Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe, Part I
 Robinson Crusoe, Part II


The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073553/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 373 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Browne, Hablot Knight, 1815-1882 ( Illustrator )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Routledge, Warne, & Routledge ( Publisher )
Publisher: Routledge, Warne, & Routledge
Place of Publication: London (Broadway Ludgate Hill) ;
New York (56 Walker Street)
Publication Date: 1864
Edition: New ed.
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Ill. signed Phiz.
General Note: Front. is included in the pagination.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into numbered sections. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28229578
System ID: UF00073553:00001


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Table of Contents
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    Title Page
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    Robinson Crusoe, Part I
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    Robinson Crusoe, Part II
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Full Text




Friday and the Bear.


u ~pf ~1




$ gQD. Qhitio~n;






IF ever the story of any private man's adventures in
the world were worth making public, and were acceptable
when published, the Editor of this account thinks this will
be so.
The wonders of this man's life exceed all that is to be
found extant; the life of one man being scarce capable
of greater variety.
The story is told with modesty, with seriousness, and
with a religious application of events to the uses to which
wise men always apply them : viz., to the instruction of
others, by this example, and to justify and honour the
wisdom of Providence in all the variety of our circumstanees,
let them happen how they will.




I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good family,
though not of that country, my father being a foreigner of Bremen,
who settled fist at Hull: he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he had
married mpy mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very
good family in that country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in England, we
are now called,--nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe;
and so my compamons always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to
an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by
the famous Colonel Lookhart, and was kiled at the battle near
Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my second brother
I never knew, any more than my father or mother did know what
was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be ~filled very early wpith rambling thoughts:m
father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent share o
learning, as far as house-education and a country free-school generally
go, andi designed me for the law; but I would be satisfied with
nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to this led me so
strongly against the will, nay, the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends,
that there seemed to be something fatal m that propensity of nature,
tending directly to the life of misery which was to befal me.
My fte a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel agast what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
monn into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
exotaed very warmly with me upon this subect he asked me
whtreasons, more than a mere wandering inLmation, I had for
learmng my father's house and my native country, where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applice
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me It was
men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior

fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adventures, to rise
by enterprise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of a
nature out of the common road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or tdo far below ~me; that mine was the middle state.
or what might be called the upper station of low life, which he had
foundb by long eln experience, was the best state in the world, the most
the labour and suffermngs of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me I aught judge of the happiness of thus
state by this one thingR viz., that this was the state of hife which all
other people envied that kmngs have frequently lamented the mise-
rable consequence of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this, as
the standard of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the calami-
ties of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but; that the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of man-
kind; nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers, and
uneasiness, either of body or mind, as those were who, by vicious
living, luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want
of necessaries, and mean or insuficient diet on the other hand, bring
distempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their way
of living; that the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation, quietness,
health, society, all agr~eeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures,
were the blessmgn~s attending the middle station of life; that this way
men went silently and smoothlyl through the world, and comfortably
out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands or of the
head, not sold to a life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; nor enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning
lust of ambition for great things; but in easy circumstances, sliding
gently through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every
day's experience to know It more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young mau, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life Iwcas born in, seemed to
have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread that he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me
fairly mto the station of life which he had just been recommending
to me; and that if I was not very easy and happy in the worli
must be my mere fate or fault that must hun der it; and that he shol
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warn-
mng me against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would stay

nomasexO CExuaos. 11
and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand it my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go
away: and to close all, he told me I had my elder brother for an
example, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to keep
him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail,
his young desir~es prompting him to run into the army, where he was
killed; and though he said hie would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I should have leisure hereafter torefleet upon
having neglected lus counsel, when there might be none to assist in
I e~obse~vrved in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himsef
L say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentiul
especially when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and ta
when he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me,
he was so moved that he Ibroke off the discourse, and told me his
heart was so full he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who could be
otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But, alas i a
few days wore it all off; and, mn short, to prevent any of my father's
further importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to'run quite
away from him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the fist
heat of my resolution ptmed, but I took my mother, at a time when
I thought her a little plasanter than ordinary, and told her that my
thoughts were so eniey bent upon seeing the world, that I should
never settle to anything with resolution enough to go through with it,
and my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney ta a ue
ifI id Ishould never serve out my time, but Ishud ~ertail
run away from my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one voyage
abroad, if I came home again and did not like it, I: would go no
more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the
time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew
it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such sub.
ject; that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent
to anything so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my
father, and such k~ind and tender expressions as she knew my father
had used to me; and that, in short, If I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me; but I nught depend I should never have their con.
sent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much hand m my
diestruction; and I should never have it to say that my mother was
willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to name it to my father, yet I heard
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh:

"' That boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes
abroad, he wil be the most miserable wretch that ever was born; I
can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though,
in the meantime, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of
settling to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hall,
whither Iwent casually, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time; but, I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London in his father's ship, and prompting me
to go with them, with the common allurement of a seafarmg man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consulted neither
father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them word of it; but
leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking God's blessing
or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances or conse-
quences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of Se~ptember,
1651, I went on board a sh bound for London. Neveranyog
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner or continued le
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber, than the
wind be as to blow and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner;
and, as had never been at sea before, I was most inexrpressibly sick
in body, and terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
Heaven for my wicked leaving my father's house, and abandoning my
duty. All the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties came now fresh mnto my mnd; and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to which it has come
smcee reproached me with the contempt of advice, and the breach of
my duyto God and my father.
All ths while the storm increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor
what I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then,
who was but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough
or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more: in this ago f
mind, I made many vows and resolutions, that if it would please o
to spare my life la this one vyg if ever I got once my foot upon
dry land again, I would go directly hoe to my father and never set
it mto a ship again while I lived; that I would take 6is advice, and
never run myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw
plil the goodness of his observations about the middle station
oflfhow easy, how comfortably he had lived all his days, and
never had been ex osed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore
and, in short, I reso ved that I would, like a true repenting p~rodigal:
go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, and Ibegan to be a little mnured to it:
however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-

nomxsBox oneson. 13
sickr still; but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
qieover, and a charming fine evening followed ; the sun went
~dow perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning ; and harmg
little or no wmnd, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight
was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could b3e so calm and so pleasant m
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, myJ companion, who hadt enticed me away, comes to me :
" Well, Bob," says he, clapping me !on the shoulder, how do o
do after it ? I warrant you were fnhed, wer'n't you, last niht
when it blew but a capful of win ? "A capful d'you cl
it ? said I; i"'twas a terrible storm."--" A storm, you fool you,"
replies he; do you call that a storm ? why, it was nothing a~t all;
give us bu~t a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such;
a squall of wmnd as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob.
Come, let us make a bow~l of punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye
see what chalmnmg weather 'tis now ?" To make short tins sad
part of my stdry, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was
made, and I was made half-drunk with it and in: that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, a3 my reflections uon my
pastconuct al resolutions for the future. In a word as the
sea was returnedtoismotesofuraendetld s
by the abatement, of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts being
oemy fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up Uy U'_the sea
benforgotten, and the current of my former desires returned, I
entirl forgot the vows and promises that I made in my distress. I
f udideed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious thoughts
did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them as it were fom a distempr
and applymgn myself to drinking and company, soon masteredth
return of those fits for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over my conscience, as any yourg
fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I
was to have another trial for it stil; and Providence, as in such
cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse
for if would not take this for a deliverance, the next was to be suel
a one as the worst and most hardened wretek among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Reoads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, vis., at
south-west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many
ships from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had
lain four or five days, blew very hard. However the roads being'
reckoned as good as abhbour, the anchorage goo( and our ground.

tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner of the sea; but the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and
make everything snug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as
posile iBy noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid
fnorec~aste n shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice our
sheet-auchor, so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to
see terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamen themselves.
The master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship,
yet as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could h~ear him
softly to himself say several times, Lord, be merciful to us!i we
shall be all lost; we shall be all undone and the like. During
these fist hurries I was stupid, lyingo still in my cabin, which was in
the steerage, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill resume the
fist penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and hard-
ened myself against: I thought the bitterness of death had been
past; and that this would be nothing like the first ; but when the
master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be
all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran moun-
tains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two
ships that rid near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship wvhi~ch rid about
a mie a-head of us was foundered. Two more slups, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at al adven-
tures, and that not with a mast standing. The light ships fared the
best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them
drove, and came close by us, running away with only their spritsail
out before the wind.
Towards evening the mate and boatswain begged the master of
our ship to let them out away the fore-mast, which he was very
unwilling to do;, but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he
did not, the slup would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook
the ship so much, they were obliged to cut that away also, and make
a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at
but a little. But if I can express at this distance the thoughts I had
about me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon
account of my former convictions, and the having returned from them
to the resolutions I had wickedlyr taken at fist, than I was at death
itself and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me mnto such
a condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst was
not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the seamen

nosITwson cRUso. 15
themselves acknowledged they had never seen at worse. We had a
good ship, but she was deep laden and wallowed in the sea, so that the
seamen every now and then redout she would founder. It was my
advantage in one respect that I did not know whatt they meant by
founder, till I inquired. However the storm was so violent, thatI
saw, wh~at is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some
others more sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting
every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, and under all1 the rest of our distresses, one of the
men that Ihad been down to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then all hands we~re called
to the pump. At that word, mly heart, as I thought, died within me;
and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that was
able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as another; at which
I stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very heartily.
WVhile this was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who, not
able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run away to the
sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what they meant, thought the ship
had broken, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprised that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a time when
every body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what
was become of me; but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking Ihad been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was appa,
rent that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to
abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might
run into any port, so the master continued firing guns for help; and
a light ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to
help us. It was with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but
it was impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near
the ship's side, till at last thec men rowing very heartily, and ventur-
mng their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over the
stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a great length,
which they, after much labour and hazard, took hold of, and we
hauled them close under our stern, and got all into their boat. It
was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think
of reaching to their own ship ; so all agreed to let her drive, and only
to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our master
promised them, that if the boat was stayed upon shore, he would
make it good to their master: so partly rowing, and party driving,
our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship
till we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what
was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sink~mg;
for from the moment that they rather put me into the boat, than thati

I might be said to go in, my heart was, as it were, dead within me,
partly with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of
what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition,---the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore,--we could see (when, our boat
mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many
people runm~ng along the strand to assist us when we should come
near; but we made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we
able to reach the shore, till, being past the light-house at Winterton,
the shore falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in, and,
though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked
afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were
used with great humanity, as we~ll by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of
ships, and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London
or back to Rull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship
I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great
while before he had any assurances that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my rea-
son, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. 'E know not what to call this, nor wi~llI urge that it is a
secret overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the instruments of
our own destruction, even though it be before us, and that we rush
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed
unavoidable misery, which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasomings and persuasions
of my most retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions
as I had met with in my first attempt.
1Vy comrade, who ha~d helped to harden me before, and who was
th~emaster's son, was now less forward than I. The first time he spoke
to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two orthe
days, for we were separated in the town to several quarters; Isy
the irst time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered; and, ook
ing very melancholy, and shak-ing his head, he asked me how I did,
a~nd telling his father who I was, and how Ihad come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go farther abroad: his father turning to me,
with a very grave and concerned tone, Young maEn, says he, you
ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a
glain and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
W~hy, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ? "That is ano-
ther casee,: said he; it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what 'a taste Heaven has
given you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has
all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.
Pray," continues he, "what are you; and on what account did yougo
to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of

BoBmson caUsoz. 17
which he burst out into a strange kind of passion: What had I
done," says he, that such an unapy wretch should come into my
ship ? I would not set my foot in e -same ship with thee .again for
a thousand pounds." Thls indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was
farther than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwards
talked very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin; telling me I might see a visible
hand of Heaven against me. And, young man," said he, depend
upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go~, you will meet with
nothing but disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfdlled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him
no more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some
money mn my pocket, I travelled to London by land; and there, as
well as on the road, had many struggles with myself, what course of
life I should take, and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to
thoughts; and It immediately occurred to me how I should be
&age at among the n hours, and should be ashamed to see, not
my faher and mother ony but even everybody else; from whence I
have since often observe jhow incongruous and irrational the com-
mon temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which
ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to
sm, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action for
which they ought ju tly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the
returning, which onycan make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of hf, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irre-
sistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile,
the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
a vTat evil infuence which carried me first awyfrom my father's
house,--which hurried me into the wild and digested notion of
raising my fortune; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly
upon me, as to make me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties
and even the commands of my father: I o;E'say th samleinflencrie,
whatever it was, presented the mostunouaeofllnerrsst
my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa;
or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
fship myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a
little harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt
the duty and office of a fore-mast man; and in time might have qua-
lified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it
was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here; for having
money inmy pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither had any
business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in Lon-
don, which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young
fellows as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early; but it was not so with me. I first got
acquainted with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of
Grunea; and who, having had very good success there, was resolved
to go again: this captain taking a fancy to my conversation, which~
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind
to see the world, told me if I would go the voyage with him I should
be at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion; and
if I could carry anything with me, I should have all the advantage of
it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with
this captain, who was an honest plain-dealings man, I went the voyage
with lum, and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dls-
interested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very consi-
derably; for I carried about E40 in such toys and trifles as the captain
directed me to buy. This 340 I had mustered together by the assist-
ance of some of my relations whom I corresponded with; and who,
I believe, got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much
as that to my fist adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain; under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to
understand some things that were needful to be understood by a
sailor: for, as he took; delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant:
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for my
adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return, almost :300,
and this fdled me with those aspiring thoughts which have smece so
completed my rumn.
Yet even m this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly,
that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent; calenture by
the excessive heat of the climate; our principal trading being upo
I was now set up for a G~uinea trader; and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival I resolved to go the same
voyage again, and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was
his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that
I had 3200 left, which I had lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes; the first was
this--our ship making her course towards the Canary Islands, or
rather between those Islands and the African shore, was surprised in
the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover of Sallee, who gave chase
to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as much

canvass as our yards would spread, or our masts carry to get clear -
but. finding the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come up
with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight ; our ship having twelve
guns, and the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came
up with us, and bringmg to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of our
guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon hun, which
made him sheer off agamn, after returning our fire, and pouring in also
his small shot from near two hundred men which he had on board.
However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but 1 'in
us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered it
men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and backing h
sails and riggmyo. We plied them wpith small-shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. How-
ever to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disaliled, and three of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at fist l apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest
of our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
przadmade his slave, ben oung and nimble, and lit for his
buies t this surprismg change of my circumstances, from a
merchant to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now
I looked back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I
should be miserable and have none to relieve me, which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone
without redemption: but, alas!i this was but a taste of the misery I
was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so
I was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea
again, believing that it; would some time or other be his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should
be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away for
when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie mn the
cabin to look after the sh~ip.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability mn
it; nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I
had nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me, no
fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman there but myself;
so that for two years, though I often pleased myself with the unagi-
nation, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it
mn practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which
put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in
my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting

out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used,
constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather
was fair, to take the ship's pmnnace, and go out into the road a-fishingo;
and, as he always took me and young Maresco with him to row the
boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in
catching fish insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth--the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, thou~rh we were not half a league from the
shore, we lost sight of it; ana rowing we knew not whither or which
way, we laboured all day, and al the next night, and when the
morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea instead of pulling
in for the shore; and that we were at least two leagues from the
shore. However, we grot well in agamn, though with a great deal of
labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more
care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat
.of our English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not g
a-fishing any more without a compass and some provision; so h
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an Enghsh slave, to build
a little state-room, or cabin, in1 the middle of the long-boat, like that
of a barge, with ai place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the
main-sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and work
the sails. She sailed with what wce call a shoulder-of-mutton sail;
a~nd the boom gibed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and
low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such
l"iuo as he thought fit to drink; and his bread, rice, and coffee.
Wewent freqluently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It hap-
pened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure
or for ish, with~ two or three Moors of some distinction in that place,
and for wh~om he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent
on board the boat over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot,
which were on board lus ship, for that they designed some sport of
bowling as well as fishinn.
I got all things reaay as he had directed, and waited the next
mormng with the boat washed clean, hier ancient and pendants out,
and everything to accommodate his guests; wrhen by-and-by my patron
came on board alone, and told me his guests had put off gomg, from
some business that fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy,
as usual, to go out with the boat and catch them some fish, for that
his friends were to sup at his house; and commanded that as soon
as I got some fish I should bring it home to his house: all which I
prepared to do.
Thus moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my
command: and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself,

not for fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew not, neither
&dld so much as consider, whither I should steer,--anywhere to get
out of that place was my desire.
My fist contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we
must not presume to eat of our pataon's bread. He said that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh;
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was
on shore, as if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed
also a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above
half a hundredwveight, with a, parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a
saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great use to us afterwards,
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him,
which he innocently came into also: his name was Ismael, which;
thycall Muley, or Moely so I called to him :--"Moely," said I,
our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a little
oder and shot ? It may be we may kill some alcamies (a fowl like
urcurlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores
nthe ship. Yes," says he, I'll bring some ;" and accordingly he
rogt a great leather pouch, which held a pound and a half of
owe,or rather more; and another with shot, that had five or six
oudwith some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same
imIhad found some powder of mly master's in the great cabin,
ihwhich I filed one of the large bottles in the case, which was
motempty, pouring what was mI it into another; and thus fur-
sedwith everything needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
hecastle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
nd took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
ort before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind
lwfrom the N.N.E, which was contrary to my desire, for had it
lwn southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
ndat least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
lwwhich way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
here I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
sh on my hook I would not pull them up, that he might not see
he,I said to the Moor, T'his will not do; our master will not be
us erved we must stand farthecr off." He, thinking no harm,
redand being in~ the head of the boat set the sails ahnd as I ha
e eI run the boat out near a league farther, andtebouh
erto as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped
rrdto where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for some-
ngbehind him, I took him by surprise with my arm e~iunder his
isand tossed him clear overboard into the sea.Hereim di
elfor he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken
tod me he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
rogafter the boat, that he would have reached me very quickly,
eebeing but little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin,
fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told

SS nommBIson oneson.
him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him
none: "But," said I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore,
and the sea Is calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I winl
do you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'llshoot you through
the head,, for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned himself
about, and swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached
it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him.
When he was gogne, I turned to the boy, whom they called lury, and
said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me,"
that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must thrbw you
into the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so inno-
cently, that I could not distrust him, and swore to be failthful to me,
and noall over the world with me.
Whl el was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the ~oat, rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the straits' mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do): for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward to the truly
Barbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless
savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course,
und steered directly south and by east, bendn my curse a little
towards the east, that I might keep in with the sore: and having a
fair, fresh ae of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that
I believe bythe next day at three o'clc in the afternoon, when I
first made the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty
miles south of Sallee: quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's donu-
2nous, or indeed of a other kmg thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet uchwasthe tI a ae of the Moors, and tededu
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
hadj sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shiftmyg to the
southward, I concluded also that If any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, or where; neither what latitude, what country, what
nation or what river. I neither saw, or desired to see any people;
the prmncipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came mnto this
creekr in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was
dark,and. discover the country; but as soon as it was quite darc, we
heard such dreadful noises of )the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds,; that the poor boy was.
ready~ to die w~ith fear, and begged of me not to go on ashoretildy
"Well, lury said I, then I won't ; but it may be we may see men
byday, who will beas bad to us as those lions."-" Then we giaze~
alm he shoot gu," sa s Xuy, laughing, make them run wey.

boBINsow cBUSOn. age
Sunch English lury spoke by conversing among us slaves. THowere
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of
our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up. After all,Xs'
advice was good, and I took it: we dropped oulr little anchor, and a
still all night; I say still, for we slept none; for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures (we knew not w~hat to call them) of many
sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallown
and washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; ad
they made such hideous howlings and yellingos, that I never indeed
heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we
were both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures
come swimming towards our boat w e could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious
beast. Xuryr said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know;
but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the anchor and row away:
" No says I, Xury; we can slip our cable, with the buoy to it, andci
go o to sea; they cannot follow us far. I had no sooner said
so, but I perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars'
length, which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore agamti.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlingrs, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a
tlung I have some reason to believe those creatures had never heardt
before: this convinced me that there was no gomng on shore for us in
the night on that coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of
the savages, had been as bad to have fallen into the hands of lions
and tigers ; at least we were equaly aprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were oblige to, go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pin left m ~the boat; when or where
to get it, was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
wit oe f hejars, hewould fmd if there was any waeadbring
some to me. I asked him why he would go ? why I should not ,go,
and he stay in the boat ? The boy answered with so much affection,
as made me love him ever after. Say9s1 he, "If wild mans come, they
etme, you go wey."'-" Well, Xury," sd I, we will both go an
if the wild mans come, we will kill them, they shalleat neither~o os."
80 I: gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a, dram out of our
patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled
the boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so wazded
on shore; carrying nothing but our arms, and two 3ars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the cm of
canoes with savages down the river but the D seemg$ a low ple
about a mile up the country, ramble to it, and by-and-by I sawF him
come runn towards me. I thought he was pursued by some
savage, or ~ihed~ with some wild beast, and I ran 'forwards towards
him to help i; but when I came nearer to him, I saw somaehing

haggover his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,
like a hare. but different in colour, and longer legs: however, we
were very adof it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy
that poor came with, was to tell me he had found good water,
and seen no wid mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water, for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the
water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up;
so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human crea-
ture in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very well
that the islands of the Canaries and the Cape de Verd Islands also,
lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take
an observation to know what latitude we were in, and not exactly
knowing, or at least rememberingrr what latitude they were in, I knew
not where to look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them ;
otherwise I miaht now easily have found some of these islands. But
my hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their vessels upon
their usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was must
be that country which, lyine between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions an~d the Negroes, les waste and uninhabited, except by
wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors: and the Moors not thinking it worth
inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness: and, indeed, both forsaking
it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there;~ so that the Moors
use it for their hunting only, where they go ikle an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hunahed miles
together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited
country by day, and heard nothing but howlinlgs and roaring of wild
beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Tene-
riffe, being the high top of the M~ountatin Teneriffe in the Canaries;
and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither;
but having tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the
sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue
my fist design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had
left this place; and once in particular, being early in the morni' we
came to an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty hg;
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther mn. us
whose eyes were more about him than it seems mine were, calls sofl
to me, and tells me that we had best go0 farther off the shore; for,"
sa s he, look yonder lies a dreadful monster on thle side of that
hilock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful
monster indeed, for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of
the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were
a li#1le over him. Xury," sayis I, you shall go on shore and kill

