.
I have told this passage, because it introduces what
follows: that, after haifhad this discourse with him, I
asked him how far it was from our island to the shore,
and whether the canoes were not often lost. He told me
there was no danger, no canoes ever lost; but that, after
a little way out to sea, there was a current, and a wind
always one way in the morning, the other in the after-
This I understood to be no more than the sets of the
tide, as going out or coming in; but I afterwards under-
stood it was occasioned by the great draught and reflux
of the mighty river Oroonoque; in the mouth of which
river, as I thought afterward, our island lay; and that
this land which I perceived to the W. and N.W., was the
great island Trinidad on the north point of the mouth of
the river. I asked Friday a thousand questions about
the country, the inhabitants, the sea, the coast, and what

nations were near: he told me all he knew with the
greatest openness imaginable. I asked him the names
of the several nations of his sort of people, but could
get no other name but Caribs; from whence I easily un-
derstood, that these were the Caribbees which our maps
place on that part of America which reaches from the
mouth of the river Oroonoque to Guinea, and onward to
St. Martha. He told me, that up a great way beyond the
moon, that was, beyond the setting of the moon, which
must be west from their country, there dwelt white-
bearded men, like me, and pointed to my great whiskers
which I mentioned before; and that they had killed
" much mans," that was his word; by all which I under-
stood he meant the Spaniards, whose cruelties in America
had been spread over the whole country, and were re-
membered by all the nations, from father to son.
I inqmred if he could tell me how I might come from
this island, and get among those white men he told me
yes, yes, I might go in "two canoe." I could not under-
stand what he meant by two canoe;" till at last, with
great difficulty, I found he meant, that it must be in a
large, great big canoe, as big as two canoes.
This part of riday's discourse began to relish with me
very well: and from that time I entertained some hopes,
that, one time or other, I might find an opportunity to
make my escape from this place, and that this poor sav-
age might be a means to help me to do it.
During the long time that Friday had now been with
me, and that he began to speak to me, and understand
me, I was not wanting to lay a foundation of religious
knowledge in his mind; particularly I asked him one
time who made him. The poor creature did not under-
stand me at all, but thought I had asked who was his
father. But I took it by another handle, and asked him
who made the sea, the ground he walked on and the hills
and woods. He told me, it was one old Benamuckee,
that lived beyond all. He could describe nothing of this
great person, but that he was very old; much older, he
said, than the sea or the land, than the moon or the stars.
I asked him then, if this old person had made all things,
why did not all things worship him. He looked very
grave, and with a perfect look of innocence said, "All
things said 0 1 to him." I asked him if the people who
die in his country, went anywhere. He said, yes, they
all went to Benamuckee. Then I asked him whether
those they eat up went thither: he said, "Yes."
From these things I began to instruct him in the knowl-
edge of the true God. I told him that the great Maker of
all things lived up there, pointing up towards heaven;
that he governs the world by the same power and provi-
dence by which he had made it: that he was omnipotent,
could do everything for us, give everything to us, take
everything from us: and thus, by degrees, I opened his
eyes. He listened with great attention, and received
with pleasure the notion of Jesus Christ being sent to
redeem us, and of the manner of making our prayer to
God, and his being able to hear us, even in heaven. He
told me one day, that if our God could hear us up beyond
the sun, he must needs be a greater God than their Bena-
muckee who lived but a little way off, and yet could not
hear, till they went up to the great mountains where he
dwelt, to speak to him. I asked him if ever he went
thither to speak to him; he said no; they never went
that were young men; none went thither but the old men,
whom he called their Oowokee, that is, as I made him
explain it to me, their religious, or clergy; and that they
went to say O (so he caled saying prayers,) and then
came back, and told them what Benamuckes said. By
this, I observed, that there is a priestcraft even amongst
the most blinded, ignorant Pagans in the world; and the
policy of making a secret religion, in order to preserve
the veneration of the people to the clergy, is not only to
be found in the Roman, but perhaps among all religions
in the world, even among the most brutish and barbarous
I endeavored to clear up this fraud to my man Friday,
and told him, that the pretence of their old men goingup
to the mountains, to say O to their God Benamuckee, was
a cheat; and their bringing word from thence what he
said, was much more so; that if they met with any an-
swer, or spoke with any one there, it must be with an
evil spirit; and then I entered into a long discourse with
him about the devil, the original of him, his rebellion
against God, his enmity to man, the reason of it, his set-
ting himself up in the dark parts of the world to be wor-
shipped instead of God, and as God, and the many strat-
agems he made use of to delude mankind to their ruin;
how he had secret access to our passions, and to our af-
fections, and adapted his snares to our inclinations, so
as to cause us to be our own tempters, and to run upon
our own destruction, by our own choice.
I always applied myself to reading the Scriptures, and
to let him know, as well as I could, the meaning of what
I read; and he again, by his serious inquiries and ques-
tions, made me a much better scholar in the Scripture
knowledge than I should ever have been bymy own mere
private reading.


After Friday and I became more intimately acquainted,
and that he could understand almost all I said tohim, and
speak fluently, though in broken English, to me. I ac-
quainted him with my own story, or at least so much of
it as related to my coming into theplace, how I had lived
there, and how long. I let him into the mystery (for such
it was to him) of gunpowder and bullet, and taught him
how to shoot. I gave him a knife, which he was won-
derfully delightedwith, and I made him a belt with a
frog hanging to t, such as in England we wear hangers
in and, in the frog, instead of a hanger, I gave him a
hatchet, which was not only a good weapon in some
cases, but much more useful upon many occasions.

t i H '/ /

I described to him the countries of Europe, andpartic-
ularly England which I came from; how we lived, how
we worshipped God, how we behaved to one another, and
how we traded in ships to all parts of the world. 1 gave
him an account of the wreck which I had been on board
of, and showed him, as near as I could, the place where
she lay; but she was beaten in pieces long before, and
quite gone.
I showed him the ruins of our boat, which was lost
when I escaped and which I could not stir with my whole
strength then, but was now fallen almost all to pieces.
Upon seeing this boat, Friday stood musing great while
and said nothing. I asked him what it was he studied
upon: at last, says he: "Me see such boat like come to
place at my nation."
I did not understand him a good while; but at last,
when I examined further into it, I understood by him,
that a boat, such as that had been, came on shore upon
the country where he lived; that is, as he explained it,
was driven there by stress of weather. I presently imag-
ined, that some European ship must have been cast away
upon their coast, and the boat might get loose and drive
ashore; but was so dull that I never once thought of men
making escape from a wreck thither, much less whence
they might come; so I only inquired after a description
of the boat.
Friday described the boat to me well enough: but
brought me better to understand him when he added, with
some warmth, "We save the white mans from drown."
Then I presently asked him if there were any white mans,
as he called them, in the boat: Yes," he said, "the boat
full of white mans." I asked him, "How many?" He
told me upon his fingers, seventeen. I asked him then,
"What became of them ?" He told me, Theylive, they
dwell at my nation."
This put new thoughts again into my head; for I pres-
ently imagined, that these might be the men belonging
to the ship that was cast away in sight of my island, as I
now called it; and who, after the ship was struck on the
rock, and they saw her inevitable loss had saved them-
selves in their boat, and were landed upon that wild
shore among the savages.
Upon this I inquired of him more critically, what was
become of them; he assured me they lived still there;
that they had been there about four years; that the sav-
ages let them alone, and gave them victuals to live. I
asked him how it came to pass they did not kill them,
and eat them. He said, "No, they make brother with
them '" that is, as I understood him, a truce; and then
he added: "They eat no mans, but when make the war
fight;" that is to say, they nevir eat any men, but such
as come to fight with them, and are taken in battle.
It was after this, some considerable time, that being

on the top of the hill, at the east ide of the island, from
whence I had, in a clear day, discovered the main or con-
tinent of America, Friday, the weather being very se-
rene, looks very earnestly towards the main land, and, in
a kind of surprise, falls a jumping and dancing, and calls
out to me, for I was at some distance from him: I asked
him what was the matter. 0 joy I" says he, 0 glad I
There see my country I there my nation I"
I observed an extraordinary sense of pleasure appear in
his face, and his eyes sparkled, and his countenance dis-
covered a strange eagerness, as if he had a mind to be in
his own country again: and this observation of mineput
a great many thoughts into me, which made me at first
not so easy about my new man Friday, as I was before;
and I made no doubt, but that if Friday could get back to
his own nation again, he would not only forget all his
religion, but all his obligation to me; and would be for-
ward enough to give his countrymen an account of me,
and come back. perhaps, with a hundred or two of them,
and make a feast upon me, at which he might be as merry
as they used to be with those of his enemies when they
were taken in war.
But I wronged the poor, honest creature very much, for
which I was very sorry afterwards; however, as my jeal-
ousyincreased, and held me some weeks. I was a little
more circumspect and not so familiar and kind to him
as before; in which I was certainly in the wrong, too, the
honest, grateful creature having no thought about it, but
what consisted of the best principles, both as a religious
Christian, and as a grateful friend, as appeared after-
wards to my full satisfaction.
Whilst my jealousy of him lasted, you may be sure I
was every day pumping him to see if he would discover
any of the new thoughts which I suspected were in him;
but I found everything he said was honest, and so inno-
cent that I could find nothing to nourish my suspicion;
and in spite of all my uneasiness, he made me at last en-
tirely his own again; nor did he in the least perceive
that I was uneasy; and therefore I could not suspect him
of deceit.
One day, walking up the same hill, but the weather
being hazyat sea, so that iwe could not see the continent,
I called to him, and said: "Friday, do not you wish your-
self in your own country, your own nation?" "Yes,"
he said, "I be much 0 glad to be at my own nation."
"What would you do there ?" said I: "would you turn
wild again, eat man's flesh again, and be savage, as you
were before ?" He looked full of concern, and shaking
his had, said: "No, no; Friday tell them to live good,
tell them to pray God, tell them to eat corn-bread, cattle-
flesh, milk: no eat man again."
Why, then," said I to him, they will kill you." He
looked grave at that, and then said: "No, they no kill
me; they willing love learn." He meant by this they
would be willing to learn: he added they learned much
of the bearded mans that came in the boat. Then I asked
him if he would go back to them. He smiled at that, and
said he could not swim so far. I told him I would make
a canoe for him; he told me he would go, if I would go
with him. I go said I; "why, they will eat me, if
come there." "No no," said he, "me make them not
eat you; me make them much love you." He meant, he
would tell them how Ihad killed his enemies, and saved
his life, and so he would make them love me. Then he
told me, as well as he could, how kind they were to seven-
teen white men, or bearded men, as he called them, who
came on shore there, in distress.
From this time I confess, I had a mind to venture over,
and see if I could possibly join with these bearded men,
who, I made no donbt, were Spaniards or Portuguese;
not doubting, but, ifI could, we might find some method
to escape from thence, being upon the continent, and a
good company together, better than I could from an
island, forty miles off the shore and alone, without help.
So, after some days, I took Friday to work again, by way
of discourse; and told him, I would give him a boat to
go back to his own nation; and accordingly carried him
to my frigate, which lay on the other side of the island;
and, having cleared it of water, (for I always kept it sunk
in the water,) I brought it out, agd showed it him, and
we both went into it.
I found he was a most dexterous fellow at managing it,
would make it go almost as fast again as I could, so
when he was in it I said to him, "Well, now, Friday,
shall we go to your nation 1" He looked very dull at my
saying so; which, it seems, was because he thought the
boat too small to go so far. I told him then I had a bigger
so the next day I went to the place where the first boa
lay which I had made, but which I could not get into the
water. He said that was big enough; but then as I had
taken no care of it, and it had lain two or three-and-
twenty years there, the sun had split and dried it, that it
was in a manner rotten. Friday told me, that such &
boat would do very well, and would carry "much enough
vittle, drink, bread-" that was his way of talking.
Upon the whole, I was by this time so fixed upon my
design of going over with him to the continent, that I told


him we would go and make one as big as that, and he escape from Barbary, as related in the first part of my
should go home in it. He answered not one word, and story.
looked very grave and sad. I asked him what was the mat- I was near two months performing this last work, viz.:
ter with him. He asked me again thus, Why you angry rigging and fitting my masts and sails; for I finished
mad with Friday ? What me done ?" I asked him what them very complete, making a small stay, and a sail, or
he meant; I told him I was not angry with him at all. foresail to it, to assist, if we should turn to windward;
"No angry I No angry I" says he, repeating the words and which was more than all, I fixed a rudder to the stern
several times; "why send Friday home away to my of her, to steer with; and though I was but a bungling
nation ?" Why," said I, "Friday, did you not say you shipwright, yet as I knew the usefulness and even neces-
wished you were there ?" "Yes, yes," says he, "wish sity of such a thing, I applied myself with so much pains
we both there; no wish Friday there, no master there." to do it. that at last I brought it to pass; though, con-
In a word, he would not think of going there without me. siderine the many dull contrivances I had for it that
"I go there, Friday I" said I; what should I do there ?" failed, think it cost me almost as much labor as making
He turned very quickly upon me at this: "You do great the boat.
deal much good," says he; "you teach wild mans be After all this was done, I had my man Friday to teach
good, sober tame man, you tell them know God, pray as to what belonged to the navigation of my boat; for
God, and live new life.' "Alas I Friday," said I, thou though he knew very well how to paddle the canoe, he
knowest not what thou sayest; Iam but an ignorant man knew nothing what Belonged to a sail and a rudder, and
myself." "Yes, yes," says he, "you teacher me good, was the more amazed when he saw me work the boat to-
you teachee them good." "No, no, Friday," said I, and-again in the sea, by the rudder, and how the sail
"you shall go without me; leave me by myself, as I was jibed, and filled this way or that way, as the course we
before." He looked confused again at that word; and, sailed changed; I say when he saw this, he stood like
running to one of the hatchets Which he used to wear, he one astonished and amazed. However, with a little use,
takes it up hastily, and gives it to me. "What must I I made all these things familiar to him, and he became
do with this ?" said I to him. "You take kill Friday," an expert sailor, except that as to the compass, I could
says he. "What must Ikill you for ?" said I, again. He make him understand very little of that; on the other
returns very quickly, What you send Friday away for? hand, as there was very little cloudy weather and seldom
Take kill Friday; no send Friday away." This he spoke or never any fogs in those parts, there was the less occa-
so earnestly, that I saw tears stand in his eyes. In a sion for a compass, seeing the stars were always to be
word, I so plainly discovered the utmost affection in him seen by night, and the shore by day, except in the rainy
to me, and a firm resolution in him, that I told him then seasons; and then nobody cared to stir abroad, either by
and often after, that I would never send him away from land or sea.
me if he were willing to stay with me. I was now entered on the seven-and-twentieth year of
Upon the whole, as I found, by all his discourse, a my captivity in this place; though the three last years
settled affection to me, and that nothing should part him that I had this creature with me ought rather to be left
from me, so I found all tne foundation of his desire to go out of the account, my habitation being quite of another
to his own country was laid in his ardent affection to the kind, than in all the rest of the time. I kept the anni-
people, and his hopes of my doing them good; a thing, versary of my landing here, with the same thankfulness
which as I had no notion of myself, so I had not the least to God for his mercies as at first; and if I had s.Ich cause
thought, or intention, or desire of undertaking it. But of acknowledgment at first, I had much more so now,
still I found a strong inclination to my attempting an having such additional testimonies of the care of Provi-
escape, as above, founded on the supposition gathered dence over me, and the great hopes I had of being effec-
from the former discourse, viz.: that there were seven- tually and speedily delivered; or. I had an invincible
teen bearded men there; and therefore, without any more impression upon my thoughts, that my deliverance was
delay, I went to work with Friday, to find out a great tree at hand, and that I should not be another year in this
proper to fell, and make a large periagua, or canoe, to place. However, I went on with my husbandry, digging,
undertake the voyage. There were trees enough in the planting, fencing, as usual; I gathered and cured my
island to have built a little fleet, not of periaguas and grapes, and did every necessary thing as before.
canoes only, but even of good large vessels; but thqitain The rainy season was in the mean time upon me, when
thing I looked at was to get one so near the water, that I kept more within doors.than at other times; so I had
we might launch it when it was made, to avoid the mis- stowed our new vessel as secure as we could, bringing
take I committed at first, her up into the creek, where, as I said in the beginning,
At last Friday pitched upon a tree; for I found he knew I landed my rafts from the ship; and hauling her up to
much better than I what kind of wood was fittest for it; the shore at high-water mark, I made my man Friday dig
nor can I tell to this day, what wood to call the tree we a little dock, just big enough to hold her, and just deep
cut down, except that it was very like the tree we call enough to give her water enough to float in; and that
fustic, or between that and the Nicaragua wood, for it when the tide was out, we made a strong dam across the
was much of the same color and smell. Friday was for end of it, to keep the water out; and so she lay dry, as to
burning the hollow or cavity of this tree out to make it the tide from the sea; and to keep the rain of, we laid a
into a boat; but I showed him how rather to cut it out great many boughs of trees so thick, that she was as well
with tools, which, after I showed him.hou to use, he did thatched as a house; and thus we waited for the months
it very handily; and in about a month's hard labor, we ofNovember and December, In which I designed to make
finished it, and made it very handsome, especially when my adventure.
with our axes, which I showed him how to handle, we When the settled season began to come in, as the
cut and hewed the outside into the true shape of a boat. thought of my design returned with the fair weather, I
After this, however, it cost us near a fortnight's time to was preparing daily for the voyage; and the first thing I
get her along, as it were, inch by inch, upon great rollers, did was to lay by a certain quantity of provisions, being
into the water; but when she was in, she would have car- the stores for our voyage; and intended in a week or
ried twenty men with ease. fortnight's time to open the dock, and launch out our
When she was in the water, and though she was so big, boat. I was busy one morning upon something of this
it amazed me to see with what dexterity and how swift kind. when I called to Friday, and bade him go to the
my man Friday would manage her, turn her, and paddle sea-shore, and see if he could find a turtle or tortoise a
her along. So I asked him, if he would, and if we might thing which we generally got once a week for the sake
venture over in her. "Yes," he said, me venture over of the eggs, as well as the flesh. Friday had not been
in her very well, though great blow wind." However, I long gone, when he came running back, and flew over
had a farther design that he knew nothing of, and that my outward wall, or fence, like one that felt not the
was to make a mast and a sail, and to fit her with an ground, or the steps he set his feet on; and before I had
anchor and cable. As to a mast, that was easy enough to time to speak to him, he cried out to me: 0 master 1 O
get; so I pitched upon a straight young cedar-tree, which master I 0 sorrow 1 0 bad I"" What's the matter, Fri-
Ifound near the place, asd which there was a great plenty day?" said I. "0 yonder there," says he, "one, two,
of in the island; and I set Friday to work to cut it down, three canoe I one, two, three I" By this way of speaking,
and gave him directions how to shape and order it' but I concluded there were six; but, on inquiry, I found there
as to the sail, that was my particular care. I knew I had were but three. "Well, Friday," said I, "do not be
old sails, or rather pieces of old sails enough, but as I had frightened ;" so 1 heartened him up as well as I could.
had them now twenty-six years by me, and not been very However, I saw the poor fellow was most terribly scared;
careful to preserve them, not imagining that I should for nothing ran in his head but that they were come to
ever have this kind of use for them, I did not doubt but look for him, and would cut him in pieces and eat him;
they were all rotten; and indeed most of them were so. and the poor fellow trembled so that I scarce knew what
However, I found two pieces which appeared pretty good, to do with him. I comforted him as well as I could, and
and with these I went to work: and with a great deal of told him I was in as much danger as he, and that they
pains, and awkward tedious stitching (you may be sure) would eat me as well as him. But," said I, "Friday,
for want of needles, I at length made a three-cornered we must resolve to fight them. Can you fght, Friday ?'
ugly thing, like what we call in England a shoulder-of- "Me shoot," says he, "but there come many great num-
mutton sail, to go with aboom at the bottom, and a little -ber." "No matter for that," said I again, "our guns
sprit at the top, such as usually our ships' long-boats sail will fright them we do not kill." o I asked him
with, and such as I best knew how to manage, because it whether, if I resolved to defend him, he would defend
was such a one as I used in the boat in which I made my me, and stand by me, and do just as I bade him. He


