Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Daniel DeFoe
 Chapter I: Robinson Crusoe declares...
 Chapter II: Crusoe makes the acquaintance...
 Chapter III: Crosoe buys land,...
 Chapter IV: Crusoe, on waking in...
 Chapter V: Crusoe sets up a wooden...
 Chapter VI: Crusoe enlarges upon...
 Chapter VII: The journal resum...
 Chapter VIII: The journal...
 Chapter IX : Crusoe in trouble...
 Chapter X: Crusoe makes and launches...
 Chapter XI: Crusoe is surprised...
 Chapter XII: Crusoe takes precautions...
 Chapter XIII: The four-and-twentieth...
 Chapter XIV: Crusoe attempts to...
 Chapter XV: Crusoe teaches Friday...
 Chapter XVI: Crusoe's subjects...
 Chapter XVII: Crusoe and the captain...
 Chapter XVIII: Crusoe arrives in...
 Chapter XIX: Crusoe's reflections...
 Chapter XX: Crusoe arrives at his...
 Chapter XXI: The islanders are...
 Chapter XXII: Crusoe encounters...
 Chapter XXIII: At Bengal, Crusoe...


The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073550/00001
 Material Information
Title: The adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 p. l., xiii-xxxi, 384 p. : front., ill. (incl. port.) plates ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Anelay, Henry, 1817-1883 ( Illustrator )
Huttula, Richard C ( Illustrator )
Nicholson, Thomas Henry, d. 1870 ( Illustrator )
Sheeres, Charles William ( Engraver )
Beeton, Samuel Orchart, 1831-1877 ( Publisher )
Austin, Stephen ( Printer )
Dickes, William, 1815-1892 ( Printer )
Foster, Myles Birket, 1825-1899 ( Illustrator )
Prior, William Henry, 1812-1882 ( Illustrator )
Woods, H. N ( Engraver )
Publisher: S.O. Beeton
Place of Publication: London (248 Strand W.C.)
Manufacturer: Stephen Austin
Publication Date: 1864
Edition: 10th ed.
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Hertford
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Citation/Reference: Smith, R.D.H. Crusoe 250,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe <sic> ; with memoir of the author ; illustrated by engravings printed in colours, from water-colour sketches by H. Anelay and R. Huttula ; separate plates on tinted paper, and numerous woodcuts inserted in the text, designed by T.H. Nicholson, and engraved by C.W. Sheeres.
General Note: Gilt relief, decorative spine with vignettes and title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Some smaller ill. in text signed B. Foster, W.H. Prior, and H.N. Woods.
General Note: Col. front. included in pre-paging.
General Note: Probably same as Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 499, which describes only 10 plates.
General Note: Baldwin Library's copy imperfect: p. xi-xii, index to illustrations, lacking.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04676531
System ID: UF00073550:00001


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Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    List of Illustrations
        Page xi-xii
    Daniel DeFoe
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
        Page xxix
        Page xxx
        Page xxxi
    Chapter I: Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chapter II: Crusoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the African coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Chapter III: Crosoe buys land, and becomes a planter
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Chapter IV: Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the water
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 44a
        Page 44b
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Chapter V: Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on which he inscribes the date of his landing, and keeps his reckoning of time
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 66a
        Page 67
    Chapter VI: Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his difficulties
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
    Chapter VII: The journal resumed
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 92a
    Chapter VIII: The journal continued
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Chapter IX : Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and birds
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
    Chapter X: Crusoe makes and launches a boat
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 132a
        Page 132b
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
    Chapter XI: Crusoe is surprised at the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, and fears an attack from savages
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
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        Page 148
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        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Chapter XII: Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
    Chapter XIII: The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe's sojourn on the island
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 182a
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 184a
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
    Chapter XIV: Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him about his country and its inhabitants
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
    Chapter XV: Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries of Europe
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 204a
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
    Chapter XVI: Crusoe's subjects and their religions
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 226a
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    Chapter XVII: Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the mutineers
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
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        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
    Chapter XVIII: Crusoe arrives in England, and finds that most of his relations are dead, and that his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
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        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
    Chapter XIX: Crusoe's reflections in England
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 274a
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
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        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
    Chapter XX: Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some difficulty, having discovered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be a continent, was, in reality, a group of islands
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 296a
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
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        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    Chapter XXI: The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them with tools of all kinds
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
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        Page 348
        Page 349
        Page 350
        Page 350a
        Page 351
    Chapter XXII: Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
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        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 362a
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
    Chapter XXIII: At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters in partnership, and makes a voyage to Siam and China
        Page 366
        Page 367
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        Page 369
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Full Text



.i-~-- -9-







I- r~~ ;e






8. O.. BEETON, 248, STRAND, W.C.








INDnz To ILLUSTRATIONS........,,.................s.........,. ..................... Ti

MEYMOIE OF THE bUTHOR ..................................................... ~ii


Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentage--He inclines to a seafaring life
--His father expostulates with him--Visits Hull, where a companion tempts him to
'ake a trip by sea--A storm arises, in the midst of which he reflects on his disobedient
conduct-The ship springs a leak, and goes down in Yarmouth Roads -Escapes to the
shore in a boat-ITs advised not to go to sea again, but is unwilling to return home,
and travels to London .................................. ........................................ 1


Crusoe makes the acquailntance of the captain of a merchant vessel bound for the
African Coast, and embarks as a trading adventurer-Takes a fever, learns how to
navigate a ship, and returns enriched-On the death of the captain he makes a seqpnd
voyage with the mate--The ship is taken by Turkish pirates, whose leader makes
Crusoe his slave--Fishing off the Morocco coast, he contrives an escape--The Moor is
thrown overboard, and swims for his life--Sets sail with the Moresco boy-Dangers of
coasting-An African lion-8teers for the south--Falls in with savages, who supply
him with provisions-Shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and
terrified--Is picked up by a Portuguese merchantman-S9ells the Moreeco boy, with
a reservation-Adrrives at the Brazils............................................... 13


Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter--The Portuguese captain continues his
good offices--The pkatation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring contentment--
Becomes supercargo of a slaver-Ab hurricane--The ship is driven wpestward and
strikes on a sandbank-The crew take to their boat, which is swamped-AR are


drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rock, and succeeds in reaching
the mainland-Hie rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on his position, and re-
members that he has neither food for sustenance nor weapons for defence-Sleeps
in 1 tree ........................................... .......... .................................... 30


Crusoe, on waking in the morning, sees the ship lyingo a-ground high out of the
water-HBe comes down from the tree-Swims to the ship-Constructs a raft, which
he loads with stores, and guides with difficulty to the shore--Surveys the country,
and discovers that it is an island and uninhabited--Shoots a bird, the flesh of which
proves to be cairrion--Unloads the raft, and erects a hut--Swims to the ship again,
and brings a second cargo ashore-On his return is confronted by a wild cat, which
discovers a disposition to be friendly--Makes a tent, which he furnishes and fortifies
-Repents his vists to the ship, which he strips of its contents--Removes his tent to
a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly-Kills a she-goat, and is grieved
threat ......................................... .... ....... .... ... ..... .... 42


Crusoe sets up a wooden cross, on whlich he inscribes the date of his landing, and
keeps his reckoning of time-He seriously considers his position, aidl, balancing' the
good in it against the evil, arrives at the conclusion that he is not altogether
miseratble-Makes various articles of furniture for his house, with the aid of the tool!
found in the ship-Keeps a Journal ................. ................................,..~...... 57


Crusoe enlarges upon the circumstances noted in his Journal, and details his diffi-
culties-Is surprised by the appearance of barley growing out of the ground-At first
supposes that Providence has specially intervened on his behalf, but afterwards
remembers that the barley was accidentally sown--Prudently preserves the grain for
seed--The Journal resumed--Is startled by an earthquake, which is followed by a
hurricane-Rnecovers various articles from the wreck, which have been cast ashore in
the storm--Finds a turtle, and cooks it--Falls ill, and is alarmed by a terrible
dream--Reproaches himself on account of his past life, and reflects upon his present
misonies .................................................................... 6s


The Journal resumed--Crusoe's thoughts during his illness--His reflections on
the dealings of Providence with him--Finds a Bible in a seaman's chest which is
east on shore, and is consoled andl encouraged by the reading of it--Tobacco as a
remedial agent-His first prayer--Finds deliverance from sin a greater blessing than
dleliverance from affliction-Convalescence-Takes a fresh survey of the island, and
discovers tobacco, aloes, lemons, melons, grapes, and wild sugar-canes-Gathers
grapes, limes, anld lemons, to store up for the winter-IRis lost cat returns with
a family of kittens ............................................ ........._..............,....... 8'


The Jounmal continued-Ornosoe celebrates the anniversary of his landing on the
island by a solemn fast-Sets apart every seventh day for a Sabbath--His ink begin-
ning to fail, he only records remarkable events in his Journal-Sows a portion of the
grain he had saved, at the wrong season, and learns something worth knowing from
the experiment-A new division of the seasons-Tuarns his early habit of observing
to account, in making baskets-Mlakes a journey through the island, and comes to a
spot where the shore is covered with turtles--Loses his way in the interior, and
returns to the shore, from whence he reaches his home--Catches and tames a young
kid--The second anniversary of his landing-Reflections-Diflieulties overcome by
labour and patience ................................................ ........... 93


Crusoe in trouble about his growing crops, which are attacked by goats and birds
-He delivers himself from these enemies, and reaps his corn--Is perplexed how to
make bread of it, and determies to preserve the whole crop for seed-Makes a
spade--In-door employment in the rainy season-Teaches hir parrot to talk-Makes
pottery, and a mortar to grind his corn in--His first baking-A new harvest--
Contemplates escaping from the island-Constructs a boat, but is unable to launch
it--Begins to cut a canal, but gives up the attempt in despair-PFre31h reflections ... 104


Crusoe makes and launches a boat-Leaves the island in search of the mainland
and encounters unexpected dangers--He despairs of getting back again-Returns to
the island, and on reaching home is startled by the greeting of his parrot--Perfects
himself in the making of earthenware and baskets--His contrivances to anare the
goats which devour his corn--He catches and tames them-At home with his family
--He describes his personal appearance-Sets out on a new journey through the
island ........................................... ..... ...... .... ........ .. 122


Crnsoe is surprised at the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, and fears an
attack from savages--Erects a second fortification round his dwelling-Discovers the
remains of a feast of cannibals ........................................ .......................... 137


Crusoe takes precautions against an incursion of the savages-Lives a more
retired life--His principal employment, the milking of his goats, and the manage-
ment of his flock-Is surprised by an old he-goat in a cave-Discovers a party of
cannibals on the shore-A8 ship in distress--Finds the body of a drowned boy cast on
shore--Laments that not one of the crew has been saved, and feels more solitary than
ever--Goes off to the wreek in his boat and finds the only living thing on board to
be a dog-Loads his boat with money-bage, clothes, etc., and returns to the shore--
Reflections ................................................................. 155


The four-and-twentieth year of Crusoe's sojourn on the island -He dreams about
the savages--He conceives the design of getting a savage into his possession--The
cannibals visit the island again, and proceed to slay the prisoners they bringo with
them--The dream is fulfilled-O0ne of the savages escapes, but is pursued-OCrusoe
knocks down one of the pursuers, and shoots the other--He welcomes the fugitive,
whom he encourages to slay the second of his enemies-Names his savage, Friday--
Instrnets and clothes him--Human companionship almost reconciles him to his lot... 175


Crusoe attempts to reclaim Friday from cannibalism, and converses with him
about his country and its inhabitants-Instructs him in the knowledge of the true
God, and exposes the delusions of Pagan priestcraft-Friday finds it difficult to
account for the existence of evil--The savage becomes a Christian, and Crusoe is
completely happy............................................................ 188


Crusoe teaches Friday the use of fire-arms, and describes to him the countries of
Europe--They make a boat, and fit it with masts and sails--Friday is instructed how
to navigate it-The savages again visit the island--They are attacked and routed--
Crusoe rescues a Spaniard, their prisoner, and Friday discovers his father ........... 199


Crusoe's subjects and their religions-The dead bodies of the slain savages are
buried--The Spaniard and Friday's father set out for the mainland to fetch Euro-
peans who had been shipwrecked there--In their absence Crusoe is surprised by the
appearance of a boat-load of mutinous sailors, who bring their officers to the island
to murder them-Crusoe releases the prisoners--The mutineers are attacked and
defeated ....... ......................................... ... ... .... ...... .... 217i


Crusoe and the captain consult how they may recover the ship from the muti-
neers-In the meanwhile a fresh party come ashore--An ambuscade is contrived,
and the mutineers lay down their arms--The captain promises mercy to all except
Will Atkins--The ship taken from the mutineers-Crusoe leaves the island, in
which he had lived for twenty-eight year ............................................ 231


Crusoe arrives in England, and fmnds that most of his relations are dead, and that
his benefactor and steward has fallen into misfortune-He goes to Lisbon, where he
makes himself known to the captain of the ship who took him up at sea, and is put


PaGE ;r
in the way of recovering his property in the Brazils--His possessions are restored,
and he fmnds himself a wealthy man-M~akes arrangements for the conduct of his
estate, and sets out for England by way of Spain-Adn encounter with wolves--
Friday makes merry with a bear--Crusoe arrives in England, and settles there ...... 248


Crusoe's reflections in England--He dreams of his island, and conceives a desire
to return to it, which his wife discovers-Resolves to divert his thoughts, and begins
farming in Bedfordshire--On the death of his wife, he determines to re-visit his
island, and sets sail in an Indiaman, which is to touch at the Brazils--The vessel is
driven by contrary winds on the coast of Galway, which leads to new adventures
--Falls in with a French merchant vessel on fire, and delivers the crew, who are
carried to Newfoundland-Steers thence for the West Indies, and falls in with a
Bristol ship, the crew and passengers of which are famishing.a............................. 272