BOommaox cavaoE. 85
him." lury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one
mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was
almost musket-bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another min with
two bullets; and the third (for we had three pieces) I loa~led with
five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the fistpic
to have shot him in the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a htl
above his nose that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke
the bone. He started up, growling at first, but fmding his leg broke
fell down again; and then got up upon three legs, and gave the most
hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had
not hit him on the head however, I took up the second piece imme-
diately, and though he l~egan to move off, fired again, aud.shot him
in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little
noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. Well, go," said I: so the boy
jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to
shore with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head atgain, which
despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was
very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature
that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would
have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I. Me cut off his
head," said he. However, Xury could not out off his head, but he
cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was a monstrous great
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might,
one way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off
his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but
Xury was much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill how
to do it. Indeed it took us both up the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun
effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to
liAfter this, we made on to the southward continually for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began
to abate very much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were
obliged for fresh water. M~y design in this was, to make the River
Gambei as or Soeneatas to say anywhere about the Calpe de Verd,
whee Iwasin ops t met wthsome European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands,
or perish there amongr the Negroes. I knew that all the ships orfrom
Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to Brsloro
the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I
put the whole of m~y fortune upon this single point, either that Imust
meet with some slup, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I
have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and, in two or

three places, as we sailed by, we sawv people stand upon the shore to
look at us ; we could also perceive they were quite black, and nak~ed.
I was once inclined to have gaone on shore to them; but Xury was
my better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However,
I hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, anl dl found they
ran along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had no wFea-
posin their hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which
Xuysaid was a ldxnce, and that they could throw them a, great way
with good aim ; so 1 kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
as well as I could; and particularly made signs for something to eat;
they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some
meat. Upon this, I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry fleshl and some corn,
such as is the produce of their country; but we neither knew wh~at
the one or the other was: however, we were willing to accept it, but
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I would not venture on
shore to them, and theywe~re as much afraid of us: but they took a
safe way for us all, for they brought it to the shore and laid it dowvn
and wenit and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and
th~en came close to us again.
WCe made signrs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make
them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige
them wonderfully : for while we were lying by the shore, came two
mighty creatures, one purstung the other (as we took it) with great
fury from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was the male
pursuing the female, or whether they were in sport or in rage, we
could not tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual or
strange, but I believe it was thle latter; because, in the first place,
those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and in the
second place, we found the people terribly frighlted, especially the
women. The man that had t~he lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did.; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the
water, they did not offer to fail upon any of the Negroes, but plunged
themselves into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for
their diversion: at last one of them began to come nearer our
boat than at first I expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had
loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load
both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I
fired, and shot him directly~ in the head: immediately he sank down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as
if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately
made to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal
hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just before he reached
the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor crea-
tures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even
ready to die for fear, and fell down as 'dead with the very terror but
when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and t at I
made signs to them to come to the shore, they took heart and came,
and began to search for the creature. I found him by his blood stain.

ngthe water: and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him.
tand gve the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
tha itwasa mst urius eopard, spotted, and fn oa dial
degree; and the Negroes held uIp their hands with admiration, to
think wh~at it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the Bash of fire and the noise
of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains
from whelnce they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it
was. 1 found quickly the Negr~oes wished to eat the flesh of this
creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me;
w-hich, when I made signs to them that they might take him they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him ;
and though t~hey: had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took; off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than we
could have done with a, knife. They offered me some of the Rfesh,
which I declined, pointing out that I would give it them; but made
signs for the skin, whlich they gave me very freely, and brought me
a great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not under-
Af;nd, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it wabs empty, and that I wanted to have it filed. They called
immediately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed mn the
sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore
with mly jars, and filled them all three. The women were as naked as
the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about
eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw
the and un ut area length into theJ sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues t~efo're me; and the sea being very calm, I kept
a large offfing to make this point. At length, doubling the point, a~t
about two leagues from the land, I sawv plainly land on the other side,
to seaward: then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cavpe de Verd, and those the islands, called, from thence,
Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and
I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken
with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin,
and sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy
cried out, M8aster, master, a ship with a sail and the foolish boy
was frighted out of this wits, th~inking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out
of their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not
only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought,
was bound to the coast of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which 1 stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving
to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to

come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could
make any signal to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and
began to despair, they it seems, saw, by the help of their glasses, that
it was some European boat, which they supposed must belong to some
ship tat dwaslot; they, shortened sail to let me come up. I was
encorage wit ths, ad asI ha mypatron's ancient on board,I
made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though
they did not hear th~e gun. Upon these signals they very kindly
brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came
up with them.
-They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and
in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scots
sailor who was on board, called to me; and I answered him, and told
him ]I was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery
from the Moors, at Sallee they then bade me come on board, and
veykindly took me in, and all my goods.
Itwas an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable
and almost hopeless condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship,~ as a return for my
deliverance; but he generously told me, he would take nothing from
me, but that all I had should be delivered safe to me, when I came to
the Brasils. "For," says he, "I have saved your life on no other
terms than I would be glad to be saved myself ;and it may, one time
or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides,"
said he, when I carry you to the Brasils, so great a way from your
own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will' be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I halve gien. arNo,
no,"~s~ays he; "Seignor Inglese" (Mr. Engrlishman),Iwilry
you thither in charity, and those things will help to buy your: subsist-
ence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the per-
formance to a tittle; for hie ordered th~e seamen, that none should
touch anything that I had: then he took everything into his own
possession, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I
might have them, even to my three earthen Jars.
asto my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told
me he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and asked me what I
would have for It ? I told h~im, he had been so generous to me in
everything that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but
left It en~eyto him: upon which, he told me he would give me a
note of hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brasil; and
when it came there, if any one offered to gi~ve ~more, he would make it
up., He offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy lury,
which I was loath to take; not that I was unwilling to let the captatm
have him, but I was ver loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who
had assisted me so faithful in procuring my own. However, when
I let him know my reason, he owned it to be Just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in

ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was
w~ihugo to go to him, I let the captainn have him.
W~e had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and I arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two
days after. And now I was once more delivered from the most
miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I
was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me
twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the hon's skin,
which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had in the ahpt
be punctually deh'vered to me; and what I was willing to ae2h
bought of me; such abs the case of bottles, two of my guns, n
piece of the lump of bees'-wax,-for I had made candles of the rest:
in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of
all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore m the Brasil's.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house
of a good honest man, like hiself, who had an ingenio as they call it
(that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some
time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner ofpDlant-
ing and makmg~ of sugar and seeing how well the planters lived, and
how they got rich suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to
settle there, I would turn planter among them: resolving, in the
mean time, to fmd out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter
of naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation and settle-
ment; such a one as might be suitable to the stock which I proposed
to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguzese, of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I
was. I call him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to
mine, and we went on very sociably together. My stock was but low,
as well as his; and we rather planted for food than anything else,
for about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come: but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting wilth my
boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an
employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the
hife I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house, and
broke through all his good advice: nay I was coming inlto the very
middle station, or upper degree of low lie, which my father advised
me to before, and which, If I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have staid at home, and never have fatigued myself m the world,
as I had done: and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand

miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and
at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that
had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neih
bour ; no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands an I
used to say, I lived just like a man cast aw-ay upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself. But howR just has it been;
and how should all men reflect, that when they compare their present
conditions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exch~angoe, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I
reflected on, mn an island of m2re desolation, should be my lot, whlo
had so often unjustly compae it; with the life which I then led,
in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was, mn some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took
me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there, in providing
his la~ding, and preparing for his voyage, nearly three months when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in London, ~e gave
me this friendly and sincere advice:--"Seignor Inglese," says he
(for so he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a.
procuration in form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons
as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this country, I
will bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my return: but,
since human affairs are all subject to changes an~d disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that
if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for your
su% y as so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly that I could
not but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I
accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had
left my money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met wilth the Por-
tugal captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what con-
dition I wasnow ihnith all other necessary directions for myd
suppy ad wen hishonest captain came to Lisbon, he found
means, ~b'some of the English merchants there, to send over, not the
order onl but a full account of my story to a merchant at London,
who represented it effectually to her : whereupon she not only deli-
vered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent thre Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity
to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him

at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me to the Brasils: among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in my business t~o
think of them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work,
and utensils, necessary for my plantation, and which were of great
use to me.
~When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for Iwas
surprised with the joy of it ; and my good steward, the captain, had
laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for
six years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except
a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture,
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and
desirable in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I might say, I had more than four times the
value of my first cargo, and was now infnitely beyond my poor
neighbour, I mean m bthe advancement of my plantation for the
first thing I did, I bought me a Nearo slave, and an Europeau
servant also: I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
B3ut as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with
great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own around, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among
my neighbours; and these lifty rolls, being each of above a hundred
weight, were well cured, and laid .by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon : and now increasing mn busmness and in wealth, my head
began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such
as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.) Had
I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the hap
things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earne~-tj
recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so sensil
described the middle station of life to be full of : but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own
miseries; and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the
reflections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured by my appareht
obstinate adheringo to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of
doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and providence concurred to
present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy
view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation,
only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down again
inothe deepest gulf of human misery that ever man fell into, or
erpscouldC be consistent with life, and a state of health in the

5S WonzxsoxQ causon.
To come, then, by thle just degrees, to the particulars of this part
of my story :-You may suppose, that having now lived almost four
years in the Brasils, and begin~mn to thrive and prosper very well
upon my plantation, I had n~ot onslearned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and frien 'hp among my fellow7-planters, as
well as among the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port;
and that, in my discourses among them, I had frequently given them;
an account of my two voyages to the coast of G~umea; the manner
of trading with the N heroes there, and howt~" kieasyit was scsosto pur-
chase upon the coast for trifles--such as beads, toys knivesscsras,
hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold dustuiea rasins,i
elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for the service o h rsli
great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these
heads, but especially to that part which related to the buying Negsroes;
which was a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but,g
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos, or priso
of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public 9Estock;
so that few Negroes were brought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talkingo of those things very earnestly three
of them came to me the next morning and told me ehy had
been musmng very much upon what I hada discoursed with them of
the last might, and they came to make a secret proposal to me;
and, after enjoming me secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to
fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well
as I, and were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it
was a trade that could not be carried on, because they could not pub-
licly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they desired to make
but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
whthem among l~ptheir own plantations ; and, in word, the question was,
wheherI wuldgo their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part upon t~he coast of Guinea ; and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the Ne~groes, without providing any
part of the sjtock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not had a settlement and a plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair wa~y of commg to be very consi-
derable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus
entered and established, and had nothing to do but to go on as I had
begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for the other
hundred pounds from England; and who in that time, and with
that little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth three or
four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing too--for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever
man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist
the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs, when my
father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a work, I told them
I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake to look after
my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such as I

should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do, and
entered into writings or covenants to do so; and I made a formal
wai, dis posaing fmy plantation and effects in case of mym death,
makig te catai ofthe ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had
directed in my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and th(
other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve myl effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much ruence to have
looked mnto my own interest, and have made a 3uju t~g;~ment of what I
ought to have done and not t~o have done, I had certainly never
gone awvay from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the pro-
bable views of a thrivin circumstance, and gone upon a voyage to
sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of tre~
reasons I had to ex ect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy~
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted oui,_
and the cargo furnished, and all things done, as by~agreement, by-
my partners in the voyage, I went on board m an evil hour, the 1st:.
of September, 1659, bemng the same day eight years that I went from
my father and mother at Hull, in oraer to act the rebel to their
authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried
six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and myself ;
wre had on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as
were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and other trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing away to the
northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the
African coast, when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern
latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of course mn those days. We
had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the way upon our own:
coast, till we came to the height of Ca e St. Auustino; from whence,.
keeping further off at sea, we lost sigh of ln and steered as if we-
were bound for the isle Fernando de Noro ha, holding our course-
N.E. by N., and leavings those isles on the east. In this course we
passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
whna violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our know-
leg.It began from the south-east, came about to the north-west,
adthen settled in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a
trible manner, that for twelve days together we could do nothing
utdrive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us whither ever
faeand the fury of the winds directed; and, durmg these twelve
ayI need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up;
or, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of our
endie of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard.
Abut the twelfth dayr the weather abating a little, the master made
conservation as well as he could, and found that he was in about

eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees
of longitude difference west fromCaet.A uti;soht
he found he was upon the coast of Guiana, or Authea northpat o
Brasil, beyond the river Amazons, towards that of the river Oroo-
noque, commonly called the Great River; and began to consult
with me w-hat course hie should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast
of Brasil.
I w~as positively against; that; and looking over the charts of the
seal-coast of America withl him, we concluded there was no inhabited
country for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for
Bahrbadoes l!; which, bykepninD off at sea, to avoid the in-draft of the
rlay or gulf of M~exico, we mighlt easily perform, as we hoped, in
about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
vyage to the coast of Africa without some assistance both to our
s~, and to ourselves.
-Gith this design, we changed our course, and steered away N\.W.
by W.lr, inl order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped
for relief ; but our voragre was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of twvelve aegrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came
upon us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,
and drove us so out of the way of all hu~man1 commerce, that had all
our lives been saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages, than ever returning to our owyn country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men
early in the morning cried out, Land and we had no sooner run
out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the
world we were, than the ship struck upon a sand, and inl a moment,
her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner,
that we expected we should all have perished immediately; and we
were Immediately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from
the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition
to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circum-
stances. We knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was
we were driven; whether an island or the man,--whether inhabited
or not inhabited~; and as the rage of the win~d was still great, though
rather less than at first, we could not so much as hope to have
the ship hold many minutes without breaking into pieces, unless the
winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately about. In a
word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every
moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world,
for there was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that which
was our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, con-
traryv to our expectation, the ship did not break yect, and that the
master said the wind began to abate.
Now, thounrh we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the
ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us
to expect her getting off, we were in a, dreadful condition indeed, and
had nothing to do but to think of savings our lives as well as we could.

We had a boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was first
stayedl by dashing against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place,
she broke away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there
was no hope from hier. We had another boat on board, but how to get
her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there was no
time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every
minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of ihe boat, and
with the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's
side; and getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, bemng
eleven in number, to God's mercy and the wild sea: for though the
storm was abated considerably, yet the sea ran dreadfully hligh upon
the shore, and might be well called den wcil zee, as the D~utch call
the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for wee all saw plainly,
that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live, and that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it; so we worked at
the oar towards the land, though wilth heavy hearts, like men going
to execution; for we all ~knewP that when th~e boat came nearer the
shore, she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of thle
sea. However, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether. steep or
shoal, we knew not; the only hope that coulld rationally give us the
least shadow of expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf,
or th~e mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have
run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But there was nothing like this appeared; but as we
made nearer and nearer the shore, theland looked more frightful than
the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a, raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern
Of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a ordd
it took us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once; n
separating us, as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
not time to say, "O God!" for we were all swallowed up in a
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water: for though 1 swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave
having driven ~me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the
shore, and having spent itself, went back, and left me pnheld
ahnost dry, but h~alf' de~dad with the water I took in. IR~ thaad so much
presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing myself nearer the
main land than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to
make on towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave
should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great

hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself
upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my
breathing and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest
concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a great way
towards the shore when it came onmihnocrymebkagi
with it when it gave back towards lesitth sea. rg ebakagi
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or
thirty feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way;
but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with
all my mighlt. I was ready to burst with holding my breath, when,
as I felt myself ralsmng up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my
head and hands shoot out above the surface of the water and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so,
yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new courage. I was
covered again with walter a good while, but not so long but I held it
out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and
till. the waters went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with
what strength I had, further towards the shore. But neither would
this deliver me from the fur of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more fwas lifted up' by hewaes and carried
forwards as before, the shore being vr lt
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for
the sea having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, as it
left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite
ou fmy body;adhditrtre again immediately, uthv
been strangled m the water: but I recovered a little before the
return of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with the
water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold
my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now as the waves
were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till
the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me
so near the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet id ot o sallw m upas to carry me away; and the
next run I took, I got t h a ad hr om ra
comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me dw
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up and
thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some
minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible
to express, to the life, what the ecstacles and transports of the soul
are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very grave: and I
do not wonder now at the custom, when a malefactor, who has the
halter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and
has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do not wonder that they bring

noInesoI envsoz. IY7
a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of
it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the heart,
and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at fist.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands; and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance;
makmg a, thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe;
reflectmig upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself; for, as for them, I never
saw them afterwards, or any sign of them, except three of their hats,
one cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth
of the sea begso big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and
considered, L~ord how was it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mmd with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was
in, and what was next to be done: and I soon found my comforts
abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was
wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink,
to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of
perishing with hunge or being devoured by wild beasts: and that
which was particular afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon,
either to hunt and kilany creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature that nught desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my provision and
this threw me into terrible agoonies of mind, that, for a while, 1 ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began, with a heavy
heart, to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, as at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to
get up into a thick bushy tree, like a ir, but thorny, which grew near
me, and where I resolved to sit all ni ht, and consider the next day
what death I should die, for as yet saw no prospect of life.I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see If I could fmd any
fresh water to drink, w~ich I did to my great joy; and having drank,
and put a little tobacco mn my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the
tree, and getting~up into it, endeav~oured to place myself so as that if I
should sleep Imlght not faill. And having cut me a short stick, like
a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and having been
excessively fatigued I fell iast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I
believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself more
refreshed with it than I think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before; but that
which surprised me most was, that th6e ship was lifted off m the night
from the sand where she layT, by the sweling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where
I had been so bruised by the wave dashing me against it. This being

within about mile from the shore where I was, and the ship seemmng
to stand upright still, I wished myself on board, th.t at least I might
save some necessary things for my use.
W~hen I came down from my apartment in the tree, H ooked about
me again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the
wmnd and sea had tossed her up, upon the land, about two miles on
my right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have
got to her but found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the
boat, which was about half a mile broad; so I came back for the
present, being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped
to fmnd something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship.
And here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently,
that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe: that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to;
be left entirely destitute of atll comfort and company, as I now was.
This forced tears to my eyes agamn; but as there was little relief in
that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my
clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the water.
But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know
how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chams
so low, that with great difficulty I othold of it, and by the help of
that rope, I got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the si was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she~ lay so on the side of a bank: of hard sand, or rather earth,
that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost
to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and )all that
.was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first work was to
search and to see what was spoiled an~d what was free. And, first, I
found that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched by the
water and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room,
and fl~ed m okt with biscuit, and eat it as I went about other
things, fornI had noS time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed
need enough of to spirit me for what was before me. N~ow I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I fore-
saw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had;: and
this extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards,
and two or three large spars of wrood, and a spare top-mast or two
in the ship : I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as
many of them overboard as I could manage for their weight, trying
every one with a rope, that they might not drive away. WVhen this
was done, I went down the ship's side and pulling them to me, I tied
four of them together at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and longr two or three short pieces of plankupnthem,
eross-ways, I found I could walk upon It very well, buttatiwa

not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light. So I
went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to m~y raft, with a great deal of
labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what II should have been able to have
done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight.
My next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what 1
laid upon it from the surf of the sea: but I was not longcoiern
this. I first laid all the plank or boards upon it that I coul e n
having considered well what I most wanted, I fist got three ofthe
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft; the fist of these I fdled with provisions,
viz. bread, rice, three Dut~ch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh
(which we lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards
that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liqiuors, I found
several cases of bottles belongmg to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These
I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I found the
tide began to flow, though. very calm; and I had the mortification to
see my coat, shirt, and wfaistcoat, which I had left on the shor upo
the sand, swim away. As for my breeches, which were onl lnn
and open-knee'd, I swaml on board in them and my sto 'igs
However, this set me won rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon --as, first, tools to work
with on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and
much more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft, whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were
two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols.
These I secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of
shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
p~owder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner had stowed
them; but with much search I found them, two of them dry and
good, the third had taken water. Those two I got to my raft, with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and
began to think how I should get to shore with them, having neither
sail, oar, or rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would have over-
set all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndlg,_ the
tide rising, and setting in to the shore 3rSdly, what little waind there
was blew me towards the land. And t us, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were
tu the chest, two saws, an axe, and a hammer : with this eargo I put

to sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that
I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before; by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, and consequently, I hoped to fmd some creek or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to gret to land with my cro
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a litle
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set inlto
it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of
the streamn.
But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, whlichi,
if I had, I think, verily, would hav~e broke my heart; for, knowing
nothing of the coast, myr raft ranl aground at one end of it upon a
shoal, and not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a little
that all my cargo had shipped off towards the end that was afloat, and
so fallen into th~e water. I did my utmost, by setting my back against
the chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in; but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood 1in that
manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the water
brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar
I had into the channel, and then driving ~up higher, I at len th found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both si es, and a
strog curentor tde rnnin up.I looked on both sides foray
proper place to get to shore, frIwsntwligt edie o
high up t~he river: hoping, inl time, to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last
got so near, that reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly~ in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the
sea again; for that shore lymng pretty steep--that is to say, sloping,
--there was no place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran
on shore, wRould lie so high, and the other sink lower, as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an
anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a ~flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of
water, I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored hier, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground --one on one side, near one en, and one on the other side,
near the other end; and thus I lay tilthe water ebbed away, and
left my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
1\y next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from
whatever might happen. Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from mle, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northwmard.