said, "Me die, when you bid die, master." So Iwent
and fetched a good dram of rum, and gave him; for I had
made so good a husband of my rum, that I had a great
deal left. When he had drank it, I made him take two
fowling-pieces, which we always carried, and loaded
them with swan-shot, as big as small pistol-bullets: then
I took four muskets, and loaded them with two slugs
and five small bullets each; and my two pistols I loaded
with a brace of bullets each. I hung my great sword, as
usual, naked by my side, and gave riday is hatchet.
When I had thus prepared myself, I took my perspec-
tive glass, and went up to the side of the hill, to see what
I could discover; and I found quickly, by my glass, that
there were one-and-twenty savages, three prisoners, and
three canoes; and that their whole business seemed to
be the triumphant banquet over these three human bodies
(a barbarous feast indeed I): but nothing more than as I
had observed was usual with them.
I observed, also, that they were landed, not where they
had done when Friday made his escape, but nearer to my
creek, where the shore was low, and where a thick wood
came close almost down to the sea. This, with the ab-
horrence of the inhuman errand these creatures came
about, so filled me with indignation, that I came down
again to Friday and told him I was resolved to go down
to them, and kill them all; and asked if he would stand
by me. He had now gotten over his fright, and his
spirits being raised with the dram I had given him, he
was very cheerful: and told me, as before, he would
die, when I bid die."
In this fit of fury, I took first and divided the arms
which I had charged as before, between us: I gave Friday
one pistol to stick in his girdle, and three guns upon his
shoulder; and I took one pistol and the other three my-
self, and in this posture we marched out. I took a small
bottle of rum in my pocket, and gave Friday a large bag
with more powder and bullets; and as to orders, I
charged him to keep close behind me, and not to stir, or
shoot, or do anything till I bade him; and in the mean-
time, not to speak a word. In this posture I fetched a
compass to my right hand of near a mile, as well to get
over the creek as to get into the wood; so that Imight
come within shot of them, before I should be discovered,
which I had seen by my glass it was easy to do.
I now entered the wood, and with all possible wariness
and silence (Friday following close at my heels), I march-
ed till I came to the skirt of it, on the side which was
next to them; only that one corner of the wood lay be-
tween me and them. Here I called softly to Friday, and
showing him a great tree, which was just at the corner
of the wood, I bade him go to the tree, and bring me word
if he could see there plainly what they were doing. He
did so and came immediately back and said, they might
be plainly viewed there; that they were all about the fire,
eating the flesh of one of their prisoners; and that another
lay bound upon the sand, a little from them, whom, he
said, they would kill next, and which fired the very soul
within me. He told me it was not one of their nation,
but one of the bearded men whom he had told me of, that
came to their country in the boat. I was filled with
horror at the very naming the white-bearded man; and,
going to the tree. I saw plainly, by my glass, a white
man, who lay upon the beach of the sea with his hands
and feet tied with flags, or things like rushes; and that
he was a European, and had clothes on.
There was another tree, and a little thicket beyond it,
about fifty yards nearer to them than the place where I
was, which by going a little way, about, I saw I might
come at undiscovered, and that then I should be within
half-shot of them. So I withheld my passion, though I
was indeed enraged to the highest degree; and, going
back about twenty paces I got behind some bushes
which held all the way till I came to the other tree, and
then I came to a little rising ground, which gave me a
full view of them, at the distance of about eighty yards.
I had now not a moment to lose; for nineteen of the
dreadful wretches sat upon the ground, all close huddled
together, and had just sent the other two to butcher the
poor Christian, and bring him. perhaps, limb by limb,
to their fire; and they were stooped down to untie the
bands at his feet. I turned to Friday, "Now, Friday,"
saidI, "doas I bidthee." Friday said hewould. "Then,
Friday," said I, "do exactly as you see me do; fail in
nothing." So I set down one of my muskets, and the
fowling-piece, upon the ground and Friday did the like
by his; and with the other musket I took my aim at the
savages, bidding him to do the like: then asking him if
he was ready, he said, "Yes." "Then fire a them,"
said I; and the same moment I fired also.
Friday took his aim so much better than I, that on the
side that he shot he killed two of them, and wounded
three more; and, on my side, I killed one, and wounded
two. They were, you may be sure, in a dreadful con-
sternation; and all of them who were not hurt, jumped
upon their feet immediately, but did not know which
way to run, or which way to look; for they knew not
from whence their destruction came. Friday kept his


eyes close on me, that as I had bid him, he might observe
what I did: so soon as the first shot was made, I threw
down the piece, and took up the fowling-piece, and Fri-
day did the like: he sees me cock and present; he did
thesameagain. "Are yo ready Friday?" saidI. "Yes,"
said he. "Let fly, then," said "in the name ofGod;"
and with that I fired again among the amazed wretches
and so did Friday; and as our pieces were now loaded
with what I call swan-shot, or small pistol-bullets, we
found only two drop: but so many were wounded, they
ran about yelling and screaming like mad creatures, al
bloody and miserably wounded, most of them; whereof
three more fell quickly after, though not quite dead.
"Now, Friday," said laying down the discharged
pieces and taking up the musket, which was yet loaded,
"follow me," said I; which he did, with a great deal of
courage: upon which I rushed out of the wood, and
showed myself, and Friday close at my feet. As soon as
I perceived they saw me, I shouted as loud as I could.
and bade Friday do so too; and running as fast as I
could, which, by the way, was not very fast, being loaded
with arms as Iwas I made directly towards the poor
victim, who was, as I said, lying upon the beach or shore,
between the place where they sat and the sea. The two
butchers who were just going to work with him, had left
him, at the surprise of our first fire, and fled in a terrible
fright to the sea-side, and had jumped into a canoe, and
three more of the rest had made the same way. I turned
to Friday, and bade him step forwards, and fire at them:
he understood me immediately, and, running about forty
yards to be near them he shot at them, and I thought he
had killed them all; for I saw them all fall in a heap in
the boat; though I saw two of them up again quickly;
however, he killed two of them, and wounded the third,
so that he lay down in the bottom of the boat, as if he
had been dead.
While my man Friday fired at them, I pulled out my
knife, and cut the flags that bound the poor victim; and
loosing his hands and feet, I lifted him up, and asked
him, in the Portuguese tongue, what he was. He an-
swered, in Latin, Christianus:" but was so weak and
faint that he could scarcely stand, or speak. I took my
bottle out of my pocket, and gave it him, making signs
that he should drink, which he did; and I gave him a
piece of bread, which he eat. Then I asked him what
countryman he was; and he said, "Espagnole:" and
being a little recovered, letme know, by all the signs he
could possibly make, how much he was in my debt for
his deliverance. Seignor," said I, with as much Span-
ish as I could make up, "we will talk afterward; but we
must fight now; if you have any strength left, take this
pistol and sword, and lay about you." He took them
very thankfully, and no sooner had he the arms in his
hands, but, as if they had put new vigor into him, he
flew upon his murderers, like a fury, and had cut two of
them in pieces in an instant; for the truth is, as the whole
was a surprise to them, so the poor creatures were so
much frighted with the noise of our pieces, that they fell
down for mere amazement and fear, and had no more
power to attempt their own escape, than their flesh had
to resist our shot; and that was the case of those five that
Friday shot in the boat; for as three of them fell with
the hurt they received, so the other two fell with the
Sept my piece in my hand still, without firing, being
willing to keep my charge ready, because I had given the
Spaniard my pistol and sword; so I called to Friday, and
bade him run up to the tree from whence we first Ared,
and fetch the arms which lay there, that had been dis-
charged which he did with great swiftness; and then
giving him my musket, I sat down myself to load all the
rest again, and bade them come to me when they wanted.
While I was loading these pieces there happened a fierce
engagement between the Spaniard and one of the savages,
who made at him with one of their great wooden swords
the same weapon that was to have killed him before, if I
had not prevented it. The Spaniard, who was as bold
and as brave as could be imagined, though weak, had
fought this Indian a good while, and had cut him two
great wounds on his head; but the savage, being'a stout
fusty fellow, closing in with him, had thrown him down
(being faint), and was wringing my sword out of his
hand, when the Spaniard, though undermost, wisely
quitting the sword, drew the pistol from his girdle, shot
the savage through the body, and killed him upon the
spot, before I, who was running to help, could come near
him. Friday, being now left at his liberty, pursued the
flying wretches with no weapon in his hand but his-
hatchet; and with that he dispatched those three who.
as I said before, were wounded at first and fallen, and all
the rest he could come up with; and the Spaniard com-
ing to me for a gun, I gave him one of the fowling-piece.
with which he pursued two of the savages, and wounded
them both: but as he was not able to run, they both get
from him into the wood, where Friday pursued thm,
and killed one of them; but the other was too nimble for.
him, and though he was wounded, yet had plunged Into.


the sea, and swam, with all his might, off to those who
were left in the canoe, which three in the canoe, with
one wounded-we know not whether he died or no-
were all that escaped our hands of one-and-twenty. The
account of the rest is as follows:-
3 Killed at our first shot from the tree.
2 Killed at the next shot.
2 Killed by Friday in the boat.
2 Killed by ditto, of those at first wounded.
1 Killed by ditto, in the wood.
3 Killed by the Spaniard.
4 Killed, being found dropped here and there of their
wounds, or killed by Friday in his chase of them.
4 Bscaped in the boat, whereof one was wounded, if not
21 In all.
Those that were in the canoe worked hard to get out
of gun-shot; and though Friday made two or three shots
at them, I did not find that he hit any of them. Friday
would fain have had me take one of their canoes, and
pursue them, and indeed I was very anxious about their
escape, lest carrying the news home to their people, they
should come back, perhaps with two or three hundred of
their canoes, and devour us by mere multitude: so I con-
sented to pursue them by sea; and running to one of
their canoes, I jumped in, and bade Friday follow us
but, when I was in the canoe, I was surprised to find
another poor creature lie there alive, bound hand and
foot, as the Spaniard was, for the slaughter, and almost
dead with fear, not knowing what the matter was, for he
had not been able to look up over the side of the boat;
he was tied so hard, neck and heels, and had been tied so
long that he had really little life in him.
I immediately cut the twisted flags, or rushes, which
they had bound him with, and would have helped him
up; but he could not stand or speak, but groaned most
piteously, believing, it seems, still, that he was only un-
bound in order to be killed.

When Friday came to him, I bade him speak to him,
and tell him of his deliverance; and pulling out my bot-
tle, made him give the poor wretch a dram, which with
the news of his being delivered, revived him, and he sat
up in the boat; but when Friday.came to hear him
speak, and looked in his face, it would have moved any
one to tears to have seen how Friday kissed him, em-
braced him, hugged him, cried, laughed, hallooed,jumped
about, danced sung, then cried again, wrung his hands
beat his own ace and head, and then sung and jumped
about again, like a distracted creature. It was a good
while before I cold make him speak to me, or tell me
what was the matter; but when he came a little to him-
self, he told me that it was his father.
It is not easy for me to express how it moved me to
see what ecstacy and filial affection had worked in this
poor savage, at the sight of his father, and of his being
delivered from death; nor, indeed, can I describe half the
extravagances of his affection after this; for he went into
the boat, and out of the boat, a great many times. When
he went in to him, he would sit down by him, open his
breast, and hold his father's head close to his bosom, half
an hour together, to nourish it: then he took his arms and
ancles, which were numbed and stiff with the binding, and
chafedand rubbed them with his hands; and I, perceiving
what the case was, gave him some rum out of my bottle,
to rub them with, which did them a great deal of good.
This action put an end to oar pursuit of the canoe with
the other savages, who were now gotten almost out of
sight; and it was happy for us that we did not, for it
blew so hard within two hours after, and before they
could be gotten a quarter of their way, and continued
blowing so hard all night, and that from the north-
west, which was against them, that I could not suppose
their boat could live, or that they ever reached their own
But to return to Friday: he was so busy about his father,

that I could not find in my heart to take him off, for some
time but after I thought he could leave him a little, I
called him to me, and he came jumping and laughing, and
pleased to the highest extreme.
Then I asked him, if he had given his father any bread.
He shook his head, and said, "None; ugly dog eat all up
self." So I gave him a cake of bread out of a little pouch
I carried on purpose I also gave him a dram for himself.
but he would not taste it, but carried it to his father. I
had in my pocket also two or three bunches of my rai-
sins, so I gave him a handful of them for his father. He
had no sooner given his father these raisins, but I saw
him come out of the boat, and run away as if he had been
bewitched. He ran at such a rate, (for he was the swift-
est fellow of his foot that ever I saw,) I say, he ran at
such a rate, that he was out of sight, as it were, in an in-
stant; and though I called and hallooed too after him, it
was all one; away he went, and, in a quarter of an hour,
I saw him come back again though not so fast as he
went; and as he came nearer, I found his pace was slacker,
because he had something in his hand.
When he came up to me, I found he had been quite
home for an earthen jug or ot, to bring his father some
fresh water; and that he had got two more cakes or
loaves of bread. The bread he gave me, but the water
he carried to his father: however, as I was very thirsty
too, I took a little sip of it. This water revived his father
more than all the rum or spirits I had given him; for he
was just fainting with thirst.
When his father had drunk, I called to him to know if
there was any water left: he said, "Yes ;" and I bade
him give it to the poor Spaniard, who was in as much
want of it as his father; and I sent one of the cakes that
Friday brought, to the Spaniard, too, who was indeed
very weak, and was reposing himself upon a green place,
under the shade of a tree, and whose limbs were also very
stiff, and very much swelled with the rude bandage he
had been tied with. WhenI sawthatuponFriday's com-
ing up to him with the water, he sat up, and drank, and
took the bread, and began to eat, I went up to him, and
gave him a handful of raisins. He looked up in my face
with all the tokens of gratitude and thankfulness that
could appear in any countenance; but so weak, notwith-
standing he had so exerted himself in the fight, that lie
could not stand up upon his feet; he tried to do it two o
three times, but was really not able his ancles were so
swelled, and so painful to him; so I bade him sit still,
and caused Friday to rub his ancles, and bathe them with
run, as he had done his father's.
I observed the poor affectionate creature every two
minutes, or perhaps less, all the while hewashere, turned
his head about, to see if his father was in the same place
and posture as he left him sitting; and at last he found
he was not to be seen, at which he started up, and, with-
out speaking a word, flew with that swiftness to him,
that one could scarce perceive his feet to touch the ground
as he went; but when he came he only found that he had
laid himself down to ease his limbs. So Friday came
back to me presently; and I then spoke to the Spaniard
to let Fridayhelp him up, if he could, andlead him to the
boat, and then he should carry him to our dwelling, where
I would take care of him; but Friday, a lusty young fel-
low, took the Spaniard quite up upon his back, and car-
ried him away to the boat, and set him down softly upon
the side or gunwale of the canoe, with his feet in the in-
side of it, and then lifted him quite in, and set him close
to his father, amd presently stepping out again, launched
the boat off, and paddled it along the shore faster than I
could walk, though the wind blew pretty hard, too; so
he brought them both safe into our creek, and leaving
them in the boat, runs away to fetch the other canoe. As
he passed me, I spoke to him, and asked him whither he
went. He told me, Go fetch more boat." So away he
went, like the wind; for sure never man or horse ran
like him; and he had the other canoe in the creek, al-
most as soon as I got to it by land; so he wafted me over,
and then went to help our new guests out of the boat,
which he did; but they were neither of them able to walk,
so that poor Friday knew not what to do.
To remedy this, I went to work in my thoughts, and
calling to Friday to bid them sit down on the bank while
he came to me I soon made a kind of hand-barrow to lay
them on, and Friday and I carried them up both together
upon it between us. But when we got them to the out-
side of our wall, or fortification, we were at a worse lose
than before, for it was impossible to get them over: and
I was resolved not to break it down. So I set to work
again, and Friday and I, in about two hours' time, made
a very handsome tent, covered with old sails, and above
that with boughs of trees, being in the space without our
outward fence and between that and the grove of young
wood which I had planted and here we made them two
beds of such things as I had, viz.: of good rice-straw,
with blankets laid upon it to lie on, and another to cover
them on each bed.
My island was now peopled, and I thought myself very
rich in subjects; and it was a merry reflection which I