Crusoe arrives at his island, which he finds with some dif~culty, having dis-
covered, in his search for it, that that which he previously supposed to be a continent, ,
was, in reality, a group of islands--Friday is very joyous upon seeing the old place
--The first person Crusoe meets is the Spaniard whose life he saved-Friday meets
with his father-Crusoe discovers that the English sailors he left behind have
behaved badly--The history of the island during his absence.............................. 295


The islanders are greatly relieved by the arrival of Crusoe, who furnishes them
with tools of all kinds--The Spaniards recount their adventures among the savages
before they came to the island, and describe their joy at being delivered--Will
Atkins, who had been the ringleader of the English sailors in their evil doings,
having shown a better disposition, the Spaniards take him and his companions into
their confidence--The island is divided into three colonies--The French priest,
whom Crusoe had brought out of the ship relieved by him at sea, proposes certain
reforms--Conversion of Will Atkins' Indian wife-The English sailors are married
-A8 religious conversation--Crusoe leaves the island in a hopeful condition ......... 335


Crusoe encounters a fleet of Indian canoes at sea--The savages attack his vessel--
Friday is killed-Crusoe arrives at Brazil, where he gets his sloop set up, and
despatches it, laden with live stock, to his island-Sets sail for the East Indies--
Touches at Madagascar, where they are well received by the natives-The crime of
one of the sailors is avenged by his death, whereupon the crew commence a general
massacre, which Crusoe vainly attempts to stay-On resuming the voyage, he
reproaches the sailors. who at length mutiny, and leave him on shore at Bengal...... 352


At Bengal, Crusoe meets with an English merchant, with whom he enters into
partnership, and makes a voyage to Siam and China--They return to Bengal, where
they purchase a Dutch coasting vessel, which they afterwards discover the crew had
run away with--Their new purchase brings them into danger, as they are mistaken
for pirates, and chased by English and Dutch boats--They beat off their pursuers,
and set sail for Cochin China, where they have an encounter with the natives-They
arrive at Quinchang, where they part from their ship--Crusoe visits Nankin and
Pekin and travels with a caravan of merchants through Tartary and Russia--
Winters in Siberia--Sails from Archangel to Hamburg-Arrives in England, after
an absence of nearly eleven years, and determines to wander no more .................. 36G

Miss ing
F ro m


ONCERKING the ancestry, immediate or remote, of the great
Sman who invented Robinson Crusoe," little is known.
S / That little, however, as might be reasonably expected of a
stock from whence sprung so good a man, is fair and honourable; which,
to my thinking--that is, to the thinking of an individual who cherishes
the warmest love and regard for dear old Crusoe-is an exceedingly
comfortable fact to reflect on. True, it would have mattered little to
his fame as a story-wright, had De Foe been no better than a brawling
tavern-haunter, and his father and grandfather mere men of the mob;
but it would have been very painful to Crusoe's ten thousand friends
and acquaintances to have made the discovery. The peentiarities of


the case should be considered. There can be no doubt that, as a rule,
nine-tenths of the number of boy readers who peruse Robinson Crusoe's
adventures have the most implicit belief that that hero once existed
in the flesh: and this though they are aware that the matter was
written by Daniel De Foe. For written they read narrated; and if they
think about De Poe at all, it is as a good sort of fellow who wrote
from Crusoe's dictation,--an individual to whom the doughty adventurer
was under considerable obligation. It is a severe blow to the young
and trusting mind to discover that their darling solitary-islander is, after
all, a. fctitious personage that lived only in the brain of a romancist, as
did Jack the Giant-killer; but if, in addition, truth insisted on the further
explanation that the said romancist was a sot or a coxcomb, or a surly
fellow, who wielded his pen for bread as a toy-maker handles his tools,
and with as sincere contempt for his fantastic handiwork, the disanpoint-
ment would indeed be complete.
De Foe's ancestry can be traced no further than his grandfather. He
was a jovial country gentleman, living on his own estate, at Elton, in
Northamptonshire, sowing and reaping for his profit, and following the
hounds for his pleasure. It is not recorded that De Foe, the yeoman, was
a public man, or that he at all meddled with the affairs of State; still it is
shown that he was not indifferent concerning such matters,~ and that he
followed, or at least countenanced, the common practice of the men of his
time, of bestowing the names borne by statesmen not of their party on
dogs and other animals of low degree. Says De Foe:--"I remember my
grandfather had a, huntsman that used the same familiarity with his dogs;
and he had his Roundhead and his Cavalier, his Goring and his Waller,
and all the generals of both armies were hounds in his pack, till, the times
turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter the pack, and make them
up of more dog-like surnames."
The jovial fox-hunting squire had among his sons one named James.


Concerning the boyhood of this person nothing is recorded until we hear
of his being bound apprentice to a certain John Levit, a butcher of Lon-
don; and, having duly served his master, we find him a master butcher in
the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate, and of habits altogether different from
those of his respected father, inasmuch as he was a man of sober mind,
and a strict Nonconformist, and with his wife, among the most constant
adherents of the Rev. Dr. Annesley.
Young Daniel is supposed to have been born in St. Giles's parish, but
the registration of his birth does not exist in the parish records. This,
however, may be explained. As before-mentioned, his parents were strict
Nonconformists; and their pastor, Dr. Annesley, was, for a considerable
period after James Foe the butcher had settled in business, the ordained
minister of St. Giles's parish church. The severe and simple teachings
of this good man, however, gave offence, and he .was ejected from the
living. After this, Dr. Annesley established a meeting-house in Little St.
Kelen's, Bishopgate, whither the Foe family, with the majority of his old
congregation followed him. This alteration probably took place shortly
before Daniel was born; and when that auspi-dous event occurred, the
boy's parents found themselves in a strait concerning his registration.
The foolish Church that had closed its doors against their pastor was not
the place to which the sturdy Nonconformist's child could be carried; at
the little meeting-house the ceremony could not be performed; and so the
birthday of the great Daniel Foe remained unchronicled.
He is above spoken of as named Foe," and correctly; for, however,
good his claim may have been to the prefix De," his father and his graud-
father did not adopt it. They were plain Foes; and a plain Foe our hero
was born in the year 1661. (Some few authorities gave the date 1664.)
Hazlitt remarks:-" Upon what occasion it was that De Foe made the
alteration in his name, by connecting it with the foreign preflx, nowhere
appears. His motive was probably a dislike to his original name, either


for its import or its harshness; or he might have been desirous of restoring
it to its Norman origin." The period at which he adopted the new title
also is not clear. It would almost seem that he must have been past the
middle age before the alteration occurred to him; for, while at the age of
forty-two, and while he was long a prisoner in Newgate for his offences
against the State, he thus replies to one of his numerous enemies who had
sneered at his name in connection with De Foe's own newspaper, the
Review:--"If the gentleman has a favourable opinion of the Review, we
fancy he will not dislike it upon the account of the author's name, as like
a thing which he himself is not, being a Foe in name only, not in nature
to anybody."
Of young De Foe's childhood little or nothing is positively known.
Judging, however, from the man that sprung from the child, it is impos-
sible to conceive him anything but a studious, frank, honest boy, with
suf~eient, perhaps, of his father's severity and bluntness to get him into
scrapes innumerable, and certainly with suffcient fortitude to bear man-
fully the punishment thus brought upon him. It may, too, be fairly
assumed thatk he was a daring and venturesome boy,-the sort of boy, in
fact, who runs away to sea. But these are mere speculations, for which
space cannot here be permitted. It cannot, however, but be regretted
that more of such a man's boyhood is not known. Possessing but the
merest foreshadowings of the imagination that could conjure up "' Robin-
son Crusoe," with all his vicissitudes, adventures, and variable fortunes,
an account of his behaviour from ten till fourteen years of age would be
vastly interesting.
At the age of fourteen Daniel was placed under the care of the Rev.
Charles Morton, who kept an academy for young gentlemen at Newington
Green. This gentleman," says De Poe, "' was a polite and profound
scholar; a master who taught nothing, either in politics or science, which
was dangerous to monarchial government, or which wats improper for a


diligent scholar to know." De Poe further declares that he left Dr.
Morton's school with a considerable store of learning. Five languages,
mathematics, natural philosophy, logic, geography, and history were
among his acquisitions.
He remained at school till he was nineteen, when he is agatin lost sight
of for two years, and then appears with his fist printed effusion. This,
according to Chadwick, was a pamphlet on the then raging war between
the Austrians and Turks, and in which he opposed the popular clamour,
and pointed out the disastrous consequences likely to ensue from assisting
the Turks against the enemies, who, as he observes, were at least
Christians." Hazlitt and others, however, assert that De Foe's Arst lite-
rary production was a lampoon directed against Roger L'Estrange, who
shortly before had published a Guide to the Inferior Clergy." The title
of De Foe's pamphlet was Speculum Crape Gownorium; or a Looking-
Glass for the young Ilaemicks new Foyled, &0. By a Guide to the
Inferior Clergy." L'Estrange had in his publication directed the heaviest
and sharpest shafts of his wit against the Dissenters, but they were impo-
tent as reeds compared with De Foe's rejoining onslaught on the weak-
nesses of the Established clergy
From this period--1682 to 1685--De Foe's mark is missing from
the pages of history. Then we have the rebellion of the Duke of Mlon-
mouth, and the doughty Daniel De Foe, a hot-blooded young man of
twenty-four, enlisted in his cause,-not with his pen, but practically;
equipped as a soldier, and wearing a sword. The disastrous termina-
tion of the Monmouth attempt is well known; and De Poe with many
others laid down the unprofitable sword, and returned to their peaceful
and proper callings.
De Poe, who does not seem as yet to have embarked in any other busi1-
ness speculation save that of pamphlet printing, now turned his attention
seriously to citizen life, and established himself in Freeman's Yard, Corn-



hill, as a hosier, or, according to Hadlitt, "as a hose-factor or middle-man
between the manufacturer and retail dealer." Whatever its exact nature,
the Freeman's Yard business must have proved tolerably satisfactory; for
within two years De Poe had come so far to regard himself as a man whose
future was settled, that, on his application, he was admitted a Liveryman
of London on the 26th of January, 1688.
Do Foe continued ten years in the hosiery business. He was not,
however, so utterly devoted to it that the dangers of the nation escaped him.
Within the above-mentioned ten years several most important events in
English history transpired, and with the chief of which our hero was asso-
ciated. About 1686, the Kiing (Jamnes II.), actuated by craft and cowardice,
held out to all religious sects and creeds a project of general toleration--
Dissenters were to be allowed as much ~freedom of speech and action as
members of the Established Church, and Papists as both. Such a pretence
of generosity on the part of the KEing was well cgculated to fmad favour
with men as oppressed as were the Dissenters of the period; but although
their desire for toleration was great, their hatred of Popery was greater,
and as a body they stood fir against the proposition. At such a time,
and in such a cause, De Poe was not likely to be idle. Was ever any-
thing more absurd," wrote he, than this conduct of King James and his
party in wheedling the Dissenters ? Giving them liberty of conscience by
his own arbitrary dispensing authority, and his expecting they should be
content with their religious liberty at the expense of their constitution?
a thing, though a few were deluded with, yet the body of Dissenters saw
through. The train, indeed, was laid deep and subtilly; but this was
plain to everybody, that it was wholly inconsistent with Popish interests
to protect the Dissenters any otherwise thau it was made a project to create
a feud between them and the Church, and in the end destroy both." De
Poe afterwards stated that he did his utmost to oppose the scheme, and
that he wrote two tracts on the subject.


This behaviour of the K~ing created much discontent among all classes
of his subjects; till at last certain of the nobility and gentry, and even
clergy--including the University of Oxford--petitioned the Prince of
Orange to come and take possession of the distracted kingdom. The Prince
replied with alacrity, and on the 4th of November, 1688--being both his
birth and marriage day--landed at Torbay with fifteen thousand men.
His march to London was an uninterrupted triumph. The people so far
from resenting the invasion welcomed the invader as a deliverer, and greeted
him and his host with tumultuous joy. De Poe was an ardent admirer of
this revolution. When he heard the news that the army of the Prince of
Orange was approaching the city, he set out as far as Henley to meet it,
and joined the motley troop of Dutch soldiers and English soldiers, and
renegade statesmen, and disaffected clergy and citizens, in their march to
Whitehall. The 4th of November was ever after regarded by De Foe as
a sacred day-" a day famous on various accounts, and every one of them
dear to Britons who love their country, value the Protestant interest, or
have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day he (the Prince of
Orange) was born; on this day he married the daughter of England; and
on this day he rescued the nation from a bondage worse than that of
Egypt,- bondage of soul as well as bodlily servitude; a slavery to the
ambition and mraging lust of a generation set on fie by pride, avarice,
cruelty, and blood." The revolution was thus consummated without
bloodshed; and the last of the Stuarts, fmding a throne without the sup-
port of the people untenable, fled to France, where he was well received
by the reigning monarch.
It may be assumed from passages that occur in some of his pamphlets,
that during his occupancy of the Freeman's Yard warehouse, De Foe had a
country house in Surrey. He was instrumental in forming the fist regular
Dissenting congregation at Tooting, the Rev. Joshua Oldfield being elected
their pastor.