I took out one of the fowlingo-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where after I had with great labour and difficulty got
to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was m an
island elvironed on every side by the sea: no land to be seen except
some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands, less
thaln this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom, how-
ever, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds, neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was lit for food,
and what not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird, which I
saw sitting upon a tree, on the side of a great wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since th~e creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all the parts of the wood there arose
an innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming and crying, every one according to his usual note, but
not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the creature I
killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was
c~arrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day: what to do w-ith myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but
some wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found,
there was really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way
to supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like
hares, run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and pgo~artcuary o
of the rigging and sails, and such other things as iht come tola ;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possi-
ble. And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart, till 1
had got every thmng out of the ship that I could get. Then I called
a council-that is to say, in my thoughts--whether I should take
back thE raft; but this appeared impracticable: so I resolved to
as before, when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I srp
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered
a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and,
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwleldy,
nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very use-
ful to me as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three
bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of
hatchets, and, above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone.
All these I secured, together with several thinrgs belongmgno to the

Ir noBNmsox caUSOE.
gunner; particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels or
musket bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-piece, with some
small quanutity of powder more; a large bagful of small shot, and a
great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist
It up to get it over the ship's side.
B-2esides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a spare fore-top sail, a hammock, and some bedding; and with
this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all safe onl shore, to
my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the: land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when I
camve back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a creature
like a wild cat, upon one of thle chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun to her, but, as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor
did she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit,
though, by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not
great: however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she wenit to it, smelled
at it, and ate it, and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked
her, and could spare no more: so shte marched off.
Having got my second car ~o on shore,--though I was obliged to
open the barrels of powder, ani bring them by parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large casks,--I went to work to make me a little tent,
with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose : and into
this tent I brouht everything: that I knew would spoil either with
ramn or sun;a I piled all the empty chests and caskrs up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it fromt anly sudden attempt, either from
man or beast.
Wh~en I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and anl empty chest set up on cnd without; and
spreading one of thle beds upon the ground, laying mly two pistols
just at my head, and my gunl at len th by ~me, I went to bed for the
first time, and slept very quietly all ni ht,, for I was very weary and
heavy- for the: night before I ha'd slept little, and had laboured very
hard all day, to fetch all those things from the ship, and to get them
on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up,
I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for while the
slup sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get evet
out of her that I could: so every day, at low water, I went on ba
and brought awray something or other; but particularly the ti
time I went, I brought away as much of the riggmg as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope twine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion, and the
barrel of wet g~unpowder. In a w~ord, I brought away all. the sails
first and last; onlyT that I was obliged to cut them m pieces, and
brings as much at a time as I could, fior they were no more useful to
be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that wh~ich comforted me n ore still, was, that last of all, after

I had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought I had
nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with ;-I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, three
large runlets of rum, or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine
flour: this was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions, except what wasspoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hlogshead of the bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by
parcel, in pieces ot' the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all
this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered
the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the
cables, cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, 1
got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and
everything I could, to make a large raft, I~ loaded it with all these
heavy goods, and came away 1 but my good luck began now to leave
me; for this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was no
great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was a
sreat part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would have
been of great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infi-
nlite labour; for I had to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and
brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen day~s on shore, and had been eleven times
on board the ship, in whichl time I had brought away all that one
pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I
believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should have brought away
the whole ship, piece by piece; but preparing the twelfth time to go
on board, I found the wmd began to rise: however, at low water I
went on board, and though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so
effectually that nothing more coul7R be found, yet I discovered a
locker with drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors,
and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives
and forks : in anotlier I found about thirty-six pounds value in money,
--sorme European coin, some Brasil, some pieces-of-eight, soine gold,
and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: O drug !" said I
alu," what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me,--no,
otthe taking off the ground: one of those knives is worth anl this
hep: I have no manner of use for thee ; e'en remain where thou ar~t
adgo to the bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saymg.
ever, upon second thoughts, I tookr it away; and wrapping all
a piece of canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but
hieI was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
egnto rise, and mna quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from
heshore. It presentlyr occurred to me, that it was mn vain to pre-
ndto make a raft with the wind off shore; and that it was my bush

ness to be gone before the tide of flood begn otaerwise I might not
be able to reach the shore at all. Accordinli 11et myself dowvn into
the water, and swam across the channel w~ihi 1 between the ship
and thre sands, and even that w-ith difficulty enou h, partly with the
weight of the things I had about me, and partly from the roughness
of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where 1 lay, with all my
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all th~2at night, and
in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship wvas to be
seen!i I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satis
factory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated any diligence,
to get everything out of her that could be useful to me; and that,
indeed, there was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I
had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out
of her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
use to me.
M~y thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were
in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do
this, and what kind of dwelling to make,--whether I should make me
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth : and, in short, I resolved
upon both; the manner and description of which, it may not be
improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for my settlement,
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I
believed it would not be wholesome, and more particularly because
there was no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several thins hin my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: 1st, health and fresh water, I just now mentioned:
Sndly, shelter from the heat of the sun: 3rdly, security from raven-
ous creatures, whether men or beasts : 4thly, a view to the sea, that
if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, of which I was not willing to banish all my expectation
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side
of arsing hill, whose front towards this little plain was steep as a
houe-sdeso that nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On~tjhe side of the rock there was a hollowF place, worn a little way
in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really any
eavge, or way into the rock, at all.
On he latofthegrenjust before this hollow place, I resolved
to pitch my tent. Ti lmwsntaoeahnrdyrsbod
and about twice as long, and lay likre a green before my door; and,
at the end of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low
ground by the sea-side. It was on the N.14.W. side of the hill; so
that it was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a W. and
by 8. sun, or thereabouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.

Before I set up my7 tent, I drew a. half-circle before the hollow
place, which tokin about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest
end being out of thle ground above five feet and a-half and sharpened
on the top. The two rows did not stand above six inches from one
Then I took th~e pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these
two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside,
leaningS against them, about two feet anld a-half high, like a spur to a
post; anda this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it or over it. This cost me a great deal of time and labour,
especially to cut the piles in the woods, brings them to the place, and
drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when Iwas in, I lifted
over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I
thought, from; all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared
afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies
that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have
the account above; and I made a lar e tent, which, to preserve me
from thle rains, thart in one part of tie year are very violent ~there, I
made double, one smaller tent within, and one larger tent above It
and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved
among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had brought
on shorec, but in a hammockr, which was indeed a very good one, and
beogdto the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that
would spoil by thle wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I
aeup the entrance, which till now I hlad left open, and so passed
ndrepassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
rnigall the earth and stones that I dug dowPn out through my
enI laid them up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace,
That it raised the ground within about a foot and a half and thus
made me a cave, just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar
my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were
rogt to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some other
hms hchl took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it
opened, after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tentn, and
akgthe cave, that at storm of rain falling from a hik dark
oua sudden flash of lightning happened. and after that, a great
upof thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much

surprised with the lightning, as Iwas with a thought which darted
into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: O my powder My
very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took
fire, I should never have known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and
applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder,
and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in ~hope that whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once; and to keep it so
apart, that it should not be possible to make one part fire another.
I finished this work in about a fortnighlt and I tlunk my. powder,
which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds weight, was
divided into not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that
had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I
placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and
the rest I hid up and down in holes among the rooks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where 11laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at
least every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I
could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I could, to acquaint
myself with what the island produced. The -first time I went out, I
presently discovered that there were goats in the island, which was a
great satisfaction to me; but then it was attended with this misfor-
tune to me, viz., that ~they wFere so sh~y, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at them; but I
was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then
shoot one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, 11laid wait in this manner for them : I observed if they saw me
in the valleys, though they were uo h okte ol u
away, as in a terrible fright; but if~Z~ they wee eein i they vulleys
and r was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence f
concluded, that byT the position of their optics, their sight was so
directed downward, that they did not readily see objects that were
above them; so afterwards, I took this method,-Il always climbed
the rocks fist, to get above them, and then had frequently a fair
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-,goat,
which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved
me heartily; for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by
her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried
the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite
to my enclosure; upon which, I laid down the dam, and took the kid
an my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it, and ate
it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat
Sparma~ly, and saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as
possibly 1 could.
Haymng now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to

nommhsoN caUSOE. 27
provide a place to make a fie in, and fuel to burn; and what I did
for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what~ conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but I must now
give some little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which, it may well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition, for as I was not cast
aw~ay upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent
storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great
way, viz., some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of
the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as a determi-
nation of Heaven, that in this desolate place, and in this desolate
manner, I should end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and sometimes I would
expostulate with myself why Providence should thus completely ruin
its creatures, and render th~em so absolutely miserable so wi~thou
help, abandoned, so entirely d~epresed, tlhat it could adyb
rational to be thankful for sucalfe
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
though, ad t rerove me; and particularly, one day, .walking
ithous mygnd m yhad by thle sea-si de, I was very' pensive upon
the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it were, expos-
tulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are in a desolate
condition, it is true; but, pr~ay remember, where are the rest of you ?
IDid not you come eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the ten ?
Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were you singled out ?
Is it better to be here or there ?" A4nd then I pointed to the sea.
All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again how well I was furnished for my
subsistence, and what would have been. my case if it had not happened
(which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from
the place where she first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all these things out of her; what would
have been my case, if I had been forced to have lived in the condition
in which I at first came on shore, without necessaries of life, or
necessaries to supply and procure them ? Particularly," said I,
aloud (though to myself), "what should I have done without a gun,
without anmmunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work
wvith, without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering ? "
and that now I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair
way to provide myself in such a manner as to h~ve without my gun,
when my ammlumtion was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of
subsisting without any want, as long as I lived; for I considered,
from the jeginnin*, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for tlre time that was to come, even not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health and strength
should decayr.
I confess, I bad not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at one blast --I mean my powder being blown up by ligt
mn*and this made the thoughts of it so surprismg to me, wh
It lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.

And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene of
silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before,
I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It
was, by my account, the 30thl of September, when, in the manner as
above said, I -first set foot upon this horrid island; when the sun
being to us in1 its autumnal eqluinox, was almost just` over my head:
for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine
degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I had'been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want of books,
and penl and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath day;s; but to
prevent this, I cut with my knife upon a large post, in capital
letters; and making it into a great cross, I set up on the shore where
I frst landed, "I came on shore here on the 30th of September,
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and
every first day of t'he month as long again as that long one; and thus
I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things
which I brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as
above mentioned, I made to it, Igot several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as
in particular, pens, ink, and paper; several parcels in the captain's
mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping; three or four compasses,
some mathematical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books
of navigation; all which I hud led together, whether I might want
them or no: also I found three very good B~ibles, which came to me
mn my cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or three
Popish prayer-books, and several other books,. all which Icreul
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship adg n
two cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say some-
thing in its place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for
the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years; I wanted nothing that he could
fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to me; I only
wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not do. As I
observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them
to the utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I could
not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me m mind that I wanted many things, notwithstand-
ing all that I. had amassed together and of these, ink was one; as
also a spade, pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pins. and thread: as for linen, I soon learned to want that
without muc6 difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did g~o on heavily; and it
was near a whole year before I had entirely fInished my- little pale, or

surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long tune in cutting and preparing mn the
woods, anld more, by far, in brmging home; so that I spent someA-
times two days in cutting and brmngmg home one of those posts and
a third day in driving it mnto the ground; for which purpose j got
a heavy piece of wvood at first, but at last bethought myself ofone
of the iron crows which, however, though I found it, made driving
those posts or pies very laborious and tedious work. But what,
need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had
to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, excepfi.
the ranging the island to seek for food, which I did, more or less,.
every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circum-
stances I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in
writing, not so much to leave them to any that were to come after
me, for I was likely to have but few heirs, as to deliver my thoughts.
from daily poring upon them, and afflictingr my mind: and as my
reason began now to master my despondency, I began to comfort
myself as well as I could, and to set th~e good against the evil, that I
might have something to distinguish my case from worse; and I
stated very impartitally, like debtor and creditor,--the comforts I
enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:--

I am cast upon a horrible, de-
solate island, void of all hop~e of
I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the w-orld, to
be miserable.

I am divided from mankind-
a solitaire.; one banishedfrm
human society.
I have not clothes to cover

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

Butlam alive; and not drowned,
as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death and he that miracu-
lously saveAi me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and pe-
rishing on a barren place, affo~rd-
Bo ustnnt I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly
wear them.
But I am cast on an island
where I see no wild beasts to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Africa:
andwhart if Ihad been shipwrecked
there ?
But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out as many ne-
cessatry things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

511 RoBINsoN enuJsoE.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was some-
thing negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it: and let
this stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable
of all conditions in this world: that we may always find in it some-
thing to comfort ourselves from, and to set, in the description of gooad
and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could~ spy a ship,--Isay, giving'
over these things, I begarn to apply myself to aIrrange my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described myv habitation, which was a tent under the
side of a rock, surrounded with a, strong pale of posts and cables;
but I might now rather call it a wall, for 1 raised a kind of wall up
against i't of turfs, about two feet think on the outside: and after
some time (I think it was a year and a-half) I raised rafters from it,
leaning to the rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees,
and such things as I could get, to keep out the rain; which I found
at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which Ihad! made behind me. Bjut I must observe,
too, that at first this was a confused hleap of goods, which, as they
lay mn no order, so they took up all my place; I had no room to turn
myself : so I. set myself to enlarge my cave, and work farther into
the earth for it was a loose sandy rock, whichl vielded easily to the
labour I bestowed on it: and so when I found 1 was pretty safe as
to beasts of prey, IwNorked sidew-ays, to the right hand into the rock;
and then turning to the right again, worked quite out, and made me
a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back-way
to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as
I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for witixout
these I was not able to enjov the few comforts I had in the world; I
could not write, or eat, or 'do several things with so much pleasure,
without a table: so I went to work. And h~ere I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and origin of the mathematics, so by
stating and squaring everything by reason, and by making temost
rational judgment of things, every man may be, in time, master 0^
every mechanic art. I had never 'handled a, tool in my life; and yet
in tune, by labour, application, and contrivance, Ii found, at last, thai
I wanted nothing but I could~ have made it, especially if I had had
tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools;
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which;
perap were never made that way! before, and that with infinite
lbu.For example, if I wanted a board, Ihdn other way but to
cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either
side with my axe, till I had brought it to be thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. I~t is true, by this method I could
make but one board out of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy

for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board: but my
time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one
way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in
the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that
I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out
some boards as above, I made large shelves, gf the breadth of a foot
and a half, one over another all along one side of my cave, to lay all
m9 tools, nails, and iron-work on; and, in a word, to separate every.
tlung at large mnto their places, that I might come easily at them, I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns and all
things that would hang up: so that had my cave been to be seen, it
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all
necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and
not only hurry as to labour, but in too much discom sure of mind
and my journal would have been full of many dull things: foi
example, I must have said thus, Sept. 30th.--After I had got to
shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful to God
for my deliverance, hatvig first vomited with the great quantity of
salt water which had got into my stomach, and recovering myself a little,
Iran about the shore, wrimngin my hands and beating my head and face -
exclaiming at my misery, ana crymyg out, 'Iwas undone, undone!i
till, tired and famnt, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose.;
but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and
gtall that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear gettmeg up~ to
tetop of a little mountain, and looking outto sea, in hopes ofacm
a ship; then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please msl
with th~e hopes of it, and then after lookingR steadily, till I was almost
blind, lose It quite, and sit down and weep like a child, and thus
mocrease my uisery by my folly.
But havmg gotten over these things in some measure, and having
settled my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a
chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal; of which I shall here give ao the copy (though in it will be
told all these particulars over agi)as long as it lasted; for having
no more ink, I was forced to leave itoff.
September 30, 1659.--1, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being
skipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal, unfortunate island, which I called The Island of
despair *" all the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and
myself atost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the, dismal
circumstances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, homes

clothes,~ weapons, nor. plae teo fly to: and, in despair of any relie
saw nothing but death before me : either that I should be devre
bywildt thbeasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of
fod.Aturs bthe~appoch of night I lpt ina tree, frfa fwl
creaures butslep soundly, though it rained all might.
October 1.--In the morning I saw, to mygra suorprse shipn
had floated with the high tide, and was die nsoeaanmc
nearer the island; which as it was some comfort, on one hand, for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, f hoped if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief ; so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at the
loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all stayed on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we
might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great
part of this day mn perplexing myself on these things; but, at length,
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could,
and then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though
with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.--All these days entirely spent
mn many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I:
brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also
in the days, though with some intervals of fair weather; but it seems
this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-1I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it;
but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I reco-
vered many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.--It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a, little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of
her an tht olyat low water. I spent this day mn covering and
seurm~gYd th ooswich I had saved, that the rain might not spoil
Oct. 26.--I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a
place to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from
any attack in ~the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards
mg~ht, I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a
semiircl formy ncapment; which I resolved to strengthen with
smcrl o a work, wall, or fortifcation, made of double piles, lined within with
cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceedingly hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun,
to see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she,
goat, and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also
because it would not feed.
NovDember 1.--I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
first night; making it as large as I: could, wilth stakes driven in to
swmg my hammock upon.

noninsox cavaoE. 53
Nov. S.--I set uDall my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my ra and with them formed a fence round me, a little
within the place Ibha marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-II went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make
me a table.
Nov. P.--This morning I began to order my times of work, of going
out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz., every
morning I walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did
not rain; then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock;
then eat whtat I had to live on; and from twelve till two I lay down;
to sleep, the weather being excessively hot; and then, in thle evening
to work again. The working part of this day and of the next were
wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet but a very sorry
workman, though time and necessity made me a complete natural
mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any one else.
. Nov. 5.--This d~ay, went abroad with my gun and mydgand
killed a wild cat ; her skin pretty soft, but h~er flesh good fq~ordo nothing ;
every creature that I killed I took off the skins aLnd preserved them.
Coming back by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which
I did not understand; but was surprised, and almost frightened, with
two or three seals, which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing
what they were, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.--After my mormung walk, I went to work withl my table
again, and fmished it, though not to my liking ; nor was it long before
I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday) I took whol
up to make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a toleral
shape, but never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note.-1I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.--This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedin gly,
and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder
and lightningb, which righted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder.
As soon as It was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in
o.1,15, 16.--These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or 'blox1es, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at
most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it~ in places
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days, I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not
what to call it.
Nov. 17.--This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to
make room for my further convemlency.
Note.--Three thingss I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz., a
pickraxe, a shovel, andl a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from
my work, and began to consider how to supply that want, and make
me some tools. As for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows,

which were proper enough, though heav ; but the next thing was a
shovel, or spade; this was so absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I
could do nothing effectually without it; but what kinld of one to make
I knew not.
Nov. 183.- The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree
of that wood, or like it, winlch, in the B3razils, they call the iron-tree,
for its exceeding hardness; of this, with great labour, and almost
spoiling my axe, I cu~t a piece, and brought it home, too, with diffi-
culty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hard-
ness of the wood, and my having no other way, made me a long
while upon this machine, for I worked it effectually, by little and
little, into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped
like ours in England, only that the board part having no iron shod
upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it served
well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so lonlg mn
I was still deficient, for I wanted a, basket, or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as
twigs that would bend to ma~ke wicker-ware-at least, none yet found
out; and as to a wvheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I had no notion of ; neither did I know how to go
about it; besides, I had no possible way to make the iron gudgreons
for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in; so I gave it over, and
so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a things like a hod, which the labourers carry mortar in,when
they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as
the making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less
than four days, I mean always excepting my morning walk with my
gun, whichIseldom failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home
something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.--My other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely m widening ancd deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.
Note.--During all this time, I worked to make this room, or cave,
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a
kitchen, a dimung-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to
the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it
rained so hard, that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me
afterwards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles, in
the form of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.--I began now to think my cave or vault finished,
when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too laroe) a great
quantity of earth fell down from the top and one sile; so much
t at, in short, it frighted me, and not without reason, too; for if I
had been under it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. I had now
a great deal of work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to

carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to
prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This Iay went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pit hed upright to the top, with two pieces of boards
across over each post;. this finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had thle roof secured;
and the posts, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part of
the house.
Dec. 17.--From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up;
and nowv I began to be in some order wvithm doors.
Dec. 20.-NPuow I carried every-thing into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards ilike a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me:
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24.--Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
Dec. 25.-R~ain all day.
Dec. 26.--No raul, and the earth much cooler than before, and.
Dec. 8'7. -Killed a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught.
it, and led it home in a strong; when I had it at home, I bound and.
splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.--I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and
as strong as ever; but by my nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed
upon the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder and shot was alt.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.--Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was
no stirring abroad, except in the evening for food; this time I spent
in putting all my things lu order within doors.
January 1.--Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evemyng gon
farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the islad I
found there were plenty of goats, thou h exceedingly shy, and hard to
come at; however, I resolved to try i I could not brmng my dog to~
hunt them down.
Jan. 8.-A~ccordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, andE
set him upon the goats ; but I was mistalken, for they all faced about
upon the dog, and he knew his dangoer too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jaln. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being stil jealous of
my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and
tN.B.--This wall being described before, I prosely omit what was
said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe that I was no less time
than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, bemg a half-circle, from one place in the rook to
another place, about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in
the centre behind it.