frequently made, how like a king I looked. First of all,
the whole country was my own mere property, so that I
had an undoubted right of dominion. Secondly, mypeo-
ple were perfectly subjected; Iwas the absolute lord and
lawgiver; they all owed their lives to me, and were ready
to lay down their lives, if there had been occasion of it,
for me. It was remarkable, too, I had but three subjects,
and they were of three different religions; my man Fri-
day was a protestant; his father was a pagan and a can-
nibal; and the Spaniard was a papist. However, I al-
lowed liberty of conscience throughout my dominions.
But this is by the way.
As soon as I had secured my two weak, rescued prison-
er, and given them shelter, and a place to rest them upon,
I began to think of making some provision for them; and
the first thing I did, I ordered Friday to take a yearling
goat, betwixt a kid and a goat, out of my particular flock,
to be killed. Then I cut off the hinder quarter, and chop-
ping it into small pieces, I set Friday to work to boiling
and stewing, and made them a very good dish, I assure
you, of flesh and broth, having put some barley and rice
also into the broth: and as I cooked it without doors, for
I made no fire within my inner wall, so I carried it all
into the new tent; and having set a table there for them,
I sat down and eat my dinner also with them; and. as
well as I could cheered them and encouraged them, Fri-
day being my interpreter, especially to his father, and
indeed to the Spaniard, too; for the Spaniard spoke the
language of the savages pretty well.
After we had dined, or rather supped I ordered Friday
to take one of the canoes, and go and fetch our muskets
and other fire-arms, which, for want of time, we had left
upon the place of battle; and the next day I ordered him
to go and bury the dead bodies of the savages, which lay
open to the sun, and would presently be offensive; and I
also ordered him to bury the horrid remains of their bar-
barous feast, which I knew were pretty much, and which
I could not think of doing myself; nay, I could not bear
to see them, ifI went that way. All which he punctually
performed, and defaced the very appearance ofthe savages
being there; so that when I went again, I could scarcely
know where it was, otherwise than by the corner of the
wood pointing to the place.
I then began to enter into little conversation with my
two new subjects; and I first set Friday to inquire of his
father what he thought of the escape of the savages in
that canoe, and whether we might expect a return of
them with a power too great for us to resist. His first
opinion was, that the savages in the boat never could
live out the storm which blew that night they went off,
but must of necessity be drowned, or driven south to
those other shores, where they were as sure to be de-
voured as they were to be drowned, if they were cast
away; but as to what they would do, if they came safe on
shore, he said he knew not; but it was his opinion that
they were so dreadfully frighted with the manner of their
being attacked, the noise and the fire, that he believed
they would tell their people they were all killed by thun-
der and lightning, and not by the hand of man; and that
the two which appeared (viz., Friday and I) were two
heavenly spirits, or furies, come down to destroy them,
and not men with weapons. This, he said, he knew, be-
cause he heard them all cry out so in their language, one
to another; for it was impossible to them to conceive
that a man could dart fire, and speak thunder, and kill at
a distance, without lifting up the hand, as was dope now.
And this old savage was in the right; for, as I understood
since, by other hands, the savages of that part never at-
tempted to go over to the island afterwards. They were
so terrified with the accounts given by those four men,
(for it seems they did escape the sea,) that they believed,
whosoever went to that enchanted island, would be de-
stroyed with fire from the gods.
This, however, I knew not, and therefore was under
continual apprehensions for a good while, and kept al-
ways upon my guard, I and all my army: for as we were
now four of us, I would have ventured upon a hundred
of them fairly, in the open field, at any time.
In a little, however, no more canoes appearing, the fear
of their coming wore off, and I began to take my former
thoughts of a voyage to the main into consideration being
likewise assured by Friday's father, that I might depend
upon good usage from their nation, on his account, if I
would go.
But my thoughts were a little suspended, when I had a
serious discourse with the Spaniard, and when I under-
stood that there were sixteen more of his countrymen
and Portuguese, who having been cast away, and made
their escape to that side, lived there at peace indeed with
the savages, but were very sore put to it for necessaries,
and indeed for life. I asked him all the particulars of
their voyage, and Ibund they were a Spanish ship, bound
from the Rio de la Plata, to the Havannah, being directed
to leave their loading there, which was chiefly hides and
silver, and to bring back what European goods they could
meet with there; that they had five Portuguese seamen
on board, whom they took out of another wreck; that

five of their own men were drowned when first their ship
was lost; and that these escaped through infinite danger
and hazards, and arrived almost starved on the cannibal
coast, where they expected to have been devoured every
He told me they had some arms with them, but they
were perfectly useless, for that they had neither powder
nor ball, the washing of the sea having spoiled all their
powder, but a little which they used at their first landing
toprovide themselves some food.
I asked him what he thought would become of them
there, and if they had formed no design of making any
escape. He said they had had many consultations about
it, but that having neither vessel, nor tools to build one,
nor provisions of any kind, their counsels always ended
in tears and despair.
I asked him how he thought they would receive a pro-
posal from me. Which might tend towards an escape; and
whether, if they were all here, it might not be done. I
told him, with freedom, I feared mostly their treachery
and ill usage of me, if I put my life into their hands; for
that gratitude was no inherent virtue in the nature of
man; nor did men always square their dealings by the
obligations they had received, so much as they did by the
advantages they expected. I told him it would be very
hard that I should be the instrument of their deliverance,
and that they should afterwards make me their prisoner
in New Spain, where an Englishman was certain to be
made a sacrifice, what necessity or what accident soever
brought him thither; and that I had rather be delivered
up to the savages, and be devoured alive, than fall into
the merciless paws of the priests, and be carried into the
Inquisition. I added, that otherwise I was persuaded, if
they were all here, we might, with so many hands, build
a bark large enough to carry us all away either to the
Brazils southward, or to the islands, or Spanish coast
northward; but that if, in requital, they should, when I
had put weapons into their hands, carry me, by force,
among their own people, I might be ill-used for my kind-
ness to them, and make my case worse than it was
He answered with a great deal of candor and ingenuity,
that their condition was so miserable, and they were so
sensible of it, that they would abhor the thought of using
any man unkindly that should contribute to their deliver-
ance; and that if I pleased, he would go to them with the
old man, and discourse with them about it, and return
again, and bring me their answer; that he would make
conditions with them, upon their solemn oath, that they
should be absolutely under my leading, as their com-
mander and captain; and they should swear upon the
holy Sacramentsand the ospel, to be true to me, and to
go to such Christian country as I should agree to, and no
other; and to be directed wholly and absolutely by nto
orders, till they were landed safely in such country as I
intended; and that he would bring a contract from them,
under their hands, for that purpose.
Then he told me he would first swear to me himself,
that he would never stir from me as long as he lived, till
I gave him orders; and that he would take my side to the
last drop of blood, if there should happen the least breach
of faith among his countrymen.
He told me they were all of them very civil, honest
men, and they were under the greatest distress imaginable,
having neither weapons nor clothes, nor any food, but at
the mercy and discretion of the savages, out of all hopes
of ever returning to their own country, and that he was
sure, if I would undertake their relief, they would live
and die by me.
Upon these assurances, I resolved to venture to relieve
them, if possible, and to send the old savage and the
Spamnard over to them to treat. But when he had gotten
all things in readiness to go, the Spaniard himself started
an objection, which had so much prudence in it on the
one hand, and so much sincerity on the other hand, that
I could not but be very well satisfied in it; and, by his
advice, put off the deliverance of his comrades for at least
half a year. The case was thus:
He had been with us now about a month, during which
time I had let him see in what manner I had provided.
with the assistance of Providence, for my support; and
he saw evidently what stock of corn and rice I had raised
up, which, as it was more than sufficient for myself, so it
was not sufficient, at least without good husbandry, for
my family, now it was increased to number four; but
much less would it be sufficient to victual our vessel I
we should build one, for a voyage to any of the Christian
colonies of America. So he told me he thought it would
be more advisable to let him, and the two others, dig and
cultivate some more land, as much as I could spare seed
to sow; and that we should wait another harvest, that we
might have a supply of corn for his countrymen when
they should come; for want might be a temptation to
them to disagree, or not to think themselves delivered,
otherwise than out of one difficulty into another. "Yon
know," said he, "the children of Israel, though they
rejoiced at first at their being delivered out of Egypt, yet


rebelled even against God himself, that delivered them,
when they came to want bread in the wilderness."
His caution was so seasonable, and his advice so good,
that I could not but be very well pleased with his pro-
posal, as well as I was satisfied with his fidelity.
So we fell to digging, all four of us, as well as the
wooden tools we were furnished with permitted; and in
about a month's time, by the end of which it was seed-
time, we had gotten as much land cured and trimmed up
as we sowed twenty-two bushels of barley on, and sixteen
jars of rice, which was, in short, all the seed we had to
spare; nor indeed did we leave ourselves barley sufficient
for our own food, for the six months that we had to ex-
pect our crop; that is to say, reckoning from the time
we set our seed aside for sowing, for it is not to be sup-
posed it is six months in the ground in that country.
Having now society enough, and our number being
sufficient to put us out of fear of the savages, if they had
come, unless their numbers had been very great, we went
freely all over the island, wherever we found occasion;
and as here we had our escape or deliverance upon our
thoughts, it was impossible, at least for .me, to have the
means of it out of mine. To this purpose I marked out
several trees, which I thought fit for our purpose, and I
set Friday and his father to cutting them down; and then
I caused the Spaniard, to whom 1 imparted my thoughts
on that affair, to oversee and direct the work. I showed
them with what indefatigable pains I had hewed a large
tree into single planks, and I caused them to do the like
till they had made about a dozen large planks of good
oak, near two feet broad, thirty-five feet long, and from
two inches to four inches thick. What prodigious labor
it took up, any one may imagine.
At the same time, I contrived to increase my little flock
of tame goats as much as I could; and to this purpose I
made Friday and the Spaniard go out one day, and my-
self with Friday the next day: for we took our turns;
and, by this means we got about twenty young kids to
breed up with the rest, for whenever we shot the dam,
we saved the kids, and added them to our flock. But
above all, the season for curing the grapes coming on, I
caused such a prodigious quantity to be hung up in the
sun, that I believe, had we been at Alicant, where the
raisins of tfe sun are cured, we should have filled sixty
or eighty barrels; and these, with our bread, were a
great part of our food, and very goodliving, too, I assure
you; for it is an exceeding nourishing food.
It was now harvest; and our crop in good order. It
was not the most plentiful increase I had seen in the
island, but, however, it was enough to ansiver our end ;
for, from our twenty-two bushels of barley, we brought
in and threshed out above two hundred asi twenty bush-
els of barley, and the like in proportion of the rice, which
wad store enough for our food to the next harvest, though
all the sixteen hpaniards had been on shore with me; or, if
we had been ready for a voyage, it would very plentifully
have victualled our ship, to have carried us to any part
of the world, that is to say, of America. When we had
thus housed and secured our magazine of corn, we fell to
work to make more wicker-work, viz.: great baskets in
which we kept it; and the Spaniard was very handy and
dexterous at this part, and often blamed me that I did
not make some things for defense of this kind of work,
but I saw no need ofit.
And now having a full supply of food for all the guests
I expected, I gave the Spaniard leave to go over to the
main, to see what he could do with those he had left be-
hind him there. I gave him a strict charge in writing
not to bring any man with him, who would not first
swear in the presence of himself, and the old savage, that
he would no way injure, fight with, or attack the person
he should find in the island, who was so kind as to send
for them, in order to their deliverance; but that they
would stand by and defend him against all such attempts,
and wherever they went, would be entirely under, and
subjected to, his command; and that this should be put
in writing, and signed with their hands. How we were
to have this done, when I knew they had neither pen
nor ink, that indeed was a question which we never
Under these instructions, the Spaniard and the old
savage (the father of Friday), went away in one of the
canoes, which they might be said to come in, or rather
were brought in, when they came as prisoners to be
devoured by the savages.
I gave each of them a musket with a firelock on it, and
about eight charges of powder and ball, charging them to
be very good husbands of both, and not to use either of
them but upon urgent occasions.
This was a cheerful work, being the first measures used
by me, in view of my deliverance, for now twenty-seven
years and some days. I gave them provisions of bread,
and of dried grapes, sufficient for themselves for many
days, and sufficient for all their countrymen forabout eight
days time; and wishing them a good voyage I let them
o, agreeing with them about a signal they should hang
out a their return, by which I should know them again,

when they came back, at a distance, before they came on
They went away, with a fair gale, on the day that the
moon was at the full; by my account, in the month of
October: but as to the exact reckoning of days, after I
had once lost it, I could never recover ft again ; nor had
I ever kept the number of years so punctually as to be
sure that I was right, though, as it proved, when I after-
wards examined my account, I found I had kept a true
reckoning of years.
It was no less than eight days I waited for them, when
a strange and unforeseen accident intervened, of which
the like has not, perhaps, been heard of in history. I
was fast asleep in my hutch one morning. when my man
Friday came running in tome, and called aloud, "Master,
master, they are come, they are come."
I jumped up, and regardless of danger. I went out, as
soon as I could get my clothes on, through my little
grove, which (by the way) was by this time grown to be
a very thick wood; I say, regardless of danger, I went
without my arms, which it was not my custom to do'
but I was surprised, when, turning my eyes to the sea, I
presently saw a boat, at about a league and a halrs dis-
tance, standing in for the shore, with a shoulder-of-mut-
ton sail, as they call it, and the wind blowing pretty fair
to bring them in. Also I observed presently, that they
did not come from that side which the shbre lay on. but
from the southernmost end of the island. Upon this, I
called Friday in. and bade him lie close, for these were
not the people we looked for, and that we did not know
yet whether they were friends or enemies.
In the next place, I went in to fetch my perspective
glass, to see what I could make of them; and having
taken the ladder out, I climbed up to the top of the hill,
as I used to do when I was apprehensive of anything,
and to take my view the plainer, without being di-
I had scarce set my foot on the hill, when my eye plainly
discovered a ship, lying at anchor, at about two leagues
and a half's distance from me, .S. E., but not above a
league and a half from the shore. By my observation, it
appeared plainly to be an English ship, and the boat ap-
peared to be an English long-boat.
I cannot express the confusion I was in; though the
joy of seeing a ship, and one which, I had reason to be-
lieve, was manned by my own countrymen, and conse-
quently friends, was such as I cannot describe; but yet I
had some secret doubts hang about me, I cannot tell
from whence they came, bidding me keep upon myguard.
In the first place, it occurred to me to consider what
business an English ship could have in that part of the
world, since it was not the way to or from any part of
the world where the English had any traffic; and I knew
there had been no storms to drive them in there, as in
distress; and that if they were English really, it was
most probable that they were here upon no good design,
and I had better continue as I was, than fall inmo he
hands of thieves and murderers.
Let no man despise the secret hints and notices of
danger which sometimes are given him, when he may
think there is no possibility of its being real. That such
hints and notices are given us, I believe few that have
made any observations on things, can deny; that they
are certain discoveries of an invisible world, and a con-
verse of spirits, we cannot doubt; and if the tendency
of them. seems to warn us of danger, why should we not
suppose they are from some friendly agent (whether su-
preme, or inferior and insubordinate, is not the question),
and that they are given for our good?
The present question abundantly confirms me in the
justice of this reasoning; for had Inot been made cau-
tious by this secret admonition, come it from whence it
will. I had been undone inevitably, and in a far worse
condition than before, as you will see presently.
I had not kept myself long in this posture, when I saw
the boat draw near the shore, asif they looked for a creek
to thrust in at, for the convenience of landing: however,
as they did not come quite far enough, they did not see
the little inlet where I formerly landed my rafts but run
their boat on shore upon the beach, at about half a mile
from me, which was very happy for me; for otherwise
they would have landed just, as I may say, at my door,
and soon would have beaten me out of my castle, and,
perhaps, have plundered me of all I had.
When they were on shore, I was fully satisfied they
were Englishmen, at least, most of them: one or two I
thought were Dutch, but it did not prove so. There were
in alleleven men, whereof three I found were unarmed,
and (as I thought) bound: and when the first fpur or five
of them jumped on shore, they took those three out of
the boat as prisoners. One of the three I could perceive
using the most passionate gestures of entreaty, affliction,
and despair, even to a kind of extravagance; the other
two, I could perceive, lifted up their hands sometimes,
and appeared concerned indeed, but not to such a degree
as the first.
I was perfectly confounded at the sight, and knew not


what the meaning of it should be. Friday called out to
me, in English, as well as he could, 0 master, you see
EJnlish mans eat prisoners as well as savage mans."
" Why," said I, "Friday, do you think they are going to
eat them then?" "Yes," ays Friday, "they will eat
them." "No, no," said I "Friday: I am afraid they
will murder them, indeed; but you may be sure they will
not eat them."
All this while I had no thought of what the matter
really was, but stood trembling with the horror of the
sight, expecting every moment when the three prisoners
should be killed; nay, once I saw one of the villains lift
up his arm, with a great cutlass (as the seamen call it)
or sword, to strike one of the poor men; and I expected
to see him fall every moment, at which all the blood in
my body seemed to run chill in my veins.
I wished heartily now for my Spaniard, and the savage
that was gone with him; or that I had any way to have
come undiscovered within shot of them, that I might
have rescued the three men; for I saw no fire-arms they
had among them: but it fell out to my mind another
After I had observed the outrageous usage of the three
men, by the insolent seamen, I observed the fellows ran
scattering about the land, as if they wanted to see the
country. I observed also, that the three other men had
liberty to go where they pleased; but they sat down all
three upon the ground very pensive, and looked like men
in despair.
This put me in mind of the first time when I came
on shore, and began to look about me: how I gave my-
sellf over for lost, how wildly I looked around me, what
dreadful apprehensions I had, and how I lodged in the
tree all night, for fear of being devoured by wild beasts.
As I knew nothing that night of the supply I was to
receive, by the providential driving of the ship nearer
the land, by the storms and tide, by which I have since
been so long nourished and supported; so these three
poor, desolate men, knew nothing how certain of deliv-
erance and supply they were, how near it was to them,
and how effectually and really they were in a condition
of safety, at the same time as they thought themselves
lost, and their case desperate.
So little do we e before us in the world, and so much
reason have we to depend cheerfully upon the great
Maker of the world, that he does not leave his creatures
so absolutely destitute, but that in the worst circum-
stances they have always something to be thankful for,
and are sometimes nearer their deliverance than they
imagine; nay, are even brought to their deliverance by
the means which they seem to be brought to their de-
It was just at the top of high-water when these people
came on shore, and partly while they stood parleying
with the prisoners they brought, and partly while they
rambled about to see what kind of a place they were in,
they had carelessly staid till the tide was spent, and
the water was ebbed considerably away, leaving their
boat aground.
They had left two men in the boat, who, as I found af-
terwards, having drunk a little too much brandy, fell
asleep. However, one of them waking sooner than the
other, and finding the boat too fast aground for him to
stir it, hallooed for the rest, who were straggling about,
upon which they all soon came to the boat; but it was
past all their strength to launch her, the boat being very
heavy, and the shore on that side being a soft, oozy sand,
almost like a quicksand.
In this condition, like true seamen, who are, perhaps,
the least of all mankind given to forethought, they gave
it over, and away they strolled about the country again
and I heard one say aloud to another (calling them off
from the boat), "Why, let her alone, Jack, can't ye?
She'll float next tide." By which I was fully confirmed
in the main inquiry, of what countrymen they were.
All this while I kept myself close, not once daring to
stir out of my castle any farther than to my place of ob-
servation, near the top of the hill; and very glad I was
to think how well it was fortified. I knew it was no less
than ten hours before the boat could be afloat again, and
by that time it would be dark. and I might be more at
liberty to see their motions, and to hear their discourse,
if they had any.
In the meantime, I fitted myself up for a battle, as be-
fore, though with more caution, knowing I had to do
with another kind of enemy than I had at first. I ordered
Friday also, whom I had made an excellent marksman
with his gun, to load himself with arms. I took myself
two fowling-pieces, and I gave him three muskets. My
figure indeed was very fierce: I had my formidable goat-
skin coat on, with the great cap I mentioned, a naked
sword by my side, two pistols in my belt, and a gun
upon each shoulder.
It was my design, as I said above, not to have made
any attempt till it was dark' but about two o'clock,
being the heat of the day, I found, that, in short, they
were all gone straggling into the woods, and, as I

thought, were all laid down to sleep. The three poor
distressed men, too anxious for their condition to get
any sleep, were, however, set down under the shelter of
a great tree, at about a quarter of a mile from me, and,
as I thought, out of sight of any of the rest.

