Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Memoir of DeFoe
 Robinson Crusoe
 Robinson Crusoe, part II


The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073551/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xx, 497, 1 p. : front. (port.), ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Watson, John Dawson, 1832-1892 ( Illustrator )
Dalziel Brothers ( Engraver )
Routledge, Warne, & Routledge ( Publisher )
R. Clay, Sons, and Taylor ( Printer )
Publisher: Routledge, Warne, and Routledge
Place of Publication: London (Farringdon Street) ;
New York (Walker Street)
Manufacturer: R. Clay, Son, and Taylor
Publication Date: 1864
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe <sic> ; with a portrait ; and one hundred illustrations by J.D. Watson ; engraved by the brothers Dalziel.
General Note: On spine: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe ... Routledge & Co.
General Note: Probably the same as Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 493. Lovett describes the verso of the t.p. as the "copyright page," while this copy has printer information on verso. Lovett also cites this edition as the first.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "Memoir of De Foe," p. xiii-xx.
General Note: Last page of text (p. <498>) not numbered.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement (<2>) p. at end.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 09094892
System ID: UF00073551:00001


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Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Table of Contents
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Memoir of DeFoe
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
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    Robinson Crusoe, part II
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Full Text









To descant upon the merits of a book that has won the approbation of
critics in every civilized country, and has achieved an almost unequalled
popularity, so that its very name has become a familiar household word,
would, indeed, be a work of supererogation. It is sufficient to say of it,
that the Japse of a century and a half since its first publication has in
no degree impaired the reputation of "Robinson Crusoe." It is a book,
if not for all time," at least for so long a period as the English language
shall endure; indeed, it may be averred that it has taken such fir
root in the literature of the world, and has so widely shed its leaves
of knowledge, morality, and entertainment, as to defy eradication.
It is a great glory to Englanld to have given birth to a cluster of
men whose works have found a world-wide acceptance, and which have
at the same time exerted a salutary influence on the intellectual and
moral development of mankind only inferior to the teachings of Scripture
itself. Amongst these mlustrious men--in association with Shakspeare,
Bacon, Milton, Bunyan, and Newton--De Foe is entitled to take rank as
the author of the most entertaining and truth-like fiction that has yet
been, or perhaps ever will be, produced. Robinson Crusoe stands
alone as the book of books in its power to fascinate, interest, and elevate
the youthful mind. Moreover, it is not too much to claim for its author
the merit of having greatly assisted in promoting the growth of that
spirit, at once manly, truthful, self-relying, and humane, which so



pre-eminently distinguishes the English character, and by the exercise
of which our people have become foremost in the noble race of a
healthful civilization, and in spreading its benefits over a very large
portion of the world's surface.
That such a work, abounding in scenes and situations admirably
adapted for pictorial treatment, should have engaged the willing services
of various excellent artists, is not to be wondered at. It has been a
fertile theme for the exercise of their talent and skill, not only in this
country, but abroad, especially in France. It would be invidious here
to attempt to disparage these several attempts, some of which, especially
the designs made, to a limited extent, by Stothard, and the clever French
woodcuts of Grandville, deserve much commendation; but it has long
been acknowledged that the task had not been on the whole satisfactorily
accomplished : and that a series of Illustrations, which should combine
the various elements of poetical feeling, delineation of character, accuracy
of costume and scenery, and artistic effect, was still a desideratum.
Impressed with this conviction, the proprietors of the present Edition,
in the hope of successfully meeting the requirement, resolved to avail
themselves of the services of Mr. J. D. WATSON, the successful illustrator
of "The Pilgrim's Progress"--a cogna~te work as to popularity; and
this distinguished artist having taken up the subject can more, Messrs.
DALZIEL, the eminent engravers on wood, were entrusted with the
delicate and difficult task of cutting his designs. How successfully
this undertaking has been accomplished the present Volume will show;
and it is confdently offered to the public as one that will, at all events,
do credit to English art and typography.

2, FARRINGDON STREET, October, 1863.



My birth and parentage--at nineteen years of age I determined to go to sel~lissuaded
by my parents--elope with a schoolfellow, and go on board ship-a storm arises, during
which I am dreadfully frightened--ship founders--myself and crew saved by a boat
from another vessel, and landed near Yarmouth-meet my companion's father there,
who advises me never to go to sea more, but all in vain. .. .. .. pp. 1--16
Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully-death of my captain-sail another
trip with his mate-the vengeance of Providence for disobedience to parents now over-
takes me--taken by a Sallee rover, and all sold as slaves--my master frequently sends
me a fishing, which suggests an idea of escape--make my escape in an open boat, with
a Moresco boy .. ... . . .. pp. 17--29
Make for the southward in hopes of meeting with some European vessel--see savages
along shore--shoot a large leopard--am taken up by a merchantman--arrive at the
Brazils, and buy a settlement there-ecannot be quiet, but sail on a voyage of adventure
to Guinea--ship strikes on a Sandbank in unknown land--all lost but myself, who am
driven ashore, half dead . .. .. ... ... .. .. pp. 29--48
Appearance of the wreck and country next day--swim on board of the ship, and, by
means of a contrivance, get a quantity of stores on shore--shoot a bird, but it turns out
perfect carrion--moralise upon my situation-the ship blown off land, and totally lost-
set out in search of a proper place for a babitation--see numbers of goats-melancholy
reflections .................. pp.48-79
I begin to keep a journal-chbristen my desert island the island of Despair--fall upon
various schemes to make tools, baskets, &ce. and begin to build my house-at a great
loss of an evening for candle, but fall dpon an expedient to supply the want-strange
discovery of corn-a terrible earthquake and storm .. .. .. .. pp. 7Z84
Observe the ship driven further aground by the late storm-procure a vast quantity of
necessaries from the wreck-catch a large turtle--I fall ill of a fever and ague--terrible
dream, and serious reflections thereupon-find a Bible in one of the seamen's chests
thrown ashore, the reading whereof gives me great comfort . ... pp. 84--98
I begin to take a sure of my island--discover plenty of tobacco, grapes, lemons, and
sugar-canes, wild, but no human inhabitants--resolve to lay up a store of these articles,
to furnish me against the wet season-my cat, which I supposed lost, returns with
kittens--I regulate my diet, and shut myself up for the wet season--sow my grain,
which comes to nothing; but I discover and remedy my error-tarke account of the
course of the weather . .. ... . .. . pp. 98-106


Make a second tour through the island--catch a young parrot, which I afterwards teach
to speak--my mode of sleeping at night-fmnd the other side of the island much more
pleasant than mine, and covered with turtle and sea-fowl--catch a young kid, which I
tame-return to my old habitation--great plagab with my harvest .. pp. 106--117
I attempt to mould earthenware, and succeed-description of my mode of baking--begin
to make a boat-after it is finished, am unable to get it down to the water--serious
reflections--my ink and biscuit exhausted, and clothes in a bad state--contrive to make
a dress of skins . .... . .. . pp. 117--132
I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth year of my reign,
or captivity--blown out to sea--reach the shore with great ditficulty--fall asleep, and
am awakened by a voice calling my name--devise various schemes to tame goats, and
at last succeed .. .. ... .. .. pp. 132--144
Description of my figure--also of my dwelling and enclosures-dreadful alarm on seeing
the print of a man's foot on the shore-reflections-take every possible measure of
precaution ... ......... ........ pp.144--156
I observe a canoe out at sea-fmd on the shore the remnant of a feast of cannibals--
horror of mind thereon--double arm myself-terribly alarmed by a goat--discover a
singular cave, or grotto, of which I form my mlagazine--my fears on account of the
savages begin to subside . .. ... .. .. ... pp. 156--171
Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence-discover nine naked
savages round a fire on my side of the island--my horror on beholding the dismal work
they were about-I determine on the destruction of the next party, at all risks--a ship
lost off the island--go on board the wreck, which I discern to be Spanish--procure a
great variety of articles from the vessel . .. .. .. .. pp. 171--185
Reflections--an extraordinary dream--discover five canoes of savages on shore-observe
from my station two miserable wretches dragged out of the boats to be devoured--one
of them makes his escape, and r~uns directly towards me, pursued by two others-I take
measures so as to destroy hris pursuers, and save his life--christen him by the name of
Friday, and hebecomes a faithful and excellent servant .. .. .. pp. 185--199
I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the cannibal practices
of the savages--he is amazed at the effects of the gun, and considers it an intelligent
being--begins to talk English tolerably-a dialogue--I instruct him in the knowledge
of religion, and fmd him very apt--he describes to me some white men who had come
to his country, and still lived there ... .. .. .. .. pp. 199--212
I determine to go over to the continent-Friday and I construct a boat equal to carry
twenty men--his dexterity in managing her--Friday brings intelligence of three canoes
of savages on shore--resolve to go down upon them--Friday and I fie upon the
wretches, and save the life of a poor Spaniard--list of the killed and wounded--
discover a poor Indian bound in one of the canoes, who turns out to be Priday's
father ................... .... pp.212--227
I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen among the
savages--the Spaniard and Friday's father, well armed, sail on a mission to the con-
tinent-I discover an English ship lying at anchor off the island--her boat comes on


shore with three prisoners-the crew straggle into the woods, their boat being aground
--discover myself to the prisoners, who prove to be the captain and mate of the vessel,
and a passenger-secure the mutineers .. ... .. .. pp. 227-240
The ship makes signals for her boat-n receiving no answer, she sends another boat on
shore-methods by which we secure this boat's crew, and recover the ship, pp. 240--255
I take leave of the island, and, afer a long voyage, arrive in England--go downI into
Yorkshire, and fmnd the greater part of my family dead--resolve to go to Lisbon for
information respecting my plantation at the Brazils--meet an old friend there, by
whose means I become rich--set out for England overland-much annoyed by wolves
on the road .. .. .. .. .. . . pp. 255--268
Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear-terrible engagement with a whole anrmy of
wolves-arrive in England safely, and settle my affairs there--I marry, and have a
family. ...... ......... ...... pp.269-280


Reflections-unsettled state of mind, and conversation with my wife thereon-purchase a
farm in the county of Bedford--lose my wife--I determine to revisit my island, and for
that purpose settle all my affairs in England--description of the cargo I carried out
with me-save thecrew of vessel burnt at sea . .. .. .. pp. 281--300
Steer for the West Indies--distressing account of a Bristol ship, the crew of which we
save, in a state of starvation-arrive at my islaud--Friday's joy on discovering it-
affecting interview betwixt him and his father on landing-narrative of the occurrences
on the island during my absence ... .. .. .. pp. 300--315
Narrative continued--insolence of three of the Englishmen to the Spaniards--they are
disarmed and brought to order--a great body of savages land upon the island--they
turn out to be two adverse nations, met there by chance-a bloody battle betwixt them
--several of the vanquished party secured by the Spaniards .. .. pp. 315-327
Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the Spaniards--the English make a
voyage to the mainland, and return in twenty-two days-particulars of their voyagp-
description of the men and women they brought with them--the colony discovered by
an unlucky accident to the savages, who invade the island, but are defeated, pp. 327347
The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages--a terrible engagement, in which
the cannibals are utterly routed--thirty-seven wretches, the survivors, are saved, and
employed by my people as servants-description of Will Atkins' inenious contrivances
for his accommodation ... .. .. .. .. . ... pp. 347358
I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the history of their situation among the
savages, from which Irelieved them--I inform the colony for what purpose I am come,
and what I meau to do for them--distribution of the stores I brought with me-the
priest I saved at sea solemnizes the marriages of the sailors and female Indians, who
had hitherto lived together as man and wife .. .. .. .. pp. 358--385