56 noBIE;soI enuson.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me manydas
n sometimes weeks, together; but I thought I should never b
pe~tly secure till tlus wall was finished; and it is scarce credible
wat inexpressible labour everything was done with, especially the
bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground;
for I made them much binever than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a
tur wll aied p lose to it, I persuaded myself that if any people
were to comet wl rieoan shore there they would not perceive anything like a
habitation; and it was very vell I did so, as may be observed here-
after, upon a very remarkable occasion.
IDurmng this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every
day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent discoveries mn
these (walks of something or other to my advantage; particul~arlyI
found a kind of wild pigeons, which build not as wood-pigeousi a
tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and takingo
some yourg ones, I endeavoured to breed them up tame, and did so;
but when tuey ~ew older they flew away, which perhaps was at first
for want of ee them, for I had nothing to give them; however,
I frequently fon l~their nests, and got their young ones, whichl were
very good meat;. And now, in the managing my household affairs,
Ifudmyself wanting in many thm~gs, which I thought at first it
was possible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it was :
for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as 1 observed before, but I could never arrive at the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about
it; I could neither put in the heads, or Join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water ; so I gave that also over. In
the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as soon as
ever it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged
to go to bed. I remembered the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that now ; the
only remedy I had was, that wh~en I had killed a goat I saved the
tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the
sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamtp;i
and hisgaveme ieh, thughnota clar teay light like a cande
In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummagmg ~my
Things, i found a little bag, which, as I bmnted before, had been filed
wnith corn for the feeding of poultry,-not for this voyage, but before,
.as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. The lit-tle remainder
of corn that had been in the bag was all devoured with the rats, and I
-eaw nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being wilig to
have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put powder in,
when I divided it for the fear of the lightning or some such use),
I shook the husks of corn out of it on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I
threw this stuit away, taking no notice, and not so much as remem-
bering that I had thrown anything there, when about a month after, or
thereabouts, I saw some few stalks of somethmag green shooting out
of the ground, which I fancied might be some plant I had not seen;

Bostsson envson. 517
but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when, after a little
longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
erfet geenbarley, of the same kind as our Europea~n-nJay, as our
I~is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion: I had hitherto acted upon no religious
foundation at all; indeed, r had very few notions of religion in my
head, nor had entertained any sense of anything that had befallen
me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases
God, without so much as inquiring into the end f Providence mnthese
things, or his order mn govermung events for the world. But after I
saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for
corn, and especially that I knew not how it came there, It startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused his .grain to rr~ow without any help of seed sown, and that
it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable
Thi toche myheart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes,
and I began to blsess myself that such a prodigy of nature should
happen upon my account; and this was the more strange to me,
because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Alfrica, when I was
ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for
my support, but not doubting that there was more in the place, I
went all over that part of the island where I had been before, peberm
mn every corner, and under every rock, to see for more of it, u
could not find atny. At last it occurred to my thoughts, that I shook
a bago of chickens' meat out in that place, and then the wonder began
to cease; and I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's
providence began to abate, too, upon the discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common; though I ought to have been as
thankful for so strange and unforseen a providence, as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should rematm
unspoiled, when th~e rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that par-
ticular place, where, it bemeo i the shade of a high rock, it sprang
upImmediately; whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that
tie, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their
season, which was about the end of June; and, laymng up every
corn, I resolved to sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some
quantity, sufficient to supply me with bread. But it was not till the
fourth y-ear that I could allow mefthe least gramn of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparin~I as I shall say afterwards, in its
order; for I lost all that IT sowed ~e first season, by not observing
the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so that it
never came up at all, at least not as it would have done: of which in
its place.

Besides this barley, there wvere saoe wnyo hryak
of ice wichI resrve wth hesame care and for the same use,
or to the same purpose, to make me bread, or rather food; for I
found ways to cook it without baking, though I did that also after
some tune.
But to return to my Journal:--
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get my
wall done; and the 14lth of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into
it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that there might be
no sign on the outside of my habitation.
Aprill6.--I finished thle ladder, so I went up the ladder to the
top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the inside:
this was a complete inclosure to me; for within I had room enough,
and nothing could come at mle from without, unless it could fist
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost had all
my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case was thus r
-As I was busy in the inside, behind my tent, just at the entrance
into my cave, I was terribly frighlted with a most dreadful surprising
thing indeed: for, all on a sudden, I found the earth come crumbling
down from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I hlad set up in the cave cracked in a
frigrhtful manner. I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of
what was really the cause, only thinking that thle top of my cave was
fallen. in, as some of it hlad done before: and for fear I should be
buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe
there neither, I got over mny wall for fear of the pieces of the hill,
which I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped
down upon thle firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible earth-
quake; for the ground I stood on shook three times at about eight
minutes' distance, with three suchl shocks as would have overturned
the strongest building that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth, and a great piece of thle top, of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell dow-n, with such a terrible noise ats
I never heard in all my hfe. I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it, and I believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed writh the thing itself, having never felt the
like, nor discoursed with anly one that had, that I was like one dead
or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my stomach sick
like one that was tossed at sea; but the noise of tefligo h
rock awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stupified con-
dition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of nothing then
but the hill falling upon my tent and all my household goods, and
burying all at once; and this sunk my very soul within me a second
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some time,
I began to take courage; and yet I had not heart enough to go over
my wall agamn, for fear of being buried alive, but sat still upon the
ground greatly cast down and dlisconsolate, not knowing~ what to do.
All this wnule, I had not the least serious religious thought; nothing

BoBISsox onUson. 59
but the common "Lord have mercy upon me!i" and when it was over,
that went away too.
~While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as if
it would ramn; soon after that, the wind arose by little and little, so
that in less than half an hour it blew a, most dreadful hurricane: the
sea, was, all on a sudden, covered over with foam and froth; the shore
was covered with the breach of the water the trees were torn up by
the roots; and a terrible storm it was. 'I'his held about three hours,
and then began to abate; and in two hours more it was quite calm,
and began to rain very hard. All this whlile I sat upon the ground,
very much terrified and dejected; when on a sudden it came mnto m
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequences of tmhe~
earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might
venture into my cave again. With this thought, my spirits began to
revive; and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent ; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready
to be beaten down with it; and I was forced to go into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my
head. Thus violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut a hole
through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have flooded my cave. After I had been in my cave
for some time, and found still no more shocks of the earthquake
follow, I began to be more composed. And now to support my siis
which indeed wanted it very much, I went to my little store, adtook
asmarnll sq0up f um which however, I did then and always very
spaingy kowig could hbave no more when that was gone. It
continued raining all that ni t, and great part of the next day, so
that I could not stir abroad ut my mind being more composed, I
began to think. of what I adbest do, concluding, that if the island
was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me
mna cave, but I must consider of building a little but in an open
place, which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here,
and so make myself secure from wild beasts or men; for I con-
cluded if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one time or other,
be buried alive.
With these through I resolved to remove my tent from thle place
where it now stood hc was just under the hanging precipice of
the hill; and which if it should be shaken again, would certainly fall
upon my tent: and I spent the two next days, beings the 19th and
20th of April, in contrivig where and how to remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never slept in
quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying abroad without any fence
was almost equal to it: but still, when Ilooked about, and saw how
everything was put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove. In the mean-
time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal of time for
me to do this, and that I must be contented to venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured it so as to remove
to it. So with this resolution I composed myself for a time; and
resolved that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall
with piles and cables, &0c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent ugi

in it, when it was fnished; but that I would venture to stay where I
was till it was finished, an~d fit to remove. This was the 21st.
April 2L.--The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this resolve into execution; but I was at a great loss about my
tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets (for we
carried the hatchets for tratffc with the Indians), but with much
chop ing and cutting knotty hard wood, they were at1 full of notches,
and dull, and though I had a grindstone, I could not turn it and
grind my tools too. This cost me as much thought as a statesman
would have bestowed upon a grand point of politics, or a3deuo
the life and death of a man. At length, I contrived a whu~eef i~th
string, to ,turn it with my foot, that I might have both my hands at
Note.--Ihad never seen any such thing in Engoland, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, thoughrl since I~ have observed it
is very common there; besides that, my grindstone was very large
and heavy. Thus mac ie cost me a full week's work to bring it to
April 98, 29.--These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, my machine for turning my grindstone performing very well.
April 30.-H~3aving perceived my bread had been low a great while,
now I took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one biscuit-cake a
day, which made my heart very heavy.
.Kaly 1.--In the mormang, looking toward the sea-side, the tide being
low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger than ordinary, and it
looked like a cask; when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and
two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on
shore by the l~ate hurricane and looking towatrds the wreck itself, I
thought it seemed to lie higher out of thle water than it used to do.
I examined the barrel which was driven on shore, and soon found it
was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and the powder
was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went onupon the sands, as near as I could to the
wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed. The
forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was heaved up at least six
feet, and the stern, which was broke in pieces and parted from the
rest by~~e9 the force of the sea, soon after I h~ad left rummagmgo her, was
tseas it were, up, and cast on one side ; and the sand was thrown
so high on that side next her stern, that whereas there was a great
place of water before, so thatt I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk quite up to
her when the tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but
soon concluded it must be done by the earthquake; and asythi
violence the ship was more broke open than formerly, so many t~thmys
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the wins
and water rolled by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing my
habitation, and I busied myself mightily, that day especially, mn
searching whether I could make any way into the ship r but I found
nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside of the ship

was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned not to despair
of anything, I resolved to pull everything to pieces that I could of
the ship, concluding that everything [ could get from her would be of
some use or other to me.
May 3.-I b gan with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam through,
which I though held some of the upper part or quarter deck together
and when Iha cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well as i
could from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was
obliged to give over for that time.
M~ay 4.-1I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst eat
of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just gomng to leave off, I
caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of some rope-
yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught fish enough, as
much as I cared to eat; all which I dried m the sun, and eat them
bMay 5.-Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder and
brought three great fir-planks off from the decks, which tied
together, and made to float on shore when the tide of flood came on.
Maly 6.--Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out of her,
and other pieces of iron-work wordked very hard, and came home
very much tired, and had thoughts of giving It over.
Mlay 7.-Went to the wreck again, not with an intent to work, but
found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down, the beams being
cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside
of the hold lay so open that I could see into it, but it was almost
full of water and sand.
MaZ~y 8.-Wment to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to wrench
up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water or sand. I
wrenched open two planks, and brought them on shore also with the
tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for nexrt day.
Rfay 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way into the
body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened them with the
crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a roll of English lead,
and could stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10-14.--Went every day to the wreck; and got a great many
pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three hundred
weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a, piece
off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,, and drivig it
with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half m the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
M~a~y 16i.-It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck appeared
more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed so long m the
w~oods, kto gt pigeons for food, that the tide prevented my going to
May! 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at a
great distance, near two miles off me, but resolved to see what they
were, and found it wats a piece of the head, but too heavy for me to
brign away.
24-.a.--Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck ; and with
hard jour 1 loosened some things so rmuch with the crow, that the

first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but thle wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that d~y~ but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which had some Brazil
pork in it,. but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it. I con-
tinued thiis work every day to the 15th of June, except the time
necessary to get food, which~ I always appointed, during this part of
my employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out: and byv this time I had got timber, and plank,
and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how;
and also I got, at several times, and m several pieces, near one hun-
dred weight of the sheet-lead.
Aune 16.--Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tortoise, or
turtle. This was the first I had seen, which, it seems, was only myn,
misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for had I hp
opened to be on the other side of the island, I might havce had hlundre~ds~
of them every day, as I found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear
enough for them.
Aune 17.-1 spent in cooking thle turtle. I found in her three score
eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most savoury and
pleasant that ever I tasted in my life, having had no flesh, but of
goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
Aune 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed wit in. I thoughrlt, at this
time, the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly; which I knew
was not usual in that latitude.
Aune 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been cold.
Aune 20.-No rest all night ; voiolnt pains in my head, and feverish.
Aune f21.--Very ill; frighted almost to death with the apprehen-
sions of my sad condition,--to be sick, and no help : prayed to God,
for the first time since the storm off H~ull, but scarce knew what I
said, or why; my thoughts being all confused.
Aune 22.-A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions of
Aune 23.---Very bad again; cold and shlivering, and then a violent
Aune 24.--Much better.
Aune 25.-An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours; cold
fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
Aune 96s.--Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my gun, but
found myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goatt, and with muchl
difkculty got it home, and broiled some of it, and ate. I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
uane 27.---The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day, anld
neither ate nor drank. Iwas ready to perish for thirst; but so wbeak,
I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself any water to drink.
Prayed to God again but was light-hebaded; and when I was not, I
was so ignorant that I knew not what to say; only I lay and cried,
" Lord, look upon me Lord, pity me i Lord, have mercy upon me !"
I suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till the fit wyear-
ing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night. When I
awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, atnd exceedin
thirsty; however, as I had no water in my habitation, I was fre

to lie till morning, and went to sleep again. In this second sleep, I
had this terrible dream: I thought that I was sitting on the ground,
on the outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the
earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud,
in a bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him: Zlis countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impossible for
words to describe ; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet, I
thought thle earth trembled, just as it had done before in the earth.
quake, and all the air looked, to my apprehension, as if it had been
filed with flashes of fire. He was no sooner lauded upon the earth,
but he moved forward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his
hand, to kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me,--or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it. All that I can say I under-
stood, was this:--" Seeing all these things have not brought thee to
repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which words, I thought he lifted
up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
-No one that shall ever read this account will expect that I should
be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible vision. I
mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those
horrors. Nor is it any more possible to describe the impression that
remained upon my mind when I awaked, and found It was but a
I had, alas no divine knowledge. What& I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out by an uninterrupted
series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a constant con-
versation with none but such as were like myself, wicked and profane
to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in all that time,
one thought that so much as tended either to looking upwards towards
God, or inwards towards a reflection upon mny own ways; but a
certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that thle most hardened,
unthinking, wicked creature among our common sailors can be sup-
posed to be: not having the least sense, either of the fear of God, m
dneor of thankfulness to God, in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be the
more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the variety
of miseries, that had to this day befallen me, I never had so much as
one thought of it being the hand of God, or that it was a just punish-
ment f.>r my smn. My rebellious behaviour against my father,--or
my present sms, which were great,--or so much as a punishment for
the general course of my wicked life. When I was on the desperate
expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as
one thought of fhat would become of me, or one wish to God to
direct me whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which
apparently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages. BJut I was merely thoughtless olf a God or a Providence,
actea like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and by the
dictates of common sense only, and, indeed, hardly that. When I
was delivered and taken up at sea by the Portugal captain, well used,

and dealt justly and honourably wita, as well as charitably, I hard not
the least ~thankLfulnes mn my thoughts. When, agamn, Iwas ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of -rowning, on tlus island, I was as
far from remorse, or looking on it as a 3udgment. I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be always
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found all my ship's
crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a kind of
ecstacy and some transports of soul, which, had the grace of God
assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended
where it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say,
being glad I was alive, without the least reflection upon the distin-
guishedi goodness of the hand which had preserved me, and had singled
me out to be preserved when all the rest were destroyed, or an
inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful unto me. Even just the
same common sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they
are got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all
the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on due
consideration, made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of all hope of
relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as I saw but a prospect of
living, and that I should not starve and perish for hunger, all the
sense of mly affliction wore off; and I began to be very easy, applied
myself to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from
Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were thoughts
which very seldom entered my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had, at
first, somelte influence upon me, and began to affect me with
seriousness, as long as I thought it had something miraculous in it;
but as soon as ever that part of the thought was removed, all the
impression that was raisedfirom it wore off also, as I have noted already.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more terrible in its
nature, or more immediately directing to the invisible power which
alone directs such things, yet no sooner was the fist fright over, but
the impression it had made went off also. I had no more sense of
God, or H~is judgments--much less of the present affliction of my
circumstances being from IKis hand-than if I had been in the most
prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and
a leisurely view of the mi eks of death came to place itself before
me; when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong
distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the fever;
conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to
reproach myself with my past life, ~in which I had so evidently, by
uncmmo wikedess prvoked the justice of God to lay me under
uncommon strkedes, and o deal with me in so vindictive a manner.
These reflections oppressed me for the second or third day of my
distemper; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dIreadful
reproaches of my conscience, extorted some words from me like
praying to God, though 1 cannot say they were either a prayer

attended with desires or with hopes. It was rather the voice of mere
fright and distress. Myd~ thoughts were confused, the convictions areat
upon my mind, and the horror of dymng in such a miserable condition
raised vapours into my head with the mere apprehension; and in
these hurries of my sonl I knew hot what my tongue might express.
But it was rather ex laation, such as, "Lord, what a miserable
creature am I!i If I should be sick, I shall certamly die for want of
help; and what will become of meP" Then the tears burst out of
my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this interval,
the good advice of my father came to my mind, and presently his
predilction, which I mentioned at the beginning of tlus story, viz.
that if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless me, and I
would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist xu my recovery. Now "
said I, aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass, God'~s
justice has overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I
rejected the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a
posur or station of life wherein I might have been happy and ~easy;
but I would neither see it ~myself, orlant nwteblessing fi
from my parents. I left them to mourn over my folly, and now I am
left to mourn under the consequences of it. I refused their help and
assistance, who would have lifted me in the world, and would have
made everything easy to me. And now I have difliculties to struggle
wihtoo great for even nature itself to support, and no assistance,
no ep no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be my
help,.fo I am in great distress." This was the first prayer, if I may
cal t so, that I had made for many years.
Bu return to my Journal:--
Jucne 28.-H'Iaving been 'somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit bemg entirely off, I got up a cnsdrd thoug thefrih
and terror of my dream was very great, yet coserdttteft
of the ague would return again the next day, and now was my time
to get something to refresh and sport myself when I should be ill:
and the first thing I did, I fded a lage square case-bottle with water,
and set it upon my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the
chill or aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a
pint of rum mnto it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a piece
of the goat's flesh; and broiled it on the coals, but could eat veri
Little. I walked about, but was very weak, and withal very sad and
heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserable condition, dreading the
return of my distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper
of three of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted mn the ashes, and eat,
as we call it, in the shell, and this was the Airst bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, that I could remember, m my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found myself so weak, that I
could hardly carry a gun, for I never went out without that, so I
wvent but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out
upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and smooth.
as I sat here, some such thuhs as these occurred to me;-what is
this earth and sea, of which have seen so much ? Whlence is it
producedB And what am I, and all the other creatures, wild and

tame, human and brutal ? Whence are we ? Sure we are all mane
by some secret power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky.
And who is that ? Then it followed most naturally, it is God that
has made all. Well, but then, it came on strangely, if God has made
all these things, He guides and goirerns them all~, and all things that
concern them; for the power that could make all things mnust
certainiv have power to guide and direct them. If so, nothing can
happen m1 the great circuit of His works, either without His k~now-
ledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without His knowledge, He knows that I
am here, and am in this dreadful condition; ana if nothing happens
without his appointment, He has appointed all this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thought, to contradict any of these conclu-
sions, and therefore it rested upon me wilth the greater force, that it
must needs be that God had appointed all this to befal me; that I
was brought into this miserable circumstance by His direction, He
having the sole power, not of me onlyv but of everything that hap-
pened in the world. Immediately it followed,-WT~hy has God done
this to me ? What have I done to be thus used ? My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed, and
methoughlt it spoke to me like a voice, Wretch!i dost thou ask what
thou hast dlone ? Look back upon a dreadful misspent life, and ask
thyself, what thou hast not done ? Ask, why is it that thou wert not
longo ago destroyed ? Why wvert thou not drowned in Yarmouth
Roads; kiled in the fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee
-man-of-war; devoured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or
drow-ned here, when all the crew perished but thyself ? Dost ithour
ask, what have I done ?" I was struck dumb with these reflections,
.as one astonlished, and had not a word to sayT,--no, not to answer to
myself, but rose up pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and
went up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but my
thoughrlts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to sleep; so
I sat dlow in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be dark.
Now, as the apprehension of the return of my distemper terrified me
very much, it occurred to my thought, that the Brazilians take no
thySsic but their tobacco for almost all d.1stempers, and I had a piece
cf a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured, and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven no doubt, for in thlis chest I found a
cure both for soul an~d body. I opened the chest, and found what I
looked for, the tobacco; and as the few books I had saved lay there
too, I took out one of the Bibles which Imentioned before, and which
to this time I had not found leisure, or inclination, to look into. I
,ay, I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me to
the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, in my dis-
temper, or whether it was good for it or no but I tried several
experiments with it, as if I was resolved it s would hit one way or
other. I first took a piece of leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which,
indeed, at first, almost stupified my brain, the tobacco being green
and strong, and that I had not been much used to. Then I took
some and steeped it an hour or two in some ram, and resolved to take

a dose of it when I lay down; and, lastly, I burnt some upon a pan
of coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I
could bear it, as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation. In the
interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and began to read, but
my head was too much disturbed w~ith the tobacco to bear reading,
at least at that time only, having opened the book casually, the fist
words that occurred to me were these. Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These
words were very apt to my case, and made some impression upon my
thoughts at the time of reading them, though not so much as they
did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound, as I
may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in my appre-
hension of things, that I began to say, as the children of Israel did
when they were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a table in
the wilderness ?" so I began to say, Can God himself deliver me
from this place ? And as it was not for many years that any hopes
appeared, this prevailed very often upon my thoughts: but, however,
the wordsr made a great impression upon me, and I mused upon them
very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco had, as I said dozed
my head so much that 1 inclined to slee; so I left my lampbuin
mn the cave, lest I should want anything tu the night, ald went j~to e
But before I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life; I
kneeled down, and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to me, that if
I called upon him in the day of trouble, he wouIld deliver me. After
my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I drank the rum in which
I had steeped the tobacco; which was so strong and rank of the
tobacco, that I could scarce y get it down; immediately upon this I
went to bed. I found presently it flew up into my head violently;
but I fell into a sound sleep, an~d waked no more till, by the sun I
must necessarily be near three o'clock in the afternoon the next dy
nay, to this hour I am partly of opinion, that I slept all the next da
and night, and till almost three the day after; for otherwise, I know
not how I should lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the
week, as it appeared some years after I had done for if I had lost it
by crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly 110ost a day in my account, and never knew
which way. Be that, however, one way or the other, when I awaked
I found myself exceedingly refreshed, andmy spirits~lively and cheer-
ful; when I got up, I was stronger than Iwas the day before, and my
stomach better, for I was hune ~; and, in short, I had no fit the next
day, but continued much altered ~for the better. This was the 29th.
he 30th was my well day, of course, and I went abroad with my
gun,but did not care to travel too far. I killed a sea-fowl or two,
something like a brand goose, and brought them home; but was not
very forward to eat them; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs,
which were very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
I had supposed dId me good the day before, the tobacco steeped in
rum; only I did not take so much as before, nor did I chew any of
the leaf, or hold my head over the smoke; however, I was not so well
the next day, which was the 1st of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I hZad a little spice of the cold fit, but it was not much.