De Poe, in his patmphlets, repeatedly repudiates the occupation of an
hosier, and claims to be a trader--a general merchant. Oldmixon, one of
De Poe's most annoying enemies, says, <'he never had been a merchant,
otherwise than peddling a little to Portugal." There is every reason to
believe, however, that during his ten years' experience as a trader, he
made several voyages to Spain and Portugal, and he himself declares that
he resided in Spain long enough to acquire the language of that country.
He had some connexion also with Dutch commerce. He is alluded to
contemptuously as a "Lcivit-cat merchant;" but, says Eazlitt, "it was
probably the drug, rather than the animal, in which he traded."
Whatever may have been the nature of the various enterprises De Poe
embarked in during the said ten years, it is certain that they landed him a
bankrupt, and he had to fly from his creditors. Various causes have been
assigned for this collapse of his fortune; but it must be the boldest specu-
lation to speak of the reasons of a man's failing in business, when it is
actually unknown what the nature of that business was. His debts
amounted to several thousand pounds; and now his behaviour showed him
something more than a pedlar" or a man whose heart was in the till of
a hosiery shop. He might--and still have been nothing below the average
"L trade mark"'-have availed himself of the bankruptcy law, and to a very
large extent have eluded the payment of his obligations. Ead he done so,
however, he would have been false to his own noble teaching, Never
think yourself discharged in conscience though you may be discharged in
law. No title of honour, no recorded merit, no mark of distinction, can
exceed that lasting appellation, an honest man. The obligations of an honest
mind can never die. He that lies buried under such an epitaph has more
said of him than volumes of history can contain. The payment of debts
after fair discharge, is the dearest title to such a character that I know:
and how any man can begin again and hope for a blessing from Heaven,
or fav-our from man, without such a resolution, I know not." The debts


incurred during his trading were subsequently paid to the uttermost
To what part of the kingdom De Poe fled, that he might in quiet arrange
his affairs, and at the same time avoid the horrors of a debtors' prison, is
not certain. Probably Bristol was his hiding place. There is atolerably
well-authenticated story of his appearing in a certain quarter of that city,
handsomely dressed with flowing wig, lace ruf~les, and a sword at his side--
but only on Sundays. "' He there attained the name of the Sunday Gentle-
man, because through fear of the bailiffs he dare not appear in public on
any other day."
At this time he was thirty four years old, and, having arranged his
pecuniary affairs, he was offered and accepted a situation in the glass duty
commission. This, however, he only retained for four years, as at the
expiration of that time the glass tax was repealed. About this time he
became secretary to a tile and brick making concern at Tilbury, in Essex.
He must have had a considerable share in the monetary affairs of the
business, for on its failure in 1708, De Poe's personal loss was three thou-
sand pounds.
His duties, however, as a collector of taxes, or secretary at the tile
works, did not induce him to throw aside his pen. From 1695 till 1701
he wrote and published numerous works and pamphlets. His Essay on
Prospects," which appeared in 1697, is remarkable for the soundness and
ingenuity of its arguments, as well as for the novel views it advrocates. AL
tract in defence of the necessity of the maintenance of an English standing
rrrmy was published by him in 1697, and shortly afterwards another tract
on the same subject appeared. The subject was making considerable stir
In the country at the time. The treaty of Ryawick had just been signed,
and consequently a large army which LO.< been engaged in the French war
was now entirely without employment. Itwas the popular wish that this
force should be disbanded. Tradition and precedent alike strengthened the


prevailing notion that a standing army was of all institutions the most to
be dreaded in a country famous for its maintenance of civil and religious
liberty. This however was, in the opinion of the wise King, a time when
precedent should be disaegarded, and a deaf ear turned to the shallow
reasoning of the majority of his subjects. There were substantial grounds
for this: James, the late K~ing of England, was residing with the King of
France, whose army was immense, skilfully generalled, and eager for active
service. King James had not forgotten that he had an hereditary right to
the English throne, and there were among the English people thousands
who likewise remembered that fact, and who would be ready", at a fair
opportunity, to push it to an issue. This, then, was no time for the
reigRning K~ing of England to abate his defensive strength, but the rather
to increase it. With all the vigour of his pen De Foe defended the K~ing's
policy, and the King was not ungrateful.
De Foe now appears to have devoted himself solely, and with con-
siderable energy, to literary pursuits. Numerous works, both in poetry
and prose, emanated from his fertile pen, the bare enumeration of which
would occupy almost as many pages as are here devoted to his whole life.
One of the most remarkable, however, and which more closely than ever
attracted the King to him, was The True-born Englishman," a satirical
poem which made its appearance in 1701, and when the author was in his
fortieth year. The phrase True-born Englishman was constantly in
the mouths of those who were disaffected towards the King and his
countrymen the Dutch. By this little sentence the malcontents expressed
their immense superiority to the great Dutchman who ruled them, and to
all his adherents; when a man declared "L I am a true-born Englishman,"
it was as though he had said "' I am an enemy to the King." De Poe's
admiration of the King was very great : he was his hero, his deliverer,
his friend; he was bound to him by the ties of patriotism, of religion, and
of personal obligation." Pamphleteers of all grades, taking the cant watch-



word as their cue, had indulged in the most scandalous libels against His

Majesty, and it was to answer them, and through them their employers
and admirers, that De Foe penned his satirical poem. His description of
the origin of the "L True-born Engelishmau") will serve as an example of
the entire production.

These are the heroes who despise the Dutch
Alnd rail at new-come foreigners so much,
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived :
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns:
The Pict and painted Briton, treacherous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine, hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Who joined with Norman French, compound the breed
From whence your true-born Englishmen proceed.

As might reasonably be expected, although a reply to his enemies
couched in such language pleased K~ing William not a little, and had the
effect of stopping their clamour, it in no way tended to alter their opinions
or to promote their esteem for Daniel De Foe, the writer. The poem had
an enormous sale-at least eighty thousand copies finding their way into
the hands of an equal number of Englishmen, true-born" or otherwise.
From this time De Foe was in high favour with the K~ing, who
employed him in many secret services, the nature of which is not known.
In one of his Reviews," published about ten years after the King's death,
this bold counsellor tells how that he advised His Majesty to send a
strong fleet to the Havannah to seize that part of the island in which it is
situated, and from thence to seize and secure the possession at least of the
coast, if not by consequence the Terra Firma, of the Empire of Mexico,
and thereby entirely cut off the Spanish commerce and the return of their
plate ships, by the immense riches whereof, and by which only, both
France and Spain have been enabled to support this war."


De Poe's career as a courtier was, however, cut short by the death
of his royal patron, which took place on the 8th of March, 1702. No
sooner was the lion dead than the host of curs who since the publication
of The True-born Englishman" had vented their spleen in smothered
growls, again gave tongue and heaped scandal and abuse on the dead
Dutchman" -ne pamphlet more prominent than the rest appearing with
the title The Mourners." To this De Foe replied by a dignified letter,
calling it The Mock Mourners," sufficiently forcible to stil the mirth of
the dead Kiing's cowardly defamers.
With Anne for Queen came in fresh troubles for the Dissenters. Ad-
vised doubtless by those whose interest that way lay, the Queen, from the
moment of her accession to the throne, made it her business to conciliate
the Church at all risks. "L Sacheverell and the Established Church, and
extermination to Dissenters," became a popular cry; and there was nothing
left for De Foe but again to take the helm and endeavour to steer his co-
religionists through the storm that lowered on every side. With the view
of warning them he published A New Test of the Church of England's
Loyalty," and shortly afterwards "' The Shortest Way with the Dissenters,"
which is regaded as one of the fmest pieces of satire and irony ever com-
posed--indeed its extreme cleverness militated against it. The High
Church, against whom the satire was of course levelled, failed to see or
feel the hidden sting, and, taking the pamphlet, rejoiced at winning over
so powerful an advocate to their cause; while the Dissenters, with mar-
vellous dulness, especially as they had had so many proofs of De Foe's
sincerity, failed likewise to catch the true meaning of the tract, and re-
garded their unwearying champion as a traitor--a wolf that at last had
thrown off his disguise.
I~n this strait De Foe was reduced to the necessity of publishing an
explanation to his pamphlet; but this only made bad worse, for while it
thiled to convince his fellow Dissenters of the injustice of which they had


been guilty, the eyes of the Churchmen were opened to the folly they had
been betrayed into, and they suddenly turned from glorying in their new
champion to hating him as a villain double-dyed. An advertisement was
inserted in the London Gazette for the apprehension of tL Daniel De Foe,
alias De Fooe, a middle-sized spare man, about forty years old, of a
brownish complexion, and dark brown-coloured hair, a hooked nose, a
sharp chin, and a large mole near his mouth." At the same time it was
resolved in the House of Commons, "L That this book, being full of scan-
dalous reflections on the Parliament, and tending to promote sedition,
be burnt by the hands of the common hangman to-morrow in New Palace

His Books Burnt.

In this predicament he was forced to go into hiding to save himself
from a gaol. This course, however, he soon abandoned. The offer of a
readof fifty pounds for his apprehension, was followed by the arrest
ofthe printer and publisher of the obnoxious pamphlet, so he generously


xxxoInI or

came forward and gave himself up to the Government. He was brought
to trial, and the penalty of his crime was fixed at a fmne of two hundred
marks, three separate standings in the pillory, and imprisonment during
the Queen's pleasure; and, when that expired, he was to fmad substantial
securities for his good behaviour during the following seven years.
It happened, however, that although De Foe had lost the faith of his
old friends, and earned for himself the extreme hatred of his enemies, he
was the idol of the crowd; and, when he was led out to the pillory, a, vast
mob accompanied him, cheering as lustily as though they had elected him
king, and were about to crown him. As for the pillory, it was hung with
garlands of flowers; and, while he stood in it, the mob made a merry time
of it, cheering him and drinking his health, and converting what was
intended as a degrading punishment into a famous triumph.

In the Plllory.

The imprisonment in Newgate had to be endured for several months.
However, this time was not passed by the great man in an idle way. Novels
and pamphlets were projected and a complete edition of his works collected
and printed. It was while he was a tenant of Newgate also that the
Reviewo was established-ac publication which appeared two or three times
a week for several years. It was entirely written by De Foe. At laset,



in August, 1704, through the instrumentality of MIr. Itarley, then Secre-
tary of State, the prisoner was released. After all, it would not seem to
have been the Queen's pleasure that he remained in Newgate so long, for
when she was informed of the facts of his case, she not only gave him his
liberty, but forwvarded him by Lord Godolphin a considerable sum of money,
wherewith he was enabled to pay his debts and re-establish his home.

In Newgate.

To recruit his health, De Foe now retired with his family to Bury St.
Edlmunds, continuing his literary labours, however, with untiring energy.
In 1706 he was commissioned by the Government to visit ScotlaLnd, with
a view of assisting in the formation of a union between the two countries.
So ably did he acquit himself of this mission, that in 1708 a pension
was granted him. Political changes, however, soon deprived him of this

Being once more dependent on his pen, he set to work assiduously,
and from 1708 till 1715, produced a vast number of pamphlets and works


of greater size, including a History of the Union of Great Britain," An
Essay on the South Sea Trade," The Present State of Parties in Great
Britain," etc., etc. In 1713, and when he was fifty-two years old, De Foe
once more got into trouble. He produced a clever, well-meaning tract,
entitled, An Answer to the Question that nobody Thinks of, viz. : But
what if the Queen should Die ? and What if the Pretender should
Come?" Once more was the point of his wit too fine for the dull-eyed.
The Government was amazed at the writer's audacity, and he was arrested
'and sent to gaol; and it was not until he endured considerable imprison-
ment that his accusers saw their error, and recommended the Queen's
It would seem that even the giant mind of Daniel De Foe now found
itself overtaxed, and he resolved to have no more to do--at least directly--
with politics. For thirty years he had busied himself with public affairs,
and with no better reward--beyond the serene consciousness that his
course had been true and honest--than persecution, and disaster, and
imprisonment, or, at best, with five enemies for one friend. Before, how-
ever, he abandoned his political career, he was desirous of squaring accounts
with those with whom he had so long dealt, and to that end prepared An
Appeal to Honour and Justice, though it be of his worst Enemies. By
Daniel De Foe: being a True Account of his Conduct in Publie Affairs."
This narrative, however, though published, was never completed. While
working at it, De Foe was smitten with apoplexy, and lay between life
and death for six months. KInowing the sick man's anxiety that this
" True Account of his Conduct should go forth to the world, his friends
resolved to delay its publication no longer, and it therefore appeared un-
finished as it was, and with at note added by the publisher, ascribing the
delay to the author's illness.
As Hazlitt truly observes:--" The close of De Foe's political career
was the beginning of his greatness. In the retirement which he now



sought to quit no more, the leisure of his active spirit was occupied in the
creation of a series of works which raised his name immeasurably higher
than it had ever been before in the opinion of his contemporaries, and
which will preserve that name in freshuess and honour so long as the
language in which they are written endures." De Foe recovered from his
illness, and, being in his fifty-fifth year, sat down to romance writing with
a mind as vigorous and elastic as a young man of thirty. Within six years
he produced more than a dozen works, among the rest,--" The Life, Ad-
ventures, and Pyracies of Captain Singleton;" The Dumb Philosopher;"
" Colonel Jack;" Moll Flanders;" "LThe Mysteries of Magic;" The
History of the Plague; and Robinson Crusoe." The last mentioned
story was one of the earliest produced after his retirement from political
life, and was published in 1719. Concerning "' Robinson Crusoe," nothing
need here be said. All that could be attempted would be to sing its
praises to a new air; and when one has so few words to harp on-" won-
drous wisdom," "perfection of wit," enchantingg interest," and a few
others--their adaptation to a new tune is difficult, especially as the said
tune must be one that every English boy may easily sing, for sing it he
certainly will to some tune or other.
At the age of sixty, De Poe was famous through his latter works; he
possessed a handsome house at Stokre Newington, and could have been in
no other than easy circumstances. He was sorely affic~ted with gout, and
besides was troubled with a painful intestinal complaint. Another mis-
fortune he had to bear was heavier than both,--a dissolute, ungrateful son.
Still, in the teeth of these great troubles, De Poe's teeming brain could not
be still. His History of the Plague" is justly regarded as one of the most
marvellous of his productions. No one," says Hazlitt, can take up the
book without believing that it is the saddler of Whitechatpel who is telling
his own story; and that he was an eye-witness to all he relates; that he
totually saw the bJlazing stars which portended the calamity; that he wit-