Sincere and worthy character of the priest-dialogue with Will Atkins and myself--
conversation betwixt Atkins and his Indian wife on the subject of religion--her baptism
-settlement of thecommonwealth .. .. .. .. . pp. 385-8396
I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians-amiable character of the young woman
we saved in a famished state at sea--her own relation of her suiferings from hunger--
sail from the island for the Brazils-encounter and rout a whole fleet of savages-death
of Friday-arrival at Brazil. ... .. .. .. pp. 396--409
I despatch a number of additional reernits, and a quantity of extra stores, to the island,
and take my leave of it for ever--I determine to go with the ship to the East Indies--
arrive at Madagascar-dreadful occurrences there .. .. .. pp. 409-424
Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties practised at Madagascar--five men
lost on the Arabian shore, off the Gulf of Persia--the seamen refuse to sail if I continue
on board, in consequence of which I am left on shore--make a very advantageous
trading voyage, in company with an English merchant, and purchase a vessel which, it
turns out, the crew had mutinied and run away with .. .. .. pp. 424-433
Make a trading voyage in this ship--put into the river of Cambodin--and warned of my
danger by a countryman, in consequence of which we set sail, and are pursued--great
difficulty in making our escape . .. .. .. ... .. pp. 433--440
Obliged to come to anchor on a savage coast, to repair our ship-we are attacked by the
natives, whom our carpenter disperses by a whimsical contrivance-serious reflections
upon ourdisagreeable situation .. .. .. .. .. .. pp. 440-4~50
We arrive in China in safety--dispose of the ship--description of the inhabitants-arrive
at Pekin, and fmd an opportunity of returning toEuro-pe . . . pp. 450-462
Set out by the caravan-account of the valuable effects we took with us--further descrip-
tion of the interior of China--pass the great wall-attacked by Tartars, who are dis-
persed by the resolution of a Scots merchant--the old pilot saves my life--we are again
attacked, and defeat the Tartars .. .. .. .. ... pp. 462-47i2
Further account of our journey-description of an idol: which we destroy-great danger
we incur thereby-account four trvels throughMuov .. .. pp. 479--485
Conversations with a Russian graudee--set out onl my journey homewards-bharassed by
Kalmucks on the road-arrival at Archangel-sail from thence, and arrive safely in
England . .. .. .. .. .. pp. 485-4P98


CarUSOE FAINTS AT THE PUM . . .. .. .. .- **
XTY sWEARs TO BE AITHFUL. . ... . .. 2
CRUSOE LOADS HIS RAFT . .. .... .. .. .. 5
CRUsoE'S RAFT ISNEARLYUPSET .. .. . ... .. 3
CRUSOE GETS DOWN TO THE CABLE .. .. .. ... .. 59
CRUSOE SETS UP APOST . .. .. .. .. ... 7
CRUSOE BEGINS TOBE ILL .. .. . .. . .. 7
CRUSOE FINDS A BIBLE .. .. .. .. .. 4
CRUSOEPRAYS .......,,,,..,,.... Of
CRUsoE 18 CrOMFOTED BYHIS BIBLE, . . ... .. .. 113
CRUISE REAPS HIS BALEY W .. .. . .. .. .. .1
CRUsoE IS UNABLE TO MOVE HIS BOAT .. .. .. .. .. 125
CRUSOE DINEs WITH HIS FAMILY . .. .. .. .. .. 143


caUSOE BURIES HIS DOG . .. . ... . .. .12
CRUSOE GETS A VIEW OF THE WRECK ... . .. .. .. 179
CRUSOE DRESSES FRIDAY ... .. .. ... .17
THE MUTINEER CAFE~IN 18 SHOT .. .. .. . .. 5
CRUSOE NEEDS A PHYSICIAN .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 262
A HORSE PURSTJED BY WOLvas . .. .. .... . 275
THE FIGHT WITH TIE WOLVES ... . . .. .. 277
FRIDAY IS KILLED . ... .. .. .. .. ... 405
CRUSOE IS WARNED OF BIS DANGER .. .. ... . ... 435


DA~NIEL FOE, OT, as he subsequently styled himself (though at what time and
on what occasioh is not known), De Foe, was born in the year 1661, in the parishi
of St. Giles, Cripplegate, London, where his father, James Foe, followed the
trade of butcher : and these few barren facts constitute all that is now authenti-
cally known of the origin of the author of Ronason CRUSOE. Mr. Wilson, in his
' Life and Times of Daniel De Foe,"-a work abounding with curious and
minute information on the period of which it treats, says:--"He had some
collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasionally in his writings, but with too
much brevity to ascertain the degree of kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivacity of humour, and
that indomitable spirit of independence, that remained with him through after life:
L' making a sunshine in the shady place of a prison, and arming him as the
champion of truth and humanity in the most perilous times. The parents of De Foe
were nonconformists, and his education was consonant to the practice of their faith.
Family religion formed an essential part of its discipline ; and it was made matter
of conscience to instruct the children of a family and its dependents in their social,
moral, and religious duties.
The enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to sink his reputation by repre-
senting him as having been bred a tradesman; we have, however, his own assurance
that he was educated for the ministry, although he does not state why his desti-
nation was altered. He was at all events placed by his father at a Dissenting
academy at Newington Green, under the direction of the Reverend Charles Morton,
a man of learning and a judicious teacher, who was subsequently defended by his
pupil from some aspersions that had been cast upon his character by an ungrateful
scholar who had deserted to the Church.
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible now to speak with any
certainty. He tells us in one of his Reviews" that he had been master of five
languages, and that he had studied the mathematics, natural philosophy, logic,
geography, and history. De Foe was, moreover, one of the few who, in those days,
studied politics as a science. He went through a complete course of theology, and
his knowledge of ecclesiastical history was also considerable. Nevertheless, he was
attacked by party malice as "Lan illiterate person without education." To this he
calmly makes answer :-"Those gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaud
their own, shall have it proved that I have more learning than either of them-
because I have more manners." He adds, I think I owe this justice to my
xm 0


excellent father still living (1705), and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I
amt a blockhead, it is nobody's fault but my own."
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the vocation--most perilous in his day
-of author; at which he laboured through good and through evil report, with
great honour to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind, for half a. century. His
first publication wats a lampooning answer to L'Estrange's Guide to the Inferior
Clergy," and wars intended to satirize the prevalent High Church notions of the
When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, in the year 1685, De Foe was
among those who joined the standard of that hapless nobleman. At the age of
four-and-twenty, we see De Foe a soldier, as ready with his sword as prompt with
his pen, in the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe seems to have
had some previous knowledge, having often seen him at Aylesbury races, where
the duke rode his own horses, a circumstance alluded to by our author in his
" Tour." De Foe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon so
many of the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to London; where, leaving
the stormy region of politics, he now directed his attention to trade. The nature
of his business, according to his own account, was that of a hose-factor, or
the middle-man between the manufacturer and the retail hosier. This concern he
carried on for some years, in Freeman's-court, Cornhill; Mr. Chalmers says, from
1685 to 1695. On the 26th of January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by
birth, he was admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain's book, his
name was written Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident in Tooting, where he
was the ~first person who attempted to form the Dissenters in the neighbourhood
into a regular congregation. He was an ardent worshipper of the Revolution,
and annually commemorated the 4th of November as a day of deliverance.
The commercial speculations of De Foe, though at first prosperous, were
ultimately unsuccessful That they were of a varied character, is evident from the
fact of his having engaged with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese trade. It
is very clear, from a passage in his "' Review," that he had been a merchant-adven-
turer. In the number for January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb,
which," says he, I learnt when I was in that country." It further appears,
that while residing there, he made himself master of the language. De Foe's
losses by shipwreck it is supposed must have been very considerable. In allusion
to his misfortunes, Mr. Chalmers observes :--"With the usual imprudence of
genius, he was carried into companies who were gratified by his wit. He spent
those hours with a small society for the cultivation of polite learning, which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the counting-house; and, being
obliged to abscond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those mis-
fortunes to the war, which were probably owing to his own misconduct. An angry
creditor took out a commission of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the
petition of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a composition
on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the efforts of unwearied dihi-
gence; but some of these creditors, who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwards
into distress themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim, being
then in rising circumstances, in consequence of King William's favour." On being
subsequently reproached by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, De Foe tells


him, in 1705, that, with a numerous family, and no help but his own industry,
he had forced his way, with undiscouraged diligence, through a set of mlisfortunes,
and reduced his debts, exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less
than five thousand pounds." It should be remembered that, in those days, our
laws against bankrupts were as cruelly oppressive, as they wiere foolish.
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from his creditors, resided
some time in Bristol. A friend of mine in that city," says Mr. Wilson, "informs
me that one of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him walking
in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of the times, with a fine flowing
wig, lace ruf~es, and a sword by his side : also, that he there obtained the namle of
' the Sunday gentleman,' because, through fear of the bailiffs, he did not dare to
appear in public upon any other day."
It appears that at this time De Poe was invited, by some merchants of his
acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in Spain, with the offer of a good com-
mission. But," says our author, Providence, which had other work for me
to do, placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting England upon any account,
and made me refuse the best offer of that kind, to be concerned with some eminent
persons at home, in proposing ways and means to the government for raising
money to supply the occasion of the war, then newly begun." De Foe suggested
a general assessment of personal property, the amount to be settled by composition,
under the inspection of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubtless,
owing to these services, that be was appointed to the office of accountant to
the commissioners of the glass duty, in 1695: which commission ceased in 1699.
It was probably about this time that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln
and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had been hitherto a Dutch
manufacture, and were brought in large quantities to England. To supersede the
necessity of their importation, these works were erected. The speculation ulti-
mately proved unsuccessful
Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to the world his L'Essay
upon Projects : a work alike admirable for the novelty of the subject, and the
clearness and ingenuity with which it is treated. The projects of our author may
be classed under the heads of politics, commerce, and benevolence; all having
reference to the public improvement. The first relates to banks in general,
and to the royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be rendered
subservient to the relief of the merchant, and the interests of commerce, as well
as to the purposes of the state; his next project relates to highways; a third,
to the improvement of the bankrupt laws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly
societies, formed by mutual assurance, for the relief of the members in seasons
of distress; a fifth, for the establishment of an asylum for fools," or, more
properly, "L naturals," whom he describes as a particular rent-charge on the great
family of mankind; he next urges the formation of academies, to supply some
neglected branches of education : one of these was for the improvement of the
English tongue, to polish and refine it;" and this project combined a reforma-
tion of that foolish vice," swearing: another part of the project was an academy
for military studies; and he also suggests an institution for the education of
In January, 1700-1, appeared De Foe's celebrated poem of The Trueborn
Englishman." It was composed in answer to a vile, abhorred pamphlet, in very


ill verse, written by one 1 r Tutchin, and called The Foreigners," in which the
author-who he then was I knew not," says De Foe-" fell personally upon the
king and the Dutch nation."
When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives against Dutchmen,"
says De Foe, in his Explanatory Preface," only because they are foreigners,
and the king reproached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-making
poets, for employing foreigners, and being a, foreigner himself, I confess myself
moved by it to remind our nation of their own original, thereby to let them see
what a banter they put upon themselves ; since, speaking of Englishmen ab origine,
we are really all foreigners ourselves." It is to this poem that De Foe was indebted
for a personal introduction to Kiing William. He was sent for to the palace by his
Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated interviews with him afterwards.
Thle abilities and sentiments of De Foe appeared to have made such a favourable
impression on the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness; and'
conceiving that his talents might be turned to a beneficial account, he employed
him in many secret services, to which our author alludes occasionally in his
writings. The effect produced upon the country by the satire was most beneficial.
De Foe himself, nearly thirty years afterwards, writes, "National mistakes, vulgar
errors, and even a, general practice, have been reformed by a. just satire."
Inl 1700-1, on the meetings of the fifth parliament of William III., we find'
De Foe strenuously engagd in advocating the necessity of settling the succession
in thle Protestant line; an important object with Williamn, as the only means of
perpetuating the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Revolution. To
this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies, labouring with unwearied real in
the cause. His conduct on the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose'
names are historically associated with the presentation of the famous Kentish
petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his character. The Commons had
imprisoned thle petitioners, who had prayed the house for the settlement of the
Protestant Succession, for having presented a petition scandalous, insolent, and
seditious." On this, De Foe drew up his celebrated Legion Paper." In what
manner it was communicate~d to the house does not appear upon the journals. It
was reported at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it to the
Speaker as he entered the House of Commons. The "Legoion" petition rang
like a tocsin throughout thle kingdom. As, however, the author remained con-
cealed, the Commons did not thinkl fit to pass any particular censure upon it. The
Kentish petitioners were discharged by the prorogation of parliament on the 24th
of June; they were subsequently feasted at Afercers' Hall, on which occasion De
Foe attended.
ByT the death of King William our author lost a kind friend and powerful
protector. Toward the latter part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at
Hackney, and resided there many years. Here some of his children were born
and buried. In the parish register is the following entry :--" Sophia, daughter to
Daniel De Foe, by MUary his wife, was baptized, December 24, 17i01."
His next imupotams work-a work that exercised great influence on his
fortunes-was the Shortest WVay with the Dissenters; or, Proposals for the
Establishment of the Church; 1702." In this, the author, assuming the character
of an Ultra High Churchman, advocates in an artful veil of irony the adoption of
the severest measures against the Dissenters. The arguments he put forth found