Upon this. I resolved to discover myself to them, and
learn something of their condition. Immediately I
marched, in the figure above; my man Friday at a good
distance behind me, as formidable for his arms as I
but not making quite so staring a spectre-like figure asI
I came as near them undiscovered as I could, and then,
before any of them saw me, I called aloud to them, in
Spanish: "What are ye, gentlemen ?"
They started up at the sound, but were ten times more
confounded when they saw me, and the uncouth figure
that I made. They made me no answer at all, but I
thought I perceived them just going to fly from me, when
I spoke to them in English: Gentlemen," said I, "do
not be surprised at me: perhaps you may have a friend
near you, when you do not expect it." "He must be
sent directly from Heaven, then," said one of them, very
gravely to me, and pulling off his hat at the same time;
for our condition is past the help of man." "All help
is from Heaven, sir," said I. But can you put a stranger
in the way how to help you; for you seem to me to be in
some great distress ? I saw you when you landed; and
when you seemed to make application to the brutes that
came with you, I saw one of them lift up his sword to
kill you."
The poor man, with tears running down his face, and
trembling, looking like one astonished, returned, "Am I
talking to God, or man ? Is it a real man, or an angel ?"
"Be in no fear about thft, sir," said I. "If God had
sent an angel to relieve you, he would have come better
clothed, and armed after another manner, than you see
me. Pray lay aside your fears: I am a man, an English-
man, and disposed to assist you, you see. I have one
servant, only; we have arms and ammunition. Tell us
freely: can we serve you? What is your case ?"
Our case, sir," said he, is too long to tellyou, while
our murderers are so near; but, in short, sir, I was com-
mander of that ship; my men having mutinied against
me, they have been hardly prevailed on not to murder
me, and, at last, have set me on shore in this desolate
place, with these two men with me, one my mate, the
other a passenger, where we expected to perish, believing
the place to be uninhabited, and know not yet what to
think of it."
"Where are those brutes, your enemies said L
"Do you know where they are gone ?" There they are,
sir," said he, pointing to a thicket of trees. "My heart
trembles for fear they have seen u and heard you speak;
if they have, they will certainly murder us all."
"Have they any fire-arms i" said I. He answered,
they had only two pieces and one which they left in the
boat. "We, then," said I, leave the rest to me. I see
they are all asleep. It is an easy thing to kill them all:
but shall we rather take them prisoners ?" He told me
there were two desperate villains among them, that it
was scarce safe to show any mercy to; but if they were
secured, he believed all the rest would return to their duty.
I asked him which they were. He told me he could not
at that distance describe them; but he would obey my
orders in anything I would direct. Well," said I, "let
us retreat out of their view or hearing, lest they awake:
and we will resolve farther." So they willingly went back
with me, till the woods covered us from them.
".Look you, sir," said I, "ifI venture upon your deliv-
eranceare you willing to make two conditions with me ?"
He anticipated my proposals, by telling me, that both he
and the ship, if recovered, should be wholly directed and
commanded by me in everything; and it the ship was
not recovered, he would live and die with me, in what


part of the world soever I would send him; and the two
other men said the same.
"Well," said I, my conditions are but two: first,
that while you stay on this island with me, you will not
pretend to any authority here; and if I put arms into your
hands, you will, upon all occasions, give them up to me,
and do no prejudice to me or mine, upon this island; and,
in the mean time, be governed by my orders.
Secondly, that if the ship is or may be recovered, you
will carry me and my man to England, passage-free."
lie gave me all the assurances that the invention and
faith of a man could devise, that he would comply with
these most reasonable demands; and, besides, would owe
his life to me, and acknowledge it upon all occasions as
long as he lived.
Well, then," said I, "here are three muskets for you,
with powder and ball. Tell me next what you think is
proper to be done." He showed all the testimony of his
gratitude that he was able; but offered to be wholly
guided by me. I told him I thought it was hard ventur-
ing anything, but the best method I could think of, was
to fire upen them at once, as they lay; and if any were
not killed at the first volley, and offered to submit, we
might save them, and so put it wholly upon God's provi-
dence to direct the shot.
He said very modestly, that he was loath to kill them,
if he could help it; but that those two were incorrigible
villains, and had been the authors of all the mutiny in the
ship; and if they escaped, we should be undone still; for
they would go on board and bring the whole ship's com-
pany, and destroy us all. "Well, then," said I, neces-
sity legitimates my advice; for it is the only way to save
our lives." However, seeing him still cautious of shed-
ding blood, I told him they should go themselves, and
manage as they found convenient.
In the middle of this discourse, we heard some of them
awake and soon after we saw two of them on their feet.
I asked him if either of them were the men, who, he had
said, were the heads of the mutiny. He said, "No."
'Well, then," said I, "you may let them escape, and
Providence seems to have wakened them on purpose to
save themselves. Now," said I, "if the rest escape you,
it is your fault."
Animated with this, he took the musket I had given
him in his hand, and a pistol in his belt, and his two
comrades with him, with each man a piece in his hand.
The two men, who were with him, going first, made some
noise, at which one of the seamen, who was awake,
turned about, and, seeing them coming, cried out to the
rest; but it was too late then, for the moment he cried
out, they fired, I mean the two men, the captain wisely
reserving his own piece. They had so well aimed their
shot at the men they knew, that one of them was killed
on the spot, and the other very much wounded; but not
being dead, he started up upon his feet, and called eagerly
for help to the other; but the captain, stepping to him,
told him it was too late to cry for help, he should call
upon God to forgive his villainy, and, with that word,
'; \:s ^ -_

knocked him down with the stock of his musket, so that
he never spoke more. There were three more in the com-
pany, and one of them was also slightly wounded. By
this time I was come: and when they saw their danger,
and that it was in vain to resist, they begged for mercy.
The captain told them he would spare their lives, if they
would give him any assurance of their abhorrence of the
treachery they had been guilty of, and would swear to be

faithful to him in recovering the ship, and afterwards in
carrying her back to Jamaica, from whence they came.
They gave him all the protestations of their sincerity that
couldbe desired, and he was willing to believe them, and
spare their lives, which Iwas not against; only I obliged
him to keep them bound, hand and foot, while they were
upon the island.
While this was doing, I sent Friday, with the captain's
mate, to the boat with orders to secure her, and bring
away the oars ana sal, which they did; and, by-the-by
three straggling men, that were (happily for them) parted
from the rest, came back, upon hearing the guns fired;
and seeing their captain, who was before their prisoner,
now their conqueror, they submitted to be bound, also;
and so our victory was complete.
It now remained that the captain and I should inquire
into one another's circumstances. Ibegan first, and told
him my whole history, which he heard with an attention
even to amazement, and particularly at the wonderful
manner of my being furnished with provisions and am-
munition; and, indeed, as my story is a whole collection
of wonders, it affected him deeply; but when he reflected
from thence upon himself,and how I seemed to have
been preserved there on purpose to save his life, the tears
ran down his face, and he could not speak a word more.
After this communication was at an end, I carried him,
and his two men, into my apartment, leading them in
just where I came out, viz., at the top of the house, where
I refreshed them with such provisions as I had, and
showed them all the contrivances I had made, during my
long long, inhabiting that place.
All I showed them, all I said to them, was perfectly
amazing; but, above all, the captain admired my fortifi-
cation, and how perfectly I had concealed my retreat with
a grove of trees, which, having been now planted near
twenty years, and the trees growing much faster than in
England, was become a little woo, and so thick that it
was impassable in any part of it, but at that one side
where I had reserved my little winding passage into it.
This, I told him, was my castle and my residence; but
that I had a seat in the country, as most princes have,
whither I could retreat upon occasion, and 1 would show
him that, too another time; but at present, ourbusiness
was to consider how to recover the ship. He agreed with
me as to that; but told me, he was perfectly at a loss
what measures to take, for that there were still six-and-
twenty hands on board, who, having entered into a
cursed conspiracy, by which they had all forfeited their
lives to the law, would be hardened in it now by despe-
ration, and would carry it on, knowing that if they were
reduced, they should be brought to the gallows as soon
as they came to England, or to any of the English colo-
nies; and that therefore there would be no attacking
them with so small a number as we were.
I mused for some time upon what he had said, and
found it was a very rational conclusion; and that there-
fore something was to be resolved on very speedily, as
well to draw the men on board into some snare for their
surprise, as to prevent their landing upon us and destroy-
ing us. Upon this it presently occurred to me, that, in a
little while, the ship's crew, wondering what was become
of their comrades, and of the boat, would certainly come
on shore in their other boat, to see for them; and that
then, perhaps, they mig'I come armed, and be too strong
for us; this, he allowed, was rational.
Upon this I told him the first thing we had to do was
to stave the boat, which lay upon the beach, so that they
might not carry her off; and taking everything out of
her, leave her so far useless as not to be fit to swim.
Accordingly we went on board, took the arms which
were left on board out of her, and whatever else we found
there, which was a bottle of brandy, another of rum, a
few biscuit cakes, a horn of powder, and a great lump of
sugar in a piece of canvas; the sugar was five or six
pounds; all which was very welcome to me, especially
the brandy and sugar, of which I had had none left for
many years.
When we had carried all these things on shore (the
oars, mast, sail, and rudder of the boat, were carried away
before), we knocked a great hole in her bottom, that if
they had come strong enough to master us, yet they
could not carry off the boat.
Indeed, it was not much in my thoughts, that we could
be capable to recover the ship; but my view was, that if
they went away without the boat, I did not much ques-
tion to make her fit again to carry us away to the Lee-
ward Islands, and call upon our friends, the Spaniards,
in my way; for I had them still in my thoughts.
While we were thus preparing our designs, and had
first, by main strength, heaved the boat upon the beach,
so high that the tide would not float her off at high-water
mark, and besides had broken a hole in her bottom too
big to be quickly stopped, and were sat down musing
what we should do, we heard the ship fire a gun, and saw
her make a waft with her ensign, as a signal for the boat
to come on board; but no boat stirred, and they fired
several times, making other signals for the boat.


At last, when all the signals and firings proved fruitless,
and they found the boat did not stir we saw them (by
the help of my glasses) hoist another boat out, and row
towards the shore; and we found, as they approached,
that there were no less than ten men in her, and that they
had fire-arms with them.
As the ship lay almost two leagues from the shore, we
had a full view of them as they came, and a plain sight
of the men, even of their faces; because the tide having
set them a little to the east of the other boat, they rowed
up under shore, to come to the same place where the
other had landed, and where the boat lay.
By this means. I say, we had a full view of them, and
the captain knew the persons and characters of all the
men in the boat, of whom he said that there were three
very honest fellows, who, he was sure, were led into this
conspiracy by the rest being overpowered and frighted.
But that as for the boatswain, who. it seems, was the
chief officer among them, and all the rest, they were as
outrageous as any of the ship's crew; and were, no doubt,
made desperate in their new enterprise; and terribly
apprehensive he was that they would be too powerful
for us.
I smiled at him, and told him that men in our circum-
stances were past the operations of fear; that seeing
almost every condition that could be, was better than
that which we were supposed to be in, we ought to ex-
pect that the consequence, whether death or life, would
be sure to be a deliverance. I asked him what he thought
of the circumstances of my life, and whether a deliverance
were not worth venturing for. "And where, sir," said
I, "is your belief of my being preserved here on purpose
to save your life, which elevated you a little while ago?
For my part, there seems to be but one thing amiss in
all the prospect of it." "What's that?" said he.
"Why," said I, "'tis that, as you say, there are three or
four honest fellows among them, which should be spared;
had they been all of the wicked part of the crew, I should
have thought God's providence had singled them out, to
deliver them into your hands; for, depend upon it, every
man of them that comes ashore is our own, and shall die
or live, as he behaves to us."
As I spoke this with a raised voice and cheerful coun-
tenance, I found it greatly encouraged him; so we set
vigorously to our business. We had, upon the first
appearance of the boat's coming from the ship, considered
of separating our prisoners, and had indeed secured them
Two of them, of whom the captain was less assured
than ordinary, I sent with Friday, and one of the three
delivered men, to my cave, where they were remote
enough, and out of danger of being heard or discovered,
or of finding their way out of the woods, if they could
have delivered themselves. Here they left them bound,
but gave them provisions, and promised them, if they
continued there quietly, to give them their liberty In a
day or two; but that if they attempted their escape, they
should be put to death without mercy. They promised
faithfully to bear their confinement with patience, and
were very thankful that they had such good usage, as to
have provisions and alight left them; for Friday gave
them candles (such as we made ourselves) for their com-
fort; and they did not know but that he stood sentinel
over them at the entrance.
The other prisoners had better usagc; two of them
were pinioned indeed, because the captain was not free
to trust them, but the other two were taken into my
s*vice, upon their captain's recommendation, and upon
their solemnly engaging to live and die with us; so, with
them and the three honest men, we were seven men, well
armed; and I made no doubt we should be able to deal
well enough with the ten that were a coming, considering
that the captain had said there were three or four honest
men among them also.
As soon as they got to the place where their other boat
lay, they ran their boat in to the beach, and came all on
shore, hauling the boat up after them, which I was glad
to see; for I was afraid they would rather have left the
boat at an anchor, some distance from the shore, with
some hands in her to guard her; and so we should not be
able to seize the boat.
Being on shore, the first thing they did, they ran all to
the other boat; and it whs easy to see they were under a
great surprise, to find her stripped, as above, of all that
was in her, and a hole in her bottom.
After they had mused awhile upon this, they set no two
or three great shouts, hallooing with all their might, to
try if they could make their companions hear; but it
was all to no purpose. Then they came all close in a
ring, and fired a volley of their small-arms, which indeed
we heard, and the echoes made the woods ring; but it
was all one; those in the cave we were.sure could not
hear, and those in our keeping, though they heard it well
enonuh, yet durst give no answer to them.
They were so astonished at the surprise of this, that, as
they told us afterwards they resolved to go all on board
again to their ship, and let them know there, that the

men were all murdered, and the long-boat staved: ac-
cordingly, they immediately launched their boat again,
and got all of them on board.
The captain was terribly amazed, and even confounded
at this, believing they would go on board the ship again,
and set sail, giving their comrades up for lost, and so he
should still lose the ship, which he was in hopes he
should have recovered: but he was quickly as much
frighted the other way.
They had not long been put off with the boat, but we
perceived them all coming on shore again; but with this
new measure in their conduct, which, it seems, they con-
sulted together upon; viz., to leave three men in the boat,
and the rest to go on shore, and go up into the country,
to look for their fellows.
This was a great disappointment to us; for now we
were at a loss to know what to do; for our seizing those
seven men on shore would be no advantage to us, if we
let the boat escape, because they would then row away to
the ship; and then the rest of them would be sure to
weigh, and set sail, and so our hope of recovering the
ship would be lost.
However, we had no remedy but to wait and see what
the issue of things might present. The seven men came
on shore, and the three who remained in the boat, put
her off to a good distance from the shore, and came to an
anchor to wait for them, so that it was impossible for us
to come at them in the boat.
Those that came on shore kept close together, march-
ing towards the top of a little hill, under which my habi-
tation lay; and we could see them plainly, though they
could not perceive us. We could have been very glad
they would have come nearer to us, so that we might
have fired at them; or that they would have gone farther
off that we might have come abroad.
But when they were come to the brow of the hill, where
they could see a great way into the valleys and woods,
which lay towards the north-east part, and where the
island lay lowest, they shouted and hallooed till they were
weary; and not caring, it seems, to venture far from the
shore, nor far from one another, they sat down together
under a tree, to consider it. Had they thought lit to have
gone to sleep there1 as the other party of thi m had done,
they had done the job for us: but they were too full of
apprehensions of danger to venture to go to sleep, though
they could not tell what the danger was they had to fear
The captain made a very just proposal to me upon this
consultation of theirs, viz., that perhaps they would all
fire a volley again, to endeavor to make their fellows
hear, and that we should all sally upon them, just at the
juncture when their pieces were all discharged, and they
would certainly yield and we should have them without
bloodshed. I liked the proposal, provided it were done
while we were near enough to come up with them before
they could load their pieces again.
But this event did not happen, and we lay still a long
time, very irresolute what course to take: at length I
told him there would be nothing to be done in my opinion
till night; and then, if they did not return to the boat,
perhaps we might find a way to get between them and
the shore, and so might use some stratagem with them
in the boat, to get them on shore.
We waited a great while, though very impatient for
their removing, and were very uneasy; when, after long
consultations, we saw them all start up, and march down
towards the sea. It seems they had such dreadful appre-
hensions upon them of the danger of the place, that they
resolved to go on board the ship again, give their com-
panions over for lost, and so go on with their intended
voyage with the ship.
As soon as I perceived them go towards the shore, I
imagined it to be as it really was, that they had given
over the search, and were for going back again; and the
captain, as soon as I told him my thoughts, was ready to
sink at the apprehensions of it: but I presently thought
of a stratagem to fetch them back again; and which an-
swared my end to a tittle.
I ordered Friday, and the captain's mate, to go over the
little creek westward towards the place where the sav-
ages came on shore when Friday was rescued, and as soon
as they came to a little rising ground, at about half a
mile's distance, I bade them halloo as loud as they could,
and wait till they found the seamen heard them; that as
soon as they heard the seamen answer them, they should
return it again, and then keeping out of sight, take a
round, always answering when the others hal;ooed, to
draw them as far into the island and among the woods as
possible; and then wheel about again to me, by such
ways as I directed.
They were just going into the boat when Friday and
the mate hallooed, and they presently heard them, and
answering, ran along the shore westward, towards the
voice they heard, when they were presently stopped by
Sthe creek, where, the water being up, they could not get
over, and called for the boat to come up, and set them
Over, as indeed I expected.