nessed the grass growing in the streets; read the inscriptions upon the
doors of the infected houses; heard the bell-men crying Bring out your
dead;' saw the dead carts conveying the people to their graves, and was
present at the digging of the pits in which they were deposited. It is no
wonder that a work; so gravely written should have deceived Dr. Metadi,
who quoted it as an authentic history in his Treatise on the Plague.'
In 1724 appeared "L Roxa~na, the Fortunate Mistress;" and the follow-
ing year a new Voyage Round the World," the most instructive, if not
the most interesting, of his histories. Other works of a less important
character followed, and in 1727 was issued The Complete English
Tradesman." This is goncrally regarded as the best of De Poe's prac-
tical works, and was greatly admired by Benjamin Frankrlin. FollowFing
this came The Miitary Memories of Captain Carleton," which, with
some few pamphlets, carried him on to his sixty-ninth year, when we ~find
him engaged on a work of considerable magnitude, entitled The Com-
plete Gentleman."
Of this, however, part only was written, and but a single sheet printed.
W~e fmnd him writing to his printer (Mlr. J. Wa~tt, in W~ild Court), apolo-
gising for some delay, but excusing himself on the ground that he is
"L exceedingly ill." He was not fated, however, to end his well-worn life
easily and pleasantly. Strange as it may appear, considering the profitable
nature of his work~s during the preceding twelve or fifteen years, he was
reduced in his extreme old age to absolute poverty, forfeiting his house at
'Newingrton, and actually thrown into prison for debt. His imprisonment
was of but short duration, but his worldly condition never afterwards
mended. His bodily afflictions increased, and his wicked son added a
climax to his previous ill-behaviour by squandering the little hoard saved
from the wreck of his father's property, entrusted to this son for the use of
his mother and sisters. Writing concerning family matters generally to his
son-in-law, Mr. Baker, a few months before his death, poor De Foe thus



alludes to this scapegrace: I depended upon him-I trusted him--I gave
up my two dear unprovided children into his hands; but he has no com-
passion, and suffers them and their poor dying mother to beg their bread
at his door, and to crave, as if it were an alms, what he is bound by hand
and seal, besides the most sacred promises, to supply them with; himself
at the same time living in a profusion of plenty. It is too much for me.
Excuse my infirmity; I can say no more, my heart is too full."
On the 24th of April, 1731, in the seventieth year of his age, De Foe
found rest from the world wherein he had worked so long and so nobly,
and which at last treated him so unkindly. He died in the parish he was
born in--St. Giles's, Cripplegate-and was buried in what was then known
as Tindall's Euring Ground, and now as Bunhi~llFields. Whether he died
surrounded by his family, whether he died all alone or attended by strangers,
cannot be discovered. The worst, however, may be surmised; for had
one of his kindred been at hand at the time of his death, it is reason-
able to suppose that the good man's proper name would have been supplied
to the parish registrar, which certainly was not the case, for there the
entry reads:--" 1781-ABpril 26--Mr. Dubow, Cripplegate."

The Resting Place.




Robinson Crusoe declares his birth and parentagp--He inclines to a seafaring life-RHis father
expostulates with him--Visits Hull, where a companion tempts him to take a trip by sea--A
atorm arises, in the midst of which he reficets on his disobedient conduct-The ship springs a
leak, and goes down in Yarmouth Roads--Escapes to the shore in a boat Is advised not to
go to sea again, but i unwilling to retrnm home, and travels to London.

WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreigner
of Bremen, who settled fist at Ifull. He got a good estate
-by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that country, and
from whom I was so called Robinson KrGeutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called, nay,
we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel to an
English regiment of foot in Plauders, formerly commanded by the famous
Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near IDunlrirk against the
Spaniards. What became of my second brother, I never knew, any more
than my father or mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any tade, my head
began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts. My father, who was
very ancient, had given me a competent share of learning, as far as hoese


education and a country free school generally go, and designed me for the
law: but I would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea: and my
inclination to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that pro-
pension of nature, tending directly to the life of misery which was to
befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. Ife called me one
morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and ex-
postulated very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked me what
reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my
father's house, and my native country, where I might be well introduced,
and had a prospect of raising my fortune, by application and industry,
with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me it was for men of desperate
fortunes, on one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes, on the other, who
went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that
these things were all either too far above me, or too far below me; that
mine was the middle state, or what might be called the upper station of
low life, which he had found, by long experience, was the best state in
the world, the most suited to human happiness; not exposed to the
miseries and hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of
mankind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy
of the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the happi-
ness of this state by this one thing, viz., that this was the state of life
which all other people envied; that kings have frequently lamented the
miserable consequences of being born to great things, and wished they had
been placed in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean and the
great; that the wise man gave his testimony to this as the just standard
of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches."
He bid me observe it, and I should always find that the calamities
of life were shared among the upper and lower part of mankind; but that
the middle station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so
many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind: nay, they
were not subjected to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body
or mind, as those were who, by vicious living, luxury, and extrava-
gances, on one hand, or by hard labour, waut of necessaries, and mean or


insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon themselves by
the natural consequences of their way of living; that the middle station
of life was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions,
and all desirable pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station
of life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the world,
and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the body
of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of
ambition for great things: but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently
through the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's expe-
rience to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate man-
ner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself into miseries
which nature, and the station of life I was born in, seemed to have pro-
vided against; that I was under no necessity of seeking my bread; that
he would do well for me, and endeavour to enter me fairly into the
station of life which he had been just recommending to me; and that if
I was not very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate,
or fault, that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer
for, having thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures
which he knew would be to my hurt : in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he directed,
so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes as to give me any
encouragement to go away; and, to close all, he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest persua-
sions to keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
prevail, his young desires prompting him to run into the army, where he
was killed; and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet
he would venture to say to me that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me, and I would have leisure, hereafter, to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist in my
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly pro-
phetic, though I suppose, my father did not know it to be so himself;


I say, I observed the tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that, when he spoke
of my having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved
~that he broke off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full he could
say no more to me.

I ws snceelyaffcte wih tis iscus;aidewocud

However I idnotel afcte sohsilnith h dsorer as m firsd whetof reoulutio
pomthPied; but I teooe myt mo ther, a af time when I thogh hoer au lttl
petle ast oer tan ordinary, n toldhrt my thoe' dsre uht, ls! w ere etreys
ben t uplonf seen, the world, thtIhoul pfnevrstet any o fte' uthig with

roeesoluio enough ato go hathroug with it and my fart her had betoltegive

me his consent than force me to go without it; that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time,
and I should certainly run away from my master before my time was out,


and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like it, I would go
no more; and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover the time
I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she knew it
would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any such a subject;
that he knew too well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
such thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered how I could
think of any such thing, after such a discourse as I had with my father,
and such kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used to
me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me;
but I might depend I should never have their consent to it: that, for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction, and I
should never have it to say that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I have
heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him; and that my
father, after showing a great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he
will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born: I can give no
consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose; though in
the meantime I continued obstinately deaf to all proposals of settling to
business, and frequently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they knew my inclina-
tions prompted me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement that time, but I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by sea to London in his
father's ship, and prompting me to go with them with the common allure- C
ment of seafaring men, viz., that it should cost me nothing for my passage,
I consulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without asking
God's blessing, or my father's, without any consideration of circumstances
or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows, on the 1st of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London. Never any young ad-
venturer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer, than
mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Humber but the wind
began to blow, and the waves to rise, in a most frightful manner; and


as I had never been at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body,
and terrified in mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon what I had
done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for
my wicked leaving my father's house. All the good counsels of my parents,
my father's terse, and my mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my
mind; and my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the contempt of
advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had never
been upon before, went very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after; but it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sailor, and had never
known any thing of the matter. I expected every wave would have
swallowed us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in
this agony of mind, I made many vows and resolutions that if it would
please God to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot
on dry land, I would go directly home to my father, and never set it into
a ship again while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. 1%ow I saw platinly the
goodness of his observations about the middle station of life; how easy,
how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and never had been exposed
to tempests at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like
a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the while the storm con-
tinued, and indeed some time after; but the next day the wind was
shated and the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it. How-
ever, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little sea-sick still;
but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fme evening followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea,
the sun shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful
that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick, but very
cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so rough and terrible
the day before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my companion, who
had indeed enticed me away, comes to me. Well, Bob," says he,


clapping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant you
were frighted, wa'n't you, last night, when it blew but a cap-full of
wind ? "L A cap-full, do you call it ?" said I, 'twas a terrible storm."
' storm, you fool!i" replies he, do you call that a storm ? Why, it was
nothing at all; give us but a good ship and sea room, and we think nothing
of such a squall of wind as that. But you are but a fresh-watter sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye
see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To make short this sari part of my
story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was
made drunk with it; and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all my
repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and all my resolu-
tions for the future. In a word, as the sea was returned to its smooth-
ness of surface and settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of
being swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in
my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection; and the serious
thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return again sometimes; but I
shook them off and roused myself from them, as it were from a distemper,
and applying myself to drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits--for so I called them; and I had in five or six days got as
complete a victory over conscience as any young fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another trial for
it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it does, resolved to
leave me entirely without excuse : for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wr1etch among us would confess both the danger and the mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads: the
wind having been contrary and the weather calm, we had made but little
way since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz., at south-west, for seven or
eight days, during which time a great many ship from Newcastle came
into the same roads, as the common harbour where the ships might wait
for a wind for the river. We had not, however, rid here so long, but
we should have tided up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a hatrbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not in thgq least


apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after the
manner of the sea. But the eighth day, in the morning, the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our topmasts, and make
everything enug and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought, once or twice, our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor, so that we
rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began to see
terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen themselves. The
master, though vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet, as he
went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him softly to himself say
several times, Lord, be merciful to us! we shall be all lost; we shall be
all undone!i" and the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying
still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so appa-
rently trampled upon and hardened myself against: I thought the bitter-
ness of death had been passed, and that this would be nothing, too, like
the fist. But when the master himself came by me, as I said just now,
and said we should be all lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out
of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw: the
sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four minutes.
When I could look about, I could see nothing but distress around us. Two
ships that rid near us, we found had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship which rid about a mile
ahead of us was foundered. Two more ships being driven from their
anchors, were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that
with not a meat standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came close
by us, running away with only their spritsails out before the wind.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the master of our ship to
let them out away the foremast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him that if he did not the ship would founder,
he consented; and when they had cut away the foremast the mainmatst
stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut it
away also and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this, who
was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright before at but a



little. But if I can express, at this distance, the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind upon account of
my former convictions, and the having returned from them to the reso-
lutions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself; and
these, added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that
I can by no words describe it. But the worst was not come yet; the
storm continued with such fury that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep
laden, and wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then
cried out she would founder. It was my advantage, in one respect, that
I did not know what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswain, and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses, one of
the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had sprung
a leak; another said there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word my heart, as I
thought, died within me, and I fell backwards upon the side of my bed
where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me
that I, that was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another : at which I stirred up and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master, seeing some light colliers
who, not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to
sea, and would come near us, ordered us to fire~A gun as a signal of
distress. I, who knew nothing what that. meant, was so surprised that
I thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In
a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a
time when every body had his own life to think of, nobody minded me, or
what was become of me, but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold, it was apparent
that the ship would founder; and though the storm began to abate a
little', yet as it was not possible she could swim till we might run into a
port, so the master continued firing guns for help; and a light ship, who
had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was
with the utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for


us to get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side, till at last
the men, rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered
it out a great length, which they, after great labour and hazard, took
hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat,
to think of reaching to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and
only to pull her in towards shore as much as we could; and our master
promised them, that if the boat was stayed upon shore, he would make
it good to their master: so partly rowing and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore almost as far as
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our ship, but
we saw her sink : and then I understood, for the first time, what was
meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge, I had hardly
eyes to look up when the seamen told me she was sinking; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat than that I might be said to go
in: my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our boat mounting the
waves, we were able to see the shore) a great many people running along
the strand, to assist us when we should come near; but we made slow
way towards the shore, nor were we able to reach it, till being past the
light-house at WinpFon, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the wind.
Here we got in, and, though not without much dilliculty, got all safe on
shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth; where, as unfortunate
men, we were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of the
town, who assigned us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Eull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and have gone
home, I had been happy, and my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's
parable, had even killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I
went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while
before he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that nothing could


resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my reason, and my
more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I
know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a secret, overruling
decree that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
and which it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me
forward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as I had met with in
my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who was the
master's son, was now less forward than I: the fist time he spoke to me
after we were at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separated in the town to several quarters; I say, the fist time he
saw me, it appeared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, he asked me how I did ? and telling his father who
I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad, his father, turning to me with a very grave and concerned
tone, Young man," says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for at plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man." Why, sir ?" said I ; "L will you go to sea no more ?" That
is another case," said he; "Lit is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as
you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given
you of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, what are you, and on what account did you go to sea ?"
Upon that I told him some of my story; at the end of which he burst out
with a strange kind of passion. What had I done," says he, "that such
an unhappy wretch should come into my ship ? I would not set my foot
in the same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This indeed
Swas, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, Which were yet agitated by the
Sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority to go.
However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me: exhorted me to go
back to my father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me: And, young man," said
he, depend upon it, if you do not go back, wherever you go you will
meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you."


We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw him no
more: which way he went, I know not. As for me, having some money
in my pocket, I travelled to London by land, and there, as well as on the
road, had many struggles with myself what course of life I should take,
and whether I should go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame
opposed the best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother only, but even every
body else: from whence I have since often observed, how incongruous
and irrational the common temper of mankind is, especially of youth, to
that reason which ought to guide them in such cases, viz., that they are
not ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are ashamed
of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain what
measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An irresistible reluct-
ance continued to going home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and, as that abated, the little
motion I had in my desires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite
laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.



Crosoe makes the acquaintance of the captain of a merebant vessel bound for the African coast,
and embarks as a trading adventurer--Takes a fever, learns how to navigate a ship, and returns
enriched--On the death of the captain he makes a second voyage with the mate-The ship is
taken by Turkish pirates, whose leader makes Crusoe his slave--Fishing off the Morocco coast,
he contrives an escape-The Moor is thrown overboard, and swims for his life-sets sail with the
Moresco boy-Dangers of coasting--An African Lion--Steers for the south-PFalls in with earages,
who supply him with provisione-shoots a leopard, whereat the natives are astonished and ter-
rified-Is picked up by a Portuguese merchantman--Sells the Moresco boy, with a reservation--
s Arrives at the Brazile.