high favour with both the Universities. The High Church Party never suspected
the sincerity of their partizan, and charmed and won by the fierce doctrines of their
champion, were unsuspicious of the satire of their extravagance. It was, however,
De Foe's hard fate to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst the High Church-
men conlgratulated, themselves on the addition of another advocate, the Dissenters
treated him as a, real enemy. The Church Party, however, fell into the trap laid
for them by De Foe : for, by expressing their delight at the fiery sentiments of
the writer, they avowed them as their own true feelings on the question. The
first detection of our author is said to have been owing to the industry of the
Earl of Nottingham, one of the secretaries of state. When his name was actually
known, people were at no loss to decipher his object; and those who had
committed themselves by launching forth in his praises were stung with madness
at their own folly. It was at once resolved by the party in power to crush De Foe
by a state prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought concealment;
when a proclamation was issued by the Government, offering 50 for the discovery
of his retreat; and in the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book be
burnt by the hands of the common hangman in Palace Yard." On the printer of
the work and the bookseller being taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from
his retirement, resolved, as he expresses it, to throw himself upon the favour of
government, rather than that others should be ruined by his mistake." He was
indicted at the Old Bailey Sessions, the 24th of February, 1703, and proceeded to
trial in the following July. It may be gathered from his own account of the
prosecution, that when his enemies had him in their power, they were at a lose to
know what to do with him. He was therefore advised to throw himself on the
mercy of the Queen, with a promise of protection : which induced him to quit his
defence, and acknowledge himself the author of the offensive work. On this,
he was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to the Queen; to stand three timaes in
the pillory; to be imprisoned during the Queen's pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years. The people, however, were with De Foe.
Hence, he was guarded to the pilory by the populace; and descended from it
with the triumphant acclamations of the surrounding multitude. He has himself
related, that "' the people, who were expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary,
pitied him, and wished those who set him there were placed in his room, and
expressed their affections by loud shouts and acclamations when he was taken
down." Thus, the odium intended for De Foe recoiled on his persecutors, and the
pillory became to him a place of honour.
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe is manifested by the fact,
that on the very day of his exhibition to the people, he published "' A Hymn to
the Pillory "
De Foe's fortunes were now at their lowest ebb : being a prisoner, moreover,
he could no longer attend to his pantile works, his only remaining source of
revenue, and they were consequently given up. By this affair he lost, as he
himself informs us, t3,500; and he had now a wife and six children dependent
upon him, with no other resource for their support than the product of his pen.
Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst in Newgate, was not that of idleness or
dissipation. It was then he stored his mind with those facts relative to the habits
and pursuits of the prisoners, which he has detailed with so much truth to nature,
as well as interest. A great part of his time was also devoted to the compo-


s~ition of various minor politicalworks. It was likewise whilst in Newgate that
he projected his Review," a periodical work of four quarto pages, which was
published for nine successive years without intermission, and during the greater
part of the time, three times a week, without his having received any assistance
whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he carried on an unsparing
warfare against folly and vice in all their disguises: it pointed the way to the
" Tatlers," "L Spectators," and Guardians," and may be referred to as containing
a, great mass of interesting and valuable matter, written with all the author's
characteristic spirit and vigour.
The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe : but Newgate had no terrors
for him, and he continued at once their prisoner and their assailant. Upon the
accession of Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dissimilar to those of
our author, the minister made a private communication to him, with the view
of obtaining his support. No immediate arrangement, however, took place between
them, as De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards. Notwithstanding,
it is most likely that the Queen became acquainted with De Foe's real merits
through the medium of the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of
our author's sufferingns, which she now appeared desirous to mitigate. For this
purpose, she sent money to his wife and family, at the same time transmitting to
him a sufficient sum for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his
discharge from prison.
On his release from NewgaLte, De Foe retired to Bury St. Edmunds. Party
clamour, and party-malice, however, pursued him there. On the miserable; libels
issued at this time against him, he says, I tried retirement, and banished myself
from the town : but neither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet, can
secure a man from the clamour of the pen."
In 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley and Godolphin on various missions
of a secret and, it is said, of even a dangerous nature, one of which required his
presence upon the Continent. Earley seems to have been so well satisfied, that
upon De Foe's return, he rewarded him with an appointment at home. In 1706,
De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union with Scotland, which
measure he strenuously advocated. This advocacy obtained for him a confidential
mission to Scotland, where he was received with great consideration. While in
Edinburgh, he published his Caledonia," &c. a poem in honour of Scotland
and the Scots nation. In 1708, De Foe was rewarded with an appointment and
a fixed salary. When the Union was completed, he published "The Union
of Great Britain." In 1710, he went to live at Stoke Newington, where he
resided for some years, and appears to have been comfortable in his circumstances.
In 1712 was closed the last volume of the Review." In a long preface to this
volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of this work, and of the mode in
which he had conducted it. Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive.
In allusion to his sufferings during the progress of the work, he says, I have
gone through a life of wonders, and am the subject of a vast variety of pro-
vidences; I have been fed more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were
his purveyors. I have some time ago summed up my life in this distich:--
No man has tasted dliffering fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor."
This preface may be considered as a review,--a summing up of the events of


De Foe's political life, and as such~ it possesses high value for the noble spirit of
conscious truth that animates every line of it. As a piece of English, it is remark-
able for its innate strength, as well as for the simplicity of its diction.
Our author was again unlucky enough to be committed to Newgate, on the
absurd charge of writing libels in favour of the Pretender. After the death of Queen
Anne, De Foe, who had been a political writer for thirty years, retired from the
thorny field to the more pleasant paths of literature. Whilst writing An
Appeal to Honour and Justice," he was struck with apoplexy; he however re-
covered, and in the early part of 1715, committed to the press one of his most
useful treatises, The Family Instructor." The success of this subsequently induced
him to write his L' Religious Courtship," which, on its appearance in 1722, met
with equal favour.
In 1719 appeared the immortal "L Robinson Crusoe." Nearly the whole circle
of booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. William Taylor, the
fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared a thousand pounds by the book, which
rose into immediate popularity. There can be no doubt that the idea of the work
was first suggested to the author by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which had
been given to the public seven years before. It has been thought by some,"
says Mr. John Ballantyne, in his biographical sketch prefixed to the Edinburgh
edition of De Foet's novels, to detract from the merit of De Foe, that the idea
was not originally his own; but really the story of Selkirk, which had been
published a few years before, in Woodes Rogers' Voyage round the W~orldl, appears
to have furnished our author with so little beyond the bare idea of a man living
upon an uninhabited island, that it appears quite immaterial whether he took
his hint from that or from any other similar story, of which many were then
current." In a number of The Engishman," Steele gave the true and par-
ticular history of Selkirk. The place in which "' Robinson Crusoe was composed
has been variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wilson) that De
Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke Newington, in a large white house, rebuilt
by himself, and still standing in Church-street. The work has been printed in
almost every written language, and has been the delight of men of all creeds and
all distinctions.
"Robinson Crusoe" was speedily followed by the Account of Dickory Crooke ;"
the "' Life and Piracies of Captain Singleton ;" the "History of Duncan Campbell;"
the Fortunes and Misfortunes of Moll Flanders;" the "L Life of Colonel Jack;"
the "' Memoirs of a Cavalier;" and that extraordinary work, the "A~ccount of the
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of competence, insured
to him by the success of his works. But this period of his life was embittered by
the cruelty and undutifulness of his son, who, to quote the words of De Foe, from
a letter written in his anguish: "L has both ruined my family and broken my heart."
For some years before his death, De Foe suffered greatly from both the gout and
the stone, which diseases were occasioned, in part, most probably by his close
application to study, whilst accumulating stores of knowledge for the benefit of
his fellow-men. He expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was about
seventy years of age. The parish of St. Giles, Criprplegate, in which he drew his
first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He was buried from thence, on
the 26th of April, in Tindall's burial-ground, now most known by the name of
Bunhill Felds. He left six children, two sons and four daughters. His wife died


at the latter end of the following year. A great-grandson of De Foe was living
in 1856, in a state of poverty, at the age of seventy-eight, for whose benefit a small
fund had not long before been raised.
The character of De Foe was but the practical example of his best writings.
As a citizen of the world, his love of truth, and the patience, the cheerfulness, with
which he endured the obloquy and persecution of his enemies, endear him to us as a
great workings benefactor to his race. His memory is enshrined with the memories of
those who make steadfast our faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature.
As a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of wisdom. If he
paint vice, it is to show its hideousness; whilst virtue itself receives a new a~ttrac-
tion at his hands. He was not a poet, but he could write vigorous verse, and his
satire was bold and trenchant, as well as convincing by its terseness, and by the
unadorned eloquence of its truth. De Foe's prose, though occasionally careless,
is remarkable for its simplicity and strength. WThat he has to say, he says in the
plainest manner, and in the simplest style. He does not--as is the vice of our
day--hide his thoughts under a glittering phraseology, but uses words as the
pictures of things. It is owing to this happy faculty, this unforced power, that
De Foe occasionally rises, as in many instances in the golden volume now offered
to the reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of the despair of Crusoe, we
have, in words intelligible even to infancy, a wondrous delineation of the soul of
man in a, most trying and most terrible hour. But the crowning merit of De Foe
is, that he was, in the right sense of the term, both in his personal conduct, and
the spirit of his writings,




WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being a
foreigner of Bremen, who settled fist at Hull: he got a good
estate by merebandise, and leaving off his trade, lived after-
wards at York; from whence he had married my mother,
whose relations were named Robinson, a very good family in that country,
and from whom I was called Robinson K~reutznaer; but, by the usual
corruption of words in England, we are now called,--nay we call our-
selves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment on foot in Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother I never knew, any more
than my father or mother knew what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade, my
head began to be filed very early with rambling thoughts: my father,
who ~was very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as
far as house-education and a country freeschool generally go, and designed
me for the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to
sea; and my inclination to this led me so strongly against the wnl,
nay, the commands of my father, and against all the entreaties and


persuasions of my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propensity of nature, tending directly to the life
of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me one
maorning into his chlamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leavings my
father's house and my native country, where I might be well introduced,
and had a prospect of raising my fortune by application and industry,
with a, life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate
fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring, superior fortunes on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves
famous in undertakings of a. nature out of the common road; and these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mnine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state
in, the world, the most suited to human happiness, not exposed to the
mliscries and hardships, the labour and sufferings of the mechanic part
of mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy' of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I might judge of the
hlappiness of this state by this one things, viz. that this was the state
of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented
the miserable consequence of beings born to great things, and wished they
had been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and
thle great; that the wise man gave hris testimony to this, as the standard
of felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always fmnd, that thle calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but
that the middle station had the fewrest disasters, and was not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind; nay,
they were nlot subjected to so many distempers, and uneasiness, either
of body or mlind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and
extravagances on one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean or insufficient diet on the other hand, bring distemper upon
themselves by the natural consequences of their way of livingr; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle



fortune; that temperance, moderation, qyuietness, health, society, all agrreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attendingr the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly
through the world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of thle head, not sold to a life of slavery for
daily bread, nor harassed with perplexed circumstances, which rob the
soul of peace, and the body of rest; nor enraged with the passion of