When they had set themselves over, I observed that the
boat being gone up a good way into the creek, and, as it
were, in a harbor within the land, they took one of the
three men out of her to go along with them, and left only
two in the boat, having fastened her to the stump of a
little tree on the shore.
This was what I wished for; and immediately leaving
Friday and the captain's mate to their business, I took
the rest with me, and crossing the creek out of their sight,
we surprised the two men before they were aware, one of
them lying on shore, and the other being in the boat: the
fellow on shore was between sleeping and waking, and
going to start up. the captain, who was foremost, ran in
upon him, and knocked him down, and then called out
to him in the boat to yield, or he was a dead man.
There needed very few arguments to persuade a single
man to yield, when he saw five men upon him, and his
comrade knocked down: besides, this was, it seems, one
of the three who were not so hearty in the mutiny as the
rest of the crew, and therefore was easily persuaded not
only to yield, but afterwards to join very sincerely with
In the meantime, Friday and the captain's mate so well
managed the business with the rest, that they drew them,
by hallooing and answering, from one hill to another,
and from one wood to another, till they not only heartily
tired them, but left them where they were, very sure they
could not reach back before it was dark: and indeed they
were heartily tired themselves also by the time they got
back to is.
We had nothing now to do but to watch for them in
the dark, and to fall upon them, so as to make sure work
with them.
It was several hours after Friday came back to me be-
fore they came back to their boat; and we could hear the
foremost of them, long before they (ame up, calling to
those behind to come along, and could also hear tEem
answer, and complain how lame and tired they were, and
not able to come any faster, which was very welcome
news to us.
At length they came up to the boat; but it is impos-
sible to express their confusion when they found the boat
fast aground in the creek the tide ebbed out, and their
two men gone. We could hear them call to one another,
in the most lamentable manner, telling one another they
were gotten into an enchanted island: that either there
were ilnhabitants in it, and they should all be murdered,
or else there were devils or spirits in it, and they should
all be carried away and devoured.
They hallooed again, and called their two comrades by
their names a great many times, but no answer. After
some time we could see them. by the little light there
was, running about wringing their hands, like men in
despair; and that sometimes they would go and sit down
in tie boat to rest themselves, then come ashore again,
and walk about again, and do the same thing over again.
]My men would fain have me give them leave to fall
upon them at once in the dark: but I was willing to take
them at snme advantage, so to spare them, an( kill as
few of them as I could: and especially as I was unwilling
to hazard the killing any of our men, knowing the others
were very well armed. I resolved to wait to see if they
did not senaratc: and therefore, to make sure of them,
I drew my ambuscade nearer, and ordered Friday and
the captain to creep upon their hands and feet, as close
to the around as they could, that they might not be dis-
covered. and ,et as near them as they possibly could
before the' offered to fire.
They had not been long in that posture; when the
boatswain, who was the principal ringleader of the mu-
tiny, and had now shown himself the most dejected and
dispirited of all the rest. came walking towards them,
with two more of their crew. The captain was so eager,
at having the principal rogue so much in his power, that
he could hardly have patience to let him come so near as
to be sure of him; for they only heard his tongue before:
but when they came nearer, the captain and Friday,
starting upon their feet, let fly at them.
The boatswain was killed upon the spot; the next man
was shot in tie body, and fell just by him, though lhe
did not die till an hour or two after; and the third ran
for it.
At the noise of the fire, I immediately advanced with
my whole army, which was now eight men, viz., myself,
generalissimo; Friday, my lieutenant-general; the cap-
tain, and his two men; and the three prisoners of war,
whom we had trusted with arms.
We came upon them indeed in the dark, so that they
could not see our number; and I made the man they had
left in the boat, who was now one of us, to call them by
name, to try if I could bring them to a parley, and so
might perhaps reduce them to terms, which fell out just
as we desired: for indeed it was easy to think, as their
condition then was, they would be very willing to capitu-
late. So he called out, as loud as he could, to one of
them, Tom Smith I Tom Smith I" Tom Smith answered
immediately, Who's that ? Robinson ?" for it seems he

knew his voice. The other answered, "Aye, aye; for
God's sake, Tom Smith, throw down your arms, and
yield: or you are dead men this moment l"
"Whom must we yield to? Where are they?" says
Smith, again. "Here they are," says he. "Here is our
captain, and fifty men with him, have been hunting you
this two hours. The boatswain is killed, Will Frye is
wounded and I am a prisoner; and if you do not yield,
you are all lost."
"Will they give us quarter then," says Tom Smith,
and we will yield." "I'll go and ask, if you promise
to yield," says Robinson. So he asked the captain, and
the captain himself then calls out, "You, Smith, you
know my voice; if you lay down your arms immediately,
and submit, you shall have your lives, all but Will At-
Upon this, Will Atkins cried out, "For God's sake,
captain, give me quarter I What have I done ? They have
all been as bad as Il" which, by the way, was not true,
neither; for it seems this Will Atkins was the first man
that laid hold of the captain, when they first mutinied,
and used him barbarously in tying his hands, and giving
him injurious language. however, the captain told him
he must lay down is arms at discretion, and trust to the
Governor's mercy; for they all called me Governor.
In a word, they all laid down their arms, and begged
their lives; and I sent the man that had parleyed with
them, and two more, who bound them all: and then my
great army of fifty men, which, particularly with those
three, were in all but eight, came up and seized upon them
all, and upon their boat, only that I kept myself, and one
more out of sight, for reasons of state.
Our next work was to repair the boat, and to think of
seizing the ship; and as for the captain, now he had
leisure to parley with them, he expostulated with them
upon the villainy of their practices with him, and at
length, upon the farther wickedness of their design; and
how certainly it must bring them to misery and distress
in the end, and perhaps to the gallows.
They all appeared very penitent, and begged hard for
their lives. As for that, he told them they were none of
his prisoners, but the commander's of the island; that
they thought that they had set him on shore in a barren,
uninhabited island, but it had pleased God so to direct
them, that the island was inhabited, and that the gov-
ernor was an Englishman; that he might hang them all
there, if he pleased; but as he had given them all quarter,
he supposed he would send them to England, to be dealt
with there as justice required, except Atkins, whom he
was commanded by the governor.to advise to prepare for
death; for that he would be hanged in the morning.
Though this was all a fiction of his own, yet it had its
desired effect: Atkins fell upon his knees to beg the cap-
tain to intercede with the governor for his life; and all
the rest begged of him, for God's sake, that they might
not be sent to England.
It now occurred to me that the time of our deliverance
was come, and that it would be a most easy thing to bring
these fellows in to be hearty in getting posses-ion of the
ship. So I retired in the dark from them, that they might
not see what kind of a governor they had, and called the
captain to me. When I called, as at a good distance, one
of the men was ordered to speak again, and say to the
captain, "Captain, the commander calls for you;" and
presently the captain replied, Tell his excellency I am
just a-coming.' This most perfectly surprised them;
and they all believed that the commander was just by,
with his fifty men.
Upon the captain's coming to me, I told him my project
for seizing the ship, which he liked wonderfully well, and
resolved to put it in execution the next morning.
But in order to execute it with more art, and to be se-
cure of success, I told him we must divide the prisoners,
and that he should go and take Atkins and two more of
the worst of them, and send them pinioned to the cave
where the others lay. This was committed to Friday,
and the two men who came on shore with the captain.
They conveyed them to the cave as to a prison; and
it was indeed a dismal place, especially to men in their
The other I ordered to my bower, as I called it, of which
I have given a full description; and as it was fenced in,
and they pinioned, the place was secure enough, consid-
ering they were upon their behavior.
To these, in the morning I sent the captain, who was
to enter into a parley with them; in a word. to try them,
and tell me whether he thought they might be trusted or
no, to go on board, and surprise the ship. He talked to
them of the injury done him, of the condition they were
brought to; and that, though the governor had given
them quarter for their lives, as to the present action, yet
if they were sent to England, they would all be hung in
chains, to be sure; but that if they would join so just an
attempt, as to recover the ship, he would have the gov-
ernor's engagement for their pardon.
Any one may guess how readily such a proposal would
be accepted by men in their condition; they fell downon

their knees to the captain, and promised with the deepest
imprecations, that they would be faithful to him to the
last drop. and that they should owe their lives to him,
and would go with him all over the world; that they
would own him for a father to them as long as they lived.
" Well," says the captain, "I must go and tell the gov-
ernor what you say and see what I can do to bring him
to consent to it." So he brought me an account of the
temper he found them in; and that he verily believed they
would be faithful.
However, that we might be very secure, I told him he
should go back again, and choose out live of them, and
tell them that they should see that they did not want men :
but we would take out those five to be his assistants, and
that the governor would keep the othertwo, and the three
that were sent prisoners to the castle, (my cave,) as host-
ages, for the fidelity of those five; and that, if they proved
unfaithful in the execution, the five hostages should be
hanged in chains alive upon the shore.
This looked severe, and convinced them that the gov-
ernor was in earnest. However, they had no way left
them but to accept it; and it was now the business of the
prisoners, as much as of the captain, to persuade the other
fve to do their duty.
Our strength was now thus ordered for the expedition:
First, the captain, his mate, and passenger. Second, the
two prisoners of the first gang, to whom, having their
characters from the captain, I had given their liberty, and
trusted them with arms. Third, the other two, whom I
had kept till now in my bower, pinioned; but, upon the
captain's motion, had now released. Fourth, these five
released at last: so that there were twelve in all, besides
five we kept prisoners in the cave for hostages.
I asked thl- captain if he was willing to venture with
these hands on board the ship; for, as for me and my man
Friday, I did not think it was proper for us to stir, hav-
ing seven men lett behind: and it was employment
enough for us to keep them asunder, and supply them with
As to the five in the cave, I resolved to keep them
fast: but Friday went twice a day to them, to supply
them with necessaries; and I made the other two carry
provisions to a certain distance, where Friday was to
take it.
When I showed myself to the twohostages, it was with
the captain, who told them I was the person whom the
governor had ordered to look after them, and that it was
the governor's pleasure they should not stir anywhere,
but by my direction; that if they did, they should be
fetched into the castle and laid in irons; so that as we
never suffered them to see me as governor, I now ap-
peared as another person, and spoke of the governor,
the garrison, the castle and the like, upon all occasions.
The captain had now no difficulty before him, but to
furnish his two boats, stop the breach of one, and man
them. IIe made his passenger captain of one, with four
other men ; and himself, his mate, and five more, went
in the other. And they contrived their business very
well; for they came up to the ship about midnight. As
soon as theo came within call of the ship. he made Rob-
inson hail them, and tell them he had brought off the
men and the boat, and that it was a long time before they
had found them, and the like; holding them in a chat till
they came to the ship's side: when the captain and the
mate, entering first with their arms, immediately knocked
down the second mate and carpenter with the butt-end
of their muskets, being very faithfully seconded by their
men. They secured all the rest that were upon the main
and quarter-decks, and began to fasten the hatches to
keep them down who were below, when the other boat,
and their men entering at the fore-chains, secured the
forecastle of the ship, and the shuttle, which went down
into the cook-room, making the three men they found
there prisoners.
When this was done, and all safe upon the deck, the
captain ordered the mate, with three men, to break into
the round-house, where the new rebel captain lay, and,
having taken the alarm, was gotten up, and with two
men and a boy, were gotten fire-arms in their hands; and
when the mate, with a crow, split open the door, the
new captain and his men fired boldly among them, and
wounded the mate with a musket-ball, which broke his
arm, and wounded two more of the men, but killed no-
The mate called for help, rushed, however, into the
round-house, wounded as he was, and, with his pistol,
shot the new captain in the head; the bullet entered at
his mouth, and came out again behind one of his ears;
so that he never spoke a word: upon which the rest
yielded, and the ship was taken effectually, without any
more lives lost.
As soon as the ship was thus secured, the captain or-
dered seven guns to be fired, which was the signal agreed
upon by me, to give me the notice of his success, which,
you may be sure, I was very glad to hear, having sat
watching upon the shore for it till near two of the clock
in the morning.

Having thus heard the signal plainly, I laid me down
and it having been a day of great fatigue to me, I slept
very sound, till I was something surprised by the noise
of a gun; and presently starting up, I heard a man call
me by the name of" Governor, governor:" a:d presently
I knew the captain's voice, when, climbing up to the top
of the hill, there he stood, and pointing to the ship, he
embraced me in his arms. "My dear friend and deliv-
erer," says he, "there's your ship: fu,r she is all yours,
and so are we. and all that belong to her." I cast my eye
to the ship, and there she rode within little more than
half a mile of the shore: for they had weighed her
anchor as soon as they were masters of her, and the
weather being fair, had brought her to an anchor just
against the mouth of a little creek: and the tide being
up, the captain had brought the pinnace in near the
place where I first landed my rafts, and so landed just at
my door.

I was, at first, ready to sink down with the surprise;
fbr I saw my deliverance indeed visibly put into my
hands, all things easy, and a large ship just ready to carry
me away, whifher I plea ed to go. At first, for some
time, I was not able to answer one word: but as soon as
he had taken me in his arms. I held fast by him, or I
should have fallen to the ground.
lie perceived the surprise, and immediately pulls a bot-
tle out of his pocket and gave me a dram~ of cordial,
which he had r ..1.r ..n purpose for me. Aflcr I drank
it, I sat down li .-r It,.- ground, and though it brought
me to myself, yet it was a good while before I could
speak a word to him.
All this while the poor man was in as great an ecstacy
as I, only not under any surprise, as I was; and he said
a thousand kind, tender things to me. to compose and
bring me to myself: but such was the flood of joy in my
breast, that it put all my spirits into confusion: at last it
broke out into tears, and a little while ifter I recovered
my speech.
Then I took my turn, and embraced him, as my deliv-
erer; and we rejoiced together. I told him I looked upon
him as a man sent froth heaven to deliver me, and that
the whole transaction seemed to be a chain of wonders;
that such things as these were the testimonies we had of
a secret hand of Providence governing the world, and an
evidence that the eyes of an infinite Power could search
into the remotest corner of the world, and send help to
the miserable whenever he pleased.
I forgot not to lift up my heirt in thaiikfulunss to
heaven; and what heart could forbear to bless Him. who
had not only, in a miraculous manner, provided for me
in such a wilderness, and in such a desolate condition,
but from whom every deliverance must always be ac-
knowledged to proceed?
When we had talked a while, the captain told me he had
brought me some little refreshment, such as the ship af-
forded, and such as the wretches, who had been so long
his masters, had not plundered him of. Upon this he
called aloud to the boat, and bade his men bring the
things ashore that were for the governor; and indeed it
was present, as if I had been one, not that was to be car-
ried away along with them, but as if I had been to dwell
upon the island still, and they were to go without me.
First, he had brought me a case of bottles full of excel-
lent cordial waters, six large bottles of Madeira wine-
the bottles held two quarts apiece-two pounds of excel-
lent tobacco, twelve good pieces of the ship's beef, and
six pieces of pork, with a bag of peas, and about a hun-
dred weight of biscuit.
He brought me also a box of sugar, a box of flour, a
bag full of lemons, and two bottles of lime juice, and
abundance of other things. But, besides these, and what
was a thousand times more useful to me, he brought me
six clean, new shirts, six very good neckcloths, two pair
of gloves, one pair of shoes, a hat, and one pair of stock-
ings, and a very good suit of clothes of his own, which