July S.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and dosed
myself with it as at first, and doubled the qantity wluch I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit for good and all though I did not recover
my full strength for some weeks after. Wiel was thus gathering
strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly upon this scri ture, I will
deliver thee;" and the impossibility of my deliverance T much upon
my mind, in bar of my ever expecting it; but as I was dscouragmgg
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so
much upon my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded
the deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz.: Have I not been delivered, and
wonderfully too, from sickness ? from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me? and what notice had
I taken of itj ad Idone m~y part ? God had delivered me, but I
hadno goriie Hm ?tht s t syI had not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance: adhwcudIepc rae
deliverance ? This touched my heart very much; and immediately I
knelt down, and gave God thanks alolud for my recovery from my
July 4.-In the morning, I took the Bible; and beginning at the
19ew Testament, I began seiously to read it, and imposed upon my~Z
self to read awhile every morning and every night; not tyng msl
to the number of chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage
me. It was not long after I set seriously to this work, till I found
my heart more deeply and sincerely affected with the wickedness of
my past life. The impression of my dream revived; and the words,
" dn these things have not brought thee to repentance," ran seriously
in my thoughts. I was earnstyes 'n of God to give me repent-
ance, when it happened providenalv te very day that, reading the
Scripture, I came to these words, Be is exalted a Prince and a
8aviour, to give repentance and to give remission." I threw down
the book; and with my heart as well as my hands lifted up to heavnen,
in a kind of ecstasy ojoy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou sno
David! Jesus, thou exa~lted Prince and Saviour! give me repent-
ance!i" This was the first time I could say, in the true sense of the
words, that I prayed in all my life; for now I grayed with a sense of
my condition, and with a true scripture view of hope, founded on the
encouragement of the word of God; and from this 'time, I may say, I
began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above, Call on me,
and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what I had ever
done before for then I had no notion of anything being called
deliverance, Ijut my being delivered from the captivity I was in: for
though I was indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly
a prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world. But now
I learned to take it in another sense: now I looked back upon my
past life with such horror, and my smns appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the load of guilt
that bore down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was
nothing ; I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; It was all of no consideration, in comparison to this. And I

add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it, that whenever
they come to a true sense of things, they will fmd deuiverance from
smn a much greater blessing than deliverance from affliction.
But, leavmg this part, I return to my Journal:--
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as to my
way of living, yet much easier to my mhind: and my thoughts ben
directed, by a constant reading the Scripture and praying to Gopt
things of a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort~ within, w
tillnow, I knew nothing of ; also, my health and strength returned,l"h
bestirred myself to furmish myself with everthing that I wanted, and
make my way of living as reeoular as I cud
From the 4th of July to the 14~th, I was chiefly employed in walk.
ing about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at a time, as a
man that was gathering up his strength after a fit of sickness: for it
is hardly to be un gined how low I was, and to what weakness I was
reduced. The aplcation which I made use of was perfectly new
and perhaps which had never cured an ague before; neither can I
recommend it to any one to practise, by this experiment : and though
it did carry off the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me;
for I had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs for some time;
I learned from it also this, mn particular, that being abroad in the
ramny season was the most permicious thing to my heallth that could
be, especially in those rains which came attended with storms and
hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which came in the dry season was
almost always accompanied with such storms, so I found that rain
was much more dangerous than the rain which fell in September and
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten months: all
possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed to be entirely
taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human shape hadl
every set foot upon that place. Having now secured my habitation,
as I thought, fully to my mind, I had a great desire to make a more
perfect discovery of the island, and to see what other productions I
mihtfnd, which I yet knew nothing of.
Itwas on the 15th of July that I began to take a more particular
suvyof the island itself. I went up the creek first, where, as I
iteI brought my rafts on shore. I found, after I came about two
miles up, that the: tide did not flow any higher; and that it was no
more than a little brook of runmung water, very fresh and good: but
this being the dry season, there was hardly any water in some parts of
it Iat least, not enough to run in any stream, so as it could be per-
ceived. On the banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannahs
or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass ; and on the ising
parts of them, next to the higher grounds~ where the water, as might
be supposed, never overfowed, Ifu great deal of tobacco,
greand growing to a great and very strong stalk; there were
diesother plants, which I had no notion of or understanding about,
that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I could not find
out. I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians, in all that
climate, make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw large
plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I saw several sugar-

eanes, but wild, and for want of cultivation, imperfect. I contented
myself with these discoveries for this time, and came back, musmng
with myself what course I might take to know the virtue and good-
ness of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could
bring it to no conclusion; for, in short, I had made so little observa-
tion while I was in the Brasils, that I knew little of the plants in the
held; at least, very little that might serve me to any purpose now
mn my distress.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way agam nd fe
gomg& something further than I had gone the daybefore, i fond athe
bokand savannahs cease, and the country became more woody
than before. In this part, I found different fruits, and particularly I
found melons upon the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon
the trees; the vines had spread indeed over the trees, and the clusters
of grapes were just now in their prime, very ripe and rich. This was
a surprising discovery, and I was exceeding gad of them but I was
warned by my experience to eat sparin ~y of tem, remembering that
when I was ashore in Barbary, the eain of grapes killed several of
our Englishmen, who were slaves there, bythrowmg them into fluxes
and fevers. But I found an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes
or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as indeed they were,
wholesome and agreeable to eat, when no grapes could be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my habitation,
which, by the way, was the first night, as I might say, I had lain from
home. In the mg~ht, I took my first contrivance, a~nd got up into a
tree, where I slept well; and the next mormung, droceed~ed upon m
discovery travelling nearly four miles, as I might lge by th~e lengt
of the vaiiey, keeping still due north, with a rige of hills on th
south and north side of me. At the end of this march, I came to an
opening, where the country seemed to descend to the west; and a
little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by
me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so lourishing, everything being in a constant verdure,
or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted garden. I descended
a little on the side of that delicious vale, surveying it with a secret
kind of pleasure, though mixed with my other aflhoting thoughts, to
think that this was all my own; that I was king and lord of all this
country indefeasibly, and had a right of possession; and, if I could
convey it, I migh have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of
a manor in E gan. I saw here abundance of cocoa trees, orange,
and lemon, a citron trees; but all wild, and very few bearing an
fruit, at least, not then. However, the green limes that I gathee
were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed
their juice afterwards with water, which made it very wholesome, and
very cool and refreshing. I found now I. had business enou- to
gather and carry home; and I resolved to lay up, a store, avs we lof
grapes as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaclung. In order to do this, I gathered a
great heap of grapes mn one place, a lesser heap in another place, and
a great parcel of himes and lemons in another place; and taking a few

of each with me, I travelled homewards: and resolved to some agam,
and bring a bag or sack, or what I could make, to. carry the rest
home. Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (so I must now call my tent and my cave); but before I got
thither the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruit, and the
weight of the 3ruce, having broken them and bruised them, they were
good for little or nothing : as to the limes, they were good, but I
could bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me two
small bags to ~bring home my harvest; but I was surprised, when
coming to my heap of' grapes, which were so rich and fme when I
gathered them, I found them all spread about, trod to pieces, and
dragged about, some here, some there, and abundance eaten and
devoured. By this, I concluded there was some wild creatures there-
abouts, which had done this; but what they were, I knew not. How-
ever, as I:found there was no laying them up on heaps, and no
carrying them away in a sack, but that one way they would be
destroyed, and the other way they would be crushed with their own
weight, I took another course; for I gathered a large quantity of the
grapes, and hung them upon the out branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limecs and lemons, IC
carried as many back as I could well stand under.
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated with great
pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and the pleasantness of the
situation ; the security from storms on that side the water, and the
wood: and concluded that I had pitched upon a place to fix my.
abode, which was by far the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I began to consider of remoymng my habitation; and looking
out for a place equally safe as where now I was situate, if possible, in
that pleasant, fruitful part of the island.
This thought ran long in my head, and I was exceeding fond of it
for some time, the pleasantness of the place tempting me but when
I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that I was now 6~the sea-
side, where it was at least possible that something might happen to
rhy advantage; and, by the same ill fate that brought me hiither
might bring some other unhappy wretches to the same place; and
though it was scarce probable that any such th~~sing t cnshould~ ever
happen, yet to enclose myself among the hills andwodintectr
of the Island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossibleia and tha heeonre I on the
not by any means to remove. However, Iwss nmue fti
place, that I spent much of my time there for the whole of the
remamig part of the month of July; and though, upon second
thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little kind of
a bower, and surrounded it at a distance with a strong fence, being a
double hedge, as high as I could reach, well staked, and fded betwee~i
with brushwood; and here Ilay very secure, sometunes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder; so that I famcied
now I had my country house and my sea-coast house; and this work
took me up to the beginning of August.
I had but newly fmished my fence, and began to-ezrjoy my sl eraa *

when the rains came on, and made me stick close to my first habita-
tion; for though I had made me a tent like the other, with a piece of a
sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep
me from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into when the ramns
were extraordinary.
About the beginning of Aueoust, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enJoy mysen. The 3rd of August, I found the
grapes I had hung up perfectly dried, and indeed were excellent good
ransmns of the sun; so I began to take them down from the trees,
and it was very happy that I did so, for the rains which followed
would have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my winter
food; for I had above two hundred large bunches of them. No
sooner had I taken them all down, and carried most of them home
to my cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the middle of
October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not stir out of my
cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of my
family; I had been concerned for the loss of one of my cats, who rau
:away from me, oras I thought, had been dead, and I heard no more
tidmngs of her, jl, to my astomshment, she came home about the end
of August,~rt tre kittens. This was the more strange to me,
becauses, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called it, with my u, e
I though It it was a quite dieetkn rmorEuropeancasbu
t$he young cats were the same kind of house-breed as the old one;
arnd both my cats being females, I thou ht it very strange. But from
.these three cats, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats, that
I was forced to kill them like vermmn, or wild beasts, anid to drive
Them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain, so that I
.could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much wet. In
this confinement, I began to be straitened for food: but venturing
South twice, I one day killed a goat; and the last day, which was
the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me, and
,my food was regulated thus :--I eat a ~bunch of raisins for my break-
fast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle, for my dinner,
ibroiled; for, to my great misfortune, I had no vessel to boil or stew
,an rhing; and two or three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
gnin this confnement in my cover by the rain, I worked daily
two or three hours at enlargmng my cave, and by degrees worked it
on towards one side, till I came to the outside of the hill, and made
a door or way out, which camo beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came mn and out this way. But I was not perfectly easy at lying so
open; for, as I had managed myself before, I was mna perfect enclo-
sure; whereas now, I thought I layexposed, and open for anything
to come in upon me; and yet I could not perceive that there was any
living tlung' to fear, the biggest creature that I had yet seen upon
the island being a goat.
1_135Dt. 30.-I was now come to the unhappy anniversary of my
,,,,, I cast up the notches on my post, alnd found I had been on
shore br hundred and sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn

fast, setting it apart for religious exercise, prostrating myself ,oa
the ground with the most serious humilhation, confessing my sms
to God, acknowledging his righteous judgments upon me, and pray-
mng to him to have mercy on me through Jesus Christ; and not
having tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even till the
gomng down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit-cake and a bunch of
grapes, and went to bed, finishing the day as I began it. I had all
this time observed no Babbath-day; for as at first I had no sense of
re gio upon my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distin-
-""the weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
abbath-day,, and so did not really know what any of the days were;
but now, having cast upp the days as abov-e, I found I had been there
a year, so I divided it into weeks, and set apart every seventh day
for a Sabbath; though I found at the end of my account, I had lost
a day or two mn my reckoning. A little after this, my ink began to
fail me, and so I contented myself to use it more sparmland ton
write ( own only the mostrerkleeetofmheihutcn
tinuing a daily memorandum of other things.
Teriyseason and the dry season began now to appear regular
to me, and learned to divide them so as to provide for th~em accord-
ingly; but I bought all my experience before I had it, and this I am
going to relate was one of the most discouraging experiments that I
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley and rice,
which I had so surprisingly found spring up, as I thought. of them-
selves, and I believe there were about thirty stalks of rice, and about
twenty of barley; and now I thought it a proper time to sow it, after
the rains, the sun being in its southern position, gomng from me.
Aodnccordingly I dug p apice of ground as well as I could with my
wooen pa ad dvidngit into two parts, I sowed my grain; but
as I was sowing, it casually~ occurred to my thoughts that I would
not sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it, so I sowed about two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a
handful of each. It was a great comfort to me afterwards thnat I did
so,? for not one, grain of what I sowed this time came to anything; for
tedry othflowing, the earth having hdn anatrtese
was sown, it had no moisture to assist its growth, and never came
up at all till the wet season had come agamn, and then it grew as if
it had been but newly sown. Finding first seed did not grow, which
I easily imagined was by the drougt sought for a moister piece of
ground to make another trial in, and dug up a piece of ground near
mynew bower, and sowed the rest of my seed m February, little
before the vernal equinox; and this having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, sprung up very pleasantly, and welded a
very gh~ood cro but having ~part of the seed left only, and not aig to
so altht ad, Ihdbtasllquantity atls, woecrop
not amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But bythis expen-
ment I was made master of my business, and knew exacl when the
proper season was to sow, and that I might expect two seed-times,
and two harvests every year..
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery, which was

of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were over and the
weather began to settle, which was about the month of 1 ovemrber,
Imade a visit up the country to my bower, where, though I had not
been some months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle or double hed e that I had made was not only firm and entire,
but the stakes whick I had out out of some trees that grew there-
abouts, were all shot out, and grown with long branches, as much as
a willow-tree usually shoots the first year after loppmng its head. I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were cut from.
I was surprised, and y-et very well pleased, to see the young trees
grow: and I pruned them, and led them up to grow as much a -e as
I could; and it is scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew
into in three years; so that through the edgre made at circle of about
twenty-five yards m diameter, yet the trees, for such I might now
call thiem, soon covered it, and it was a complete shade, sufficient to
lodge under all the dry season. This made me resolve to cut some
more stakes, and make me a hedge like this, in a semi-circle round
my wall (I mean that of my first dwelling), which I did; and placing
the trees or stakes mlla double row, at about eight yards distance
from my first fence, they grrew presently, and were at first a fine
cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for a defence also, as
I shah observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year mighlt gecnerally be divided,
not into summer and winter, as in Europe, but into the rainy seasons
and the dry seasons, which were grenerally thus:
The half of February, the wvhole of' March, and the half of Alpril--
rainy, the sun being then on or near thle equmnox.
The half of April, the whole of M~ay, June, and July, and the half of
August--dry, the sun being then to th~e north of the Line.
Tfhe half o~f August, the whole of September, and the half of October
-ramy,, the su~nbeing then come back.
The half of October, the whole of November, December, and Jalnu-
ary, and the half of Feboruar1y--dry, the sun being then to the south of
the Line.
The rainy seasons sometimes held longer or shorter as thle winds
happened to blow, but this was the general observation Imade. After
I had found, by experience, the ill consequences of being abroad in
the rain, I took care to furnish myself with provisions beforehand,~a
tha I igh ro beoblged to go out, adIstwti or smc
as possible during the wet months. This time I found much employ-
ment, and very suitable also to the time, for I found great occasion
for many things which I had nlo way to furnish myself with but by
hard labour and constant application; particularly I tried many ways
to make myself a basket, but all the twigs I could get for the purpose
proved so brittle that they would do nothlingr. It proved of' excel-
lent advantage to me now, that when I was a boyr, I used to take
freat delight m standing at a baskiet-maker's, in the town~ where my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-ware; and being, as boys
usually are, very officious to help, and a great observer of the manner
in which they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand, I
had by these means full knowledge of the methods of it, and I wanted

nothing but the materials, when it came into my mind that the
twigs of that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew might
possibly be as tough as the sallows, willows, and osiers m Engln~nnnnnnnnd,
and I resolved to try. ALccordingoly, the next day I went to my
country-house, as I called it, and cutting some of the smaller twigs,
I found them to my purpose as much as I could desire; whereupon
I came the next time prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity,
which I soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These I set
up to dry within my circle or hedge, and when they were fit for use,
I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next season, I em-
ployed myself in making, as well as I could, a great many baskets,
both to carry earth or to carry or lay u nting, as I had occasiJo
and though 1[did not fmish them very ansomely, yet I made them
sufficiently serviceable for my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took
care never to be without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I
made more, especially strong deep baskets to place my corn in, instead
of sacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
H-aving mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of time about
it, I be stirred myself to see, if possible, how to supply two wants. I
had no vessel to hold anything that was liquid, except two runlets,
which were almost full of rum, and some glass bottles,--some of the
common size, and others which were case-bottles, square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, &2c. I had not so much as a pot to boil
anything, except a great kettle, which Isaved out of the ship, and
which was too big for such use as I desired it, viz., to make broth,
and stew a bit of meat by itself. The second tlung I fain would have
had was a tobacco-pipe, ~but it was impossible to me to make one *
however, I found a contrivance for that, too, at last. I employed
myself in planting my second rows of stakes or piles and in this wicker-
working al the summer or dry season, when another business took me
upmore time than it could be imagined I could spare.
UI mentioned before that I had a great mind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where Ibuilt my
bower, and where I had an opemung quite to the sea, on the other side
of the island. I now resolved to travel quite across to the sea-shore
on that side; so, taking my gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes and
a great bunch of raisins in my pouch for my store, I began my journey.
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above, I came
within view of the sea to the west, and it being a very clear day, I
fairly described land,-whether an island or a continent I could not
tell;5 but it lay very high, extending from the Wi. to the W.S.W. at a
very greatt distance; by my guess, it could not be less than fifteen or
twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be, otherwise
than that I knew it must be part of America, and SIas Iconcluded, by
all my observations, must be near the Spanish Uominionsand pr-
haps was all inhabited by savages, where, if I had landed, I'd
been in a worse condition than I was now; and therefore I acquiesced
in the dispositions of Providence, which I began now to own and to
believe ordered everything for the best; I say I quieted my mind