; ~i


envy, or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in
easy circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly tasting
the sweets of living, without the bitter; feeling that they are happy,
and learning by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into
miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed
to have provided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread; thlat he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly
into the station of life which he had just been recommending to me;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be
my mere fate or fault that must hinder it; and that he should have
nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word, that
as hie would do very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed, so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away; and to close
all, he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
hlad used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going into the
Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting
him to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he said
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say to
me, that if I did take this foolish step God would not bless me, and
I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon havingr neglected his
counsel, when there might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in thlis last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phletic, though I suppose my father did not know it to be so himself;
I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he
could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, and, indeed, who could
be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going abroad any more,
but to settle at home according to my father's desire. But alas! a few
days wore it all off ; and, in short, to prevent any of my father's further
importunities, in a few weeks after, I resolved to run quite away from
him. However, I did not act quite so hastily as the first heat of my


resolution prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I thought
her a little more pleasant than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was
now eighteen years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure if I did I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from my master before
my time was out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father


to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to
recover the time that I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion; she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such subject;
that he knew too well what was my interest to give his consent to any-
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could think
of any such thing after the discourse I had had with my father, and such
krind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to me;
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was: no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it; that for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction; and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my
father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet I hearld
afterwards that she reported all the discourse to him, and that my father,
after showing a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh: '' That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad,
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give
no consent to it."
It wats not till almost a year after this that I broke loose, though, in
the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling
to business, and frequently expostulated with my father and mother
about their beings so positively determined against what they knew my
inclinations prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went
casually, and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;
but, I say, being there, and one of my companions being about to sail
to London in his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them
with the common allurement of seafaring men, that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them to hear of it
as they might, without asking God's blessing or my father's, without
any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour
God knows, on the 1st of September, 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner
out of the H~umber, than the wind began to blow and the sea to rise
in a most frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I


was most inexpressible sick in body, and terrified in mind. I began
now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, anid how justly I was
overtaken by the judgment of H~eave~n for my wicked leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father's tears and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of
hlardness to which it has since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went very highly,
though nothing like what I have seen many times since; no, nor what
I saw a few days after; but it was enough to affect me then, who was
but a young sailor, and had never known anything of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time
the ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the
sea, we should never rise more: in this agony of mind, I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life in
this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run myself into such
miseries as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his
observations about the middle station of life, how easy, how comfortably
be had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests at
sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I. would, like a true
repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm
lasted, and indeed some time after; but the nexrt day the wind was abated,
and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it: however,
I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still; but
towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear,
and rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the
most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but
very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough
and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in
so little a time after. And now, lest my good resolutions should continue,
my companion, who had enticed me away, comes to me : Well, Bob,"


says he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I
warrant you were frighted, wer'n't you, last night, when it blew but a
capful of wind?"-" A capful d'you call it?" said I; "'twas a terrible
storm."-" A storm, you fool you," replies he; do you call that a
storm ? why, it was nothing at aUl; give us but a good ship and seat-
room, and we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're! but a fresh-water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of
punch, and we'll forget all that; d'ye see what charming weather 'tis
now ? To make short this sad part of my story, we went the way
of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made half-drunk with
it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my repentance,
all say reflections upon my past conditet, all my resolutions for the
future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface?
and settled calmness by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of
muy thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed
up by the sea beingi'orgotten, and the current of my former desires
returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in my
distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself from them as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the
return of those fits--for so I called them; and I had in five or six
days got as complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow
that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally
it does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse; for if I would not
take this for a deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess both the danger
and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads;
the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm, we had made
but little way' since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-
west, for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common harbour where
the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided it up
the river, but that the wind blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or


five days, blew very hard. However, the Roads being reckoned as good as i
a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-tackle very strong, our men
were unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent
the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the eighth day,
in the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at work to strike


our top-masts, and make everything anug and close, that the ship might
ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our
ship rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet-
anchor, so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered
out to the better end.


By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces even of the seamlen themselves. Thle
master, though vigilanlt in the business of preserving the ship, yet as he
went in and out of hris cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say,
several times, Lord, be mercifill to us we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone !" and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, whlich was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper: I could ill resume the first penitence whlichl I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myself against: I thought thle bitterness of
death had been past; and that this would be nothing like the first; but
when the master himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got uip out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the sea ran
mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes; when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round us; two ships that
rode near us, we found, hlad cut their masts by the board, being deep laden;
and our men cried out, that a ship which rode about a mile ahead of
us was foundered. Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the Roads to sea, at aUl adventures, and that not with a mast
standlingr. The lig-ht ships fared the best, as not so much labouring in thle
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close by us, running away
with only their spritsail out before thle winld.
Towards eveningo the mate and boatswain begged thle master of our ship
to let them cut away the fore-mlast, which he was very unwilling to do;
but the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not, thle ship would
founder, he consented; and when they hlad cut away the fore-mast, the
rmain-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to
cut that awvay also, and make a clear deck.
And one must judge what a condition I must be in at all this, whlo was
but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a little.
B~ut if I can express at this distance thle thoughts I had about me at that
time, I was in tenfold mor~e horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself and these, added to thle
terror of thle storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by no words
describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the storm continued with
such fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen a
worse. We had a good ship, but shle was deep laden, and wallow\ed in thle


sea, so that the seamen every now and then cried out she would f~ounder.
It was my advantage in one respect that I did not know what they meant,
by founder, till I inquired. However thle storm was so violent, that I saw,
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
se~nsible than the rest, at their prasyers, a~nd expecting~ everyi moment whenl


the ship would gro to the bottom. In the middlle of the nighlt, and under
all th~e rest of our distresses, one of the men that haid been down to see,
cried out we had sprung a leakc; another said, there was four feet water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to thle pump. At that word, my
heart, as I thought, died withlin me: and I fell backiwards up~on the side of


my bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to
pump as another; at rwhichl I stirred up, and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing some light
colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip, and run
awnay to the sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as a signal
of distress. I, who knew nothingr what they meant, thought the ship had
broken, or some dreadful thringr happened. In a word, I was so surprised
that I fell lown in a swoon. As this was a time when everybody had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me; but
another man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great whlile before
I came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it wats apparent
thant the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little, yet it was not possible she could swvim till we might run into
any port; so thle master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship,
who had rid it out ,just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us.
It was with thle utmost hazard the boat came near us; but it wais
impossible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's
side, till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives
to saive ours, our mnen cast them a rope over the stern with a bu~oy to it,
and then veeredl it out a great length, which they, after much labour
and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled theml close under our stern, andi
got all1 into their boat. It was to no purpose for theml or us, after we were
in the boat, to think of reaching their own ship; so all agreed to let hier
drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if thle boat was stayed upon shore, he would
m~ake it good to their master : so partly rowing, and partly driving, ou~r
boat went away to the northwafrd, sloping towards the shore almost as far
as Winterton Ness.
We were nlot much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship till
we saw her sink, and then I understood for the first time what was meant
by a ship foundering in thle sea. I must acknowledge I had hardly eyes
to look up when the seamenu told me she was sinking; for from the moment
that they rather put me into thle boat, than that I might be said to go in,
my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly with
horror of mind, and thle thoughts of what was yet before me.


While we were inl this condition--the mlen yet labouring at the olr to
bring the boat near the shore-we could see (whlen, our boat mounting thle
waves, we were able to see th~e shore) a great many people running along
the strand, to assist us when we should come near; b~ut we mnade but slow
way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach the shore, till, being past
the lighthouse at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towardls
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little thle violence of the wind. Here


we got in, and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe on shore,
and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and owners of ships,
and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to London or back to
Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
homne, I had been happy, and my father, as in our blessed Saviour's parable,
had even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship I went away in
was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurances that I was not drowned.
B~ut mly ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could
resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
mlore composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I know
nlot what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a. secret overruling decree,
thlat hurries us: on to be the instruments of our own destruction, even
thlough it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unaLvoidable misery, which it was
impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoningis and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and against
twfo such visible instructions as I had mlet with in my first attempt.
1\fy comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
2nlaster's son, was now less fonrwrd than I. Thre first time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, whichl was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw
mle, it appeared his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking hlis head, he asked me how I did, and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad : his father, turnings to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
"' Young man," says hie, youl ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a pla\in and visible token that you are not to be a seafaring
maln." Whly, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more ?" "That is another
case," said he; "'it is mly calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made
this voyag~e for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what
you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this hans all befallen us on your
account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," continues hie, what are
y~ou; and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon that I told him somle
of mny story ; at the end of whichl he burst out into a strange kind of passion:


" WVhat hlad I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch should come
into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee again
for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of his
spirits, which were yet agtated by the sense of his loss, and was farther
than he could have authority to go. However, he afterwvards talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and not tempt Provi-
dence to my ruin, telling me I might see a visible hand of Heaven against
me. And, young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go back,
wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."


We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more; which way he went I knew not. As for me, having some money in
my pocket, I travelled to L~ondon by land; and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself, what course of life I should take,
and whether I should go home or go to sea.
As to goings home, shame opposed the best motions that offered to my
thoughts; and it immediately occurred to me how I should be laughed at
among the neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and
brother only, but even everybody else; from whence I have since often
observed, how incongrruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to guide them in such
cases, viz., that they are not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent;
not ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools,
but are ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to talce, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluc-
tance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of
the distress I had been in wore off ; and as that abated, the little motion I
had in my desires to return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my father's house,--
which hurried me into the wild and indigested notion of raising my
fortune ; and that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of
my father;--I say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most
unfortunate of all enterprises to my view ; and I went on board a vessel
bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors vulgarly called it, a
voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not ship
myself as a sailor; when, though I might indeed have worked a little
harder than ordinary, yet at the same time I should have learnt the duty
and office of a fore-mast man, and in time might have qualified myself for
a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money in my pocket and
good clothes upon mly back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor learned
to do any.


It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good company in London,
which does not always happen to such loose and misguided young fellows
as I then was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early; but it was not so with me. I first got acquainted with the
master of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having
had very good succedd~here, was resolved to go again. This captain taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at that time,
hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would go the
voyage with him I should be at no expense; I should be his messmate and
his companion; and if I could carry anything with me, I should have all
the advantage of. it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet
with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship with this
captain, who was an honest, plain-dealing manI went the voyage with him,
and carried a small adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty
of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
C40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy. These 40
I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations whom
I corresponded with; and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all my
adventures, which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend the
captain; under whom also I got a competent; knowledge of the mathematics
and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand some things that
were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to
instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made me
both a sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five pounds nine ounces
of gold-dust for mny adventure, which yielded me in London, at my return,
almost E300 ; and this fded me with those aspiring thoughts which have
since so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particularly, that I
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent caleuture by the excessive
heat of the climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north even to the line itself
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to my great mis-
fortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again,
and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the


former voyag~e, and had now got the command of the ship. This was the
unhappi-est voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
f100 of my new-grained wealth, so that I had 200 left, which I had lodged
w\ith my friend's widow. who was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible


mlisfort~unes: the first was this-our shiip making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those Islands and the African shore, was
surprised in th~e grey of thle morning by a Turkish~ rov-er of Sallee, wh~o gave
chanse to us with all the sail she could make. We crowded also as muchl


canvas as our yards would spreadl, or ou~r mlasts carry to get clear; buit find-
ing the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly corne up with us in a few
hours, we prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and the roge
eighteen. About three in the afternoon hie came up writhl us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of athlwart our stern, as he
intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in
a broadside upon him, which made him sheer off again, after returning oulr
fire, and pouring in also his small shot from near two hundred men which
hie had on board. However, we had not a mnln touched, all our menl
kerepingr close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves.
I~ut laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered


sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking thle
sails a~nd rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-
chests, and such like, and1 cleared our deck of them twice. However to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being disabled, and three
of our men killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were
carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
Thle usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's court, as the rest of our
men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper prize,
and made hlis slalve, being young and nimlble, and fit for his business. At
19 .


this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable and have none
to relieve me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to pass, that
I could not be worse; for now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption; but, alas this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I was
in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again, believ-
ing that it would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war; and that then I should be set at liberty. But this
hope of mine was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of slaves
about his house ; and when he came home again from his cruise, he ordered
me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might take
to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it; nothing
presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody to com-
municate it to that would embark with me--no fellow-slave, no Englishman,
Irishman, or Scotchman, there but myself ; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the least encourago-
ing prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
My patron lying at home longer than usual without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used, constantly, once or twice
a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnace,
and go out into the road a-fishing; and, as he always took me and young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved
very dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes he: would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth--the Maresco, as they called
him--to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a calm morning, a fog rose
so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way, we laboured all day,
and all the next night; and when the morning came, we found we had
pulled off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were at
least two leagues from the shore. However, we got well in again, though with


a Great deal of labour and some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty
fresh in the morning; but we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care
of himself for the future; and having lying by him the long-boat of our
English ship that he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who also was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or
cabin, in the middle of the long-boat, like that of a, barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the main-sheet; and room
before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we call a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom gibed over the top of the
cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and his bread,
rice. and coffee.