had been worn verylittle: in a word, he clothed me from
head to foot.
It was a very kind and agreeable present, as any one
may imagine, to one in my circumstances; but never was
anything in the world of that kind so unpleasant, awk-
ward, and uneasy as it was to me to wear such clothes at
their first putting on.
After these ceremonies were past, and after all his good
things were brought into my little apartment, we began
to consult what was to be done with the prisoners we
had; for it was worth considering, whether we might
venture to take them away with us or no, especially two
of them, whom we knew to be incorrigible and refrac-
tory, to the last degree; and the captain said he knew
that they were such rogues, that there was no obliging
them; and if he did carry them away, it must be in irons,
as malefactors, to be delivered over to justice, at the
first English colony he could come at; and I found the
captain himself was very anxious about it.
Upon this, I told him, that if he desired it, I durst un-
dertaketo bring the two men he spoke of, to make it
their own request that he should leave them upon the
island. "I should be very glad of that," says the cap-
tain '" with all my heart."
"Well," said 1, "I will send for them, and talk with
them for you." So I caused Friday and the two hostages,
for they were now discharged, their comrades having
performed their promise; I say, I caused them to go to
the cave, and bring up the five men pinioned as they
were, to the bower, and keep them there till I came.
After some time, I came thither, dressed in my new
habit, and now I was called governor again. Being all
met, and the captain with me, I caused the men to be
brought before me, and I told them that I had had a full
account of their villainous behaviour to the captain, and
how they had run away with the ship, and were prepar-
ing to commit further robberies; but that Providence
had ensnared them in their own wa-s, and that they had
fallen into the pit which they had dogged for others.
I let them know that, by my direction, the ship had
been seized; that she lay now in the road; and they
might see by-and-by that their new captain had received
the reward of his villainy; for that they might see him
hanging at the yard-arm.
That as to them, I wanted to know what they had to
say, why I should not execute them as pirates, taken in
the fact, as by my commission they could not doubt I
had authority to do.
One of them answered in the name of the rest, that
they had nothing to say but this, that when they were
taken, the captain had promised them their lives, and
they humbly implored lor mercy. But I told them I
knew not what mercy to show them: for, as for myself,
I had resolved to quit the island with all my men, and
had taken passage with the captain to go to England;
and as for the captain he could not carry them to Eng-
land, other than as prisoners in irons, to be tried for
mutiny and running away with the ship; the conse-
quence of which, they must needs know, would be the
gallows: so that I could not tell which was best for
them, unless they had a mind to take their fate in the
island; if they desired that I did not care, as I had lib-
erty to leave it. I had some inclination to give them
their lives if they could shift on shore. They seemed
very thankful for it; said they would much rather ven-
ture to stay there, than to be carried to England to be
hanged: so I left it on that issue.
However, the captain seemed to make some difficulty
of it, as if he durst not leave them there. Upon thisI
seemed a little angry with the captain, and told him that
they were my prisoners, not his; and that if he did not
think fit to consent to it, I would set them at liberty as
I found them; and if he did not like that, he might take
them again, if he could catch them.
Upon this they appeared very thankful, and I accord-
ingly set them at liberty, and bade them retire into the
woods, to the place whence they came, and I would
leave them some fire-arms, some ammunition, and some
directions how they should live very well, if they thought
Upon this I prepared to go an board the ship; but
told the captain that I would stay that night to prepare
my things, and desired him to go on board in the mean
time, and keep all right in the ship, and send the boat on
shore the next day for me; ordering him in the mean
time to cause the new captain who was killed, to be
hanged at the yard-arm, that these men might see him.
When the captain was gone, I sent for the men up to
me in my apartment, and entered seriously into dis-
course with them of their circumstances. I told them, I
thought they had made a right choice; that if the cap-
tain carried them away, they would certainly be hanged.
I showed them the new captain hanging at the yard-arm
of the ship, and told them they had nothing less to ex-
When they had all declared their willingness to stay, I

then told them, I would let them into the story of my
living there, and put them into the way of making it
easy to them. Accordingly I gave them the whole his-
tory of the place, and of my coming to it; showed them
my fortifications, the way Imade my bread, planted my
corn, cured my grapes; and, in a word, all that was
necessary to make them easy. I told them the storyalso
of the sixteen Spaniards that were to be expected; for
whom I left a letter, and made them promise to treat
them in common with themselves.
I left them my fire-arms; viz., five muskets, three
fowling-pieces, and three swords. I had about a barrel
and a half of powder left; for after the first year or two I
used but little, and wasted none. I gave them a de-
scription of the way I managed the goats, and directions
to milk and fatten them, to make both butter and cheese.
In a word, I gave them every part of my own story;
and I told them I would prevail with the captain to
leave them two barrels of gunpowder more, and some
garden-seeds, which I told them I would have been very
glad of: also I gave them the bag of pease which the
captain had brought me to eat, andbade them be sure to
sow and increase them.
Having done all this, I left them the next day, and
went on board the ship. We prepared immediately to
sail, but did not weigh that night. The next morning
early, two of the five men came swimming to the ship's
side, and making a most lamentable complaint of the
other three, begged to be taken into the ship, for God's
sake, for they should be murdered; and begged the cap-
tain to take them on board, though he hanged them im-
Upon this, the captain pretended to have no power
without me; but after some difficulty, and after their
solemn promises of amendment, they were taken on
board, and were some time after soundly whipped and
pickled; after which they proved very honest and quiet
Some time after this, I went with the boat on shore,
the tide being up, with the things promised to the men,
to which the captain at my intercession, caused their
chests and clothes to be added, which they took, and
were very thankful for. I also encouraged them, by tell-
ing them, that if it lay in my power to send any vessel to
take them in, I would not forget them.
When I took leave of this island. I carried on board,
for relics, the great goat-skin cap I had made, my um.
brella, and one of my parrots; also I forgot not to take
the money I formerly mentioned, which had been by me
so long useless, that it was grown rusty, or tarnished
and could hardly pass for silver, till it had been a little
rubbed and handled; and also the money I found in the
wreck of the Spanish ship.

/ *D .
And thus I left the island, the 19th of December as I
found by the ship's account, in the year 1686, after I had
been upon it eight-and-twenty years, two months, and
nineteen days; being delivered from the second capti-
ity the same day of the month that I first made my es-
cape in the barco-longo, from among the Moors of Sallee.
In this vessel, after a long voyage, I arrived in England
the llth of June, in the year 1687, having been thirty-and-
five years absent.
When I came to England, I was as perfect a strangento
all the world, as if I had never been known there. My
benefactor and faithful steward, whom I left in trust
with my money, was alive, but had had great misfortunes
in the world, was become a widow the second time, and
very low in the world. I made her easy as to what she
owed me, assuring her I would give her no trouble; but,
on the contrary, in gratitude for former care and faith
fulness to me, I relieved her as my little stock would af-
ford, which at that time would indeed allow me to do but
little for her: but I assured her I would never forget


her, when I had sufficient to help her, as shall be observed
in itd place.
I went down afterwards into Yorkshire; but my father
was dead, and my mother, and all the family extinct, ex-
cept that I found two sisters and two of the children of
one of my brothers; and as I had been long ago given
over for dead, there had been no provision made for me.
so that, in a word, I found nothing to relieve or assist
me; and that the little money I hal, would not do much
for me, as to settling in the world.
I met with one piece of gratitude, indeed, which I did
not expect; and this was, that the master of the ship,
whom I had so happily delivered, and, by the same means,
saved the ship and cargo, having given a.very handsome
account to the owners, of the manner how I had saved
the lives of the men, and the ship, they invited me to
meet them, and some other merchants concerned, and
altogether made me a very handsome compliment upon
the subject, and a present of almost two hundred pounds
But, after making several reflections upon the circum-
stances of my life, and how little way this would go to-
wards settling me in the world, I resolved to go to Lis-
bon, and see if I might not come by some information
of the state of my plantation in the Brazils, and of what
was become of my partner, who, I had reason to suppose,
had some years now given me over for dead.
With this view, I took shipping for Lisbon, where I
arrived in April following; my man Friday accompany-
ing me veryhonestly in all these ramblings, and proving
a most faithful servant upon all occasions.
When I came to Lisbon, I foundout by inquiry, and to
my particular satisfaction, my old friend, the captain of
the ship who first took me up at sea, off the shore of Af-
rica. He had now grown old and had left off the sea,
having put his son, who was far from a young man, into
his ship, and who still used the Brazil trade. The old
man did not know me, and, indeed, I hardly knew him:
but I soon brought myself to his remembrance, when I
told him who I was.
After some passionate expressions of our old acquaint-
ance, I inquired, you may be sure, after my plantation
and my partner. The old man told me he had not been
in the Brazils for about nine years; but that he could
assure me, that when he came away my partner was liv-
ing, but the trustees whom I had joined with him to take
cognizance of my part, were, both dead; that, however,
he believed that I would have a very good account of the
improvement of the plantation, for that, in the general
belief of my being cast away and drowned, my trustees
had given in the account ofthe produce of my part of the
plantation to the procurator fiscal, who had appropriated
It, in case I never came to claim it, one-third to the king,
and two-thirds to the monastery of St. Augustine, to be
expended for the benefit of the poor, and for the conver-
sion of the Indians to the Catholic faith but that if I
appeared, or any one for me, to claim the inheritance, it
would be restored; only that the improvement, or an-
nual production, being distributed to charitable uses,
could not be restored; but he assured me that the stew-
ard of the king's revenue, (from lands,) and the provedore,
or steward of the monastery had taken great care all
along, and the incumbent, that is to say, my partner,
gave every year a faithful account of the produce, of
which they received duly my moiety.
I asked him if he knew to what height of improvement
he had brought the plantation; and whether he thought
it might be worth looking after; or whether, on my going
thither, I should meet with no obstruction to my pos-
sessing my just right in the moiety.
He told me he could not tell exactly to what degree the
plantation was improved; but this he knew, that my
partner was grown exceeding rich upon the enjoying but
one half of it; and that, to the best of his remembrance,
he had heard that the king's third of my part, which was,
it seems, granted away to some other monastery, or re-
ligious house, amounted to above two hundred moidores
a year; that, as to my being restored to a quiet posses-
sion of it, there was no question to be made of that, my
partner being alive to witness my title, and my name
being also enrolled in the register of the country. Also
he told me that the survivors of the two trustees were
very fair, honest people, and very wealthy; and he be-
lieved I would not only have their assistance for putting
me in possession, but would find a very considerable sum
of money in their hands, for my account, being the pro-
duce of the farm, while their fathers held the trust, and
before it-was given up, as above, which, as he remem-
bered, was for about twelve years.
I showed myself a little concerned and uneasy at this
account, and required of the old captain how it came to
pass that the trustees should thus dispose of my effects,
when he knew that I had made my will, and had made
him, the Portuguese captain, my universal heir, &c.
He told me that was true, but as there was no proof of
my being dead, he could not act as executor, until some
certain account should come of my death; and that, be-

sides, he was not willing to intermeddle with a thing so
remote; that it was true, he had registered my will, and
put in his claim and could he have given any account
of my being dead or alive, he would have acted by pro-
curation, and taken possession of the ingenio (so they
called the sugar-house), and had given his son, who was
now at the Brazils, order to do it.
But," says the old man, I have one piece of news
to tell you, which perhaps may not be so acceptable to
you as the rest; and that is, that, believing you were
ost, and all the world believing so also, your partner
and trustees did offer to account to me, in your name,
for six or eight of the first years of profits, which I re-
ceived; but there being at that time," says he, "great
disbursements for increasing the works; building an in-
genio, and buying slaves, it did not amount to near as
much as afterwards it procured. However," says the old
man, I shall give you a true account of what I have re-
ceived in all, and how I have disposed of it."
After a few days farther conference with this ancient
friend, he brought me an account of the first six years'
income of my plantation, signed by my partner, and the
merchants' trustees being always delivered in goods, via.,
tobacco in roll, and sugar in chests, besides rum, mo-
lasses, &c., which is the consequence of a sugar-work;
and I found, by this account, that every year the income
considerably increased. But, as above, the disbursement
being large, the sum at first was small. However, the
old man let me see that he was indebted to me four hun-
dred and seventy moidores of gold, besides sixty chests
of sugar, and fifteen double rolls of tobacco, which were
lost in his ship, he having been shipwrecked coming
home to Lisbon, about eleven years after my leaving the
The good man then began to complain of his misfor-
tunes, and how he had been obliged to make use of my
money to recover his losses, and buy him a share in a
new ship. "However, my old friend," says he, "you
shall not want a supply in your necessity; and as soon as
my son returns, you shall be fully satisfied."
Upon this, he pulls out an old pouch, and gives me one
hundred and sixty Portugal moidores in gol; and giving
me the writings of his title to the ship which his son was
going to Brazils in, of which he was a quarter-part owner\
and his son another, he puts them both into my hands,
for security of the rest.
I was too much moved with the honesty and kindness
of the poor man, to be able to bear this; and remember-
ing what he had done for me, how he had taken me up at
sea, and how generously he hadused me on all occasions,
and, particularly, how sincere a friend he was now tome,
I could hardly refrain weeping at what he said to me.
Therefore, first I asked him if his circumstances permit-
ted him to spare so much money at that time, and if it
would not straiten him. He told me he could not say but
it might straiten him a little; but, however, it was my
money, and I might want it more than he.
Everything the good man said was full of affection, and
I could hardly refrain from tears while he spoke. In
short, I took one hundred of the moidores, and called for
a pen and ink to give him a receipt for them; then I re-
turned him the rest and toldhim, if ever I had possession
of the plantation, I would return the other to him, also,
as indeed I afterwards did; and that, as to the bill of sale
of his part in his son's ship, I would not take it by any
means; but that, if I wanted the money, I found he was
honest enough to pay me; and if I did not, but come to
receive what he gave me reasons to expect, I would never
have a penny more from him.
When this was passed, the old man began to ask me If
he should put me in a method to make my claim to my
plantation. I told him, I thought to go over to it myself
He said, I might do so, if I pleased; but that if I did not,
there were ways enough to secure my right, and immedi-
ately to appropriate the profits to my use; and as there
were ships in the river of Lisbon, just ready to go away
to Brazil, he made me enter myname in a public register,
with his affidavit, affirming, upon oath, that I was alive,
and that I was the same person who took up the land for
the planting the said plantation at first.
This being regularly attested by a notary, and a procu-
ration affixed, he directed me to send it with a letter of
his writing, to a merchant of his acquaintance at the
place; and then proposed my staying with him, till an
account came of the return.
Never anything was more honorable than the proceed-
ings upon this procuration; for in less than seven months
I received a large packet from the survivors of my trus-
tees, the merchants for whose account I went to sea, in
which were the following particular letters and papers
First, there was the account current of the produce of
my farm, or plantation, from the year when their fathers
had balanced with my old Portugal captain, being for mix
years; the balance appeared to be one thousand one han-
dred and seventy-four moidores in my favor.
Secondly, there was the account of four years more,


while they kept the effects in their hands, before the gov-
ernment claimed the administration, as being the effects
of a person not to be found, which they call civil death;
and the balance of this, the value of the plantation in-
creasing, was to an amount in crusadoes which made
three thousand two hundred and forty-one moidores.
Thirdly, there was the prior of the Augustine's account,
who had received the profits for above fourteen years:
but not being able to account for what was disposed to
the hospital, very honestly declared he had eight hun-
dred and seventy-two moidores not distributed, which he
acknowledged to my account. As to the king's part, that
refunded nothing.
There was also a letter of my partner's, congratulating
me very affectionately upon my being alive, giving me
an account how the estate was improved, and what it
produced a year, with a particular of the number of
squares, or acres that it contained; how planted; how
many slaves there were upon it; and, making two-and-
twenty crosses, for blessings, told me he had said so
many "Ave Marias," to thank the Blessed Virgin that I
was alive; inviting me, very passionately, to come over
and take possession of my own; and, in the mean time,
to give him order to whom he should deliver my effects,
if I should not come myself; concluding with a hearty
tender of his friendship, and that of his family; and sent
me, as a present, seven fine leopard's skins, which he had,
it seems, received from Africa, by some other ship, which
he had sent thither, and which, it seems, had made a bet-
ter voyage than I. He sent me, also, five chests of excel-
lent sweet-meats, and a hundred pieces of gold uncoined,
not quite so large as moidores.
By the same leet, my two merchant trustees shipped
me twelve hundred chests of sugar, eight hundred rolls
of tobacco, and the rest of the whole account in gold.
I might well say now, indeed, that the latter end of Job
was better than the beginning. It is impossible to ex-
press the fluttering of my very heart, when I looked over
these letters, and especially when I found all my wealth
about me; for, as the Brazil ships come all in fleets, the
same ships which brought my letters brought my goods:
and the effects were safe in the Tagus before the letters
came to my hand. In a word, I turned pale. and grew
sick: and had not the old man ran and fetched me a cor-
dial, I believe the sudden surprise of joy had overset na-
ture, and I had died upon the spot.
Nay, after that, I continued very ill, and was so some
hours, till a physician being sent for, and something of
the real cause of my illness being known, he ordered me
to be bled; after which I had relief, and grew well; but
I verily believe, if it had not been eased by the vent given
in that manner to the spirits, I should have died.
I was now master, all on a sudden, of above five thou-
sand pounds sterling, in money, and had an estate, as I
might well call it, in the Brazils, of above a thousand
pounds a year, as sure as an estate of lands in England;
and, in a word, I was in a condition which I scarce knew
how te understand, or how to compose myself for the en-
joyment of.
The first thing I did was to recompense my original
benefactor, my good old captain who had been first chari-
table to me in my distress, kind to me in the beginning,
and honest to me at the end. I showed him all that was
sent to me. I told him that, next to the providence of
Heaven, which disposes all things, it was owin" to him;
and that it now lay on me to reward him, which I would
do a hundred-fold. So I first returned to him the hun-
dred moidores I had received of him; then I sent for a
notary, and caused him to draw up a general release, or
discharge, for the four hundred and seventy moidores,
which he had acknowledged he owed me, in the fullest
and firmest manner possible: after which, I caused a
procuration to be drawn, empowering himto be the re-
ceiver of the annual profits of my plantation, and ap-
pointing my partner to account to him, and make the
returns by the usual fleets to him, in my name. And a
clause in the end, being a grant of one hundred moidores
a year to him, during his life, out of the effects; and fifty
moidores a year to his son after him, for his life: and thus
I requited my old man.
I was now to consider which way to steer my course
next, and what to do with the estate that Providence had
thus put into my hands; and, indeed, I had more care
upon my head now, than I had in my silent state of life
in the island, where I wanted nothing but what I had,
and had nothing but what I wanted; whereas, I had now
a great charge upon me, and my business was now to
secure it. 11ad never a cave now to hide my money in,
or a place where it might lie without lock or key, till it
grew mouldy and tarnished before anybody would med-
dle with it; on the contrary, I knew not where to put it,
or whom to trust with it; my old patron, the captain,
indeed, was honest, and that was the only refuge I had.
In the next place, my interest in the Brazils seemed to
summon me thither: but now I could not tell how to
think of going thither till I had settled my affairs, and
left my effects in some safe hands behind me. At first, I