IIAT evil inflence which carried me fist away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and indigested
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those con-
4~4ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me deaf to all good
advice, and to the entreaties, and even the commands of my father; I
say, the same influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortunate
of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the
coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adventures I did not
ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed have worked a
little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time I had learned the duty
and office of a foremastmanzaud in time might have qualified myself for
a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it was always my fate
to choose for the worse, so I did here;-for, having money in my pocket
and good clothes upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit
of a gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learned to do any.
It was my lot, first of all to fall into pretty good company in London;
which does not always happen to such loose and unguided young fellows
as I then was, the devil generally not omitting to lay some anare for
them very early. But it was not so with me, I fist fell acquainted
with the master of a ship who had been on the coast of Gfuinea, and who,


having had very good success there, was resolved to go again; and who,
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disagreeable at
that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told me, if
I would go the voyage with him, I should be at no expense--I should be
his messmate and his comy'znon; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and,
perhaps, I might; meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer,
and entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an honest
and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about forty pounds
in such toys and triiles as the captain directed me to buy. This forty
pounds I had mustered together by the assistance of some of my relations
whom I corresponded with, and who I believe got my father, or, at
least, my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all may
adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of my friend
the captain, under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned how to keep an account
of the ship's course, take an observation, and, in short, to understand
some things that were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he
took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word,
this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home
five pounds nine ounces of gold dust foi* my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost three hundred pounds, and this
filed me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so completed
my ruin. Yet #en in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; par-
ticularly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent calen-
ture* by the excessive heat of the climatel-our principal~ trading being
upon the coast, from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader : and my friend, to my great
misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage
again; and I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his mate
*A violent fever, incident to persons in hot climates, especially to natives of cooler
climates, and to which, therefore, European sailors are peculiarly liable. One of the
symptoms is peculiar: the person affected imagines the sea to be a green field, and
sometimes, attempting to walk on it, is lost.

ROBINSON 085802.

in the former voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not
carry quite a hundred pounds of my new-gained wealth--so that I had
two hundred pounds left, and which I lodged with my friend's widow,
who was very just to me-yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this
voyage: and the fist was this, viz.--our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised in the gray of the morning by a Turkish
rover of Saillee, who gave chase to us wfth all the sails she could make.
We crowded also as much canvas as out yards would spread, or our masts
carry, to have got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us and would
certainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight, our
ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen. About three in the
afternoon he came up with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of thwart our stern as he intended, we brought
eight of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire and pour-
ing in also his small shot from near two hundred men which he had
on board. However, we had not a man touched, all our men keeping
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other quarter, he entered
sixty men upon our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and hacking
the decks and rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our decks of them twice. How-
ever, to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being dis-
abled and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I apprehended;
1 nor was I carried up the country to the Emperor's court, as the rest of
our men were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for his busi-
ness. At this surprising change of my circumstances, from a merchant
to a miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable
and have none to aieve me, which I thought was now so effectually
brought to pass, that I could not lie worse--that now the hand of
Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone, without redemption. But,


alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, as wil
appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house, so I
was in hopes that he would take me with him when he went to sea again,
believing that it would, some time or other, be his fate to be taken by
a Spanish or Portuguese man-of-war, and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away, for when he went
to sea he left me on shore to look after his little garden, and do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and when he came home
again from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after
the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method I might
take to effect it, but found no way that had the least probability in it.
Nothing presented to make the supposition of it rational; for I had
nobody to communicate it to that would embark with me,-no fellow-
slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotchman there but myself : so that
for two years, though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I
never had the least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself, which put
the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty again in my head.
Mdy patron lying at home longer than usual, without Atting out his ship
which, as I heard, was for want of money--he used constantly, once or
twice a week, sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me
and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very merry,
and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch that sometimes he
would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time that, going a-fishing in a stark calm morning, a
fog rose so thick that, though we were not half a league from the shore,
we lost sight of it; and rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we
laboured all day and all the next night, and when the morning came, we
found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and
that we were at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of Idtbour, and sonm danger, for the
wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but, particularly, we
were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to take more care of


himself for the future; and having lying by him the longboat of our
English ship he had taken, he resolved he would not go a, fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he ordered the carpenter
of his ship, who was also an English slave, to build a little state-room or
cabin in the middle of the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to
stand behind it to steer and haul home the main sheet, and room befort
for a hand or two to stand and wTork the sails. She sailed with that we
call a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over the top of the
cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
wfith a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, particularly his
broad, rice, and coffoo.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as I was most
dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me. It happened
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for
fish, with tw~o or three Mloors of some distinction in that place, and for
whom he had provided extraordinary, and had therefore sent on board
the boat, overnight, a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had
ordered me to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which were
on board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited the next morning
with thle boat washed clean, her roneient and pendants out, and everything
to accommodate his guests: wheln, by and by, my patron came on board
alone, and told me his guests had put off going, upon some business that
fell out, and ordered me with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded that as soon as I had got some fish, I should
bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my
thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my com-
mand; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish myself not for
fishingR business, but for a, voyage; though I knew not, neither did I
so much as consider, whither I should steer : for any where to get out of
that place was my way.
M~y first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this M~oor,
to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told him we must
not presume to eat of our patron's bread. He said, that was true; so


he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit of their kind, and three jars
with fresh water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which it was evident by the make were taken out of some English
prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the MIoor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above half a hundred-
weight, wcithl a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer,
all which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax, to make
candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came into
also. His name was Ismael, whom they call M~uley, or Moley; so I called
to him: Moley," said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat, can
you not get a little powder and shot ? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps the
gunner's stores in the ship." "L Yes," says he, I will bring some;" and
accordingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held about a pound
and a half of powder, or rather more, and another with shot, that had five
or sixu pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same
time I had found some powdelr of my master's in the great cabin, with
which I filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with everything
needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which is at the
entrance of the port, know who we were, and took no notice of us; and
we were not above a. mile out of the port, before we hauled in our sail,
and set us dowrn to fish. The wind blew from N.N.E., which was
contrary to my desire; for, had it blown southerly, I had been sure to
have` made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz ;
but my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from
that horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for when I had
fish on my hook I would not pull them up that he might not see them, I
Said to the M\oor, "L This will not do; our master will not be thus served;
we must stand farther off" He, thinking no harm, agreed, and being in
the head of the boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat
out near a leagRue farther, and then brought her to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the M~oor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him by surprise,
with my arm under his twist,'; and tossed him clear overboard into the
*The hollow on the inside of the thigh.


sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me,
begged to be taken in, and told me he would go all over the world with
me. He swam so strong after the boat that he would have reached me
very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I stepped into the
cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I presented it at him, and
told him I had done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none. But," said I, you swim well enough to reach the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore and I will do you no
harm; but if you come near the boat I will shoot you through the head;
for I am resolved to have my liberty." So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for
he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Mioor with me, and hav-e
drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust him. When he
was gone I turned to the boy whom they called Xury, and said to him,
"L Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will make you a. great man; but if
you will not stroke your face to be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's board), I must throw you- into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him;
and swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the M~oor that was swimming I stood out
directly to sea, with the boat rather stretching to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one that
had been in their wits must have been supposed to do); for who would
have supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the truly Bar-
barian coast, where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us
with their canoes and destroy us, where we could never once go on shore
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I changed my course, and
steered directly south and by east, bending my course a little toward
the east, that I might keep in with the shore; and having a fair fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that I believe by
the next day, at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I fist made the land,
I could not be less than one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite
beyond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabouts ; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the freight I had taken at the Moors, and the dreadful


apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I would not stop, or
go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind shifting to the
southward, I concluded also that if any of our vessels were in chase
of me, they also would now give over: so I ventured to make to the
coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew
not w-hat or where, neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or
what river. I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal
things I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the
barkringr, roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the pqor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I, "' then I won't ; but it may
be we may see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
"LThen we may give them the shoot-gun," says Xury, laughing, "make
them run wey." Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dramn
out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer him up. After all, Xury's
advice wans good, and I took it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night. I say still, for we slept none: for in two or three hours
we saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call them), of msny
sorts, come down to the seashore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed heard
the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too; but we were
both more frighted when we heard one of the mighty creatures come
swimming towards our boat : we could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury
said it was a lion, and it might be so for aught I know, but poor Xury
cried to me to weigh the anchor, and row away. "L No," says I, "L Xury,
we can slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot followt
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whateverit
was) within two oars' length, which something surprised me; however, I
immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at
him, upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards the
shore again.


But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous cries
and howflingrs that were raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as
higher within the country, upon the noise or report of the gun; a thing, I
believe, those creatures had never heard before. This convinced me there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that coast, and how to
venture on shore in the day, was another question too; for to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallon
into the paws of lions and tigers: at least we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere or
other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when or where
to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would find if there was any water, and bring some to
me. I asked him why he would go; why I should not go, and he stay in
the bolt ? The boy answered with so mueL affection, that he made me
love him ever afte~r. Says he, If wild manu come, they eat me, you go
awayS.' "( Well, Xury," said I, we will bott go; and if the wild mans
come, we will kiill them; they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury
a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles,
which I mentioned before ; and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as
w~e thought was proper, and waded to shore, carrying nothing but our arms
andl two jar.s for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming of
canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low place
about a. mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by, I~saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and 'I therefore ran forwards to help him;
but when I came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but
different in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad of it,
and it was very good meat: but the great joy that poor lury came with,
was to tell me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not takie such pains for water;
for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found the water frecsh
when the tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we fded
our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed; and prepared to go
on our way, having seen no footsteps of any human creature in that
part of the country.


As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I k~now very well that
the islands of the: Canaries, and the Cape de Verd Islands also, lay not fanr
from the coast. But as I had no instruments to tak~e an observation, to
kmnow what latitude we were in, and did not exactly ktnow-, or at lnast
remember, what latitude they w~ere in, I knew not w-here to look; for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them, othlerwrise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. B~ut my hope was, that if' I
stood along this coast till I came to that part where the English traded, I
should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that
would relieve and tak~e us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was must be
that country which, lying between thle Emperor of M~orocco's dominionls
and the Necgroes, lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild boasts; the
Negroes~- having abandoned it, and gone farther south, for featr of the
MIoors, and the Mloors not thinkiing it worth inhabiting, by reason of its
barrenness; and, indeed, both forsakring it because of the prodigious
numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures which
harbour there: so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where
they go like an army, two or three thousand men at a time; andi, indeed,
for near a hundired miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing but a
waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but how-lings and
roaring of wild beasts by nighlt.
Once or twice, in the day time, I thought I saw the Pico of Teneriffe,
being the high top of the mountain Tener~iffe, in the Canaries, and had a
great mlind, to venturr e out, in hiope~s of rech~lingr thlither; bJut having tried
twice, I wals forced in again by contrary winds, thle sea also going too
high for my little vessel: so I resolved to pursue my first design, and
kieep along the shore.
Seerarl times I was oblige~d to land for fresh wa~ter, after we had left
this place; and, once, in particular, beings nearly in the morning, we came
to an anchor under a little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to Ilow, we lay still, to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes
were more about him than, it seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore; For," says he, looki,
yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I
looked where he pointed, and saw~ a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore, under thle shade of a
piece of the: hill that hung, as it were, over him. "L Xury," says I,


"L v.'.u -hal~l .1? r' ChoreC andl kill him."

L;L he I.t mel at ione n..:uth "-- ',

mid no fouru totu boyi but bade hunC ill ~P-~lT
be still; and I took our biggest gun, whlich was almost muskiet bore,
and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and wvith two slugs, anld
laid it dowvn; then I loaded another gun wvith two bullets; and a third,
for we had three pieces, I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
thle best aim I could with the first piece, to have shot him into the
head; but he lay so, with his leg raised a little above his nose, tha~t
thle slugs hit his leg above the knee, and broke the bone. He startedcc
up, growling at first, but finding his log broke, fell down again, and
then got up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar th~at
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit hlim on the
head; howeverr, I took up the second piece immediately, and through
he begann to move off?, fired again, and shot him into the head, and
had the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury- took heart, and w-ould have me let


him go on shore. Well, go," said I; so the boy jumped into the
water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to the shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear, and shot him into the head again, which dispatched
him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food ; and I was very sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a creature that was good
for nothing to us. However, Xury said he would have some of him; so
he comes on board and asked me to give him the hatchet. For what,
Xury ?" said I. Me out off his head," said he. However Xury could
not out off his head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and
it was a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that per-
haps the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take ofl his skin, if I could. So Xury and I want to
work with him: but Xury was much the better workman at it, for I
knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took us both` up the whole day;
but at last we got off the hide of him, and spreading it on the top of
our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually, for ten or
twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions, which began to
abate very much, and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water. Mly design in this, was to make the river
Gambia, or Senegal; that is to say, any where about the Cape de Verdi,
where I was in hopes to meet with some European ship : and if I did
not, I knew not what course I had to take, but to sock for the islands,
or perish among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East
Indies, made this Cape, or those islands': and in a word I put the whole
of my fortune upon this single point, either that I must meet with some
ship, or must perish.
W~hen I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as I have
said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in two or three
places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at
us : we could also perceive they were quite black and stark naked.
I was once inclined to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my
better counsellor, and said to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled in
nearer the shore, that I might talk to them; and I found they ran along


the shore by me a good way. I observed they had no weapons in their
hands, except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was a
lance, and that they would throw them a great way with good aim; so
I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs, as well as I could, and
particularly made signs for something to east. They beckoned to me to
stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat : upon this I lowered
the tojp of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country,
and in less than half-an-hour came back and brought with them twoo
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their country:
but we neither knew what the one or the other was; however, we were
willing to accept it. But how to come at it was our next dispute, for
I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much afraid
of us : but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the
shore, and laid it down, and went and stood a great way off till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
WC7e made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to make them
amends : but an opportunity offered that very instant to oblige them
wonderfully; for while we were lying by the shore, came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury, from
the mountains towards the sea: whether it was the male pursuing the
female, or whether they were in sport or in rage we could not tell, any
more than we could tell-whether it was usual or strange; but I believe it
was the latter, because, in the first place, those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night; and, in the second place, we found the people
terribly frighted, especially the women. The man that had the lance,
or dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall
upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about, as if they had come for their diversion. At last, one of them began
to come nearer our boat than I at fist expected; but I lay ready for him,
for I had loaded my gun with all possible expedition, and bade lury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fied,
and shot him directly into the head : immediately he sunk down into the
water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling
for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore; but
between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the
water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor creatures at


the noise and fire of my gun. Some of them were ready even to die
for fear, and fell down as dead with the very terror; but when they saw
the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made signs to them
to come to the shore, they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water;
and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shorg, and found that it was a
most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the
Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had
killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire and the noise of
the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the mountains from
whence they came; nor could I, at that distance, know what it was.
I found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so
I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I
made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and though they had no
knife, yet with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as
readily, and much more readily than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom
upwards, to show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it fdled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I sup-
pose, in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and I sent lury
on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and wator;
and, leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for about eleven days
more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a
great length into the sea at about the distance of four or five leagues
before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large ofling, to make
this point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues from the
land, I saw plainly land on the other side, to seaward : then I concluded,
as it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and thos