We went frequently out with his boat a-fishling; and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boa~t, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moors of some distinction in that place, and for whom
he had provided extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
over-night a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had ordered me
to get ready three fusees with powder and shot, which were on board his
ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests; when by-and-by my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, from some business that
fell out, and ordered me, with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I got some fish I should bring it
home to his house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment, my former notions of deliverance darted into my thoughts,
for now I found I was likely to have a little ship at my command;
and my master being g~one, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so much
as consider, whither I should steer,-anywhere to get out of that place
was my desire.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this Moor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said that was true; so
he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, and three jars of fresh
water, into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hanuner,
all of which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax to
make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently
came into also : his name was Ismnael, which they call Muley, or Moely;
so I called to him :--" Mloely," said I, our patron's guns are on board
the boat; canl you not get a, little powder and shot ? It may be we
may kill some alcamies (a few1 like our curlews) for ourselves, for I


know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship." Yes," says he, I'l
bring some; and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which
held a pound and a balf of powder, or rather more; aend another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into
the boat. At the same time, I had found some powder of my master's
in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the large bottles in the
case, which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into another;
and thus furnished with everything needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we
were, and took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of
the por~t before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire, for had
it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain,
and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were,
blow which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and caught nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook, I would not pull them up, that he might not see them,
I said to the Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus
served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no harm, agreed, and,
b~eingr in the head of the boat, set the sails; and, as I had the helm,
I run the boat out near a. league farther, and then brought her to,
as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward
to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his waist, and
tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose immediately, for he
swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there being but little
wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the
fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had done him no
hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do him none: "But," said
I, you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is calm;
ma1~ke the best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I am
resolved to have my liberty : so he turned himself about, and swam for
the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.


I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me, and
have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When
he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom they called lury, and said to
him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a great man;
but if you will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear
by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must throw you into the sea
too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not distrust him, and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the
world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood out
directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to wvindward, that they
might think me gone towards the Straits' mouth (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed to do) : for who
would have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly
Biarbarian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround
us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we could not go on shore
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind.
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed my course,
and steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little towards
the east, that I might keep in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made
the land, I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south
of Sallee : quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken of the Moors, and the dreadful
apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop,
or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to
the southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew
not what, nor where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation,
or what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see any people ; the principal
thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this ereek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the
country; but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such~ dreadful





~-'~' 63

noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew
not what kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore til day. Well, Xury," said I, then
I won't; but it may be that we may see mlen by day, who wiUl be as
bad to us as those lions."--"Then we give them the shoot gun," says
XYurPy laughing, "make them run wey." Such English lury spoke by
conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so
cheerful, and I gave him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles)
to cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it: we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we knew
not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves; and they made such hideous howlings and yellings,
that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frighted when we heard one of these mighty creatures come


swimming towards our boat; we could not see him, but we mnight heal
him b~y hris blowvingr to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a, lion, and it light be so for aught I know; but poor Xury
criedl to 2nle to wreigh the anchor and row away: "; No," says I, Xury; we
canl slip our cable, with thle buoy to it, and go off to sea.; they cannot
follow1 us far'." I hadc no sooner said so, but I perceived the creatunt
(whatever it wfas~) within two oars' length, which something surprised me
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin-door, and taking up my gunl
fired at hlim; upon which he inunediately turned about, and swam towards
thle shlore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrid noises, and hideous cries
and howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher withinl the country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing I
have some reason to believe those creatures had never heard before : this
convinced me that there was no going on shore for us in the night on
thlat coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another question
too; for to have fallenl into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the hands of the lions and tigers; at least
we were equally apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be~ that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat; when and where
to get to it was thle point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore
with one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring
somue to mue. I asked him why he would go ? why I should not go,
and hie stay in the boat ? The boy answered with so much affection,
as made me love him ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they
eat mue, you go wey."--" W'ell, Xury," said I, we will both go, and if
the wild nnaus come, we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us."
So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our
patron's case of bottles which I mentioned before; and we hauled the
boat in as near the shore as we thought was proper, and so waded on
shore; carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages dlown the river; but the boy seeing a low place
about a mile up thle country, rambled to it, and by-and-by I saw him
come running towards mLe. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forwards towards him to
help him; but when I came nearer to himl1, I sawP something hanging


over his shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it, and
it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to
tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for water,
for a little higher up the creek where we were we found the water fresh
wrhen the tide was out, which flowed but a little way up; so we filed our
jars, anid feasted on the have we had killed, and prepared to go on our way,
h~aving: seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.


As 1 Lad been one voyage to this coast before, I knew ver~y wetll that
Llhe islands of the Canaries and thle Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not far
off from the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least
rememlbering, what latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to that part where the Eng~lish traded, I should
find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of mly calculation, that place where I now was must be that
-ountry which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the


Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes
having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for fear of the Moors; and the
Moors not thinking it worthl inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and,
indeed, both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers, lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there; so that the
Mloors use it for their hunting only, where they go like an army, two or
three thousand men at a time: and, indeed, for near a hundred miles to-
gether upon this coast, w-e saw nothing but a, waste uninhabited country by
day, and heard nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the Mountain Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a
great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having tried
twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high
for my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design and keep along
thle shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we had left
this place; and once in particular, being early in the morning, we came to
an anchor under a little point of land, which was pretty high; and the tide
beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more
about him than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; "for," says he, "look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked where
he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill
that hung as it were a little over him. Xury," says I, you shall go on
shore and kill him." Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he eat me
at one mouth;" one mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the
boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and with two
slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and
the third (for we had three pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I
took the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in the head,
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose that the slugs hit
his leg ab-out thle knee, and broke the bone. H~e started up, growling at
first, but findings his leg broken, fell down again; and then got up upon
three legs, and gav-e the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took up thle
second piece immediately, and though he began to move off, fired again, and


shot him in the head, and had the pleasure to see him drop and make but
little noise, but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would
have me let him go on shore. L Well, go," said I : so the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the piece to
his ear, and shot him in the head again, which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food; and I was very
sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so he
comes on board, and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?"
said I. *Me cut off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with himu, and it was a
monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin of him might, one
way or other, be of some value to us; and I resolved to take off his skin if
I could. So Xury and I went to work with him; but lury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us
both up the whole day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading
it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually for ten or twelve
days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to abate very
much, and going no oftener to the shore than we were obliged to for fresh
water. Mly design in this was, to make the River Gambia or Senegal, that
is to say, anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some E~uropean ship; and if I did not, I knew not what course I had
to take, but to seek for the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of
Guinea or to B~razil, or to the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands;
and, in a word, I put the whole of mny fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
WNhen I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us;
we could also perceive they were quite black, and naked. I was once
inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran along the shore by


me a good way : I observed they had no weapons in their hands, except
one, who had a longs slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that
they could throw them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by signs as well as I could; and particularly made
signs for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this, 110owered the top of my sail, and lay
by, and two of them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dried flesh and some corn,
such as is thle produce of their country; but we neither knew what the one
or thle other was: however, we were wvillingr to accept it, but how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I wPould not venture on shore to them, and
they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went and stood a
great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them won-
derfully: for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury from the mountains
towards the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we could
tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because,
in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the night;
and, in the second place, we found the people terribly frighted, especially
the women. The manl that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into the water,
they did not offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their diversion: at
last one of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I expected;
but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my gumn with all possible expe-
ditio,l and bade Xury load both the others. .As soon as he came fairly
within mly reach, I fired, and shot him directly in the head: immediately
he sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down,
as if he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made
to the shore; but between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at
the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were even ready to die for
fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they salw the


creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them to
come to the shore, they took heart and came, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water: and by the hell
of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted
and fine to an admirable degree; and the Negr~oes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of the
gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from whence
they came; nor could I, at that; distance, know what it was. I found
quickly the Negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was
willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife,
yet, with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as readily, and
much more readily, than we could have done with a knife. They offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, pointing out that I would give it
them; but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely, and
brought me a, great deal more of their provisions, which, though I did not
understand, yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water,
and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upward, to show
that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filed. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I supposed, in the sun; this they
set down to me, as before, and I sent lury on shore with my jars, and filed
them all three. The womLen were asnaked asthe men
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water;
and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before
me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as it was
most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands
called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a great
distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should be
taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one or other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and


sat down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried out,
"IMaster, master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted out
of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, but I knew we were far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a
Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for
Negroes. But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to come any
nearer to the shore: upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come in
their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any signal
to them: but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they,
it seems, sawv, by the help of their glasses, that it was some European boat,
which they supposed must belong to some ship that was lost; so they
shortened sail to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and as I
had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal
of distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three hours time
I came up with them.
They asked mte what I was, in Portugumese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me: and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the Moors, at
Sallee; they then bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I was
thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to the captain
of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously told me,
he would takie nothing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. "For," says he, "I have saved
your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved myself ; and
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the same condition.
Besides," said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way from
your own country, if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I have given. No, no,"

.~. ?



says he: "Seignmor Inglese" (Mr. Englishman), I will carry you thither in
charity, and those things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so be was just in the performance
to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none should touch anything
that I had: then he took everything into his own possession, and gave me
back an exact inventory of them, that I might have them, even to mly three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me
he would buy it of me for his ship's use; and asked me what I would have
for it ? I told him, he had been so generous to me in everything, that I
could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him:
33 g


upon which, he told me hie would give me a note of hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he wonld make it up. He offered me also sixty pieces of
eight muore for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I was
unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my own.
However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it to be just, and
offered me this medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
WVe had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and I arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Satntos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And
now I was once more delivered fromt the most miserable of all conditions of
life; and what to do next with myself I was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember : he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had in
my boat, and caused everything I had in the ship to be punctually delivered
to me; and what I was willingr to sell, he bought of me, such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'-wax--for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred and twenty
pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock, I went on shore
in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the house of a
good, honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio, as they call it (that is,
a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself, by that means, with the manner of planting and making
of sugar; and seeing how well the planters lived, and hlow they got rich
suddenly, I resolved, if I could get a licence to settle there, I would turn
planter among them; resolving, in the mean time, to find out some way to
get my money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I purchased as much
land that was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for
my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese, of Lisbon, but born of English parents,
whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I was. I call
him my neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we went


on very sociably together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we
rather planted for food than anything else, for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come into order; so that the
third year we planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting canes in the year to come. But we both wanted
help; and now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas I for me to do wrong that never did right, was no great wonder.
I had no remedy but to go on: I had got into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his good advice. Nay, I
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life, which
my father advised me to before, and which, if I resolved to go on with, I
might as well have stayed at home, and never have fatigued myself in the
world, as I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could have done
this as well in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand
miles off to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such
a distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had nobody
there but himself. But how just has it been--and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with others that
are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be convinced
of their former felicity by their experience---I say, how just has it been, that
the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, should
be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life which I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back--for the ship remained there, in providing his lading, and
preparing for his voyage, nearly three months; when, telling him what little
stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere
advice:-"Seignor Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), "if you
will give me letters, and a procuration in form to me, with orders to the