75 RtosIssoN onusoE.
with this, and left off af~iicting myself with fruitless wishes of being
Besides, after some thought upon this affair I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one time or other,
see some vessel pass or repass one way or other; but if not, then it
was the savage coast between the Spamsh country and Brasils, where
are found the worst of savages; for they are canmba>,ls, or men-eaters,
and fail not to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into
their hands.
With these considerations, I walked very leisurelyr forward; I
found that side of the island where I now was much pleasanter than
mine,--the open or savannah fields sweet, adorned with flowers and
frass, and full of very fine woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and
fain I would have caught one, if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
and taught it to speak to me. I did, after some painstaking, catch a
young parrot, for I knocked it down with a stick, and having recovered
it, I brought it home; but it was some years before I could make him
peak however, at last, I taught him to call me by my name very
."'" But the accident that followed, though it be a trifle, whll
bKlue ;~lvery rtin in its place.
I was exiceedingly diverted with this journey. I found in the low
grounds hares (as I thought them to be) and foxes; but they differed
greatly from all the other kinds I had met with, nor could I satisfy
myself to eat them, though I killed several. But I had no need tobe
venturous, for I had no want of food, and of that which was very
good, too, espeelally these three sorts, viz., goats, pigeons, and turtle, or
tortoise, which, added to my grapes, Leadenhallmarket could not
have furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company;
and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had great cause for
thankfulness 'that I was not driven to any extremities for food, but
had rather pet even to dainties.
I never trave ld in this journey above two miles outright in a day,
or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns to see what
discoveries I could make, that I came weary enough to the place where
I resolved to sit down all night; and then I either reposed myself in
a tree, or surrounded myself with a row of stakes set upright in the
ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no w~il~d creature
could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to see that I
had taken up my lot on the worst side of the island, for here, indeed,
the shore was covered with innumerable turtles, whereas, on the
other side I had found but three in a year and a half. Here was
also an infinite number of fowls of many kinds, some which I had
seen and some which I had not seen before, andi many of them very
godmeat, but such as I knew note asofecettoecld
e cud have shot as many as I pleased, but was veysaring of m
powder and shot, and therefore had more mind to brlla she-goat, if I
could, which I could better feed on; and though there were many
goats here, more than on my side the island, yet it was with much
more ditheulty that I could come near them, the country being flat

nomxsPorn envson. 77
and even, and they saw me much sooner than when I was on the
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than mine;
but yet I had not the least inclination to remove, for as I was fixed an
my habitation it became natural to me, and I seemed all the while I
was here to be as it were upon a journey, and from home. However,
I travelled alone the shore of the sea towards the east, I suppose
about twelve miles, and then setting up a great pole upon the shore
for a mark, I concluded I would go home again, and that the next
journey I took should be on the other side of the island east from my
~dwelling~,, and so round till I came to my post again.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking I
could easily keep all the island so much in my view, that I could not
miss finding my fist dwelling by viewing the country; but I found
myself mistaken, for, being come about two or three miles, I found
myself descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded with
hIn11s, and those hills covered with wood, that I could not see which
was my way by any direction but that of the sun, nor even then, unless
I knew very well the position of the sun at that time of the day. It
happened, to my further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for
three or four days while I was in the valley, and not bemng able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged
to fma the sea-side, look for my post, and come back the same way I
went; and then, by easy journeys, I turned homeward, the weather
being exceeding hot, and my gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other
thmgs, very heavy.
In thils ]ourney my dog surprised a young: kid, and seized upon it,
and I, running mn to take hold of it, caught It, and saved it alive from
the dog. I had a great mind to brmng it home if I could, for I had
often been musmng whether it might not be possible to get a kid or
two, and so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me when
my powder and shot should be al spent. I made a colla for this
little creature, and with a string, which I made of some rope-yarn,
which I always carried about me, I led him along, though with some
difliulty ti~llI came to my bower, and there I enclosed him and left
him, for 1 was very impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come into my
old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This little wandering
journey, without settled place of abode, had been so unpleasant to
me, th~at my own house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settle-
ment to mcoprdto that and it rendered everytfung about me
so comfortable~, thatI resolved I would never go a great way from it
again, while it should be my lot to stay on the Tsland.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after my
long Journey; duraqg which, most of the time was taken up in the
weight aifair of making a cage efor my Poll, who began nowA to be a
mere doestic, and to be well aqane wi~h me. Then Ibegan to
think of the poor kid which I ha~d penned in within my little cirole,
and resolved to go and fetch it home, or give it some food accord-
ingly I went, andL found it where I left it, for indeed it cond not get

out, but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut boughs
of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find, and threw it
over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before, to lead it away; but
it was so tame with being hungry, that I had no need to have tied
it, for it followed me like a dog; and as I continually fed it, the
creature became so loving, so gentle, and so fond, that it became
from that time one of my domestics also, and would never leave me
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come, and I
kept the 30th of September in the same solemn manner as before,
bemg the anniversary of my landing on the island, having now been
there two years, and no more prospect of being delivered than the
first day 1 came there. I spent the whole day in humble and
thankful acknowledgments of the many wonderful mermies which my
solitary condition was attended with, and without which it might
have been infiitely more miserable. I gave humble and hearty
thanks that God had been pleased to discover to me, that it was
possible I might be more happy in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in the liberty of society, and mn all the pleasures of
the world: that he could fully makie up to me the deficiencies of my
solitary state, and the want of human society, by his presence, and
the communications of his grace to my soul; supporting, comforting,
and encouragmgn me to depend upon lus providence here, and hope for
his eternal presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more happy
this life I now led was, with all its miserable circumstances, than th
wicked, cursed, abormmable life I led all the past part of my days;
and now I changed both my sorrows and my 3oys; my ver desires
aleare m affections changed their gusts, and myT delights were
new from what they were at my fist coming, or, indeed for
Before, as I aldked about, either on my hunting, or for viewa'
the country, the angunish of my soul at my condition would break
out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart would die within me,
to think of the woods, the mountams, the deserts I was in, and how
I was a prisoner, locfred up with the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, mn an umnihabited wilderness, without redemption. In the
midst of the greatest composure of my mind, this would break out
upon me like a storm, and make me wring my hands, and weep likre
a child: sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and
I would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the ground for
au hour or two together; and this was still worse to me, for if I could
burst out into tears, or vent myself by words, it would go off, and the
grief having exhausted itself would abate.
But now I. be an to exercise myself with new thou'ghts; I daily
read the word o~ God, and applied all the comforts of it to my
present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened the Bible
urpon these words, "Iwill never, never leave thee, nor forsake thee:"
samediately it occurred that these words were to me; why else
should they be directed in such a manner, just at the moment when
I was mourning over my condition, as one forsaken of God and

nomBIsox causon. 79
man? "Wlell, then," said I, "if God does not forsake me, of what
ill consequence can it be, or what matters i though the world should
all forsake me, seeing on the other hn if I had all the world,
and should lose the favour and blessing ai God, there would be no
comparison in the loss ?"
From this moment, IC began to conclude in my mind, that it was
possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary condition,
than it was probable I should ever have been in any other particular
state in the world; and with this thought I was going to prve thanks
to God for bringing me to his place. I know not what It was, but
something shocked my mind at that thought, and I durst not speak
the words. How canst thou become such a hypocrite," said I
even audibly, to pretend to be thankful for a condition, which
however thou mayiest endeavour to be contented with, thou would
rather pray heartily to be delivered from?" So I s~to ped there,
but though I could not say I thanked God for being t ere, yet I
sincerely gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever
aflcigprovidenlces, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn frmy wickedness, and repent. I never opened the Bible,
or shut it, but my very soul within me blessed God for directing my
friend in Engoland, without any order of mine, to pack it up among
my goeod and for assisting me afterwards to save it out of te wred
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third year; and
though I have not given the reader the trouble of so particular an
account of my works this year as the Brst; yet in general it may be
observed, that I was very seldom idle, but~ having regunlarly divided
my time according to the several daily employment that were before
me, such as, first, my duty to God, and t~he reading the Scriptures,
which Iconstantly set apart some time for, thrice every day; secondly,
the gomng abroad with my gun for fo~d, wc~hich generallyT took me up
three hours in every mormng, when it did not rain ; thirdly, the order-
mng, cutting preserving, a~nd cooking, what I hajd killed' or caught
lkalfor my sp : these took up great part of the day; also, it is to be
consieredat in the middle of the day, when the sun was in the
zenith, the violence of the heat was too great to stir out; so that
about four hours in the evening was all the time I could be )supposed
to work in, with this exception, that sometimes I changed my hours
of hunting and working, and went to work in the morning, and abroad
with my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour, I desire may be added the
exceeding laboriousness of my work the many hours which for want
of tools, want of help, and want of skil, everything I did took up out
~of~ my time: for example, I was full two and forty days in makmg a
board for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas, two saw-
yers, with their tools and a saw-pit, would have cut six of them out
of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this: it was to be a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I was
three days in cuttmg down, and two more cutting off the boughs, and
reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With inexpressible hacking

and hewingr, I reduced both the sides of it into chips till it began to
be light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one side of it
smooth and flat as a board from end to end; then turning that side
downward, cuit the other side, till I brought the plank to be about
three inches thick, and smloothl on both sides. Any: one may judge
the labour of my hands in such a piece of work, b~ut labour and
patience carried me through that, and many other things; I only
observe this in particular, to show the reason w-hy so much of my
time went azway with so little work, viz., that what mighlt be a little
to be done wi~th help and tools, w-as a vast labour and required
a prodigious time to do alone, and by hatnd. Btut notwithstanding
this, with patience and labour I got through everything that my
circumstances made necessaLry to me to do, as will appear by what
I was now, in thle months of November and December, expecting
my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had manured and dug up
for them was not great; for, as I observed, my seed of each was not
above the quantity of half a peck, for I had lost one whole crop by
sowmng in the dry season: but now my crop promised very well,
when on a sudden I found I was in danger of losing it all again by
enemies of several sorts, which it was scarcely possible to keep from
it, as, first the goats, and wild creatures which I called hares, who,
tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and eat it so close, thtit could get no time to shoot up
into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for, but by making an enclosure about it
with a hedge; which I did with a great deal of toil, and the more,
because it required s~peed. However, as my arable land was but small,
suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced, in about three weeks'
time; and shooting some of the creatures in the day--time, I set my
dog to guard it in the night, tyll~in him up to a stake at the gate,
where he would stand and bark alnight long; so in a little time, the
enemies forsook the place, and the corn grew very strong and well,
and began to ripen apace.
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in the blade,
so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it was in the ear;
for going along by the place to see how it throve, I sawv my little
crop surrounded with fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood,
as it were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let fly
among them, for I always had my gun with me. I had no sooner
shot, but there rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at
all, from among the corn itself.
Thlis touched me sensibly. for I foresaw that in a few days they
would devour all my hlopes, that I should be starved, and never be
able to raise a. crop at all, and what to do I could not tell: however,
I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible, though I should watch it
night and day. In the first place, I went among it, to see what
damage was already done, and found they had spoiled a good deal
of it; but that as it was yet too grreen for them, the loss was not so
great, but that the remainder was likely to be a good crop, if It could
be saved.

I stayed by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if they
only waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be so;
for as I walked off, as if I was gnIwsn onroto hi
sight, than they dropt down one by one ino on u f the r gin a
so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay tiHl more came
on, knowirng that every grain that they eat now was, as it might be
said, a peck-loaf to me in the consequence; but coming up to the
hedge, I fired agamn, and killed three of them. This was what I
wished for; so I took them up, and served them as we serve
notorious thieves in England-hanged them in chains, for a terror
to others. It is impossible to imagine that this should have such
an effect as it had, for the fowls would not only not come at the
corn, but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I
could never see a bird near the place as long as my scarecrows hung
tere. Thi I was eivery glad of, you may be sure, and about the latter
endof eceber whchwas our second harvest of the year, I reaped
my corn.
~I was sadly put to it for a scythe or sickle to cut it down, and
all I could do was to make one, as well as I could, out of one of the
broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I saved among the arms out of the
shi However, as my first crop was but small, I had no great
didoulty to cut 'it down; in short, I reaped it my way, for cut
nohgoff but the ears, arnd carried It away m na great basket
hihIhad made, and so rubbed it out with my hands; and at the
end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half-peck of seed I
had near two bushels of rice, and about two ~bushels and a half of
barley; that is to say, by my guess, for I had no measure at that
However, this was a great encouragement to me, and I foresaw
that, in time, it would please God to supply me with bread: and
yet, here I was perplexed again, for I neither knew how to grind, or
make meal of my corn, or indeed, how to clean it and part it; nor, if
made into meal, how to make bread of it and if how to make it, yet
I knew not how to bake it; these things ILeingo added to my desire of
having a good quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, I
resolved not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season and, in the meantime, to employ all moy
study and hours of work~mg to accomplish this great work of provid-
ing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. I believe
few people have thought much upon the strange multitude of little
things necessary in the providing, producing, curing, dressin,q making,
and finishingo tlus one article of br;ead.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to my
daily discouragement, and was made more sensible of it every hour,
even after I had got the fist handful of seed-corn, which, as I have
said, came up unex pectedly, and indeed to a surprise.
isI had no ug-h to turn up the earth; no spade or shovel
to dig it. Well, K~t I conquered by making me a wooden spade, as
I observed before, but this did my work but m a wooden manner; and

82 surnsF6oW onescs.
though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet for want of iron,
it not only wore out soon, but made my wfork the harder, and made
it be performed much worse. H-owever, this 1 bore with, and was
content to work it out with patience, and bear with the badness of
the performance. When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but
was forced to go over it myself, and drag aae heavy bough of a
tree over it, to scratch it, as it may be n~irather than rake or
harrow it. When it was growing, and grown, 1Yjuae observed already
how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow or reap it, cure
and carry it home, thrash, part it from the cha f, and save it. Then I
wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to dress it, yeast and salt to make it
into bread, and an oven to bake it, but all these things I did without,
as shall. be observed; and yet the corn was an inestimable comfort
and advantage to me, too. All this, as I said, made everything labo-
rious and tedious to me, but that there was no help for; neither was
my time so much less to me, because, as I had divided it, a certain
part of it was every day appointed to these works; and as I had
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater quan-
tity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly, by
labour and invention, to furnish myself with utensils proper for the
performing all the operations necessary for making the corn, when I
had it, fit for my use.
But first I was to prepare more land, for I had now seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a week's
work at least to make me a spade, which, when it was done, was but a
sorry one indeed, and very heavy, and required double labour to work
wmith it. HIowever, I got through that, and sowed my seed in two large
flat pieces of ground, as near my house as I could find them to my
mind, and fenced them in with a good hedge, the stakes of which
were all cut off that wood which I had set before, and knew it would
grow; so that, in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or
living hedge, that would want but little repait. This work did not
take me up less than three months, because a great part of that time
was the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors, that
is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found employment in
th~e following occupations,--a'ways observing, that all the while I was
at work, I diverted myself w th talking to my parrot, and teaching
him to speak; and I quickly tabught him to know his own name, and
at last to speak it out pretty 'oud, Poll, which was the first word I
ever heard spoken in the island by any mouth but my own. This,
therefore, was not my work, but an assistance to my work, for now
as I said, 1 had a great employment upon my hands, as follows : f
had long studied to make, by some means or other, some earthen
vessels, which, indeed, I wanted sorely, but knew not where to come
at them. However considering the heat of the climate, I did not
doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might make some pots that
might, being dried in the sun, be hlard enough and strong enough to
bear handing, and to hold anything that was dry, and required to be
kept so; and as this was necessary in the preparmg corn, meal, &cc.,
which was the thing I was doing, I resolvedl to make some as large

Beonzx~son Cenvson. 88s
as I could, and fit only to stand like jars, to hold what should be ~put
mnto them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laug at ~meto tell
how many awkward ways I took to raise this paste: what omis-
shapen, ugly things I made ; how many of them fell in, vnL how
many fell out, the clay not be~g~ stiff enough to bear its own weight;
how many cracked by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out
too astly;and how many fell in pieces with only remoymg, as well
b~oefo~re s water they w~ere dried; and in a word, how, after hpaing
laboured hard to find the clay--to dig it, to temper it, to bring it
home, and work it--I could not make above two large earthen ugy
things (I cannot call them jars) in about two months' E~bour.
However, as the sun baked these two very~ dry and hard, 11lifted
them very Fgently up, and set them down again m two great wicker
baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they might not
break; and as between the pot and the basket there was a lit e room
to spare, I stuffed it full of the rice and barley straw; and these two
pots being to stand always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots, yet I
made several smaller things with better success; such as little round
pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, and any thmes:~ m hand
turnd t; an th hea ofthe un akedthe quie h
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an earthen
pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire; which none of these
could do. It happened rafter some time, makmng a pretty large fire
for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out after 1 had done
with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels
in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was
ageeably surprised to see it, and said to myself, that certainly they
mipht be made to burn whole, if they would burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make it burn
some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the potters burn in,
or of g~lazina them with lead, though I had some lead to do it with;
out I placed three large pipkins, and two or three pots, in a pile, one
upnanother, and placed my firewood all round it with a great ha
~:of embers u~der them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round th
outside, and upon the top, till I. saw the pots in the inside red-hot
quite through, and observed that they did not crack at all; when I
saw them clear red, I let them stand in that heat about five or six
hours, till I found one of them, though it did not crack;, did melt or
run; for the sand which was mixed with the clay melted by the
violence of the heat, and would have run into glass if I had gone on;
so I slacked my fire gradually till the pots began to abate ofthe red
colour, and watching them all night, that I might not let the fire
abate too fast, in the morning I had three very good (I will not say
handsome) pipkins, and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as
could be desired, and one of them perfectly glazed with the running
of the sand.
after this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort of

earthenware for my use; but I must needs say as to the shapes of
them, they were very indifferent, as any one may suppose, wvhen I had
no way of making them, but as the chll dren make dirt pies, or as a
woman would make pies that never learned to raise paste
No joy at a thing of so mean a nature was ever equal to mine,
when I `found I had made an earthen pot that would bear the ire ;
and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold, before I set one
on the fie again, with some water in it;, to boil me some meat, which
it did admirably well; and with a piece of a kid I made some very
good broth, though I wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients
requisite to make it as good as I would have had it been.
Mdy next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp or beat
some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of arriving at
that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To supplyI this want, I
was at a great loss; for, of all the trades in the worldt,I wa~s asper
fectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for any whtvr ete a
I any tools to go about it with. I spent many a day ;to find out a
great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a mortar, and
could find none at all, except what was in the solid rock, and which
I had no way to dig or cut out; nor indeed were the rocks in the
island of hardness sufficient, but were all of a sandy crumbling stone
which neither would bear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would
break the corn without fiilling it with sand; so, after a great deal of
time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and resolved to look
out for a great block of hard wood, which I found indeed much
easier; and getting one as big as I had strength to stir, I rounded it,
and formed it on the outside with my axe and hatchet, and then,
with the: help of fire, and infnite labour, made a hollow place in it, as
the Indians mn Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made a great
heavy pestle, or beater, of the wood called the iron-wood; and this
I prepared and laid by against I had my next crop of corn, which I
proposed to myself to grind, or rather pound, into meal, to make bread.
SMy next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to dress my
meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk; without whichI
did not see it possible I could have any bread. This was a most
difficult thing, even to think on, for to be sure I had nothing like the
necessary tlung to make it; I meau fine thin canvas, or stuff, to
searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop for many
months; nor did I reaty know what to do. Linen I had none left,
but what was mere rags; I had goats'-hair bu~t neite knew hows to w
weave it or spin it ; and had I known how, hr een ol owr
it with. All the remedy that I found for this was, that at last I did
remember I had, among the seamen's clothes which were saved out
of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin; and with some
pieces of these I made three small sieves, proper enough for the
work; and thus I made shift for some years: how I did afterwpards,
I shall show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and how I
should make bread when I came to have corn; for, first, I had no
yeast; as to that part, there was no supplying the want, so I did not
concern myself much about it. But for an oven, Iwas indeed in great

pain. At length, I found out an experiment for that also, which was
this: I made some earthen vessels very broad, but not deep, that is
to say, about two feet diameter, and not above nine inches deep
these I. burned inl the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them y
and when I wanted to bake, I made a rrea~t fire upon my n~uhea
which I had paved with some square tiles, of my own baking and
burnings also; bult I should not call them square.
WVhen the fire-wvood was burned pretty much into embers, or live
coals, I drew them forward upon this hearth, so as to cover it all
over, and there I let them lie till th~e hearth was very hot; then
sweeping awvay all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
whelmmng down the earthen pot upon them, drew thle embers all
round the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my barley-
loaves, and became, in little time, a good pastry-cook into the bargain;
for I made myself several cakes and puddings of the rice ; but I maade
no pies, neither had I anything to put into them, supposing I had,
except the flesh either of fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered at, if all these things took me up most
part of' the third year of my abode here for, it is to be observed,
that in the intervals of these things, I had my new harvest and hus-
band tomanae; for I reaped my corn in its season, and carried
bait hd tome as wel as I could, and laid it up in the ear, in my laqrge
baskets, till I had time to rub it out, for I had no floor to thrash it
on, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn increasing, I really wanted to
build my barns bigger; I wanted a place to lay it up in, for the
mecrease of the corn now yielded me so much, that I had of the barley
about twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more, insomuch
that now I resolved to begin to use it freely; for my bread had been
quite gone a great while, also I resolved to see what quantity would
be sulffcient for me a whole year, and to sow but once a year.
Upon the whole, I found thlat the forty bushels of bairley and rice
were much more than I could consume in a year so I resolved to
sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed the last, in hopes
that such a quantity would fully provide me with bread, &2c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my thoughts
ran many times upon the prospect of land which I had seen from the
other side of the island and I was not without secret wishes that
I were on shore there, fancyine that, seeing the main land, and an
inhabited country, I might finct some way or other to convey myself
farther, and lperhaps at last find some means of escape.
But all tlus while I made no allowance for the dangers of such
an undertaking, and how I might fall into the hands of savages, and
perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than th~e lions
and tigers of Africa; that if I once came in their power, I should
run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being killed, and
perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the people of the Carib-
bean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters, and I knew by the latitude
that I could not be far from that shore. Then, supposmng they were
not cannibals, yet they might kill me, as many Europeans who had

fallen into their hands had been served, even when they had been ten
or twenty together-much more I, that was but one, and could make
little or no defence; all these things, I say, which I ougrht to have
considered well, and did come into my thoughts afterwar~ls, yet gatve
me no apprehensions at first, and my h~ea ran mightily upon the
thought of getting over to the shore.
Nowv I wlished for myT boy Xury, and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand miles
on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I thought I would
go and look at our ship's boat, which, as I have said, was blown up
upon the shore a great w~ay, in the storm, when we were first cast
away. She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; an~d
was turned, by the force of thle waves and the winds, almost bottom
upward, a~gamnst a high ridge of beachy, rougSh sand, but no water
about her. If I had had hanlds to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done well enough,
and I might have grone back into the Brazils with her easily enough;
but I might have foreseen thlat I could no more turn her and set her
upright upon her bottom, than I could remove the island; however,
I went to the woods, and out levers and rollers, and brought them to
the boat, resolving to try what I could do; suaggesting to myself, that
if' I could but turn her down1, I might repair thle damage she had
received, and she would be a very good boat, and I might go to sea in
her very easily.
I s ared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, and spent,
I thi k, three or four weeks about it; at last, finding it impossible toa
heave it up with my little strength, ~I fell to digging away the sand,
to undermme it, and so to make it fall down, setting pieces of wood
to thrust and guide it right in thle fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir it up again, or to
get under it, much less to move it forward towards the water; so I
was forced to give it over; and yet, though I gave over the hopes of
the boat, my desire to venture over the main increased, rather than
decreased, as the means for it seemed impossible.
This at length put me upon thinking whether it wras not possible
to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as the natives of those
climates make, even without tools, or, as I might say, without hands,
of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only thought possible, but
easy, and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts of making it,
and with my having much more convenience for it than any of the
Negroes or Indians; but not at all considering the particular incon-
vemiences which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want of
hands to move it, when it was made, into the water-a diffculty
much harder for me to surmount than all the consequences of want
of tools could be to them; for what was it, to me, if when I had
chosen a vast tree in the woods, and with much trouble cut it down,
if I had been able with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the
proper shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
hollw, s to akea boat of it--if, after all this, I must leave it just
there where I found it, and not be able to launch it into the water ?
One would have thought I could not have had the least reflection