Ste islands called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a fresh of wind, I might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the cabin, and
sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a sudden, the boy cried
out, M~raster, master, a ship with a sail!i" and the foolish boy was frighted
out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their
reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz., that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I
thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea for Nlegroes. But, when I
observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced they were bound
some other way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore:
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak
with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able to come
in their way, but that they would be gone by before I could make any
signal to them; but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the help of their perspective glasses,
and that it was some European boat, which they supposed must belong
to some ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come up. I
was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ancient on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke, though they did
not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they very kindly brought to,
and lay by for me; and in about three hours' time I came up with
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish, and in
French, but I understood none of them'; but, at last, a Scotch sailor, who
was on board, called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was an
Englishman, that I had made my escape out of slavery from the M~oors at
Sallee: then they bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in,
and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe, that I
was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable, and almost
hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately offered all I had to
the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he generously


told me he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be
delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. For," says he, "L I have
saved your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be saved
myself ; and it may, one time or other, be my lot to be taken up in the
same condition. Besides," said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you what you
have, you will be starved there, and then I only take away that life I
have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese," (Mr. Englishman), says he, I
will carry you thither in charity, and these things will help to buy your
subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the perform-
ance to a tittle : for he ordered the seamen, that none should offer to
touch anything I had : then he took every thing into his own posses-
sion, and gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might have
them, even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and told me
he would buy it of me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would
have for it ? I told him, he had been so generous to me in every thing,
that I could not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to
him: upon which he told me he would give me a note of his hand to pay
me eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He offered me also sixty
pieces of eight more for my boy lury, which I was 10th to take; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him, but I was very loth
to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned
it to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give the boy
an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain
have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the Bay de
Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-two days after.
And now I was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life; and what to do next with myself I was now to
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never enough
remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage, gave me twenty
ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had


in the boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be punctuall)
delivered to me; and what I was willing to sell he bought, such as the
case of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax,
--for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock,
I went on shore in the Brazis.

The Pico or Peakr of Tereri~e.



Crusoe buys land, and becomes a planter--The Portuguese captain continues his good of~ees--The
plantation succeeds, but prosperity does not bring contentment-BDecomes supercargo of a slaver
-A hurricane-The ship is dlriven westward, and Etrikes on a sandbank-The crew take to their
boat, which is swamnped-All are drowned, except Crusoe, who is washed against a rock, and
succeeds in reaching the mainulan-H~e rejoices at his deliverance, reflects on his position, and
remembers that he has neither food for sustenance nor weapons for defence--Sleeps in a tree.

SHAD not been long here, but being recommended by the captain
Sto the house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an
ingenio as they call it-that is, a plantation and a sugar-house,
-I lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and of making sugar: and seeing
how well the planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get licence to settle there, I would turn planter among
them; resolving, in the meantime, to fmnd out some way to get my
money, which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this purpose,
getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land
that was -uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan for my
plantation and settlement, and such a one as might be suitable to the
stock which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of English
parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such circumstances as I
was. I call him neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine,
and we went on very sociably together. Mly stock was but low as well
as his, and we rather planted for food than any thing else, for about two
years. However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so tied the third year we planted some tobacco, and made
each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the year to
come; but we both wanted help, and now I found, more than before, I
had done wrong in parting with my boy lury.
But alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no great


wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I was gotten into an employ-
ment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I
delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house and broke
through all his good advice: nay, I was coming into the very middle
station, or upper degree of low life, which my father advised me to
before; and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have
staid at home, and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had
done : and I used often to say to myself, I could have done this as well
in England, among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off
to do it among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a
distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had the least
knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and then this neighbour;
no work to be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate island, that had
nobody there but himself. But how just has it been and how should
all men reflect that, when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and
be convinced of their former felicity by their experience. I say, how just
has it been that the truly solitary life I reflected on, in an island of
mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so often unjustly compared
it with the life which I then led, in which had I continued, I had, in
all probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on the
plantation, before my kind friend, the calai of the ship that took me up
at sea, went back (for the ship remained there, in providing his loading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months) when telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly and
sincere advice: "84eignior-Inglese," says he (for so he always called me), "'if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London to send your effects
to Lisbon to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are
proper for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but ainee human affairs, are all subject to changes
and disasters, I would have you give orders but for one hundred pounds
sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and let the hasard be run for
the first, so that, if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way;


and, if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that I could
not but be convinced it was the best course I could taie ; so I accordingly
prepared letters to the gentlewoman with whom I haed left my money, and
a procuration to the PortugRuese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my adlven-
tures,-my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the PortugRuese
captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my supply : and when th~is
honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English
merchants there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her :
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her own pocket,
sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome present for his humanity
and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this hundred pounds in English
goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent them directly to him at
Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at the Brazils: among which,
without my direction (for I was too young in my business to think; of
them), he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron work;, and utensils,
necessary for my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
W~hen this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was
surprised with joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid
out the five pounds which my friend had sent him for a present for
himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant under bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any consideration, except a little
tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all: but my goods being all English manufactures,
such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable
in the country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage; so
that I may say, I had more than four times the value of my first cargo,
and was now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation; for the fist thing I did, I bought me a 17egro
elave, and a European servant als>--I mean another besides that which the
captain brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means of our
greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year with great

ROBINSON 085803.

success in my plantation: I raised Afty great rolls of tobacco on my own
ground, more than I had disposed of for necessaries among my neigh-
bours; and these ~fdy rolls, being each of above one hundred pounds
weight, were well cured, and laid by against the return of the Reet from
Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began
to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the rain of the best heads in business.
Ilad I continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full of : but other things attended me, and
I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own miseries; and, par-
ticularly, to increase my fault, and double the rejections upon myself,
which in my future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my
foolish inclination of wandering abroad, anid pursuing that inclination in
contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a fair and
plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of life, which nature
and Providence concurred to present me with, and to make my duty.
Als I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents, so I could
not be content now, but I must go and leave the happy view' I had of
being a rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the nature of the thing
admitted; and thus I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of
human misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health, in the world.
To come, then, by julst degrees to the particulars of this part of my
story : you may ~jlppose, that having now lived almost four years in the
Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plan-
tation, I had not onily learned the language, but had contracted ac-
quaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters, as well as among
the merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in my
discourse among them, I had frequently given them an account of my
two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the
Negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifees-
such as beads, toys, knives, salesors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like--
not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, etc., but Negroes, for
the service of the Braz~ils, in great numbers.


They listened always very attentively to my discourses on these heads,
but especially to that part which related to the buying Negroes; which
was a trade at that time not only not far entered into, but, as far as it
was, had been carried on by the asrsientoa, or permission of the kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public,--so that few Negroes
were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and planters
of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very earnestly, three
of them came to me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with them of the last
night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me: and, after en-
joining me to secrecy, they told me that they had a mind to fit out a
ship to go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that, as it was a trade that
could not be carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes
when they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring
the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their own planta-
tions; and, in a word, the question was whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea ?
and they offered me that I should have my equal share of the Negroes,
without'providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made to any
one that had not had a settlement and plantation of his own to look after,
which was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a
good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered and established, and
had nothing to do but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more,
and to have sent for the other hundred pounds from England,--and who
in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of
being worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that increasing
too,-for me to think of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing
that ever man, in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more resist the
offer than I could restrain my fist rambling designs, when my father's
good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my plantation in my
absence, and would dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants, to do
so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects, in


case of my death, making the captain of the ship that had saved my life, as
before, my universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I
had directed in my will,---one half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and to
keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to have looked
into my own interest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done and not to have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable views of a thriving
circumstance and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particular mis-
fortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my fancy,
rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship being Atted out and the
cargo furnished, and all things done as by agreement by my partners in
the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the Arst of September,
1659, being the same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the fool
to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden, carried six
guns and fourteenrmen, besides the master, his boy, and myself: we had
on board no large cargo of goods, except of such toys as were St for our
trade with the Kegroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles,
especially little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away to the north-
ward upon our own coast, with design to stretch over for the Afica~
coast, when they came about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude,
which, it seems, was the manner of their course in those days. We had
very good weather, only excessive hot, all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping
farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound
for the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N. and
leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed the Line in
about twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation, in seven
degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or
hurricane, took us quite out of our knowledge: it began from the south-
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north-east,
from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days

eit~crl~ .-:.. -


together we could do nothing but drive, and scudding away before it, let
it carry us whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed; and,
during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected every day to
be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to. save their
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, ene of our -
men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was in about eleven
degrees north latitude, but that he was twenty-two degrees of longitude
ditference, west from Cape St. Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guyana, or the north. part of Brazil beyond the river
Amazons, towards that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River, and began to consult with me what course he should take, for the
ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was going directly back
to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of the sea-
coast of America with him, we concluded there was no inhabited country
for us to have recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Barbadoes, which, by
keeping off at sea to avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail,-whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without
some assistance, both to our ship and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away N. W by
L W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for
relief: but our voyage was otherwise determined, for being in the latitude
of twelve degrees eighteen minutes, a second storm came upon ust which
carried us away with the same impetuosity westward,, and drove us so out
of the very way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been saved
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages than
ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our men.
early in the morning, cried out, Land i and we had no sooner run out of
the cabin. to look out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the wPcorld we
were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a moment, her motion being
so stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven


into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and spray of
the sea,
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like condition to
describe or conceive the consternation of men in such circuetmtaces: we
knew nothing where we were, or upon what land it was we were driven,
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and
as the rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at fist,
we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes
without breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of miracle,
should turn immediately about. In a word, we sat looking one upon
another, and expecting death every moment, irnd every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there was little or nothing
more for us to do in this. That which was our present comfort, and all
the comfort we had, was that, contrary to our expectation, the ship did
not break yet, and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast for us to expect
her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do, but to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had a
boat at our stern just before the storm, but she was fast stayed by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and
either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her.
We had another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea was a
doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate, for we fancied the
ship would break in pieces every minute, and some told us she was
actually broken already.
In this distress the mate of our vesayl lays hold of the boat, and, with
the help of the rest of the men, they got her alung over the ship's side;
and, getting all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in
number, to Gfod's merey and the wild sea; for 'though the storm was
abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore,
a~nd might well be called den~ sild See, as the Dutch call the sear in a

And now our case was vdry dismal indeed; for we all eaw plainly
that the sea went so high that the boat could not live, aud* that we
should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor,
if we had, could we have done anything with it, so we worked at the oar
towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men going to execution;


for we all knew that when the boat came nearer the shore, she would
be dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we
committed our soul to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with our own
hands, pulling as well as we could towards land.
What the shore was--whether rock or sand, whether steep or shoal--
we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give us the least shadow
of expectation was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where by great chance we might have run our boat
in, or got under the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water.
But there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made nearer and
nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a half,
as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling astern of
us, and plainly bid us expect the coup de grace. In a word, it took us
with such fury, that it overset the boat at once; and separating us, as
well from the boat as from one another, gave us not time hardly to say,
"0 God! for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt, when
I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet I could not
deliver myself from the waves so as to draw breath, till that wave having
driven me, or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore, and
having spent itself, went back and left me upon the land almost dry, but
half dead with the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind,
as well as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than I
expected, I got upon my feet and endeavoured to make on towards the
land as fast as I could, before another wave should return and take me up
again; but I soon found it was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an enemy which
I had no means or strength to contend with: my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could, and so, by swimming,
to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, if possible;
my greatest concern now being, that the sea, as it would carry me a g1tt
way towards the shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at oneetwenty or thirty
foot deep in its own body, and I could feel myself carried with a mighty
force and swiftness towards the shore, a very great way; but I held my


breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward with all my might. I
was ready to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the sulrface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a good while,
but not so long but I held it out; and fmding the water had spent
itself and began to retunm, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few moments,
to recover breath and till the water went from me, and then took to my
heels and ran with what strength I had farther towards the shore. 'But
neither would this deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pour-
ing in after me~ again; dud twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to me; for the
sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather dashed me,
against a piece of a rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow, taking my
side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out of my body, and
had it returned again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water; but I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing
I should be covered again with water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece
of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now as the waves were not so high as the first, being near land, I held
my hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and, the next run I took,
I got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger and
quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed and safe on shore, and began to look up and thank
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there was, some minutes
before, scarce any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express
to the life what the ecstacies and transports of the soul are, when it is
so saved, ~as I may say, out of the grave; and I do not wonder now at that
custom, viz., that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck,
is tied up and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve brought
to him,-I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to


let him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may
not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confou~nd at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my whole
being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of my deliverance;

~ ~i


making a thousand gestures and motions, which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and that there should not be
one soul saved but myself,-for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards,
or any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes
that were not fellows
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the breach and froth of
the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it lay so far off, and con-
sidered, Lord! how was it possible I could get on shore ?