thought of my old friend the widow, who I knew was
honest, and would be just to me; but then she was in
years, and but poor, and, for aught I knew, might be in
debt; so that, in a word, I had no way but to go back to
England myself, and take my effects with me.
It was some months, however, before I resolved upon
this; and therefore, as I had rewarded the old captain
fully, and to his satisfaction who had been my former
benefactor, so I began to think of my poor widow, whose
husband had been my first benefactor, and she, while it
was in her power my faithful steward and instructor.
So the first thing i did, I got a merchant in Lisbon to
write to his correspondent in London-not only to pay a
bill, but to go find her out, and carry her, in money, a
hundred pounds from me, and to talk with her, and com-
fort her in her poverty, by telling her she would, if I
lived, have a farther supply. At the same time 1 sent my
two sisters, in the country, each of them a hundred
pounds, they being, though not in want, yet not in very
good circumstances; one having been married and left a
widow, and the other having a husband not so kind to
her as he should be.
But among all my relations or acquaintances, I could
not yet pitc9 upon one to whom I durst commit the gross
of my stock, that I might go away to the Brazils, and leave
things safe behind me; and this greatly perplexed me.
I had once a mind to have gone to the Brazils and have
settled myself there: for I was, as it were, naturalized
to the place; but I had some little scruple in my mind
about religion, which insensibly drew me back, of which
I shall say more presently. However, it was not religion
that kept me from going thither for the present: and as
I had made no scruple of being openly of the religion of
the country all the while I was among them, so neither
did I yet; only that now and then having of late thought
more of it than formerly, when I began to think of living
and dying among them, I began to regret my having pro-
fessed myself a papist, and thought it might not be the
best religion to die with.
But, as I have said, this was not the main thing that
kept me from going to the Brazils, but that really I did
not know with whom to leave my effects behind me; so
I resolved at last to go to England with them, where, if
1 arrived, I concluded I should make some acquaintance,
or find some relations that would be faithful to me:
and accordingly I prepared to go to England with all my
In order to prepare things for my going home, I first
(the Brazil fleet being just going away) resolved to give
answers suitable to the just and faithful account of things
I had from thence. And first to the prior of St. Augus-
tine I wrote a letter full of thanks for his just dealings,
and the offer of the eight hundred and seventy-two moi-
dores, which were uncisposed of, which I desired might
be given, five hundred to the monastery and three hun-
dred and seventy-two to the poor, as the prior should
direct; desiring the good padre's prayers for me, and
the like.
I wrote next a letter of thanks to my two trustees
with all the acknowledgment that so much justice and
honesty called for: as for sending them a present, they
were far above having any occasion for it.
Lastly, Iwroteto my partner, acknowledging his indus-
try in the improving of the plantation, and Ins integrity
in increasing the stock of the works, giving him instruc-
tions for his future government of my part, according to
the powers I had left with my old patron, to whom 1 de-
sired him to send whatever became due to me, till he
should hear from me more particularly; assuring him
that it was my intention not only to come to him, but to
settle myself there for the remainder of my life. To this
I added a very handsome present of some Italian silks
for his wife and two daughters, for such the captain's son
informed me he had; with two pieces of fine English broad-
cloth-the best I could get in Lisbon-live pieces of black
baize, and some Flanders lace of a good value.
Having thus settled my affairs, sold my cargo, and
turned all my effects into good bills of exchange, my next
difficulty was which way to go to England. I had been
accustomed enough to the sea, and yet I had a strange
aversion to go to England by sea at that time; and though
I could give no reason for it, yet the difficulty increased
upon me so much, that though I had once shipped my
baggage in order to go, yet I altered my mind, and that
not once, but two or three times.
It is true I had been very unfortunate by sea, and this
might be one of the reasons: but let no man stake the
strong impulse of his own thoughts in case of such mo-
ment. Two of the ships which I had singled out to go
in-I mean more particularly singled out than any other
-that is to say, so as in one of them to put my things on
board, and in the other to have agreed with the captain;
I say two of these ships miscarried, viz., one was taken
by the Algerines, the other was cast away on the Start,
near Torbay, and all the people drowned except three:
so that in either of those vessels I had been made mise-
rable, and in which most, it was hard to say.


Having been thus harassed in my thoughts, my old
pilot, to whom I communicated everything, pressed me
earnestly not to go by sea: but either to go by land to
the Groyne, and cross over the Bay of Biscay to Rochelle.
from whence it was an easy and safe journey by land to
Paris, and so to Calais and Dover; or to go up to Madrid,
and so all the way by land through France.
In a word, I was so prepossessed against my going by
sea at all, except from Calais to Dover, that I resolved to
travel all the way by land, which, as Iwas not in haste, and
did not value the charge, was by much the pleasanter
way; and to make it more so, my old captain brought an
English gentleman, the son of a merchant in Lisbon, who
was willing to travel with me. After which, we picked
up two more, who were English, and merchants also, and
two young Portuguese gentlemen, the last going to Paris
only; so that we were in all six of us, and ive servants:
the two merchants and the two Portuguese contenting
themselves with one servant between two, to save the
charge; and as for me, I got an English sailor to travel
with me as servant, besides my man Friday, who was
too much a stranger to be capable of supplying the place
of a servant on the road.
In this manner I set out for Lisbon: and our company
being all very well mounted and armed, we made a little
troop, whereof they did me the honor to call me captain,
as well because I was the oldest man as because I had
two servants, and indeed was the original of the whole
As I have troubled you with none of my sea journals,
so shall I trouble you with none of my land journals, but
some adventures that happened to us in this tedious and
difficult journey, I must not omit.
When we came to Madrid, we being all of us strangers
to Spain, were willing to stay some time to see the court
of Spain, and to see what was worth observing; but it
being the latter part of summer, we hastened away, and
set out from Madrid about the middle of October. But
when we came to the edge of Navarre, we were alarmed
at several towns on the way, with an account that so
much snow had fallen on the French side of the moun-
tains, that several travellers were obliged to come back
to Panpeluna, after having attempted, at an extreme
hazard, to pass on.
When we came to Pampeluna itself, we found it so in-
deed; and to me, that had been always used to a hot
climate, and indeed to countries where we could scarce
bear any clothes on, the cold was insufferable. Nor in-
deed was it more painful than it was surprising, to come
but ten days before out of the Old Castle, where the
weather was not only warm, but very hot; and immedi-
ately to feel a wind from the Pyrenean mountains so
very keen, so severely cold, as to be intolerable, and to
endanger benumbing or perishing of our fingers and
Poor Friday was really frighted when he saw the
mountains all covered with snow, and felt cold weather,
which he had never seen or felt before in his life.
To mend the matter, after we came to Pampeluna, it
continued snowing with so much violence, and so long,
that the people said winter was come before its time,
and the roads, which were difficult before, were now
quite impassable; in a word, the snow lay in some
places too thick for us to travel; and being not hard
frozen, as is the case in the northern countries, there
was no going without being in danger of being buried
alive every step. We stayed no less than twenty days at
Pampeluna, when (seeing the winter coming on and no
likelihood of its being better, for it was the severest
winter over all Europe that had been known for many
years) I proposed that we should all go away to Fonta-
rabia, and there take shipping for Bourdeaux, which was
a very little voyage.
But while we were considering this, there came in four
French gentlemen, who having been stopped on the
French side of the passes as we were on the Spanish,
had found out a guide, who, traversing the country near
the head of Languedoc, had brought them over the
mountains by such ways, that they were not much in-
commoded with the snow; and where they met with
snow in any quantity, they said it was frozen hard
enough to bear them and their horses.
We sent for this guide, who told us he would under-
take to carry us the same way, with no hazard from the
snow provided we were armed sufficiently to protect us
from wild beasts; for he said, upon these great snows,
it was frequent for some wolves to show themselves at
the foot of the mountains, being made ravenous for
want of food, the ground being covered with snow. We
told him we were well enough prepared for such crea-
tures as they were, if he would ensure ns from a kind of
two-legged wolves, which we were told we were in most
danger from, especially on the French side of the moun-
He satisfied us there was no danger of that kind in the
way that we were to go. So we readily agreed to follow

him; as did also twelve other gentlemen, with their
servants, some French, some Spanish, who as I said,
had attempted to go, and were obliged to come back
Accordingly we all set out from Pampeluna, with our
guide on the fifteenth of November, and indeed I was
surprised when, instead of going forward, he came di-
rectly back with us, on the same road that we came
from Madrid, above twenty miles; when having passed
two rivers, and come into the plain country, we found
ourselves in a warm climate again, where the country
was pleasant, and no snow to be seen; but on a sudden,
turning to the left, he approached the mountains another
way; and though it is true, the hills and the precipices
looked dreadful, yet he made so many tours, such mean-
ders, and led us by such winding ways, we had insensi-
bly passed the height of the mountains without being
much encumbered with the snow; and, all on a sudden
he showed us the pleasant fruitful provinces of Langue-
doc and Gascoigne, all green and flourishing; though in-
deed they were at a great distance, and we had some
rough way to pass yet.
We were a little uneasy, however, when we found it
snowed one whole day, and at night so fast that we
could not travel; but he bade us be easy, we should soon
be past it all. We found, indeed, that we began to de-
scend every day, and to come more north than before;
and so, depending upon our guide, we went on.
It was about two hours before night, when our guide
being something before us, and not just in sight, out
rushed three monstrous wolves, and after them a bear
out of a hollow way, adjoining to a thick wood. Two of
the wolves flew upon the guide, and had he been half
a mile before us he would have been devoured indeed.
before we could have helped him. One of them fastened
upon his horse, and the other attacked the man with that
violence, that he had not time, or not presence of mind
enough, to draw his pistol, but hallooed and cried out to
us most lustily- My man Friday being next to me, I
bade him ride up, and see what was the matter. As soon
as Friday came n sight of the man, he hallooed as loud
as the other, "0 master I 0 master l" but, like a bold
fellow, rode directly up to the man, and, with a pistol,
shot the wolf that attacked hih in the head.

a-" 1

mnn ^a- "C

It was happy for the poor man that it was my mau.
Friday; for he, having been used to that kind of crea-
ture in his country, had no fear upon him, but went up
close to him, and shot him as above; whereas any of us
would have fired at a farther distance, and have, per-
haps, either missed the wolf, or endangered shooting
the man.
But it was enough to have terrified a bolder man. than
I; and indeed it alarmed all our company, when, with
the noise of Friday's pistol, we heard :n both sides the
most dismal howling of wolves, and the noise redoubled:
by the echo of the mountains, that it was to us as if
there had been a prodigious multitude of them; and per-
haps indeed there were not such a few, as that we had no
cause of apprehension.
However, as Friday had killed this wolf the other,.
that had fastened upon his horse, left him immediately,
and fled, having happily fastened upon his head, where
the bosses of the bridle had stuck in his teeth, so that hea
had not done him much hurt. The man, indeed, was
most hurt; for the raging creature had bit him twice,.
once on the arm, and the other time a little above his
knee- and he was just, as it were, tumbling down by
the disorder of his horse, when Friday came up and shot
the wctf.
It is easy to suppose, that at the noise of Friday's
pistol we all mended our pace, and rode up, as fast as
the way (which was very difficult) would giveans leave, toe
see what was the matter. As soon as we cameeclear of


the trees, which blinded ns before, we saw plainly what
had been the cause and how Friday had disengaged the
poo guide: though we did not presently discern what
ind of creature it was he had killed.
But never was a fight managed so hardly, and in such
a surprising manner, as that which followed between
Friday and the bear, which gave us all (though at first we
were surprised and afraid for him) the greatest diversion
imaginable. As the bear'is a heavy, clumsy creature,
and does not gallop as the wolf does, which is swift and
light, so he has two particular qualities, which gener-
ally are the role of his actions. First, as to men, who
are not his proper prey. I say, not his proper prey,
though I cannot say what excessive hunger might do,
which was now their case, the ground being all covered
with snow; yet, as to men, he does not usually attack
them, unless they first attack him: on the contrary if
you meet him in the woods, though if you do not meddle
with him, he will not meddle with you, yet then you
must take care to be very civil to him and give him the
road: for he is a very nice gentleman, he will not go a
step out of his way for a prince; nay, if you are really
afraid, your best way Is to look another way. and keep
going on; for sometimes if you stop and stand still, and
look steadfastly at him, he takes it for an affront and
sets all other business aside to pursue his revenge: for
he will have satisfaction in point of honour: and this is
his first quality. The next is, that if he be once affront-
ed, he will never leave you, night or day, till he has his
revenge, but follow, at a good. round rate, till he over-
takes you.
My man Friday had delivered our guide, and when we
had come up to him, he was helping him off from his
horse; for the man was both hurt and frighted and in-
deed the last more than the first; when, on a sudden, we
spied the bear come out of the wood, and a vast mon-
strous one it was, the biggest by far that ever I saw.
We were all a little surprised when we saw him: but
when Friday saw him, it was easy to see joy and courage
in the fellow's countenance. 0 1 0 1 0 says Fri-
day, three times, pointing to him; 0, master, you
give me leave, me shakee the hand with him, me make
you good laugh."
I was surprised to see the fellow so pleased. "You
fool you," said I, "he will eat you up I" "Eatee me
up. eatee me up?" says Friday, twice over again.
"Me eatee him up: me make you good lauL'h. You all
stay here; me show you good laugh." So down he sits,
andgets his boots off in a moment, and put on a pair of
pumps (as we call the flat shoes they wear), and which
e had in his pocket, gives my other servant his horse,
and with his gun away he flew, swift like the wind.
The bear was walking softly on, and offered to meddle
with nobody, till Friday, coming pretty near, calls to
him, Hark ye, hark ye," says Friday, "me speakee wit
you." We followed at a distance; for now being come
down to the Gascoigne side of the mountains, we entered
a vast forest.
Friday, who had, as we say, the heels of the bear,
came up with him quickly, and takes up a great stone,
and throws it at him, and hit him just on the head; but
did him no more harm than if he had thrown it against
a wall: but it answered Friday's end;. for the rogue was
so void of fear that he did it purely to make the bear
follow him, and show us some laugh," as he called it.
As soon as the bear felt the stone, and saw him; he
turns about, and shuffles along at a strange rate, so as
would put a horse to a middling gallop. Away runs
Friday, and takes his course, as if he ran towards us for
help; so we all resolved to fire at once upon the bear, and
deliver my man; though I was angry at him heartily for
bringing the bear back upon us, when he was going about
his own business another way; and especially I was
angry that he had turned the bear upon us, and then ran
away; and I called out, You dog," said I, "is this your
making us laugh? Come away, and take your horse,
that we may shoot the creature." He hears me, and cries
out, "No shoot, no shoot I Stand still: you get much
laugh." And as the nimble creature ran two feet for the
beast's one, he turned on a sudden, on one side of us,
and seeing a great oak tree, fit for his purpose, he beck-
oned us to follow, and, doubling his pace, he gets nim-
bly up the tree, laying his gun down on the ground, at
about five or six yards from the bottom of the tree.
The bear soon came to the tree, and we followed at a
distance. The first thing he did he stopped at the gun,
smelt to it, but let it lie, and up he scrambles into the
tree, climbing like a cat, though so monstrously heavy.
I was amazed at the folly, as I bought it, of my man, and
could not for my life see anything to laugh at yet, till
seeing the bear get upon the tree, we all rode nearer to
When we came to the tree, there was Friday got out to
the small end of a large limb of the tree, and the bear
got half way to him; as the bear got out to that part
where the limb of the tree was weaker, "Ha," says he,
to us, "now you see me teacher the bear dance:" so he

falls a jumping, and shaking the bough, at which the
bear began to totter, but stood still and began to look be-
hind him, to see how he should get back; then indeed
we did laugh heartily. But Friday had not done with
with him by a great deal; when he sees him stand still,
he calls out to him again as if he had supposed the bear
could speak English: "What, you no come farther?
Pray you come farther 1" So he left jumping and shaking
the bough; and the bear, just as if he had understood
what he said, did come a little farther; then he fll a
jumping again, and the bear stopped again.
We thought now was a good time to knock him on the
head, and I called to Friday to stand still and we would
shoot the bear; but he cried out earnestly, "0, pray I 0,
pray I no shoot I Me shoot by and then." He would have
said, "by and by." However, to shorten the story, Fri-
day danced so much, and the bear stood so ticklish, that
we had laughing enough indeed, but still could not imag-
ine what the fellow would do; for first we thought he
depended upon shaking the bear off, and we found the
bear was too cunning for that too; for he would not go
out far enough to be thrown down, but clings fast with
his great broad claws and feet, so that we could not
imagine what would be the end of it, and where the jest
would be at last.
But Friday put us cut of doubt quickly; for seeing the
bear cling fast to the bough, and that he would not be
persuaded to come any farther, "Well, well," says Fri-
day, "you no come farther, me go, me go; you no come
to me, me come to you." And upon this, he goes out to
the smallest end of the bough, where it should bend with
his weight, and gently lets himself down by it, sliding
down the bough, till he came near enough to jump down
on his feet, and away he ran to his gun, takes it up, and
stands still.
Well," said Ito him, Friday, what will youdo now?
Why don't you shoot him ?" "No shoot," says Friday,
"no yet, me shoot now, me no kill; me stay, give you
one more laugh." And, indeed, so he did, as you will
see presently; for when the bear saw his enemy gone,
he comes back from the bough where he stood; but did
it mighty leisurely, looking behind him every step, and
coming backwards till he got into the body of the tree.
Then with the same, hinder end foremost, he came down
the tree, grasping it with his claws, and moving one foot
at a time, very leisurely; at this juncture, and just be-
fore he could set his hind feet upon the ground, Friday
stepped close to him, clapped the muzzle of his piece
into his ear, and shot him dead as a stone.
Then the rogue turned about to see if we did not laugh,
and when he saw we were pleased, by our looks, he falls
a laughing, himself very loud. "So we kill hear in my
country," says Friday. "So you kill them !" said I;
"why, you have no guns." "No," says he, "no guns:
but shoot great, much, long arrow."
This was, indeed, a good diversion to us; but we were
still in a wild place, and our guide very much hurt, and
what to do we hardly knew; the howling of wolves ran
much in my head; and, indeed, except the noise I once
heard on the shores of Africa, of which I have said some-
thing already, I never heard anything that filled me with
so much horror.
These things, and the approach of night, called us off,
or else, as Friday would have had us, we should have cer-
tainly taken the skin of this monstrous creature off,
which was worth saving; but we had three leagues to go,
and our guide hastened us; so we left him, and went for-
ward on our journey.
The ground was still covered with snow, thoughnot so
deep and dangerous as on the mountains; and the raven-
ous creatures, as we heard afterwards, were come down
into the forest and plain country, pressed by hunger, to
seek for food: and had done a great deal of mischief in
the villages, where they surprised the country people,
killed a great many of their sheep and horses, and some
people too.
We had one dangerous place to pass, of which our guide
told us, if there were any more wolves in the country, we
should find them there; and this was a small plain, sur-
rounded with woods on every side; and a long, narrow
defile, or lane, which we were to pass to get through the
wood, and then we should come to the village where we
were to lodge.
It was within half an hour of sunset, when we entered
the first wood: and a little after sunset when we came
into the plain. We met with nothing in the first wood,
except that, in a little plain, within the wood, which was
not above two furlongs over, we saw five great wolves
cross the road, full speed, one after another, as if they
had been in chase of some prey, and had it in view. They
took no notice of us, and were gone, and out of sight in a
few moments.
Upon this, our guide. who, by the way, was a wretched
faint-hearted fellow, bade us keep in a ready posture;
for he believed there were more wolves a coming.
We kept our arms ready, and our eyes about ns; but
we saw no more wolves till we came through that wood,