upon my mind of my circumstances while I was making this boat, but
I should have immediately thought how I should get it inlto the sea;
but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage over the sea mn it,
that I never once considered how I should get it off of the land: andi
it was really, in its own nature, more easy for me to guide it over
forty-five miles in sea, than~ about forty-five fathoms of la2nd, where it
lay, to set it alfloat in the water.
I went; to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever man
did, who had any of hris senses awake. I pleased myself with the
design, without deter1miningf whether I was ever able to undertake it;
not but that thle dilliculty of latunching my boat came often into my
head; but I put a stop to my inquiries into it, by this foolish answer
which l ,rave my-self : Let me first make it; I warrant I will fnd
some way or other to get it along when it is done."
This was a most prep~osterous method but the eagerness of my
fanlcy prevailed, and to work I went. I felledi a cedar tree, andI
question muchl whether Solomon ever had such a one for the buildings
of the Temple of Jerusaleml; it was five feet ten inches diameter at
thelowr prt extthestupand four feet eleven inches diameter
atthe loend of twnent-twofieet, after which it lessened for awhile, and
then parted into branches. It was not without ininite labour that
I felled th~is trec; I was twenty days hacking and hewing at it at the
bottom; I was fourteen more getting the branches and limbs, and
the vast spreading head cut off, wh.2ich I hacked and hewed through.
with axe and hatchet, with inexpressible labour : after this, it cost
me a month to shape it and dub, it to a proportion, and to something
like the bottom of a boat, that it might swim uprnght as it ought to<
do. It cost me near three months more to clear the inside, and work
it out so as to make an exact boat of it : this I did, indeed, without
frby mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labour, till I
brought it, to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big enough~ to
have carried me and all my cargo.
W~then I had gone through this work, I was extremely delighted
with it. The boat; was really much bigger than ever I saw a canoe
or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my life. Many a, weary
stroke it had cost, you may be sure: and had I gotten it into the
water, I make no question but I should have begun the maddest
voyage, and the most unlikely to be performed, that ever was
But all my devices to get it into the water failed me; though they
cost me infinite labour too. It lay about one hundred yasrds from the.
water, and not more; but the first inconvenience was, it was up hill
towards the creek. WVell, to take away this discouragement, I
resolved to dig into the surface of the earth, and so make a declivity :
this I begun, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains (but who
grudge pains that have their dehlverance mn view ?); but when this
was worked through, and this difficulty managed, it was still much
the same, for I could no more stir the canoe than I could the other
boat. Then I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut
a dock or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could

not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this work;
and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how deep it was to
be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be thrown out, I found that,
by the number of hands I had, being none but my own, it must have
beentenor wele yarsbefore I could have gone through with it;
for the shore lay so hgttatheuerend it must have been at
least twenty feet deep; so at length,touhihgearlcany
gave this attempt over also.
This gprieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late, the folly
of be inning a work before we count the cost, and before we judge
rights of our own strength to go through with it.
~I dhe middle of this work, I finished my fourth year in this place,
and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and with as much
comfort as ever before; for, by a constant study and serious applica-
tion to the W~ord of God, and by the assistance of His grace, I gained
a different knowledge fr-om what I had before. I entertained differ-
ent notions of things. I looked now upon the world as a thing
remote, which I had nothing to do with, no expectation from, and,
indeed, no desires about: in a word, I had nothing indeed to do with
ijt, nor was ever likely to have; so I thought it looked, as we may
perhaps look upon it thereafter, viz., as a place I had lived in, but was
come out of it; and well mlighlt I say as father Abratham to IDives,
" Between me and thee is a great gulf fixd."
In the first place, I was removed from all the wickedness of the
world here; I had neither the lusts of the eesh, the lusts of the eye,
or the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for I had all that I was
now ca able of en oying I was lord of the whole manor; or, if I
pleased, I might call myself king or emperor .over the whole country
which had possession of ; there were no rivals; I had no compe-
titor, none to dispute sovereianty or command wtith me : I might have
raised ship-loadings of corn,`but I had no use for it; so 11let as little
grow as Ithought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle
enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to any
iause: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships; and I had
grpsenough to have made wine, or to have cured into raisins, to
have Pcloaded that fleet when it had been built.
But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I had
enough to eat and supplyI my wants, and what was all the rest to
me ? If I killed more flesh then I could eat, the dog must eat it, or
vermin; if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must be spoled;
the trees that I cui down were lymng to rot on the ground; I could
make no more use of them but for fuel, and that I had no occasion for
but to dress my food.
In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to me, upon
just reflection, that all the good things of this world are no farther
good to us than they are for our ue n ht htrrw a
hea upto iv oters weenoy ustasmuch as we can use and no
more. The most covetous, gripmg miser in the world would have
been cured of the vice of covetousness, if he had been in my case; for
I possessed infinitely more than I knew wvhat to do with. I had no
room for desire, except it was of things which I had not, and they

were but trifles, though, indeed, of great use to me. I had, as I
hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about thirty-
six pounds sterhing. Alas!r there! the sorry, useless stuff lay; I had
no manner of business for it; and I often thought with myself, that I
would have given a handful of it for a gross of tobacco-pipes or
for a hand-mill to grind my corn; nay, I would have given Ital oa
a sixpenny-worth of turnip and carrot seed out of England, or for a
handful of; peas and beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not
the least advantage it or benefit from it; but there it lay in a
drawer, and grew moud with the damp of the cave in the wet seasons;
and if I had had the daer full of diamonds, it had been the same
case, they had been of no manner of value to me, because of no use.
I had now brought my state of life to be much easier in itself than
it was at first, and much easier to my mind, as well as to my body. I
frequently sat down to meat with thankfulness, and admired the hand
of God's providence, which had thus spread my table in the wilder-
ness. I learned to look more upon the bright side of my condition,
and less upon the dark side, and to consider what I en30yed rather
than wha~t I wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret com-
forts, that I cannot express them; and which I take notice of here,
to put those discontented people in mind of it, who cannot enjoy com-
fortably what God has given them, because they see and covet some-
thingr that he has not given them. All our discontents about what we
want appeared to me to spring from the want of thankfulness for
what we have.
Another reflection was of grreat use to me, and doubtless would be
so to any one that should fall into such distress as mine was; and
this was, to compare my present condition with what I at firt
expected it would be; nay, with what it would certainly have been,
if the good providence of God had not wonderfully ordered the ship
to be cast up nearer to the shore, where I not only could come at her
but could bring what I got out of her to the shore, for my relief and
comfort; without which, I had wanted for tools to work, weapons
for defence, and gunpowder and shot for getting my food.
I spent whole hours, I may say whole days, in representing to
myself, in the most lively colours, how I must have acted if I had got
nothing out, of the ship. How I could not have so much as got any
food, except fish and turtles; and that, as it was long before I found
any of them, I must have perished first ; that I should have lived, if I
had not perished, like a mere savage; that if I had killed a goat or a
fowl, by any contrivance, I had no way to flay or open it, or part the
flesh from the skin and the bowels, or to cut It up; but must gnaw it~
with my teeth, and pull it with my claws, like a beast.
These reflections made me very sensible of the goodness of Provi-
dence to me, and very thankful for my present condition, with all its
hardships and misfortunes: and this part also I cannot but recom-
mend to the reflection of those who are apt, in their misery, to say,
"ha any affliction like mine ? Let them consider how much worse
thle cases of some people are, and their case might have been, if
Providence had thought fit.
I had another reflection, which assisted me also to comfort my mind

with hopes; and this was comparing my present situation with what
I had deserved, and had therefore reason to expect from the hand of
Providence. I had lived a dreadful life, perfectly destitute of the
knowledge and fear of God. I had been well instructed by father
and mother; neither had they been wanting to me, in their early
endeavours to infuse a religious awe of God into my mlind, a sense
of my duty, and what the nature and end of my being required of me.
But, alas falling early into the seafaring life, which, of all lives, is
the most destitute of the fear of God, though his terrors are always
before them; I say, falling early into the seafaring life, and into sea~-
faring company, all~ that little sense of religion which I had entertained
was laughed out of me bymy messmates ; by a hatrdened despising of
dangers, and the views ofdeath, which grew habitual to me;. by my
long absence from all manner of opportunities to converse with any-
thmng but what was like myself, or to hear anything that was good, or
tended towards it.
So void was I of everything that was good, or of the least sense of
what I was, or was to b~e, that, in the greatest deliverances I enjoyed
--such as my escape from Sallee; my being taken up by the Portu-
guese master of the ship ; my being planted so well in the Brazils; my
receiving the cargo from Engrland, andi Ihe like--I never had once
the words, Thank God," so much as on my mind, or in my mouth ; nor
in the greatest distress had I so much as a thought to pray to him, or
so much as to say, Lord, have mercy upon me no, nor to mention
the name of God, unless it was to swear by, and blaspheme it.
T had terrible reflections upon my mind ~for many months, as I have
already observed, on account of my wicked and hardened life past;
and when I looked about me, and considered what particular provi-
dences had attended me since my commg into this place, and how God
had dealt bountifully with me- had not only punished me less than
my iniquity had deserved, but had so plentifully provided for me--this
gave me great hopes that my repentance was accepted, and that God
had yet mercy in store for me.
W~ith. these reflections, I worked my mind up, not only to a resig-
nation to the will of God in the present disposition of my circum-
stances, but even to a sincere thankfulness for my condition; n
that I, who was yet a living man, ought not to complain, seeingIha
not the due punishment of my sms; that I enjoyed so many mercies
which I had no reason to have expected in that~ place; that I ought
never more to repine at my condition, but to rejoice, and to give daily
thanks for that daily bread, which nothing but a crowd of wonders
could have brought; that I ought to consider I had been fed even by
a miracle, even as great as that of feeding Elijah by ravens; nay, by a:
long series of miracles: and that I could hardly have named a place
in t~e uninhabitable part of the world where I could have been east
more to my advantage; a place where, as I had no society, which was
my affliction on one hand, so I found no ravenous beasts, no furious
wolves or tigers, to threaten my life; no venomous creatures, or
poisons, which I might feed on to my hurt ; no savages to murder and
devour me. In a word, as my life was a life of sorrow one way, so it
was a life of mercy another; and I wanted nothing to make it a life

of comfort, but to be able to make my sense of God's goodness to me,
and care over me in this condition, be my daily consolation ; and after
I did make a just improvement of these things, I went away, and was
no more sad. I had now been here so long, that many tlungs which
I brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or very much
wasted, and near set
My mk, as I observd had been gone some time, all but avery
little, which I eked out with water, a little and a little, till it was so
pale, it scare left any appearance of black upon the paper. As long
as it lasted, I made use of it to minute down the days of the month
on which any remarkable thing happened to me: and, first, by casting
up times past, I remembered that there was a strange concurrence of
days mn the various providences which befel me, and which, if I had
been superstitiously inclined to observe days as fatal or fortunate,
I might have had reason to have looked upon with a, great deal of
First, I had observed, that the same day that I broke away from
my father any friends, and ran away to HEull, in order to go to sea,
the same day afterwards I was taken by the Sallee man-ofi-war, and
made a slave the same day of the year that I escaped out of the
wreck of that ship in Yarmouth Roads, that same daty-year afterwards
I made my escape from Sallee in a boat; the same day of the year I
was born on, vlz., the 30th of Septemb~er, that same day I had my
life so miraculously saved twenty-six years after, when I was cast on
shore in this island; so that my wicked life and my solitary life
began both on a day.
The next thing to my ink being wasted, was that of my bread, I
mean the biscuit which Ibrought out of the ship; this I had husbanded
to the last degree, allowing myself but one cake of bread a day for
above a year; and yet I was quite without bread for near a year before
I got any corn of my own; and great reason I had to be thankful that
I had any at all, the getting it being, as has been already observed,
next to miraculous.
MLy clothes, too, began to decay; as to linen, I had had none a
good while, except some chequered shirts which I found in the chests
of the other seamen, and which I carefully preserved; because many
times I could bear no other clothes on but a shirt ; and it was a ve
great help to me that I had, among all the men's clothes of the shp
almost three dozen of shirts. There were also, indeed, several thick~
watch-coats of the seamen's which were left, but they were too hot to
wear: and though it is true that the weather was so violently hot that
there was no need of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked --no,
though I had been inclined to it, which I was not;-nor could I abide
the thought of it, though Iwas alone. The reason; why I could ntg
naked was, I could not bear the heat of the sun so well when suite naked
as with some clothes on;. nay, the very heat frequently blistered my
skin; whereas, with a shirt on, the air itself made some motion, and
whistling under the shirt, was twofold cooler than without it. No
more could I ever brmyg myself to go out in the heat of the sun with-
out a call or a hik the heat of the sun, beating with such violence- as
it does It that p sewould give me the head-ache p Wsmt by

darting so directly on my head, without a cap or hat on, so that 1
could not bear it; whereas, if I put on my hat, it would presently go
an~Zdpon these views, I began to consider about rutting the few rags I
had, which I called 'clothes, into some order; had worn out all the
waistcoats I had, and my business wats now to try if I could not make
jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had by me, and with such
other materials as I had; so I set to work, tailoring, or rather, indeed,
botching, for I made most piteous work of it. However, I made
shift to make two or three new waistcoats, which I hoped would serve
me a great while as for breeches or drawers, I made but a very sorry
shift indeed till afterwards.
I have mentioned that I saved the skins of all the creatures that I
killed, I mean four-footed ones, and I had them hung up stretched out
with sticks in the sun, by which means some of them were so dry and
hard that they were fit for little, but others were very useful. The
first things I made of these was a greatt ca fo my hefread wit te hai
on the outside, to shoot off the ram; nd sIpromds el
that after, I made me a suit of clothes wholly of these skins, that is
to say, a waistcoat, and breeches open at the knees, and both loose,
for the~y were rather wanting to keep me cool than to keep me warm.
I must not omit to acknowledge that they were wretchedly made; for
if I was a bad carpenter, I was a worse tailor. However, they were
such as I made very good shift with, and when I was out, if it
happened to rain, the hair of my waistcoat and cap being outer-
most, I was kept very dry.
After this, I spent a great deal of time and pains to make an
umbrella; I was indeed in great want of one, and had a great mind to
make one I had seen them made in the Brazils, where they are very
useful in the great heats there, and I felt the heats every jot as great
here, and greater too, being nearer the equinox beieas I was
obliged to be much abroad, It was a most useful thing to me, as well
for the rains as the heats. I took a world of pains with it, and was a
great while before I could make anything lily to hold: nay, after I
thought I had hit the way, I spoiled two or three before I made one
to my mind: but at last I madte one that answered indifferently well;
the main difficulty I found was to make it let down. I could make it
spread, but if it did not; let down too, and draw in, it was not portable
for me any way but just over my head, which would not do. How-
ever, at last, as I said, I made one to answer, and covered it with
skins, the hair upwards~, so that it cast off the rain like a pent-house,
and kept off the sun so effectually, that I could walk out in the
hottest of the weather with greater advantage than I could before in
the coolest, and when I had no need of it, could close it, and carry it
under my arm.
Thus I lived mighty comfortably, my mind being entirely composed
by resignm~g myself to the will of God, and throwing myself wholly
upon the disposal of H~is providence. This made my life better than
sociable, for when I began to regret the want of conversation, I
would ask myself, whether thus conversing mutually with my own
thoughts, and (as I hope I may say) with even God himself, by

ejaculationls, was not better than the utmost enjoyment of human
society in the world P
I cannot say that, after this, for five years, any extraordinary thing
happened to me, but I lived on in the same course, in the same pos-
ture and place, as before; the chief things I was employed in, besides
my yeal labour of planting mybarley and rice, and curngq my
raxlsms, of both which I alwayskep ppust enough to have sufficient
stock of one year's provision be oehn; I say, besides this yearly
labour, and my daily pursuit of gomng out with my guI had one
labour to make a canoe, which at last I finished: so ta by diggmng
a canat to it of six feet wide and four feet deen. I brought it into the
creek, almost half a mile. As for the fist, whiich was so vastly big,
for I made it without considering beforehand, as I ought to do, how
I should be able to launch it, so, never being able to bring it into the
water, or bring the water to it, I was obliged to let it lie where it was,
as a memorandum to teach me to be wiser the next time : indeed, the
next time, though I could not get a tree proper for it, and was in a
place where I could not get the water to it at any less distance than,
as I have said, near half a mile, yet, as I saw it was practicable at
last, I never gave it over : and though I was near two years about it,
yet I never grudged my labour, in hopes of having a boat to go off to
sea at last.
However, though my little periagua was finished, yet the size of it
was not at all answerable to the design which I had in view when I
made the first; I mean of venturing over to the terra ~frm~a, where it
was above forty miles broad; accordingly, the smallness of my boat
assisted to put an end to that design, and now I thought no more of
it. As I had a boat, my next design was to make a cruise round the
island; for as I had been on the other side in one place, crossing, as
I have already described it, over the land, so the discoveries I made
in that little 30urney made me very eager to see other parts of the
coast; and now I had a boat, I thought of nothing but sailing round
the island.
For this purpose, that I might do everything with discretion and
consideration, I fitted up a little mast in my boat, and made a sail too
out of some of the pieces of the ship's sails which lay in store, and of
which I had a great stock by me. Having fitted my mast and sail,
and tried the boat, I found she would sail very well: then I made
little lockers, or boxes, at each end of my boat, to put provisions,
necessaries, ammunition, &c., into, to be kept dry, either from ramn or
the spray of the sea; and a ~little 'long, hollow place I cut in the
inside of the boat, wPhere I could lay my gun, making a flap to hang
down over it, to keep it dry.
I fiedmyumbrella also in a step at the strslkgamast, to stand
over my head, and keep the heat of the sun of e iean awrnmg;
and thus I every now and then took a little voyage upon the sea:
but never went far out, nor far from the little creek. At last, being
eager to view the circumference of my little kingdom, I resolved upon
mycruise; and accordingly I victualled my ship for the voyage, pn-
tig in two dozen of loaves (cakes I should rather call them) of bare
brad, an earthen pot full of parched rice (a food I ate a great el

94a BommsPox caUsoa.
of), a little bottle of rum, half a goat, and powder and shot for killing
more, and two large watcheoats, of those which, as I mentioned
before, I had saved out of the seamen's chests; these I took, one to
lie upon, and the other to cover me in the night.
It was the 6th of November, in the sixth year of my reign or my
captivity, which you please, that I set out on this voyage, and I
found it much longer than I expected; for though the Jsand itself
was not very large, yet when I came to the east side of it, I found a
great ledge of rocks lie out about two leagues into the sea, some
above water, some under it; and beyond that a shoal of sand, lying
dry half a league more, so that I was obliged to go a great way out to
sea to double the point.
When first I discovered them, I was going to give over my enter-
prise, and come back agam, not knowing how far it might oblige me
to go out to sea; and, above all, doubtmng how I should get back
again: so I came to an anchor; for I had made a kind of an anchor
with a piece of a broken grap 'in which I got out of the ship.
Haymep secured my boat, I t my gun and went on shore, climb-
meup a hi, which seemed to overlook that point, where I saw the
fui extent of it, and resolved to venture.
In my viewilng the sea from that hill where I stood, I perceived a
strong and, indeed, a most furious current, which ran to t~he east, abdh
even came close to the point; and I took the more notice ofit
because I saw there might~ be some danger, that when I came intoit
I might be carried out to sea by the strength of it, and not be able to
make the island again: and, indeed, had I not got first upon this hill,
I believe it would have been so: for there was the same current on
the other side the island, only that it set off at a farther distance, and
I saw there was a strong eddy under the shore; so I had nothing to
do but to get out of the fist current, and I should presently be in an
I lay here, however, two days, because the wind blowing pretty
fresh at E.S.E., and that being just contrary to the current, made a
great breach of the sea upon the pomnt; so that it was not safe for me
to keep too close to the shore for the breach, nor to go too far off,
because of the stream.
The third day, in the morning, the wind having abated overnight,
the sea was calm, and I ventured: but I am a warning to all rash
and ignnorant pilots; for no sooner was I come to the point, when I
was not even my boat's length from the shore, but I found myself in
a great depth of water, and a current like the sluice of a mill: it car-
ried my boat along with it with such violence that all I could do
could not keep her so much as on the edge of it; but I found it hur-
ried me farther and farther out from the eddy, wPhich was on my left
hand. There was no wind stirring to help me, and all I could do with
my paddles sigonified nothing : and now I began to give myself over
for lost; for as the current was on both sides of the island, cI knew in
a few leagues distance they must join agamn, and then I was irrecove-
rably gone; nor did- I see any possibility of avoiding it; so that I had
no prospect before me but of perishing, not by the sea, for that was
calm enough, but of starving from hunger. I had, indeed, found a

tortoise on the shore, as big almost as I could lift, and had tossed it
into the boat; and I had a great jar of fresh water, that is to say, one
of my earthen pots; but what was all this to being driven into the
vast ocean, where, to be sure, there was no shore, no main land or
isadfor thousand leagues~f at least ?
A now I saw how easy it was for the providence of God to make
even the most miserable condition of mankmd worse. Now I looked
back upon my desolate, solitary island, as the most pleasant place in
the world, and all the happiness my heart could wish1 for was to be
but there again. I stretched out my hands to it. with eager wishes:
"0 happy desert!" said I "I shall never see thee more. O misera-
ble creature whither am I going ? Then I reproached myself with
my unthankful temper, and that I had repined at my solitary con-
dition; and now wh~at would I give to be onl shore there again!
Thus, we never see the true. state of our condition till it is illustrated
to us by its contraries, nor know how to value what we enjoy, but by
the want of it. It is scarcely possible to imagine the consternation I
was now in, being driven from my beloved island (for so it appeared
to me now to be) into the wide ocean, almost two leagues, and in the
utmost despair of ever recovering it again. However, I worked hard
till indeed my strength was almost exhausted, and kept my boat as
much to the northward, that is towards the side of the current which
the eddy lay on, as possibly I could; when about noon, as the sun
passed the meridian, I thought I felt a little breeze of wind in my
face, sprmngmg up from 8.S.E. This cheered my heart a little, and
especially when, m about half an hour more, it blew a pretty ~gentle
gate. By this time, I had got at a frightful distance from the Island,
and had the least cloudy or hazy weather intervened, I had been
undone another way, too; for I had no compass on board, and should
never have known h~ow to have steered towards the island, if I had
but once lost sight of it; but the weather continuing clear, I applied
myself to get up my mast again, and spread my sail, standing away
to the north as much as possible, to get out of the current.
Just as I had set my mast and sail, and the boat began to stretch
away, I saw even by the clearness of the water some alteration of the
current was near; for where the current was so strong the water was
foul; but perceivmgo the water clear, I found the current abate; and
presently I found to the east, at about half a mile, a breach of the
sea upon some rocks : these rocks I found caused the current to part
agamn, and as the main stress of it ran away more southerly, leaving
the rocks to the north-east, so the other returned by the repulse of
the rocks, and made a strong eddy, which ran back again to the
north-west, with a very sharp stream.
Theywho know what it is have a reprieve brought to them upon
theladeror to be rescued from thieves just going to murder
them, or w~ho have been in such extremities, may guess what my
present surprise of joy was, and how gladly I put my boat into the
stream of thus eddy; and the wind also freshemng, how gladly I
spread my sail to it, running cheerfully before the wmnd, and with a
strong ticle or eddy under foot.
Thus eddy carried me about a league in my way back again, directly