- --;IC~L-~---


After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my con-
dition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a place I was in, and
what was next to be done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and
that, in a word, I had a dreadfl deliver~ance; for I was wet, had no
clothes to shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink, to comfort me;
neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was parti-
cularly a~tlicting to me wgs, that I had no weapon either to hunt and
kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, a~nd a little tobacco in a box. This
was "all my provision; and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind,
that, for a while, I run about like a madman. Knight coming upon me, I
began, with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot if there
were any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they always
come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time, was to get
up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny--which grew near me,
and where I resolved to sit all night-and consider the next day what
death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink,
which I did, to my great joy, and having drunk, and put a little tobacco
in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into
it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I should sleep, I might
not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a truncheon, for my
defence, I took up my lodging, and, having been excessively fatigued,
I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as, I believe, few could have
done in my condition, and found myself the most refreshed with it that I
think I ever was on such an occasion.



Orusoe, on weldng in the morning, sees the ship lying a-ground high out of the water-He enmes
down from the tree--swims to the ship-Constructs a raft, which he loads with stores, and
guides with difficulty to the shore--Surveys the country, and discovers that it is an island and
uninhabited--Shoots a bird, the flesh of which proves to be carrion--Unloads the ratt, and
ereets a hut--Swims to the ship again, and brings a second cargo ashore--On his return is
confronted by a wild eat, which discovers a disposition to be friendly-3fakes a tent, which lie
furnishes and fortifles-Repeats his visits to the ship, which he strips of its contents--Removes
his tent to a more advantageous site, and fences it strongly-KIills a she-goat, and is grieved

HE17 I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before; but that which surprised me most was, that
the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand where
she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was driven up almost as far
as the rock which I fist mentioned, where I had been so bruised by
the dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I wished
myself on board, that at least I might save some necessary things for
my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked about
me again, and the fist thing I found was the boat, which lay, as the wind
and the sea had tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my right
hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore to have got to her, but
found a neck, or inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to fmnd something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the tide ebbed
so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of the ship; and
here I found a fresh renewing of my grief, for I saw evidently that, if


we had kept on board, we had all been safe--that is to say, we h~ad
all got safe on shore, and I had not been so miserable as to be left
entirely destitute of all comfort and company as I now was. This forced
tears from my eyes again, but as there was little relief in that, I resolved,
if possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremity, and took the water : but when I came to the ship,
my dif~culty was still greater to know how to get on board, for as she
lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing within my
reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and the second time I
spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at fist, hang
down by the fore-chains, so low as that with great dii~culty I got hold of
it, and by the help of that rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her
hold; but that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard saud, or rather
earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost
to the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all that was in
that part was dry; for you may be sure my fist work was to search and
to see what was spoiled and what was free : and fist I found that all thih
ship's rovisions were dry and untouched by the water; and being very
well disposed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and fdled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I had no time to lose.
I also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large dram,
and which I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what was before
me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many
things which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still arnd wish for what was not to be had, and
this extremity roused my application; we had several spare yards, and
two or three large spara of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship.
I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many of them overboard
as I could manager of their weight, tying every one with a rope, that
they might not drive away. When this was done, I went down the
ship's side, and, pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together at
both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or
three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found I could walk
Upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any great weight, the
pieces being too light; so I went to work, and with the carpenter's eaw I
cut a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a
great deal of labour and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with


necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable weight. My
next care was what to load it with, and how to preserve what I laid
upon it from the surf of the sea. But I was not long considering this.
I first laid all the planks, or boards, upon it that I could get, and having
considered well what I most wanted, I Arst got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I Aled with provisions, viz., bread, rice, three
D~utch cheeses, Ave pieces of dried goat's flesh (which we lived much
upon), and a little remainder of European corn which had been laid by
for some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls were
killed. There had been some barley and wheat together, but, to my
great disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and, in all, about five
or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by themselves, there being po
need to put them into the chests, nor no room for them. While I was
doing this I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left on
shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches, which were only
linen and open-kneed, I swam' on board in them and my stockings.
However, this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found
enough, but took no more than I wanted for present use, for I had
other things which my eye was more upon, as, fist, tools to work with on
shore; and it was after long searching that I found out the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship loading of gold would have been at that time. I got
it down to my raft, even whole as it wsa, without losing time to look into
it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There were two
very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two pistols; these I
secured first, with some powder-horns and a small bag of shot, and two
old rusty swords. I knew there were three b'arrel of powder in the ship,
but knlew not where our gunner had stowed them, but with much search
I found them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought myself
pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get to shore with

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them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and the -least captol of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1. AI smooth, calm eea. 2. The tide
rising, and setting in to the shore. 8. What little wind there was
blew me towards the land. And thus, having found two or three
broken oars belonging to the boat, and, besides the tool which were
in the chest, I found two eaws, an axre, and a hammer; and with this
cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or thereaboute, my raft went very well,
only that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before, by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the
water, ~and consequently I hoped to fmnd some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined so it was: there appeared before me a E~ttle opening of
the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set into it; so I guid: d
my raft as well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream. But here
I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck, which ifI had, I think
verily would have broke my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my
raft ran aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground
at the other end, it wanted, but a little that all my eargo had lipped off
towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my
utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my strength neithera
durst I stir from the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with all
my might, stood in, that manner near half an hour, in which times the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little
after, the water till rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the car I had into the channel, and then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high
up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship t sea, and therefore
resolved to plaie myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek, to which,
with great pain and d~ioultyJ, I guided my raft, and at last got so near
as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but
Here I had like to have dipped all my eargo into the sea again, for that
shore lying pretty steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land,
but where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so highi and


the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo again.
Allthat I could do was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping
the raft with my oar, like an anchor to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground which I expected the water would flow
over; and so it did. As soon as I found water enough, for my raft drew
about a foot of water, I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and
there fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the
ground, one on one side near one end, and one on the other side near the
other end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and
all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper place for
my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure them from what-
ever might happen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island, whether inhabited or not inhabited, whether in
danger of wild beasts or not. There wa~s a hill, not above a mile from
me, which rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop
some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took out
one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder,
and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that hil, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up to the top, I saw my
fate, to my great affliction, viz., that I was in an island environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I saw good
reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts, of whom, however,
I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds,
neither when I killed them could I tell what was fit for food and what
not. At my coming back I shot at a great bird which I saw sitting upon
a tree on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the fist gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world : I had no sooner fired,
Sbut from all parts of the wood there arose an innumerable number of
fowls, of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and crying every
one according to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that I
knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its fleph was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and fell to


work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the rest of that day;
what to do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest,
for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not knowing but some wild
beast might devour me, though, as I afterwards found, there was really
no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round with the
chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and made a kind of a hut
for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out
of the wood where I shot the fowL
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many things out
of the ship which would be usefuil to me, and particularly some of the
rigging and sails, aund~such other things as might come to land; audI
resolved to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible. And, as I
knew that the fist storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces,
I resolved to set all other things apart till I got every thing out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared impracticable : so
I resolved to go, as before, when the tide was down, and I did so, only that
I stripped before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a chequered
shirt and a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft; and
having had experience of the first, I neither made this so unwieldy, nor
loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me : as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or three bags full of nails
and spikes, a great screw-jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together,
with several things belonging ~to the gunner, particularly two or three
iron crows, and two bari~els of musket bullets, seven muskets, and another
fowling-piece, with some small quantity of powder more, a large bag full
of small shot, and a great roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy I
could not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that I could fmd, and
a spare fore-topsail, hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded
my second raft, and brought them all safe ork shore to my very great
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence from the land, that
at least my provisions might be devoured on shore; but, when I came back,


I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat
upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little
distance and then stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned,
and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with
me. I presented my gun at her, but, as she did not understand it she
was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away, upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared her a bit, I say,


and she went to it, smelled of it, and eat it, and looked, as pleased, for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no morle, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to open the
barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for they were too heavy,
being large casks,-1I went to work to make me a little tent with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose, and into this tent I brought
every thing that I knew would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it
from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with some
boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without; and, spreading
one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head,
and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the Arst time, and elept
very quietly all night: for I was very weary and heavy, for the night
before I had slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to
fetch all those things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid up, I
believe, for one man; but I was not eatiated still, for, while the ship sat
upright in that posture, I thought I cught to get every thing out of her
that I could: so every day, at low water, I went on board and brought
away something or other; but particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as ls8o all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvases, which
was to mend the sailed upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails, Arst and last, only that I was
fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I could; for
they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that, at last of all, after I
had made Ave or six such voyages as these, and thought I had nothing
more to expect from the ship that was worth my meddling with,-I say,
after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of
rum or spirits, and a box of sugar and a barrel of hie flou; this was
surprising to me, because I had given over expecting any more provisions,
except what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead of
that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails,
which I cut out: and, in a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now, having plundered the
ship of what was portable and At to hand out, I began with the cables,


and cutting the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I got two
cables and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could get; and
having cut down the sprit-sail yard and the mizen-yard, and every thing
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away : but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft was so
unwieldy and so overladen, that, after I was entered the little cove where I
had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I
did the other, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water.
As for myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I
expected would have been of great rise to me. However, when the tide
was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with i~nfite labour; for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a
work which fatigued me very much. After this I went every day on
board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been eleven times on
board the ship, in which time I had brought away all that one pair of
hands could well be supposed capable to bring; though, I believe verily,
had the calm weather held, I should have brought away the whole ship,
piece by piece; but, preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise. However, at low water, I went on board, and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectuallyr, as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a looker with drawers in
it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another
I found about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to inyself at the sight of this money. "O drug said I aloud,
"what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me, no, not the taking
off the ground; one of those knives is worth all this heap: I have no
manner of use. for thee; e'en remain where thou art, and go to the
bottomd, as a creature whose life is not worth saving." However, upon
second thoughts, I took it away; and, wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of masting another raft; but while~ I was pre-
paring this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and
in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It poaeently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a reft with the
wind off shore, and that it was my business to be gone before the tide of

RO~IlNBON 087808.

flood began, otherwise I might niot be able to reach the shore at all.
Accordingly I let myself down into the water, and swam across the
channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that with
difficulty enough, partly with the weight of the things I had about me,
and partly the roughness of the water; for the wind rose very hastily,
and before it was quite high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay, with all my
wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that night, and in
the morning, when I looked out, behold no more ship was to be seen!
I was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory
reflection, viz., that I had lost no time, nor abated no diligence, to get
everything out of her that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there
was little left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had more
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of anything out of
her, except what might drive on shore from her wreck, as, indeed,
divers pieces of her afterwards did; but those things were of small use
to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself against
either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the
island; and I had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should make me a cave in the
earth, or a tent upon the earth; and, in short, I resolved upon both, the
manner and description of which it .may not be improper to give an
account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement, particularly
because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near the sea, and I believed
it would not be wholesome; and more particularly because there was no
fresh water near it: ~so I resolved to find a more healthy and more con-
venient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found would be
proper for me: fist, Health and fresh water I just now mentioned;
secondly, Shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, Security from
ravenous creatures, whether man or beast; fourthly, A view to the sea,
that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any advantage for my
deliverance, for which I was not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little plain on the side
of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was steeli as a houses

-- ~-~l*l*~P~Bi~LLBj~~


side, so that nothing could come down upon me from the top. On the
side of this rock there was a hollow place~, worn a little way in, like the
entrance or door of a cave, but there was not really any cave, or way
into the rock, at all.
On the hat of the green, just before this hollow pece, I resolved to
pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundrdF yards broad, and
about twice as long, and lay like a green before my door; and, at the end
of it, descended irregularly every way down into the low grounds by the
seaside. It was on the north-north-west side of the hill, so that it was
sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a west-and-by-south
sun, or thereabouts, which in those countries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-eirele before the hollow-place,
which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from the rock, and
twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving them
into the ground till they stood very Arm like piles, the biggest end being
out of the ground about Ave feet and a half, and sharpened on the top :
the two rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in the ship, and laid
them in rows, one upon another, within the circle between these two
rows of stakes up to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post: and
this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could get into it or
over it. This cost me a great depl of time and labour, especially to cut
the piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive them into the
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but by a
short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was in, I lifted
over after me, and so I was completely fenced in and forti~ed, as I
thought, from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,
which otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared after-
wards, there was no need of all this caution from the enemies that 1
apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with ininite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which you have the
account above; and I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from thee
rains that in one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,
vis., one smaller~sss~~~~sss~~~sss tent within, and one larger tent above it, and covered


the uppermost with a large tarpaulin which I had saved among the
ALnd now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which I had brought
on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very good one, and
belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing that would
spoil by the wet; and having thus enclosed all my goods, I made up the
entrance, which, till now, I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as
I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock, and,
bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out through my tent,
I laid them up within my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it
raised the ground within about a foot and a half ; and thus I made a cave,
just behind my tent, which served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection and therefore I must go back to some other things
which took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash
of lightning happened, and after that a great clap of thunder, as is
naturally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the light-
ning as I was with a thought which darted into my mind as swift as the
lightning itself: Oh, my powder! My very heart sunk within me when I
thought, that at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed, on which,
not my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, en~tirely
depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I had never k who had hurt me.
Such impression did this' make upon me, that after the storm was
over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying, and applied
myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it a
little and a little in a parcel, in hope that whatever might come, it might
not all take fire at once; and to keep it so apart, that it should not be
possible to make one part fir another. I fmnishedythis work in about a
fortnight, and I think my powder, which in all was about one hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided in not less than one hundred
parcels. Ase to the barrel that had been wet, I did not~ apprehend any
danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my fancy,'
I called my kitchen, sal the rest I hid up and down in holes among the


rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very carefully where
I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at least once
every day with my gun, as well to divert myself as to see if I could kil