person who has your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will brings you the produce of them, God willing, at my return;
but, since human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders but for one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say,
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it miscarry, you may
have the other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not
but be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and
a p~rocuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the Eng~lish captain's widow a full account of all my adventures
-my slavery, escape, and how Ihad met with the Portuguese captain at sea,
the humanity of his behaviolur and whlat condition I was now in, with all
other necessary directions for my supply; and when this honest captain
came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants there,
to send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her; whereupon she
not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal
captain a very handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in English goods,
such as the captain had written for, sent them directly to him at LisbJon,
and he brought them all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without
mly direction (for I was too young in my business to think of them), he had
taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
WVhen this cargo arrived, I thought my fortunes made, for I was
surprised with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid out
the five pounds, which my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years' service, and
would not accept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which~ I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; for my goods being all English manufacture, such
as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
might say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour-I mean in the advancement of


my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a negro slave, and an
European servant also--I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great
success in my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neighbours;
and these fifty rolls, being each of above a hundred-weight, were well cured,
and laid by against thle return of thle fleet from Lisbon: and now increasing
in business and in wealth, my head Ibegnan to be full of projects and under-
tadkings beyond my reach; such as are, indeed, often the ruin of the best
heads in business. Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father
so earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and of which he had so
sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of ; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries;
and particularly, to increase my fault, and double the r~efetions upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination, in contradic-
tion to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of
those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature rand Providence
concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in my breaking awray from my parents, so I
could not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view I had of
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a rash
and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with
life, and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by the just degrrees, to the particulars of this part of my
story:-Y'ou may suppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well tlpon my plantation,
I had not only learned the language, but had contracted acquaintance and
friendship among mly fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at
St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the coast of
Guinea; the manner of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was


to purchase upon the coast for trifles--such as beads, toys, knives, scissors,
hatchets, bits of grlass, and thle like--not only gold dust, Guinea grains,
elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroesi, for the service of the Brazils, in great
They listened always ver~y attentively to my discourses on, these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes, which was
a trade, at that time, not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had
been carried on by assientos, or permission of thle kings of Spain and
Fortugal, an1d engrossed in the public stocks; so that few Negr~oes were
bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters of my
acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me next morning, and told me they had been musing very much
upon what I hlad discoursed with theml of the last night, and they came to
mnake a. secret proposal to me ; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they had all
plantations as well as I, and were straiteneud for nothing so much as
servants; that as it was a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the Negroes when they came hlome, so they desired
to macke but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide
them among their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whlethler I wvouldl go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon thle coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have my
equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
onle that hand not; had a settlement and a plantation of his own to look after,
whlich was in a fanir way of comings to be very considerable, and with a good
stock upon it; but for me, that was thus entered and established, and had
nothing to do but to go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and
to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and who in that
timle, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of beings worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, anid that increasing too--for me to
think of such a voyage was the most preposterous thing that ever man in
such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, thatt was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my firjt rambling designs w-hen my father s good
counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my absence,


and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so ; and
I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed in
my will; one-half of the produce being to himself, and the other to be
shipped in Eng~land.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to keep
up my plantation. Hrad I used half as much prudence to have looked into
my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have done
and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so prosperous
an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving circumstance,
and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,


to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy
rather than my reason; and, accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the
cargo furnished, and all things done, as by agreement, by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour, the 1st of September, 1659, beings
the same day eight years that I went from my father and mother at Hull, in
order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interests.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, anid myself. We had on
board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our trade
wiithl the Negroes, such as beads, bits of gllass, shells, and other trifles, espe-
cially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets and the like.
The same day I w~ent on board we set sail, standing away to th~e north-
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the African coast
when we came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it
seems, was the manner of course in those days. We had very good weather,
only excessively hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we came to the
hleight of Cape St. Augulstino; from whence, keeping further off at sea, we
lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de
Noronha, holding our course N?.E. by N., and leaving those isles on the east.
In this course we passed the line in about twelve days' time, and were, by
our last observation, in seven degrees twenty-twoa minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of our knowPledge.
It began from thre south-east, came about to the north-west, and then settled
in the north-east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive, and, scudding awaly before
it, let it carry us whither evrer fate and the fury of the winds directed; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of thle storm, one of our men
die of the calenture, and one man and the boy washed overboard. About
the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an observation
as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven degrees north
latitude?, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west
from Capse St. Augustino; so that he found he was upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amatzons, towcards that
of thle river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River; and began to

CLil!SI)I.: bn3 l`illi ~li\Sl'i.:IL L'i.\\LINI: I`L(11 ULLr\lLTb

consult with me what course he should take, for thle ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Carihbboo
Islands, and therefore resolved to standl away for B~arbadoes; which, b~y
keeping off at sea, to avoid the indlraft of the. Bay or Gulf of Mexico, we
.might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we,
could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without somec
assistance both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away N.WT~. by W.,
in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for relief. Biut
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude of twelve
degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon us, which carried us
away with the same impetunosity westward, and drove us so out of the way


of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved as to the sea, we
were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than ever returning to
our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men early
in the morning cried out, Land i and we had no sooner run out of thle
cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts inl the world we were,
than th~e ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so
stopped, the sea, broke over her in such a manner, that wre expected wfe
should all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of the
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circumstances. WTe
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven--
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited. As the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at first, we could
not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without breakingr
into pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately
about. In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man, accordingly, preparing for another world;
for there wfas little or nothing more for us to dlo in this. That which was ourt
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our
expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that the master said the windl
began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the shrip
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect her
getting off we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do
but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. W~e had a boat at our
stern just before the storms, but she was first stayed by dashing against the
ship's rudder, and in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk, or
was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her. We had another
boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing.
However, there was no time to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces every minute, and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate~ of our vessel laid hold of the boat, and with
the help of the rest of the men, got her slung over the ship's side; and
getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in
number, to God's mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm was abated


considerably, yet th~e sea ran dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be
well called des woild see, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw plainly, that
the sea went so high that the boat could not live, and that we should be
inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar towards the land,
though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner; and the wind driving us towards
thle shore, we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well
as we could towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal, we
knew not. The only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow of
expectation, was, if we might find some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some
river, where by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
like this appeared; but as we made nearer and nearer the shore, the land
looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven about a league and a half, as we
reckoned it, a ragningr wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of us, and
plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that, it overset the boat at once; and separating uls, as well from the
boat as from one another, gave us not time to say, O God i for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when I sunk
into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw breath, tiUl that wave having driven me, or
rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself,
went back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with the
water I took in. I had so much .presence of mind, as well as breath left,
that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon my
feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return and take me up again; but I soon found it was
impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great
hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise myself upon
the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to preserve my breathing and


pilot myself towards the shore, if possible, my greatest concern now being,
that the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore when it
came on, might not carry me back again with it when it gave back
towards thle sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at once twenty or thlirty
feet deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mlighty
force and swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I held my
breath, and assisted myself to swlim still forward with all my might. I was
ready to burst with holdings my breath, when as I felt myself raising up, so,
to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of time that I
could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and new
courage. I was covered again with water a good while, but not so long but
I held it out; and, finding the water had spent itself and began to return, I
struck forward against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with
mny feet. I stood still a, few moments to recover breath and till the waters
went from me, and then took to my heels and ran, with what strength I
had, further towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me from the
fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as before, the shore
being verly flat.
The last time of these two had well-nigh been fatal to me, for the sea
having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me, against
a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that it left me senseless, and
indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking my side
and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it
returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water; but
I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I should be
covered again with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back. Now,~ as the
waves were not so high as at first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the
wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that thle nexut wfave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow
me up as to carlry me away; and the next run I took, I got to thle main
land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of th~e shore,
and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and quite out of the
reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shonre, and began to look up and thank


God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, somle minutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impoossible to express, to
thle life, what the ecstasies and transports of the soul are, when it is so
saved, as I may say, out of the very grave : and I do not wonder now at
thle custom, when a malefactor, who has thle halter about his neck, is tied
up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him--I
say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood
that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not drive the
animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, conlfoundl at first.
I walked about on the shore lifting up my hands, and my whole beilgr,
as I may say, wrapt up in a contemplation of my deliverance; muakingr a
thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflecting upon all
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be one soul
saved but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were
not fellows.
I east my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of the
sea beings so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off; and considered,
Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ?


After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my condition,
I began to look round me, to see what kind of place I was in, and what was
nlext to be done: and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word,
I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor
anything either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any


prospect before me, but that of perishingo with hunger, or being devoured by
wild beasts; and that which was particularly af~icting to me was, that I
had no weapon, either to hunt and kiill any creature for my sustenance, or
to defend myself against any other creature that might desire to kill me for
theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a kinife, a tobacco-pipe, and


a little tobacco inz a box. This was a~ll my provisions and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that for a while, I ranl about like a madman.
11ight coming upon me, I began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would
be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, as at night
they always come abroad for their prey.


All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that time, was to get up
into a thick bushy tree like a fir, but thorny, which~ grew near me, and
where I resolved to sit all night, and consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong
from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,


to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, endeavoured to
place myself so that if I should sleep I might not fall. And having cut mle
a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence, I took up my lodging; and
hlavingr been excessively fatigrued, I fell fast -asleep, and slept as comfortably
ats, I believe, few could have done in my condition, and found myself mor~e
refreshed with it than, I think, I ever was on such an occasion.
When I walked it was broad day, the weather clear, and thle storm
abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before. But that which
surprised mle most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from the
sand where she lay, by the swellings of the tide, and was driven up almost
as far as the rock which I at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by the wave dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about me
again, and the first thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind and
the sea had tossed hier up, upon the land, about two mliles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her; but
found a neck or inlet of water between mne and the boat which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present subJ-
A little after noon, I found the sea very calmn, and the tide ebbed so far
out that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship. And here I
found a fresh renewing of my grief ; for I saw evidently, that if we had
kept on board, we had been all safe--that is to say, we had all got safe on
shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all
comfort and company as I now was. This forced tears to my eyes again;
but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to thle
ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my difficulty was still
greater to know how to get on board; for, as she lay aground, and high out
of the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which
I wondered I did not see at first, hung down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope I got


up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that thle ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but thalt sheC lay so on1 the side
of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that hier sternly Jay lifted up upon
the bank, and her head low, almost to the water. B~y this means all her
quarter was free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be

sure my -first work was to search, and to see what was spoiled and what
was free. And, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry and
untouched by the water, and being very well disposed to eat, I went to the
bread-room, and filled my pockets with biscuit, and eat it as I went about
other things, for I had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great
cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which I had, indeed, need enoughl


of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing 13tt a
boat to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw would be very
necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had; and
this..~~~~~~.....~~~~~ extremity roused my application. We had several spare yards, and
two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship :
I resolved to fall to work with these, and I flung as many of them over-
board as I could manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them together at both ends,
as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three short pieces
of plank upon them cross-ways,--------------- I found I could walk upon it very well,
'bu that it was not able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light.
So I went to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast into
three lengths, and added;;;;;;;;;_________ them--~~~~~~-----~~~~~ to my raft, with a great deal of labour and
pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries, encouraged me
to go beyond what I should have been able to have done upon another
My raft was now strongnnnnnnnn enough to bear any reasonable weig~ht. Miy
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid upon
it from the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering this. I first
laid all the plank or boards upon it that I could get, and having considered
well what I most wanted, I fist got three of the seamen's chests, which I
had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; the
first of these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
five pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much upon), and a little
remainder of European---------------- corn, which had been laid by for some fowls which
we brought to sea with us, but the fowls were knled. There had been
some barley and wheat together; but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some cordial
waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began to flow, though very
calm; and I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which
I had left on the shore, upon the sand, swim away. As for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this set me on rn~lmaging for clothes, of which I


found enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon--as, first, tools to work with
on shore. And it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was, indeed, a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-load of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to my3


raft, whole as it was, without losing time to look into it, for I knew in
general what it contained.
My next care, was for some ammunition and arms. There were tw-o
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols. These I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but
knew not where our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I


found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those
two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself pretty
well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the least cap-full of wind would
have overset all my navigation.