towards the island, but about two leagues more to the northward
than the current which carried me away at fist ; so that whenI came
near the island, I found myself open to the northern shore of it, that
isto say, the other end of the island, opposite to that which I went
When I had made something more than a league of way by the
4hel this current or eddy, I found it was spent, and served me no
fate.However, I found~ that being between two great currents,
viz. that on the south side, which haa hurried me away, and that
on the north, which lay about a league on the other side; I say,
between these two, in the wake of the island, I found the water at
least still, and running no way; and having stil a breeze of wind faith
for me, I kept on steermg directly for the Island, though not making
such fresh way as I did before.
About four o'clocki in the evening, being then within a league of
the island, I found the point of the rocks which occasioned this
disaster, stretching out, as is described before, to the southward,
and casting off the current more southerly, had, of course, made
another eddy to the north; and this I found very strong, but not
directly setting the way my course lay, which was due west, but
almost full north. However, having a fresh gale, I stretched
acrss hi edyslanting north-west; and in about an hour came
withi abote~ a ne fthe shore, where, it being smooth water, I soon
got to land.
When I was on shore, I fell on my knees, and gave God thanks for
mydeliverance, resolving to lay aside all thoughts of my deliverance
bl boat; a~nd refreshing myself with such things as I had, I
bog my boaut close to the shore, in a little cove that I had spied
under some trees, and laid me down to sleep, being quite spent with
the labour and fatigue of the voyage.
I was now at a great loss which way to get home with my boat; I
had run so much hazard, and knew too much of the case, to think of.
attempting it by the way I went out; and what might be at the
other side (I mean the west side) I knew not, nor had I. any mind to
run any more ventures: so I resolved on the next morning to make
myway westward along the shore, and to see if there was no creek
were I might lay up my frigate in safety, so as to have her agamn,
if I wanted her. In about three miles, or thereabouts, coasting the
shore, I came to a very good inlet or bay, about a mile over, which
narrowed till it came to a very little rivulet or brook, where I found
avery convenient harbour for my boat, and where she lay as if she
had been in a little dock made on purpose for her. Here I put in,
and having stowed my boat very safe, I went on shore to look about
4 son ond e hr I had but a little passed by the place where I had
been before, when I travelled on foot to that shore; so taking
nothing out of my boat but my gun and umbrella, for it was ex-
ceedingly hot, I began my march. The way was comfortable enough
after such a voyage as I had been upon, and I reached my old
bower in the evening, where I found every thing standing as I left

it; for I always kept it in good order, being, as I said before, my
country house.
I got over the ~fence, and laid me down in the shade to rest my
limbs, for I was very weary, and fell asleep; but judge you, if you
can, that read my story, what a. surprise I must be in, when I was
awaked out of my sleep by a voice, calling me b ynm eea
times, Robin, Robin, Rtobin Crusoe; poor Rom Crusoe~e vraWhere
are you, Robin Crusoe ? Where are you ? Where have you been ?"
I was so dead asleep at fist, being fatigued with rowng, or
paddling as it is called, the first part of the day, and with walking
the latter part, that I did not wake thoroughly; but dozing between
sleeping and waking, thought I dreamed that somebody spoke to me ;
but as the voice continued to repeat Robin Crusoe, Robin Crusoe "
at last I began to wake more perfectly, and was at first dreadfully
frightened, and started up in the utmost consternation; but no
sooner were my eyes open, but I saw my Poll sitting on the top of the
hedge; and immediately knew that it was he that spoke to me; for
just mn such bemoaning language I had used to talk to him, and
teach him; and he had learned it so perfectly that he would sit upon
my fmgoer,) and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, Poor Riobin
Crusoe! Where are youP ?Where haveyou been ? How came you
here ? and such things as I had taught him.
However, even though I knew it was the parrot, and that indeed
it could be nobody else, it was a good while before I could compose
myself. First, I was amazed how the creature got thither and then,
how he should just keep about the place, and nowhere e se; but as
I was well satisfied it could be nobody bult honest Poll, I got over it;
and holding out my hand, and caln him by his name, Pl,
the sociable creature came to me, and sat upon my thumb,ash
used to do, and continued talking to me, "Poor Robin Crusoe!i and
how did I come here ? and where had I been? just as if he had
been overjoyed to see me again; and so I carried him home along
with me.
I had now had enough of rambling to sea for some time, and had
enough to do for many days, to sit still, and reflect upon the danger
I hati been in. I would have been very glad to have had my boat
agamn on my side of the island; but I knew not how it was prac-
ticable to get it about. As to the east side of the island, which I
had gone round, I knew well enough there was no vent that
way; my very heart would shrink, and my very blood run chil but
to think of it and as to the other side of the island, I did not ko
how it might l~e there; but supposing the current ran with the same
force against the shore at the east as it passed by it on the other, I
might run the same risk of being driven down the stream, and carried
by the island, as I had been before of being carried away from it; so
with these thoughts, I contented myself to be without any bloat,
though it had been the product of so many months' labour to make
it, and of so many more to get it into the sea.
In this government of my temper, I remained near a year; and
lived a very sedate, retired hif e, as you may well suppose; and my

thoughts being very much composed, as to my condition, and
fully comforted in resgmugn myself to the dispositions of Provi-
dence, I thought I lived really very happily in all things, except that
of society.
I improved myself in this time in all the mechanic exercises which
my necessities put me upon applying myself to; and Ibelieve I
should, upon occasion, have made a very good carpenter, especially
considering how few tools I had.
Besides this, I arrived at an unexpected perfection in my earthen-
ware, and contrived well enough to make them with a wheel, which
I found infinitely easier and better; because I made things round
and shaped, whic6 before were fithy things indeed to look on. But
I think I was never more vain of my own performance, or more joyful
for anything I found oult, than for my bemng able to make a tobacco-
pipe,; and though it was a very ugly, clumsy thing when it was
onand only burned red, like other earthenware, yet as it was hard
and fim, and would draw the smoke, I was exceedingly comforted
with it, or I had been always used to smoke; and there were pipes
in the ship, but I forgot them at first, not thiking that there was
tobacco in the island; and afterwards, when I searched the ship
again, I could not come at any pipes.
In my wickerware, atlso, I improved much, and made abundance of
necessary baskets, as well as my invention showed me; though not
very handsome, yet they were such as were very handy and conve-
nient for laymng tlungs p m, or fetching things home. For example,
if I killed a goat abroad- could hang it up in a tree, flay it, dress it,
and out it mn pieces, and bring it home in a basket: and the like by a
turtle: I could out it up, take out the eggs, and a piece or two of
the flesh, which was enough for me, and brmg them home in a basket,
and leave the rest behind me. Also, large deep baskets were the
receivers of my corn, which I always rubbed out as soon as it was
dry, and cured, and kiept it in great baskets.
I began now to perceive my powder abated considerably; this was
a want which it was impossible for me to supply, and I began
seriously to consider what I must do when I should have no more
powder;_ that is to say, how I should kill any goats. I had, as is
observed, in the third year of my being here, krept a young kid, and
bred her up tame, and I was in hopes of getting a he-goat : but I
could not by any means bring it to pass, till my kid grew an old
goat; and as I could never findl in my heart to kill' her, she died at
last of mere age.
But being now in the eleventh year of my residence, and, as I have
said, my: ammunition growing low, I set myself to study some art to
trap and snare the goats, to see whether I could not catch some of
them alive; and particularly, I wanted a she-goat great with young.
For this purpose, I made snares to hamper them; and I do believe
they were more than once taken in them; but my tackle was not
good, for I had no wire, and I always found them broken, and m
bait devoured. At length, I resolved to try a pitfall: so I u
severall selargepts i the earth, in places where I had observed th
goas ued o fedandeve thsepits I placed hurdles, of my own

nosInYsoI caUson. 99
making too, with a great weight upon them; and several times I put
ears of barley and dry rice, without setting the trap; and I could
easily perceive that the goats had gone in and eaten up the corn, for
I could see the marks of their feet. At length, I set three traps in
one night, and going the next mormug, I found them all standing,
aLnd yet the bait eaten and gone: this was very discouraging. How-
ever, I altered my traps; and, not to trouble. you with particulars,
gogone mornmg to see my traps, I found in one of them a large
~old~ e-goat ; and m one of the others, three kids, a male and two
As to the old one, I knew not what to do with him; he was so
fierce, I durst not go into the pit to him; that is to say, tobrn
him away alive, which was what I wanted; I could have kle
him, but that was not my business, nor would it answer msend:
so even let him out, and he ran away as if he had been fihened
out of his wits. But I did not then know what I afterwards earned,
that hunger will tame a lion. If I had let him stay there three or
four days without food, and then have carried him some water to
drink, and then a little corn, he would have been as tame as one of
they krfid;or they are mighty sagacious, tractable creatures, where
However, for the present I let him go knowing no better at that
time: then I went to the three kids, and taking them one by one, I
tied them with strings together, and ih some diffculty brought
them all home.
It was a good while before they would feed; but throwing them
some sweet corn, it tempted them, and they began to be tame. And
now I found that if I expected to supply ~myself with goats' flesh,
when I had no powder or shot left, breeding some up tame was my
only way when, perhaps, I might have them about my house like a
f lock of s eep. But, then, it occurred to me that I must keep the
tame from the wild, or else they would always run wild when they
grwup; and the only way for this was to have some enclosed piece
ofgound well fenced either with hedge or pale, to keep them m so
ofetualy that those within might not break out, or those without
break in.
This was a great under 'in for one pair of hands; yet, as I saw
there was an absolute neces 't for doing it, ms fist work was to find
out a proper piece of ground, were there was lieyto be herbage for
them to eat, water for them to drink, and cover to kep them from the
Those who understand such enclosures will think I had very little
contrivance, when I pitched upon a lace very proper Ifor aR these
(being~a plain open piece of meadow '-~or saanh sour people
call it mn the western colonies), which ihau two or three little drills of
fresh water in it, and at one end was very woody,--I say they will
smile at my forecast, when I shall tell them I bea by enciosme this
piece of ground in such a manner, that my he ge or pale musf have
been at least two miles about. Nor was the m ades of it so great as
to the compass, for if it was ten miles about, I was like to have time
enough to do it in; but I did not consider that my goats would Be as

wild in so much compass as if they had had the whole island, and I
should have so much room to chase them in that I should never catch
Mdy hedge was begun and carried on, I believe, about fifty yards
when this thought occurred to me; so I presently stopped short, and,
for the beginnings, I resolved to enclose a piece of about one hundred
and fifty yards m length, and one hundred yards in breadth, which,
as it would maintain as many as I should have mn any reasonable
tnime, so, as my stockr increased, I could add more ground to my
This was acting with some prudence, and I went to work with
cour ge. I was about three months hedging in the first piece; and,
till I ~ad done it, I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, and
used them to feed as near me as possible, to make them familiar;
and vry oten woud goand arrythem some ears of barley, ora
handfuly of rie, nd feed g them ou~t of m y hand; so thart, after my
enclosure was finished, and I let them loose, they would follow me up
and down, bleating after me for a handful of corn.
This answered my end, and in about a year and a half I had a flock
of about twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years more I had three-
and-forty, besides several that I took and killed for my food. After
that, I enclosed five several pieces of ground to feed them in, with
little pens to drive them into, to take them as I wanted, and gates out
of one piece of ground into another.
But this was not all; for now I not only had goats' flesh to feed
01n when I pleased, but milk too, a thins which, indeed, in the begoin-
nung, I did not so much as think of, and which, when it came into my
thoughts, was really an agr~eeable surprise, for now I set up my dairyr,
and had sometimes a gallon or two of milk in a day. And as Nlature,
who gives supplies of food to every creature, dictates even naturally
how to make use of it, so I, that had never milked a cow, much less a
goat, or seen butter or cheese made only when I was a boy, after a
atmany essays and miscarriages, made both butter and cheese at
also salt (though I found it partly made to my hand by the heat
ofesun upon some of the rocks of the sea), and never wanted it
afterwards. How mercifully .can our Creator treat His creatures,
even in those conditions in which they seemed to be overwhelmed mn
destruction! H ow can H~e sweeten the bitterest providence, and
give us cause to praise HIim for dungeons and prisons!i What a table
was here spread for me in the wilderness, where I saw nothing at fist
but to perish for hunger.
It would have made a stoic smile to have seen me and my little
family sit down to dinner. There was my majesty, the prince and
lord of the whole island; I had the lives of all my subjects at myi~
absolute command; I cudhang, draw, give liberty,antaei
aay, and no rebels among all my subjects. Then, to see how likre
akgI dined, too, all alone, attended by my servants! Poll, as if
he ha~d been my favourite, was the only person permitted to talk to
me. My dog, who was now grown very old and crazy, and had
found no species to multiply his kind upon, sat always at my right
hand, and two cats, one on one side of the table, and one on the

no~mNON CRUsOE. 101
other, expecting now and then a bit from my hand, as a mark of
special favour.
But these were not the two cats which I brought on shore at first,
for they were both of them dead, and had been interred near mybabi-
tation by my own hand; but one of them having multiplied bylknow
not what kind of creature, these were two which I had preserved
tame whereas the rest run wild in the woods, and became indeed
troublesome to me at last, for they would often come into my house.
and plunder me, too, till at last I was obliged to shoot them, and did
kill a great many; at length they left me. With this attendance
and in this plentiful manner I lived; neither could I be said to want
anything but society; and of that, some time after this, I was likely
to have much.
I was something impatient, as I have observed, to have the use of
my boat, though very loath to run any more hazards; and therefore
sometimes I sat contriving ways to get her about the island, and at
other times I sat myself down contented enough without her. But I
had a strange uneasiness in my mind to go down to the point of the
island, where, as I have said in my last ramble, I went up the hill to
see how the shore 1.ay, and how the current set, that I might see what
I had to do; this mcitlination increased upon me every day, and at
length I resolved to travel thither by land, followmng the edge of the
shore. I did so but had any one m England met such a man as I
was, it must eitfier have frightened him, or raised a great deal of
laughter; and as I frequently stood still to look at myself, I could
not but smile at the notion of my travelling through Yorkshie with
such an equipagoe, and in such a dress. Be pleased to take a sketch
of my figure, as follows :--
I had a great high shapeless cap, made of a goat's skin, with a flap
hanging down behind, as well to keep the sun from me as to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck, nothing being so hurtful in these
climates as the rain upon the flesh under the clothes.
I had a short jacket of goat's skin, the skirts coming down to about
the middle of the thighs, and a pair of open-kneed Ireeches of the
same; the breeches were made of the skin of an old he-goat, whose
hair hung down such a length on either side, that, like pantaloons, it
reached to the middle of my legs; stockings and shoes I had none, but
had made me a pair of somethimgs, I scarce know what to call them,
like buskins, to flap over my legs, and lace on either side like spatter-
dashes, but of a most barbarous shap~e, as indeed were all the rest of
my clothes.
~I had on a broad belt of ooat's skin dried, which I drew together
with two thongs of the same stead of buckles, and in a kind of a frog
on either side of this, instead of a sword and dagger, hung a little saw
and a hatchet, one on one side, and one on the other. I had another
belt not so broad, and fastened in the same manner, which hung over
my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left arm, hung twotttttttt~~~~~~~~~
pouches, both made of goat's skin too in one of which hung my powder,
m the other my shot. At my back I carried my basket, and on my
shoulder my guand over my head a great clumsy, ugly, goat's skin
umbrsila, butwhch after all, was the most necessary thmsI I had

aboutme next to my gunl. As for my face, the colour of it was ral
not so mulatto-like as one might expect from a man not at all careful
of it, and living within nine or ten degrees of the equmnox. My beard
I had once su fered to grow till it was about a quarter of a yard long;
but as I had both scissors and razors sufficient. I had cut it pretty
short, except what grew on my upper lip, which I had trimmed into a
large pair of Mahometan whiskers, such~ as I had seen worn by some
Turks at Sallee, for the Moors did not wear such, though! the Turks
did ; of these moustachios, or whliskers, I will not say they were lon
enough to hang my hat upon them, but they were of a engrthad
shape monstrous enough, and such as in England would have passed
for frightful.
.But all this is by the bye; for, as to my figure, I had so few to
observe me, that it was of no manner of consequence, so I say no more
of that. In this kind of dress I went my new Journey and was out
five or six days. I travelled ~first along the sea-shore, directly to the
place where I first brought my boat to an anchor to get upon the
rooks; and having no boat now to take care of, I went over the land
a nearer way to thle same height that I was upon before, when, lookr-
ing forward to the points of the rocks which lay out, and which; I was
obhiged to double with my boat, as is said above, I was surprised to
see the sea all smooth and quiet,--no rippling, no motion, no current,
any more there than in any other places. I was at a strange loss to
understand this, and resolved to spend some time in the observing it,
to see if nothing from the sets of the tide had occasioned it; but Iwas
presently convinced how it was, viz., that thle tide of ebb setting from
the west, and joining with the current of waters from some great
river on the shore, must be the occasion of this current, and that,
according as the wind blew more forcibly from the west or fromte
north, this current came nearer, or went 'farther from the shore; o
waiting thereabouts till evening, I w~ent up to the rock ag;ain,ad
then thie tide of ebb being made, I plainly saw the current aana
before, only that it ran farther off being near half a league from the
shore, whereas mn my case it set close upon the shore, and hurried me
and my canoe along with it, which at another time it would not have
This observation convinced me that I had nothing to do but to
observe the ebbing and the flowing of the tide, and I might very
easily bring my boat about the island agamn; but when I began to
think of putting it in practice, I had such terror upon mysprs
at the remembrance of the danger I had been in, that I coul o
think of it agamn with any patience, but, on the contrary, I took up
another resolution, whidx was more safe, though more laborious,--
and this was, that I would build, or rather make, me another peng~ua
or canoe, and so have one for one side of the island, and one for the
You are to understand, that now I had, as I may call it, two plan.
stations in the island,-one my little fortification or tent, with the
wall about it, under the rock, with the cave behind me, which by
this time I had enlarged into several apartments, or cave, on
within another. One of these, which was th retand lret n

nommson oneson. 103
had dor ot byon mywall or fortification,--that is to say, beyond
where my wall 30mned t h ok a l de pwt h ag
earthen pots, of which I have given an account, and with fourteen
or fifteen great baskets, which would hold five or six bushels each,
where I laild up my stores of provisions, especially my corn, some in the
hard cut off short from the straw, and the other rubed out with my
As for my wall, made, as before, with long stakes or piles, those
piles grew all like trees, and were by this time grown so big, and
spread so very much, that there was not the least appearance, to any
one's view, of any habitation behind them.
Near tins dwelling of mine, but a little farther within the land, and
upon lower ground, a my two pieces of corn land, which I kept duly
cultivated and sowe and which duly yielded mle their harvest in its
season; and whenever I had occasion for more corn, I had more land
adjoining as fit as that.
Besides this, I had my country seat, and I had now a tolerable
plantation there also; for first, I had my little bower as I called it,
whlich I kept in repaur-that is to say, I ~kept the h ~de, which en-
circled it in, constantly fitted up to its usualheight, the lader standing
always in the inside. I kept the trees, which at fist were no more
than stakes, but were now grown very fim and tall, always out, so
that they might spread and grow thick and wild, and make the more
agreeable shade, which they did effectually to my mind. In the
middle of this I had my tent always standing, being apiece of a sail
spread over poles, set up for that purpose, and which never wanted
any repair or renewing and under this I had made me a squab or
couch, with the skins of the creatures I had killed, and with other
soft things, and a blanket laid on them, such as belonged to our sea-
bedding, which I had saved; and a great watch-coat to cover me.
And here, whenever I had occasion to be absent from my chief seat,
I took up! my country habitation.
Adjolnung to this, I had my enclosures for my cattle, that is to say,
my goats; and I had taken an conceivable deal of pamns tofee
and enclose thief ground. I was so anxious to see it kept entire, lest
the goats should break through, that I never left. off till, with infinite
labour, I had stuck the outside of the hedge so full of small stakes,
and so near to one another, that it was rather a pale than a hedge,
and there was scarce room to put a hand through between them;
which afterwards, when those stakes grew, as they all did in the next
ramny season ~made the enclosure strong like a wall, indeed stronger
than any wall.
This will testify for me that I was not idle, and that I spared no
pains to bring to pass whatever appeared necessary for my comfortable
support, for I considered the keeping up a: breed of tame creatures
thus at my hand would be a living magazine of flesh, milk, butter,
and cheese for me as long as I lived mn the place, if it were to be
forty years; and that keeping them in my reach depended etrl
upon my perfecting my enclosures to such a degree, that I: mi
be sure of keeping them together which, byr this method, indeed
so effectuaslly secured, that when these little stakes began to grow,