'-~h .
'111. i --2~I

d i'7 , ~


any thing fit for food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The fist time I went out, I presently dis-
covered that there were goats in the island, which was a great satisfae-
tion to me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.,
that they were so sh), so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the.
most dillicult thing in the world to come at them: but I was niot disB-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happenebi for, after I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in
this manner for them: I observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though


they were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright *
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they
took no notice of me; fr~om whence I concluded that, by the position of
their optics, their eight was so directed downward that they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards, I took this
method--I always climbed the rockst fist, to get above them, and then
had frequently a fair mark. The Airst shot I maide a nong these creatures,
I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her, which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her, till I came and took her up; and not only so, but when
I carried the old one with me, upon my shoulders, the hid followed me
quite to my enclosure, upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have bred it up
tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced to kill it and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I eat sparingly and
saved my provisions, my bread especially, as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely necessary to
provide a place to make a fie in, and fuel to burn; and what I did for
that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of it in its place : but I must fist give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may
well be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; fo ias I was not cast away
upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite
out of the course of our intended voyage, and a great way, vis., some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I
had great reason to consider it as a determination of Heaven that, in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these reflections,
and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why Providence should
thus completely ruin its creatures, and render them so absolutely miser-
able,--so without help abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these thoughts,
and to reprove me; and, particularly, one day walking with my gun in
my hand by the seaside, I was very pensive-upon the subject of my
present condition, when reason, as it were, expostulated with me the
other way, thus: "Well, you age in a desolate condition, it is true;


but, pray remember, where are the rest of you? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat ? Where are the ten ? Why were not
they saved, and you lost ? Why were you singled out? Is it better to
be here or there?" Aind then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to
be considered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for my sub-
sistence, and what would have been my case if it had not happened,
which was a hundred thousand to one, that the ship floated from the
place where she fist struck, and was driven so near to the shore that
I had time to get all these things out of her : what would have been
my case, if I had been to have lived in the condition in which I at
fist came on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them? "Particularly," said I aloud (though to myself), what
should I have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any
tools to make any thing or to work with, without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any manner of coverings ?" and that now I had all these to a
sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself in such
a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammunition was spent,
so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want, as long
as I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I would provide
for the accidents that might happen, and for the time that was to come,
even not only after my ammunition should be spent, but even after my
health or strength should decay.
I confess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammunition being
destroyed at on~e blast, I meau my powder being blown up by lightning;
and this made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it lightened
and thundered, as I observed just now.-
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation of a seen of silent
life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world before, I shall
take it from its beginning, and continue it in its order,


I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from
England, and which I had packed up among my things; some Portu-
guese books also, and, among them, two or three Popish prayer books,
and several other books, all which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place; for I carried
both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore with
my Arst cargo, and was a trusty servant to me many years. I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that he could make
up to me; I only wanted to have him talk to me, but that would not
do. As I observed before, I found pen, inkt, and paper, and I husbanded
them to the utmost; and I shall show that, while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but, after that was gone, I could not, for I could
not make any ink by any means that I could devise.
APnd this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwithstanding
all that I had amassed together : and of these, this of ink was one, as
also g,fbF pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles,
pine, iaddhread. As for linen, I soon learned to want that without
mue d~ifcenity.
Tib wn of tools made every work I did go on heavily, and it
was acq#@~ whole year before I had entirely fmished my little pale,
or surmann~aphabitation. The piles, or stakes, which were as heavy
as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting and preparing in the
woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes
two days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and a third
day in driving it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy
igag~dif wood at Aret, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows, which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving those
posts, or piles, very laborious and tedious work. But what need I have
beerr concerned at the tediousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I
had time enough to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, if that
had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the ranging the
island to seek for food, which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the circumstance
I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my affaire in writing,
not so much to leave them to any that were to come after me (for I
was like to have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from daily


poring upon them, and af~iliing my mind: and, as mny reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as
I could, and to set the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated it very impartially,
like debtor and creditor. the comfort I enioved against the miseries
I suffered, thus:

I am cast upon s horrible, desolate island,
vo0id of all hope of recovery.
I am singled out and separated, as it
were, from all the wRorld, to be miserable.

I am divided from mankind, a solitaire,
one banished from human society,
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or means to
resist any violence of man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or relieve me.

But I am alive; and am not drowned,
as all my ship's company was.
But I am singled out, too, from all the
ship's crew, to be spared from death; and
He that mii~py saved me from death,
can delirqr solad M~ois cndiin
But I amn perish-~npeiaing ng
barren plcae, .fod~~u~e
But I an in a hot climate, where, if 1
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island, where I see
.no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw on the
, coast of Africa; and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the ship in
near enough to the shore, that I have,
gotten out so many necessary things as will
either supply my wants, or enable me to
supply myself even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there was
scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there was something
negative, or something positive, to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction, from the experience of the most miserable of all
conditions in this world, that we may always fmd in it something to
comfort ourselves fromand to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition, and
given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship,--I say, giving
over these things, I began to apply myself to accommodate my way
ofliving, and to makre things as easy to me as I could.
I have already deearibed my habitation, which was a tenlt under
the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts and chbles;
but I might now rather call it a well, for I raised a kind of wall up


p '
LI ~


against it of turts, about two feet thick on the outside, and after some
time (I think it was a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning
to the rock, and thatched, or covered, it with boughs of trees and such
things as I could get, to keep out the rain, which I found, at some
times of the year, very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this pale,
and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I must observe,
too, that at fist this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in
no order, so they took up all my place : I had no room to turn myself, so
I set myself to enlarge my cave and works farther into the earth; for it
was, a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on
it: and so when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of prey, I worked
sideways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out on the outside
of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were a back way to
my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary things
as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a table; for without
these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world,--
I could not write, or eat, or do several things, with so much pleasure,
without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe that, as reason
is the substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most rational judg-
ment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every mechanic
art. I had never handled a tool in my~ life; and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted nothing but
I could have made it, especially if I had had tools. However, I made
abundance of things, even without tools, and some with no more tools
than an adze and a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board,
I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it to be as
thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by
this method I could make but one board out of a whole tree ; but this I
had no remedy for but patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of time and labour which it took me up to make a plank or board:

RoBINsoN oneson.


but my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as well employed
one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chalir, as I observed above, in the
Airst place--and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that I brought
on my raft from the ship. But when I had wrought out some boards, as
above, I made large shelves of the breadth of a foot and a half, one over
another all along onle side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and
iron-work, and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall
of the rock, to hang my gune, and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like a general maga-
sine of all necessary things; and I had everything so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to Aind my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much a hurry, and not
only hurry as to labour, but in too much discomposure of mind, and my
journal would have been full of many dull things; for example, I must
have said thus--" Bept. 80th.-A~fter I got to shore, and had escaped
drowning, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
Airst vomited with the great quantity of salt water which was gotten into
my stomach, and recovering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wring-
ing my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone!i till, tired and faint, I was forced
to lie down on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of
being devoured."
Some days after this, and after Ihad been on board the ship and got all
that I could out of her, yet I could not forbear getting up to the top of
a little mountain and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail-please myself with the hopes of
it,--and then, after looking steadily, till I was almost blind, lose it quite,
and sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But, having gotten over these things in some measure, and having.
settled my household stuff and harbita~tion, made me a table and a chair,
and all as handsome about me aes I could, I began to keep my journal,-of
which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will be told all these
particulars over again) as long as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I
was forced to leave it off.



September 30, 1659.--1, poor miserable Rlobinson Grasoe, being ship-
wrecked during a dreadful storm in the ofling, came on shore on this
dismal unfortunate island, which 1 called the Is~aws or DAsnz~, all
the rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at the dismal circum-
stances I was brought to, viz., I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon,
nor place to fly to, and, in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death
before me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night
I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
October 1.--In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the ship
had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore again much
nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort on one hand (for
seeing her sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the wind
abated, I might get on board, and get some food and necessaries out
of her for my relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had aill staid on board,
might have saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been
all drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved, we
might, perhaps, have built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to
have carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part
of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but, at length, seeing
the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I could, and
then swam on board. This day also it continued raining, though with
no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24thi.-All these days entirely spent in
many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship, which I brought
on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Mduch rain also in these days,
though wpith some intervals of fair weather; but it seems this was the
ramny season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft and all the goods I had got upon it, but
being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy, I recovered
many of them when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.--It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of wind;

ROBINBON 085803.

during which time the ship broke in pieces, the wind blowing a little
harder than before, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,
and that only at low water. I spent this day in covering and securing
the goods which I had saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day, to fmd out a place
to fix my habitation, greatly concerned to secure myself from any attack
in the night, either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed
upon a proper place, under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolve to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifi-
cation, made of double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
From the 26th to the 80th, I worked very hard in carrying all my
goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time it rained
exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out ihto the island with my gun,
to see for some food and discover the country, when I killed a she-goat,
and her kid followed me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there for the
fist night, making it as large as I could, with stakes driven in to swing
my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.--I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of timber
which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence round he, a little
within the place I had marked out for my fortification.
Novr. 3.--Iwent out with my gun, and killed two fowls like ducks,
which were very good food. In the afternoon went to work to make me
a table.
Nov. 4.--This morning I began to order my times of work, of going
out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion; vis., every morn-
ing I walked out with my gun .for two or three hours, if it did not rain;
then employed myself to work till about eleven o'clock; then eat what
I had to live on; and from twelve to two I la~y down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again. The
working part of this day and the next were wholly employed in marking
my table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though time and
necessity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe
it would do any one else.
Novc. 5.--This day I went abroad with my gun and dog, and killed



a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for nothing: every
creature I killed, I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming back
by the seashore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did not under-
stand, but was surprised, and almost frighted, with two or three seals,
which, while I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into
the sea and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-ABfter my morning walk, I went to work with my table
again, and fmished it, though not to my liking; nor was it long before
I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7I.--Now it begarn to be settled fair weather. The 7Ith, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday, according to my
reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a chair, and with much ado
brought it to a tolerable shape, but never to please me; and, even in the
making, I pulled it to pieces several times.--Note. I soon neglected my
keeping Sundays; for, omitting my mark for them on my post, I forgot
which was which.
Nov. 18.--This day it rained, which refreshed me exceedingly, and
cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with terrible thunder and
lightning, which frighted me dreadfully, for fear of my powder. As
soon as it was over, I resolved to separate my stock of powder into as
many little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.--These three days I spent in making little square
chests or ~boxes, which might hold about a pound, or two pounds at
most, of powder; and so, putting the powder in, I stowed it in places
as secure and remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but I know not
what to call it.
Nov. 17l.--This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the rock, to
make room for my farther conveniency.-Note. Three things I wanted
exceedingly for this work, viz., a' pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow,
or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to consider how to
supply that want, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made
use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade: this was so absolutely necessary, that,
indeed, I could do nothing effectually ~without it, but what kind of one
to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.- -The next day, in searching the woods, I found a tree of that
wood, or like it, which, in the Brazile they call the iron tree, for its


exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my
axe, I cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with dif~oulty enough, for
it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I worked it
effectually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so long:
however, it served well enough for the uses which I had occasion to put
it to, but never was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so
long a-making.
I was still de~cient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow. A
basket I could not make by any means, having no such things as twigs
that would bend to make wicker-ware, at least none yet found out; and
as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel .but that
I had no notion of, neither did I know how to go about it; besides, I had
no possible way to make iron gadgeons for the spindle or axes of the
wheel to run in; so I gave it over: and so, for carrying away the earth
which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hodl which the
labourers carry mortar in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so diflicult to me as the making the shovel; and yet
this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a
wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days,-I mean, always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed, and
very seldom failed also of bringing home something At to eat.
Nov. 23.--3fy other work having now stood still, because of my
making these tools, when they were fmished I went on, and working
every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days
entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it might hold my
goods commodiously.--Note. During all this time, I worked to make this
room, or cave, spascious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a hritchen, a dlining-room, and a cellar. Als for a lodging, I
hept to the tent; except that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it
rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which caused me af te-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long poles in the form
of rafters, leaning against the rook, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees, like a thatch.
Daeember 10.--Ibegan now to think my cave or vault finished; when
on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a great quantity of earth


fell down from the top and one side---o much, that, in short, it frighted
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under it I had never
wanted a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work
to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which was
of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure
. no more would come down.
Bee. 11.--This day I went to work with it accordingly, and got two
shores, or posts, pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of board
across over each post: this I finished the next day, and, setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the roof secured;
and the poets, standing in rows, served me for partitions to part off my
Deo. 17l.-Prom this day to the 20th, I placed shelves, and knocked
up nails on the posts, to hang every thing up that could be hung up;
and now I began to be in some order within doors.
Deo. 20.-Now I carried every thing into the cave, and began to
funmish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a dresser, to
order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me:
also I made me another table.
Deo. 24.-Much rain all night and all day : no stirring out.
Boo. 25.-11ain all day.
Deo. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than before, and
Dec. 271.-KIilled a young goat and lamed another, so that I catched
it, and led it home in a string; when I had it home, I bound and
splintered up its leg, ,which was broke.-N.B. I took such care of it
that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong as ever; but, by
nursing it so long, it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my
door, and would not go away. This was the first time that I entertained
a thought of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dee. 28, 29, 80.-GCreat heats, and no breeze: so that there was no
stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food : this time I spent in
putting all my things in order within doors.
Janury 1.--Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late with
my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This evening, going
farther into the valleys -which lay towards the centre of the island, I
found there was plenty of goatee, though exceeding shy, and hard to come

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ROBINB0N 081802. 67

at: however, I resolved to try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them
Jan. 2.--Accordingly, the next day I went out with my dog, and set
him upon the goats; but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon
the dog, and he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
Janz. 8.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being still jealous of my
being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very thick and strong.--
N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit what was said
in the journal: it is sufficient to observe now, that I was no less time
than from the 8rd of January to the 14th of April, working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall,--though it was no more than about twenty-four
yards in length, being a half circle, from one place in the rock to another
place about eight yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.