GRUses LOAM8 8IS Rdl

I had three encouragements: 1st, a smooth, calm sea; 2ndly, the tide
rising, and setting in to the shore; 3rdly, what little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to th~e boat-and, besides the tools which were in the chest, I
found two saws, an axe, and a hammer: with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it drive
a little distant from the place where i had landed before; by which I


perceived that there was some indraft of the water, and consequently, I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make use of as a
port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was. There appeared before me a little opening of
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guided
my raft, as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.


But here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had,
I think, verily, would have broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the
coast, my raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards the end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I
did mly utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their


places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength; neither durst
I stir from the posture I was in; but holding up the chests with all my
might, I stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and, a little after, the
water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into thle channel, and then driving up higher, I at length found myself
in the mouth of a little river, with laud on both sides, and a strong current
of tide r~unningr up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up the river: hoping, in,
time, to see sotae ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near
the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to
which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and at last got
so nlear, that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly
in. But here I had like to have dipped all my cargo into the sea again;
for that shore lying pretty steep--that is to say, sloping-there was no
place to land, but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would
lie: so high, and thle other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that I could do, was to wait till the tide was at
the, highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected
the water would flow over; anld so it did. As soon as I found water
enough-for my raft drew about a foot of water--I thrust her on upon
that flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking
my1J two broken oars into the ground, one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end; and thus I lay till the
water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my eargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place
for mly habitation, and where to stow my goods to secure them from
whatever might happen. WThere I was, I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island; whether inhabited or not inhabited; whether
in danger of wild beasts or not. There was a hill not above a mile
from me, which rose up very- steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn
of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of
that hill, where, after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw mly fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was in an island


environed every way with the sea: no land to be seen except some rocks,
which lay a great way off; and two small islands, less than this, which
lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw
good reason to believe, uninhabited except by wild beasts, of whom,
however, I saw none. Yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great bird which
I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it
was the first gun that had been fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired, than from all parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming
and crying, and every one according to his usual note, but not one of
them of any kind that 1 knew. As for the creature I killed, I took
it to be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but it had
no talons or claws more than common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to
work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that
day. What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest, for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some
wild beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was
really no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of
but for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares,
run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things
out of the ship which would be useful to me, and particularly some
of the rigging and sails, and, such other things as might come to land;
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible.
And as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily break
her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I had got
everything out of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council--
that is to say, in my thoughts--whether I should take back the raft;
but this appeared impracticable : so I resolved to go as before, when the
tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from


my hut, having nothing on but a, chequered shirt, a pair of linen drawers,
and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board thle ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and,
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful
to mue; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full
of nails and spikes, a great screwrr-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and,
above all, that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured,
together with~ several things belonging to the gunner, particularly two
or three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven ;nuskets,
another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a large
bagful of small shot, and a great roll of sheet-lead; but this last was so
heavy, I could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could find,
and a. spare fore-top sail, a haimmock, and some bedding; and with this I
loaded mly second raft, and brought them aUl safe on shore, to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehension, during my absence from the land,
that at least my provisions might be devoured on shore : but when I
came back, I found no sign of any visitor ; only there sat a creature
likre a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in mly face, as if she had a
mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but, as
she did not understand it, she wats perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did
she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though,
by the way, I was not very free of it, for my store was not great: however,
I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled at it, and ate it,
and looked (as if pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore,--though I w~as fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they were
too heavy, being large easks,--I went to work to make me a little
tent, with the sail, and some poles which I cut for that purpose: and
into this tent I brought everything that I knew would spoil either with
rain or sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a circle
round the tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from man
or beast.


When I hadc done, this, I blockedt ulp tboe door of thle tent with some.
boards within, and an empty checst set up on end without; and spread~tingi
one of the beds upon the ground, laying myT two pistols just at my hEadLc,
and mly gun at length by me, I wont to becd for thle first time, andl slept
ver~y quietly all night, for I w~as very weary andl heavy; o~r thle night,
before I had slopt little, and had laboured very hard all day, to fetch all those
things from7 thle ship, and to get them on shore.


I hlad the .;1- 1.! magazine of all kinds now that ever was lalid up, I
believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still, for whlile thle ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I ought to get everything out of her that
I could: so every day at low water I went on board, and brought awany
something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I brought a-.ay:
as much of the t;::IIn as I could, as also all the small ropes and rolpe-tw~inec
I could get, with a piece of spare canvazs, which was to mend th~e sails upon
occasion, and th~e barrel of wet gunpowder. In a word, I brought away~
all the sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut thlem in pieces, andn
bring as much at a time as I could, for they were no more useful to be sails,
but as mere canvas only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, thant last of' all, after I hadl
made five or six suchl voyages as these, andt thought I hlad nLOthingn more to
57 r


expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with;--I say, after all
this, I found a great hogfshead of bread, three large runlets of rum, or
spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surprising
to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of the bread,
and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out;
and, in a word, I got aHl this safe on shore also.
Thle next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began with the cables.
Cutting the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut
down the spritsail-yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to
make a large raft, I loaded it with all these heavy goods, and came away.
But my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that, after I had entered the little cove where I had
landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did
the other, it overset, and threw me and all. my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected would
hlave been of great use to me : however, when the tide was out, I got most
of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued
me very much. After this, I went every day on board, and brought away
what I could get.
I hlad been now thirteen day~s on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought awa~y all that one pair of
hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece. But preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise: however, at low water I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, that nothing more could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which I
found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a
dozen of good knives and forks: in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money--some ~European coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight,
some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money : 0 drug said I, aloud,
what art thou good for ? Thou art not worth to me--no, not the taking


off the ground : one of those knives is worth all this heap : I have no
manner of use for thee--e'en remain where thou art, and go to thle bottom,
as a creature whose life is not worth savings." H~owever, up~on second
thoughts, I took it away; and, wrappings all this in a piece of canvas, I
began to think of makings another raft; but while I was preparingr this, I
found the sky overcast, andl the windl began to rise, and in a quarter of an


houur it blew a fresh gale from thet shore. It presently occurred to me, that
it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I
light n1ot be able to reach the shore at all. Accordingly, I let myself
down into the water, and swam across the channel which lay between thle
ship alnd the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with thle
weight of the things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the
water; for thle wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a stormu.
lint I hadl got home to mly little tent, where I lay, with all my wealth
~bount mie, very secure. It blew very hard all night, and in the morning,
whienl I look~ed out, behold no more ship was to be seen I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with the satisfactory reflection, that I had
lost no time, nor abatted any diligence, to get everything out of her that
could be useful to mle; and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
w~as able to brings away, if I hlad hlad more time.
I now gave over any more thocughrts of the ship, or of anything out
of hier, except what might drive on shore from her wreck; as, indeed,
clivers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small
ulse to mie.
Mly thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either sav-ages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in thle
island; and I had mlany thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwellings to mnakee-whlether I should nmake me a cave
inl thle earth, or a tent upon thle ear~th; and, in short, I resolved upon
bothl; thle manner and description of which, it may nlot be improper to
give a11naccount of.
I soon found the place I was in was not fit for mny settlement,
because it was upon a low, mloorishl ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and more
convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in mly situation, which I found would
be proper for me : 1st, health and fr~eshl water, I just now mentioned;
2ndly, shelter froml thle hlet of the sun; 3rdlly, security from ravenous
creatures, whlethecr man or breast; 4thly, a view to the sea, that if God
sent any ship in sighlt, I mligh1t not lose any advantage for my deliver-
ance, of whichl I w~as nlot w\illinlg to banish all mly expectation yet.


Inl search of a plalce prloper'l for~ this, I found a little pl:ain ol thle
side of a rising hlill, whlose frlont towards thlis little plainl was stoop as
1 hounse-side, so thant nlothinlg couldl come down uponl me fi~rom thle top,.
On1 the side of' thle rock there wa~s a hollow place, wornl a little waiy


in, like the entrance or door of a cave; but there was not really anly
cave, or way into thle rock at all.
On thle flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I resolved to
pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred yards broad, and about
twice as long, anld lay like a green before my door; and, at thle end of it,
descended irregularly every way down into the low groundt by the sea-side.
It wa~s on the N.N.W. side of tbo hill; so that it was sheltered from thle


heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which,
in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent I drew a half-circle before the hollow place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter, from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them into
the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of
the ground above five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laidl
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between these two rows
of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against
them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence
was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the
woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door, but by a short
ladder to go over the top ; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after
me; and so I was completely fenced in and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I
could not have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infmnite labour, I carried all my riches,
all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the account
above; and I made a large tent, which, to preserve me from the rains, that
in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double, one smaller
tent within, and one larger tent above it; and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a. while in th~e bed which I had brought on
shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and belonged
to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and everything that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which tiUl now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent, I
laid themn up within my fence, in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised


the ground within about a foot and a half ; and thus I made me a cave, just
behind my tent, which~ served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all these things were
brought to perfection; and, therefore, I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened, after
I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the cave, that
a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect
of it. I was not so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a
thought which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself--O my
powder 1Vy very heart sank within me when I thought that, at one blast,
all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only, but the
providing mly food, as I thought, entirely depended. I was nothing near so
anxious about my own danger, though, had the powder took fire, 1 should
never have known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm was over,
I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied myself to
make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a little and a
little in a parcel, in the hope that whatever might come, it might not all
take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to
make one part fie another. I finished this work in about a fortnight; and
I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred and forty pounds
weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that; so I placed
it in my new cave, which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I
hid up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out once at least
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as to see if I could kill
anything fit for food ; and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with what
the island produced. The ist timeI went out, I presently discovered that
there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they were so shy,
so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most difficult thing in the
world to come at them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but
I might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened ; for after I had found
their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for them: I observed if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would run


away, as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding in thle valleys, and I
was upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I concluded,
that by the position of their optics, their sight was so directed downward,
that they did not readily see objects that were above them; so afterwards,
I took this method,-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, whlich
had a little kid by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily;
for, when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by hier, till I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one with me, upon
my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure; upon which, I
laid down the dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over my
pale, in hopes to have bred it up tamle; but it would not eat; so I was
forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and saved my provisions, m~y bread especially, as
much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for that,
and also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I must now give some little account
of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm, quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz. some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The tears
would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections; and
sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should thus
completely ruin His creatures, and render them so absolutely miserable ;
so without help, abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me; and particularly one day, walking with my gun in my
hand by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of my present
condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the other way,
thus: Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true ; but, pray remember,


where are the rest of you ? Did not you come eleven of you in the boat ?
Where are the ten t Why were not they saved, and you lost ? Why were
you singled out t Is it better to behere or there ?" And then Ipoint~edto
the sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is in them, and
with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well. I was furnished for my subsist-
ence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened (which was
a hundred thousand to one) that the ship floated from the place where she
first struck, and was driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all
these things out of her ; what would have been my case, if I had been forced to
have lived in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without neces-
saries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them ? Particularly,"
65 K


saidl TIaloud thought1 to myself), what should 1 have done without a gun,
without ammunition, without any tools to make anything, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or anly manner of covering 2" and that now
I had all these to sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in suchl a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition
was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want,
as long as I lived; for I considered from the beginning, how I would
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to
comec, even not only after my ammunnition should be spent, but even after
mly hlealthl and strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained anly notion of myp ammunition being
destroyed at onle blast-I mean my powder being blown up by lightning;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened and
thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter inlto a, melancholy relation of a scene of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by my account,
thle 30th of September, when, in the manner as above said, I first set foot
upon this horrid island; when the sun, being touns in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head: for I reckoned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of ninle degrees twenty-two minutes north of the line.
After I hlad been there about ten or twelve days, it came into my
thloughts that I should lose my reckonings of time for want of books, and
penl and~ inkl, and should even forget the Sabbath days; but to prevent this,
I cuit withl my knife upon a large post, in capital letters, and making it into
a great cross, I set up on the shore where I first landed, I came on shore
hlere on the 30th~ of Septemlber, 1639."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of thle month, as long again as that long one; and thus I kept mny
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place, we are to observe that among the many things which
I brought out of thle sh~ip, in the several voyages which, as above mentioned,
I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
mne, which I omitted setting down before; as, in particular, pens, ink, and
pap'er; several parcels in thle captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
k~eepingr; three or four compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials,
perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all whlich I huddled together,


whether I might want them or no: also, I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which I had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also; and, among them, two or
three Popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the ship a dog, and two
cats, of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say something in its
place; for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped
out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went
on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years;
I wanted nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could

mlaket up to me; I only wanted to have himl talk to mle, but that wouild not
do. As I observed before, I found pens, ink, and paper, and I hunsbandted
them to the utmost; and I shall show that while muy ink lastedl, I kept
thlingrs very exact, but after that was gone I could not, for I could not make
anly ink by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted manty things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together; and of these, ink was one; as9 also a spade,
pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread:
as for linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily; and it was
near a whole year before I had entirely finishledl my little pale, or surrounded


my habitation. The piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I could well
lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by
far, in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and
bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at fist, but at last
bethought myself of one of the iron crows; which, however, though I found
it, made driving those posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it inl nor had I any other employment,
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstances
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affairs in writing, not so
much to leave them to any that were to come after me--for I was likely to
have but few heirs-as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind : and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I: began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to distinguish my
case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like debtor and creditor,
the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries I suffered, thus:--



I am cast upon a horrible, deso- But I am alive; and not drowned,
late island, void of all hope of re- as all my ship's company were.