which was near half a league, and entered the plain. As
soon as we came into the plain, we had occasion enough
to look about us. The first object we met with, was a
dead horse: that is to say, a poor horse, which the wolves
had killed, and at least a dozen of them at work; we
could not say, eating of him, but picking of his bones,
rather; for they had eaten up all the flesh, before.
We did not think fit to disturb them at their feast,
neither did they take much notice of us. Friday would
have let fly at them, but I would not suffer him by any
means: for I found we were likely to have more business
upon our hands than we were aware of. We were not
gone half over the plain, but we began to hear the wolves
howl, in the wood on our left, in a frightful manner; and
presently after we saw about a hundred, coming on di-
rectly towards us, all in a body, and most of them in a
line, as ggular as an army drawn up by experienced offi-
cers. I scarce knew in what manner to receive them;
but found, to draw ourselves in a close line, was the only
way. So we formed in a moment. But that we might
not have too much interval, I ordered that only every
other man should fire, and that the others, who had not
fired, should stand ready to give them a second volley
immediately, if they continued to advance upon us; and
that then, those who had fired at first should not pretend
to load their fusils again, but stand ready, with every
one a pistol; for we were all armed with a fusil, and a
pair of pistols, each man; so we were, by this method,
able to fire six volleys, half of us at a time. However, at
present, we had no necessity; for, upon firing the first
volley the enemy made a full stop, being terrified, as well
with the noise as with the fire; four of them being shot
into the head, dropped; several others were wounded,
and went bleeding off, as we could see by the snow. I
found they stopped, but did not immediately retreat;
whereupon, remembering that I had been told, that the
fiercest creatures were terrified at the voice of man, I
caused all our company to halloo as loud as we could;
and I found the notion not altogether mistaken for,
upon our shout, they began to retire, and turn about;
then I ordered a second volley to be fired in their rear,
which put them to the gallop, and away they went to the
This gave us leisure to charge our pieces again, and
that we might lose no time, we kept going; but we had
but little more than loaded our fuisls, and put ourselves
into a readiness, when we heard a terrible noise in the
same wood on our left; only that it was farther onward,
the same way we were to go.
The night was coming on, and the light began to be
dusky, which made it the worst on our side; but the
noise increasing, we could easily perceive that it was the
howling and yelling of those vile creatures; and, on a
sudden we perceived two or three troops of wolves, one
on our left. one behind us, and one on our front; so that
we seemed to be surrounded with them. However, as
they did not fall upon us, we kept our way forward, as
fast as we could make our horses go, which, the way
being very rough, was only a good large trot; and in this
manner we only came in view of the entrance of the
wood, through which we were to pass, at the farther side
of the plain; but we were greatly surprised, when, com-
ing near the lane, or pass, we saw a confused number of
wolves standing just at the entrance.
On a sudden, at another opening of the wood, we heard
the noise of a gun; and looking that way out rushed a
horse, with a saddle and bridle on him, fying like the
wind and sixteen or seventeen wolves after him, full
speed. Indeed, the horse had the heels of them; but, as
we supposed that he could not hold at that rate, we
doubted not that they would get up with him at last; and
no question but they did.

Here we had a most horrible sight; for, ridingup to the
entrance where the horse came out we found the carcase
of another horse, and of two men, devoured by the raven-
ous creatures, and one of the men was no doubt the same

whom we had heard fire the gun; for there lay the gun
just by him fired off; but, as to the man, his head, and
he upper part of his body, were eaten up.
This filled us with horror, and we knew not what course
to take; but the creatures resolved us soon, for they
gathered about us presently, in hopes of prey; and I
rerily believe-there were three hundred of them. It hap-
pened very much to our advantage, that at the entrance
of the wood, but a little way from it, there lay some large
timber trees, which had been cut down the summer be-
ore, and I suppose lay there for carriage. I drew my
little troop in among these trees, I advised them all to
alight, and keeping that tree before us for a breastwork,
to stand in a triangle, or three fronts, enclosing our
horses in the centre.
We did so; and it was well we did, for never was a
more furious charge than the creatures made upon us in
this place; they came on us with a growling kind of
noise, and mounted the piece of timber, (which, as Isaid,
was our breastwork,) as if they were only rushing upon
their prey, and this fury of theirs, it seems, was princi-
pally occasioned by their seeing our horses behind us,
which was the prey they aimed at. I ordered our mento
fire as before, every other man; and they took their aim
so sure, that indeed they killed several wolves at the first
volley; but there was a necessity to keep a continual
firing, for they came on like devils, those behind pushing
on those before.
When we had fired the second volley of our fusils, we
thought they stopped a little, and I hoped they would
have gone off, but it was but a moment, for others came
forward again: so we fired two volleys of our pistols,
and I believe in these four firings we killed seventeen or
eighteen of them, and lamed twice as many: yet they
came on again.
I was loath to spend our last shot too hastily: so I
called my servant, not my man Friday, for he was better
employed; for, with the greatest dexterity imaginable, he
charged my fusil, and his own, while we were engaged;
but, as I said, I called my other man; and giving him a
horn of powder, I bade him lay a large train. He did so,
and had but just time to get away, when the wolves came
up to it, when I snapped an uncharged pistol close to
the powder, which set it on fire.\ Those that were upon
the timber were scorched with it, and seven of them fell,
or rather jumped in among us, with the force or the
fright of the fire. We dispatched these in an instant,
and the rest were so frighted with the light, which the
night, for now it was very near dark, made more terrible,
that they drew back a little.
Upon which I ordered our last pistols to be fired off in
one volley, and after that we gave a shout: upon this the
wolves turned tail, and we sallied immediately upon near
twenty lame ones, which we found struggling on the
ground, and fell a cutting them with our swords, which
answered our expectations; for the crying and howling
they made were better understood by their fellows, so
that they all fled and left us.
We had, first and last, killed about threescore of them;
and had it been daylight, we had killed many more. The
field of battle being thus cleared, we made forward again,
for we had still near a league to go.
We heard the ravenous creatures howl and yell in the
woods as we went, several times; and sometimes we
fancied we saw some of them, but the snow dazzling our
eyes, we were not certain: so in about an hour more we
came to the town where we were to lodge, which we
found in a terrible fright, and-all in arms; for it seems
that the night before the wolves and some bears had
broken into the village and put them in a terrible fright;
and they were obliged to keep guard, night and day, but
especially in the night, to preserve their cattle, and, in-
deed, their people.
The next morning our guide was so ill, and his limbs
so swelled with the rankling of his two wounds, that he
could go no farther; so we were obliged to take another
guide there, and go to Toulouse, where we found a warm
climate, a fruitful, pleasant country, and no snow, no
wolves, nor anything like them. But when we told our
story at Toulouse they told us it was nothing but what
was ordinary in the great forest, at the foot of the moun-
tains, especially when the snow lay on the ground. But
they inquired much what kind of a guide we had gotten,
that would venture to bring us that way in such a severe
season: and told us it was surprising we were not all
devoured; when we told them how we had placed our-
selves, and the horses in the middle, they blamed us ex-
ceedingly, and told us it was fifty to one but we had all
been destroyed; for it was the sight of the horses that
made the wolves so furious, seeing their prey, and that
at other times they are really afraid of a gun; but they
being excessively hungry, and raging on that account, the
eagerness to come at the horses had made them senseless
of the danger; and that if we had not, by the continued
fire, and at last by the stratagem of the train of powder,
mastered them, it had been great odds but that we had
been torn in pieces; whereas, had we been content to


have sat still on horseback, and fired as horsemen, they
would not have taken the horses so much for their own,
when men were on their backs, as otherwise; and
withal, they told us, that at last, if we had all stood to-
gether, and left our horses, they would have been so
eager to have devoured them, that we might have come
off'safe, especially having our fire-arms in our hands, and
being so many in number.
For my part, I never was so sensible of danger in my
life; for seeing above three hundred wolves come roar-
ing and open-mouthed to devour us, and having nothing
to shelter us, or retreat to, I gave myself over for lost;
and, as it was, I believe I shall never care to cross those
mountains again: I think I would much rather go a
thousand leagues by sea, though I were sure to meet
with a storm once a week.
I have nothing uncommon to take notice of in my
passage through France; nothing but what other tra-
Vellers have given an account of, with much more ad-
vantage than I can. I travelled from Toulouse to Paris,
and, without any considerable stay, came to Calais, and
landed safely at Dover, the fourteenth of January, after
having had a severely cold season to travel in.
I was now come to the centre of my travels, and had,
in a little time, all my new-discovered estate safe about
me, the bills of exchange which I brought with me hav-
ing been very currently paid.
My principal guide and privy-counsellor was my good,
ancient widow, who, in gratitude for the money I had
sent her, thought no pains too much, or care too great,
to employ for me, and Itrusted her so entirely with every-
thing, that I was perfectly easy as to the security of my
effects: and, indeed, I was very happy from the begin-
ning, and now to the end, in the unspotted integrity of
this good gentlewoman.
And now I began to think of leaving my effects with
this woman, and setting out for Lisbon, and so to the
Brazils. But now another scruple came in my way, and
that was religion; for as I had entertained some doubts
about the Roman religion, even while I was abroad, es-
pecially in my state of solitude, so I knew there was no
going to the Brazils for me, much less going to settle
there unless I resolved to embrace the Roman Catholic
religion, without any reserve; except, on the other hand,
I resolved to be a sacrifice to my principles be a martyr
for religion, and die in the Inquisition: so I resolved to
stay at home, and if I could find means for it, dispose of
my plantation.
To this purpose I wrote to my old friend at Lisbon,
who, in return, gave me notice that he could easily dis-
pose of it there; but that, if I thought fit to give him
leave to offer it in my name to the two merchants, the
survivors of my trustees, who lived in the Brazils, who
must fully understand the value of it, who lived just
upon the spot, and whom I knew to be very rich, so that
he believed they would be fond of buying it; he did not
doubt but I should make four or five thousand pieces of
eight the more of it.
Accordingly I agreed, gave him orders to offer it to
them. and he did so; and in about eight months more,
the ship being then returned, he sent me an account
that they had accepted the offer, and had remitted thirty-
three thousand pieces of eight to a correspondent of
theirs at Lisbon to pay for it.
In return, I signed the instrument of sale in the form
which they sent from Lisbon, and sent it to my old man.
who sent me bills of exchange for thirty-two thousand
eight hundred pieces of eight, for the estate, reserving
the payment of one hundred moidores a year to him the
old man, during his life, and fifty moidores afterwards to
his son for his life, which I had promised them; and
which the plantation was to make good as a rent charge.
And thus I have given the history of a life of fortune
and adventure-a 'le of Providence's checker-work, and
of a variety which the world will seldom show the like
of-beginning foolishly, but closing much more happily
than any part of it ever gave me leave so much as to
hope for.
Any one would think, that in this state of complicated
good fortune, I was past running any more hazards; and
so indeed I had been, if other circumstances had con-
curred: but I was inured to a wandering life, had no

family nor many relations, nor, howeverrich, had bon-
tracted much acquaintance; and though I had seldM
estate in the Brazils, yet I could not keep that country
out of my'head, and had a great mind: to be upeo the
wing again; especiallyas I could not resist-the strong
inclination I had to see my island, and to know If the
poor Spaniardswere in being there, and how the rogues
Ihad left there had used them.
My true friend the widow earnestly dissuaded me from
it, and so far prevailed with me that for almost seven
years she prevented my running abroad; during which
time I took my two nephews5 the children of one of my
brothers, into my care. The eldest having something of
his own, I bred up as a gentleman, and gave him a settle-
ment of some addition to his estate after my decease:
the other Iput out to a captain of a ship; and after five
years, finding him a sensible, bold, enterprising young
fellow. Iput him into a good ship, and sent him to sea.
And this young fellow afterwards drew me in, old as I
was, to farther adventures myself.
In the meantime, I in part settled myself here: for first
of all I married, and that riot either to my disadvantage
or dissatisfaction; and had three children, two sons and
one daughter. But my wife dying, and my nephew com-
ing home, with good success, from a voyage to Spain,
my inclination to go abroad,.and his Importunity pre-
vailed, and engaged me to go in his ship as private
trader to the Eastlndies. This was in the year 1694.
In this voyage I visited my new colony in the island,
saw my successors, the Spaniards; had the whole story
of their lives, and of the villains I left there; hot at
first they insulted the poor Spaniards; how they after-
wards agreed, disagreed, united, separated, and how at
last the Spaniards were obliged to use violence with
them; how they were subjected to the Spaniards; how
honestly the Spaniards Used them; a history if it were
entered into, as full of variety and wonderful incidents,
as my own part: particularly also as to their battles with
the Carribbeans, who landed several times upon the
island itself: and how five of them made an attempt
upon the main land, and brought away eleven men and
five women prisoners by which, at my coming, I found
about twenty young children on the island.
Here I staid about twenty days left them supplies of
all necessary things, and particularly of arms, powder
shot, clothes tools, and two workmen whom I brought
from England with me: viz., a carpenter and a smith.
Besides this, I shared the island into parts with them,
reserved to myself the property -of the whole, but gave
them such parts respectively as they agreed on; and
having settled all things with them, and engaged them
not to leave the place, Ileft them there.
From thence I touched at 'the Brazils, from whence I
sent a bark, which I bought there, with more people to
the island; and in it, besides other supplies, I sent seven
women, being such as I found proper for service or for
wives to such as would take them. As to the English
men, I promised them to send them some women from
England, with a good cargo of necessaries, if they would
apply themselves to planting, which I afterwards could
not perform. The fellows proved very honest and dili-
gent, after they Were mastered, and had their property
set apart for them. I sent them also from the Brazils five
cows-three of them with calves-some sheep and some
hogs, which, when I came again, were considerably In-
After this, however, three hundred Carribbees came
and invaded them, and ruined their plantations, and they
fought with that whole number twice, and were at first
defeated, and one of them killed: but at last a storm de-
stroying their enemies' canoes, they famished or destroy-
ed almost all the rest, and renewed and recovered the
possession of their plantations, and still lived upon the
island. I had some very surprising incidents, in some
new adventures of my own, for several years more; but
now, having lived seventy-two years a life of infinite va-
riety, and learned sufficiently to know the value of re-
tirement and the blessing of ending our days in peace, I
have resolved to harass myself no more, and am there-
fore preparing for a longer Journey than any I have yet



THE NEW OCTAVO SERIEs.-The introduction to the CURRENT IsSUEs.-The list of Beadle's issues for the
lists of Beadle's Dime Publications, of the new octavo months of December and January comprises several
series, unusually captivating and desirable works, among which
BEADLE'S DIME FICTION, may be named DIME NOVEL NO. 76, to issue December
is but an elaboration of the Publishers' idea, viz.: to 27th, viz.:
place before the reading public tie choicest productions of T SUT PI
our most acceptable writers, at the lowest possible price. Or, the Old Dutch Blunderbuss. A tale of New York
Their unequalled facilities for obtaining the very cream in 1776. By Herrick Johnstone, Esq. Embracing a full
of current literature, render it an easy matter to produce account of the battle of Long Island, the retreat, etc., in
a succession of novelties, calculated to afford delight to a romance of fascinating power and interest. The writer
all classes, and to develop a taste for what is best in is one of our purest and most edifying authors, very
American historical and character romance. familiar with our revolutionary history, and so thor-
onghly imbued with the spirit of patriotism that ho
THE NEWI SERIES writes with unusual vigor, grace and effective interest.
is printed in large octavo, double columns, with a clear, DIME NOVEL No. 77, to issue January 31st, is
open-faced, easily read type, and is bound in the usual
salmon-colored paper which has now become recognized QUIND
as Beadle's own." Each issue embraces a complete Or, the Heroine of Fort Laramie. A romance of the
story, chosen, from the multitude of manuscripts offered, old fort, in which the savage of the wilderness, wNite
for its stirring action, peculiarity of incident, and unique- settlers, old scouts, and United States troops are corn-
ness of character. It will assume an individuality purely mingled in 'a drama of peculiar interest, power and
its own, and be no repetition of another series. There pathos. The author evidently is familiar with his ground,
have been issued, thus far: aid writes with that knowledge of the wild men of the
THE MARKED BULLET: Wi st which renders his work as real as life itself. Such
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Or, the Squaw's Reprieve. A tale of Border Life, by adds one more literary treasure to the now unrivalled
George Henry Prentice. A story of early life in the list of American historicalnovels which compose BEA-
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larly intere-ting. Suchworks almostassume the dignity THE LIFE OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN.
of history, yet afford the most enticing of all romances, By O. J. Victor, Esq. Composed with special refer-
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To peruse this choice production is to become familiar interest as an old time chronicle. It particularly dwells
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No. II. of the series is: inured to hardships and borne down with toil, his soul
THE OUTLAW BROTHERS: struggled on through the darkness, and came forth in its
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perusal without desiring to hear again from the same BEADLE'S DIME SONG BOOK No. 15,
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THE WILLING CAPTIVE; songs (words), among which may be named: When the
A rich, racy and romantic story of the Ohio, by J. Stan- Boys Come Home--Swinging in 'the Lae-Sambo's
ley Henderson. In this most laughable and exhilarating Right to be Kilt-The Swords were Thirty-seven--Charm-
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the mysterious ways of men and things on the Ohio Johnnie comes Marhng Home--Th oe C p-omra's Chat
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SEVERAL GOOD THINGS Sheridan, Hurrah I-You don't know how we missed
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ing, at once cheap, entertaining and satisfying. Books I


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