I am singled out and separated,
as it were, from all the world, to be

I am divided from mankind--a
solitaire; one banished from human
I have not clothes to cover me.

But I am singled out, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared from
death; and He that miraculously
saved me from death, can deliver me
from this condition.
But I am not starved, and perish-
ing on a barren place, affording no
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, I could hardly wear


I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island where
means to resist any violence of man I see no wild beasts to hurt me, as I
or beast. saw on the coast of Africa: and what
if I had been shipwrecked there ?
I have no soul to speak to or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out as many neces-
sary things as will either supply my
wants or enable me to supply myself,
even as long as I live.

UpTon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was scarce
anly condition in the world so miserable but there was something negative or
something positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction,
from the experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world:
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, aend to
set, in the description of good and evil, on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and given
over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship--I say, giving over
these things, I began to apply myself to arrange my way of livnand to
make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent under the side
of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and cables; but I might
now rather call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs,
about two feet thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was a
year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched
or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get, to keep
out the rain; which I found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale, and
into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe, too, that
at first this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, so
they took up all my place; I had no room to turn myself : so I set myself
to enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy
rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it : and so when I
found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right
hand, into the rock ; and then, turning to the right again, worked quite out,
and made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.


This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a back way to my tent
and to my storehouse, but gave me room to store my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things as I
found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without these I
was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world; I could not
write or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure without a table : so
I went to work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the sub-
stance and origin of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring everything
by reason, and by making the most rational judgment of things, every man
may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool
in mly life; and yet, in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, Ifound,
at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without tools ; and
some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were
never made that way before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if i
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tr~ee; bu~t this I had
no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for thle prodigious deal of time
and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board : but my time or
labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above, in the first
place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought on
mly raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards as above,
I made large shelves, of the breadth of a foot and a, half, one over another
all along one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate everything at large into their places, that I might
comle easily at thelm I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hang
m~y gun~s a~nd all things that would hang1 up ): so that, had my cave been
to be seen, it looked like a general magazine of all necessary things; and I
had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to
see all my goods in such order, and especially to find my stock of all neces-
saries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and not only
hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind; and mly
journal would have been full of many dull things; for example, I must


have said thuns: "Sept2. 30th.--After Ibad got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having first
vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which had got into my
stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore wringing my
hands and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying
out, 'I was undone, undone!i' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie dlown
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being devoured."
Some days after this, and after I had been on board the ship, and got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of a
little mountain, and looked out to sea, in hopes of seeing a, ship; then fancy,
at a vast distance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and then
after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, Jose it quite, and sit down and
weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and having settled
my household stuff and habitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as


handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my journal; of which I shall
here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.
September 30, 1659.--1, poor, miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship-
wrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing, came on shore on this
dismal, unfortunate island, which I called The Island of Despair; all
the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to; viz. I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to; and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me--either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures ; but slept soundly, though it rained
all night.
October 1.--In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much nearer the island;
which, as it was some comfort, on one hand--for, seeing her set upright,
and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get on board,
and get some food and necessaries out of her for my relief-so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if
we had all stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved, we might perhaps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing the
ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then swam on
board. This day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th.-All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought on
shore every tide of flood upon rafts. Much rain also in the days, though
with some intervals of fair weather ; but it seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon it; but,
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many
of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.--It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;
during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little harder


than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that
only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the goods
which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out a place to
fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack in the
night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night, I fixed upon a proper
place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which
I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all my goods to
my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my gun, to
see for some food, and discover the country; when I killed a she-goat, and
her kid followed me home, which I afterwards kiled also, because it would
not feed.
NTovemzber 1.--I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the first
night; making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing my
hammock upon.
Nov. 2.--I set up all my cheats and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts, and with them formed at fence round me, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.--Iwent out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks, which
were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of work, of going out
with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; viz. every morning I
walked out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then eat what I had to
live on; and from twelve till two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessively hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The working
part of this day and of the next were wholly employed in making my table,
for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and necessity made
me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would do any
one else.
Nov. 5.--This day, went abroad with my gun and my dog, and killed a
wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing; every creature
that I killed I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back by the
sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I did not understand; but
was surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals, which, while


I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and
escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.--After mny morning walk, I went to work with my table again,
and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before I learned
to mend it.
N~ov. ~.--Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday), I took wholly up to
make me a chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and even in the making I pulled it in pieces several
Note.--I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and cooled
the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and lightning,
which frightened me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was
over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels
as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making little square
chests, or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at most,
of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
and remote from one another as possible. On one of these three days, I
killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.--This day I began to dig behind my tent into the rock, to
make room for my further conveniency.
Note.-Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work; viz. a pickaxte,
a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I desisted from my work, and
began to consider how to supply that want, and make me some tools. As
for the pickaxe, I made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough,
though heavy; but the next thing was a shovel, or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it;
but whatt kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18--The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its ex-
ceeding hardness. Of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with dillicultyr enough, for it was
exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine, for I worked it
effectually by little and little into the form of a shovel or spade; the handle


exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the board part having no
iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put it to; but
never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A basket
I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware-at least, none yet found out; and as to a wheel-
barrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel; but that I had no notion
of ; neither did I know how to go about it; besides I had no possible way
to make the iron guageons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in;
so I gave it over, and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out of
the cave, I made me a thing like a had which the labourers carry mortar
in when they serve the bricklayers. This was not so difficult to me as the
making the shovel; and yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days--I
mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and very seldom failed also bringing home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, because of my making
these tools, when they were finished I went on, and working every day, asr
my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Ifote.--During all this time, I worked to make this room or cave
spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen,
a dining-room, and a cellar. As for my lodging, I kept to the tent; except
that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it rained so hard that I could
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.-1I began now to think my cave or vault fmished, when on
a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth fell
down from the top and one side; so much that, in short, it frighted me-
and not without reason, too, for if I had been under it, I had never wanted
a grave-digger. I had now a great deal of work to do over again, for I. had
the loose earth to carry out; and, which was of more importance, I had
the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no more would come
Dec. 11.--This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards across


over each post; this I finished the next day; and setting more posts up
with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured, and the posts,
standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off the house.
Dec. 17.--From this day to the 20th I placed shelves, and knocked up
nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could be hung up; and now
I began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried everything into the cave, and began to furnish
my house, and set up some pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my
victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me; also, I made
me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day. No stirring out.
Dec. 25.--Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before and pleasanter
Dec. 27.-KRilled a young goat, and lamed another so that I caught it
and led it home in a string; when I had it at home, I bound and splintered
up its leg, which was broke.
N.B.--I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew well and as
strong as ever; but, by my nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away. This was the thatt
time that I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that
I might have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31.--Great heats, and no breeze, so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this time I spent in putting
all my things in order within doors.
JanuaryJ 1.--Very hot stil: but I went abroad early and late with my
gun, and lay stinl in the middle of the day. This evening, going farther
into the valleys which lay towards the centre of the island, I found there
were plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy, and hard to come at; bow-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.--Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the
dog,) and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
Janl. 3.-I began my fence, or wall; which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
N.B.--This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time than from
the 3rd of January to the 14th of April working, finishing, and perfecting
this wall, though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in length,


7-~i~----~-~--` ~f~S!


being a half-circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering me many days,
nay, sometimes weeks together; but I thought I should never be perfectly
secure till this wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-
pressible labour everything was done with, especially the bringing piles out
of the woods, and driving them into the ground; for I made them much
bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced, with a turf
wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if any people were to
come on shore there, they would not perceive anything like a habitation;
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very
remarkable occasion.
IDuring this time I made my rounds in the woods for game every day
when the rain permitted me, and made frquent discoveries in these walks


of something or other to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeons, which build, not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-
pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeatvoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older they flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I had nothing
to give them; however, I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat. And now, in the managing my house-
hold affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought at
first it was impossible for me to make; as, indeed, with some of them it
was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be hooped. I had a small
runlet or two, as I observed before; but I could never arrive at the capacity
of making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I could
neither put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the next place, I was at a
great loss for candles; so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was
generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the
lump of bees-wax with which I made candles in my African adventure;
but I had none of that now; the only remedy I had was, that when I had
killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with a, little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a
lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear steady light like a candle.
In the middle of all my labours it happened that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry--not for this voyage, but before, as I suppose, when
the ship came from Lisbon. The little remainder of corn that had been in
the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being wiling to have the bag for some other use
(I think it was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning,
or some such use), I shook the husks of corn out of it onl one side of
my fortification, under the rook.
It was a little before the great rains just now mentioned that I threw
this stuff away, taking no notice, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown anything there, when, about a mouth after, or thereabouts, I
saw some few stalks of something green shooting out of the ground, which
I fancied might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same kind as
our European-nay, as our English barley.


It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of my
thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no religious foun-
dation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head, nor had
entertained any sense of anytthing that had befallen me, otherwise than as
chance, or, as we ightly say, what pleases God, without so much as in-
quiring into the end of Providence in these things or His order in gov~erningn
events for the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a climate
which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not how
it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to suggest that God had
miraculouslyr caused His grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance on that wild, miserable


This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my eyes, and I
began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature should happen upon
my account; and this was the more strange to me, because I saw near it
still, all along by the side of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which
proved to be stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence for my
support, but, not doubting that there was more in the place, I went all over
that part of the island where I had been before, peering in every corner, and
under every rook, to see for more of it, but I could not find any. At last it
occurred to my thoughts, that I shook a bag of chickens' meat out in that
place; and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess, mly
religious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate, too, upon the
discovering that all this was nothing but what was common; though I
ought to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a providence,
as if it had been miraculous; for it was really the work of Providence to
me, that should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if it had been
dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw it out in that particular
place, where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it anywhere else, at that time, it had been burnt
up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in their season,
which was about the end of June; and, layingo up every corn, I resolved to
sow them all again, hoping, in time, to have some quantity, suf~ieient to
supply me with bread. But it was not till the fourth year that I could
allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly,
as I shall say afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; for I sowed it just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it would have done;
of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty stalks of rice,
which I preserved with the same care and for the same use, or to the same
purpose--to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it
without baking, though I did that also after some time.
But to return to my Journal:--
I worked excessive hard these three or four months, to get my wall
done; and the 14th of April, I closed it up, contriving to go into it, not by