Title Page
 Biographical memoir of Daniel...
 Chapter I: My birth and parent...
 Chapter II: Make a trading voyage...
 Chapter III: Make for the southward,...
 Chapter IV: Appearance of the wreck...
 Chapter V: I begin to keep...
 Chapter VI: Observe the ship driven...
 Chapter VII: I begin to take a...
 Chapter VIII: Make a second tour...
 Chapter IX: I attempt to mould...
 Chapter X: I succeed in getting...
 Chapter XI: Description of...
 Chapter XII: I observe a canoe...
 Chapter XIII: Description of my...
 Chapter XIV: Reflections
 Chapter XV: I am at great pains...
 Chapter XVI: I determine to go...
 Chapter XVII: I learn from the...
 Chapter XVIII: The ship makes signals...
 Chapter XIX: I take leave of the...
 Chapter XX: Strange battle betwixt...
 Chapter XXI: Reflections
 Chapter XXII: Steer for the West...
 Chapter XXIII: Narrative conti...
 Chapter XXIV: Fresh broils betwixt...
 Chapter XXV: The island is invaded...
 Chapter XXVI: I hold conversations...
 Chapter XXVII: Dialogue with Will...
 Chapter XXVIII: I entertain the...
 Chapter XXIX: I dispatch a number...
 Chapter XXX: Difference with my...
 Chapter XXXI: Make a trading voyage...
 Chapter XXXII: Obliged to come...
 Chapter XXXIII: We arrive in China...
 Chapter XXXIV: Set out by...
 Chapter XXXV: Further account of...
 Chapter XXXVI: Conversations with...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073543/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe a York mariner
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: x, 592 p., 4 leaves of plates : ill. ; 14 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
W. & R. Chambers Ltd
Publisher: William and Robert Chambers
Place of Publication: London
Manufacturer: W. and R. Chambers
Publication Date: 1860
Edition: Complete ed.
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1860   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe, divided into chapters. Part II originally published under title: The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe sic ; with a prefatory memoir of the author and his writings.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073543
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27943244

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Biographical memoir of Daniel Defoe
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
    Chapter I: My birth and parentage
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Chapter II: Make a trading voyage to Guinea very successfully
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Chapter III: Make for the southward, in hopes of meeting with some European vessel
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Chapter IV: Appearance of the wreck and country next day
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 60a
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Chapter V: I begin to keep a journal
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Chapter VI: Observe the ship driven farther aground by the late storm
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Chapter VII: I begin to take a survey of my island
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
    Chapter VIII: Make a second tour through the island
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
    Chapter IX: I attempt to mould earthen-ware, and succeed
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
    Chapter X: I succeed in getting a canoe afloat, and set out on a voyage in the sixth year of my reign, or captivity
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
    Chapter XI: Description of my figure
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 162a
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Chapter XII: I observe a canoe out at sea
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
    Chapter XIII: Description of my situation in the twenty-third year of my residence
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
    Chapter XIV: Reflections
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
    Chapter XV: I am at great pains to instruct Friday respecting my abhorrence of the cannibal practices of the savages
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
    Chapter XVI: I determine to go over to the continent
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 244a
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
    Chapter XVII: I learn from the Spaniard that there were sixteen more of his countrymen among the savages
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
    Chapter XVIII: The ship makes signals for her boat
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
    Chapter XIX: I take leave of the island, and, after a long voyage, arrive in England
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
    Chapter XX: Strange battle betwixt Friday and a bear
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
    Chapter XXI: Reflections
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
    Chapter XXII: Steer for the West Indies
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
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        Page 353
        Page 354
    Chapter XXIII: Narrative continued
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
    Chapter XXIV: Fresh broils betwixt the turbulent Englishmen and the Spaniards
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
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        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
    Chapter XXV: The island is invaded by a formidable fleet of savages
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
    Chapter XXVI: I hold conversations with the Spaniards, and learn the history of their situation among the savages, from which I relieved them
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
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        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
    Chapter XXVII: Dialogue with Will Atkins and myself
        Page 443
        Page 444
        Page 445
        Page 446
        Page 447
        Page 448
        Page 449
        Page 450
        Page 451
        Page 452
        Page 453
        Page 454
        Page 455
        Page 456
    Chapter XXVIII: I entertain the prospect of converting the Indians
        Page 457
        Page 458
        Page 459
        Page 460
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        Page 468
        Page 469
        Page 470
    Chapter XXIX: I dispatch a number of additional recruits, and a quantity of extra stores, to the island, and take my leave of it for ever
        Page 471
        Page 472
        Page 473
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    Chapter XXX: Difference with my nephew on account of the cruelties practised at Madagascar
        Page 490
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    Chapter XXXI: Make a trading voyage in this ship
        Page 503
        Page 504
        Page 505
        Page 506
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        Page 508
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    Chapter XXXII: Obliged to come to an anchor on a savage coast, to repair our ship
        Page 513
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    Chapter XXXIII: We arrive in China in safety
        Page 527
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    Chapter XXXIV: Set out by the caravan
        Page 541
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    Chapter XXXV: Further account of our journey
        Page 554
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    Chapter XXXVI: Conversations with a Russian grandee
        Page 574
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Full Text

', i










11 17111 1 1-

Printed by W. and It. Chambers



DANIEL DE FOE, the author of Robinson Crusoe, was
born in 1661, in the parish of St Giles, Cripplegate, in
the city of London. His name was properly Foe, and
he only added the De when grown up to manhood. His
father was James Foe, a respectable butcher, of dis-
senting principles; and his grandfather, whose younger
son his father is supposed to have been, was a yeoman
of the same name, farming a small estate of his own at
Elton, in Northamptonshire, and possessing the opposite
principles of a Cavalier and High-churchman.
By his father, young De Foe was educated with the
view of his becoming a dissenting clergyman: his chief
preceptor was Mr Charles Moreton, who kept a dis-
senting academy at Newington Green, and subsequently
emigrated to America. Whether, from an unsettled
disposition, or his father's inability to supply the neces-
sary expenses, he never finished his education as a
minister; but he nevertheless had acquired a knowledge
at the academy of five different languages, of mathe-
matics, natural philosophy, logic, geography, andhistory.
His learning, however, is very plausibly supposed to
have been superficial, and in which character it is
spoken of by his contemporary, the poet Gay. The glory
of De Foe was not destined, however, to arise from any
modification of existing knowledge, but from the nervous
common sense, and the power of describing imaginary
beings under all the semblance of reality, with which
he was endowed by nature.


The dissenting principles, which consisted in a denial
of certain forms and powers assumed by the church of
England, together with some dim but aspiring views
respecting civil liberty, took such a fast hold of the
mind of De Foe, that they never left him from the be-
ginning to the end of his career. Entering into life at
the end of the reign of Charles II., when both civil and
religious tyranny were coming to a height, he could
hardly fail, with such a mind and temperament as he
possessed, to throw himself at once into the turmoil of
polemical warfare. Accordingly, at the age of twenty-
one, he wrote a satire upon the church clergy, styled
Speculum Crape-Gownorum. When only three years
older, he took a more practical step against the church,
by joining the rebellion of the Duke of Monmouth, which
was very speedily put down. De Foe narrowly escaped
being taken prisoner, and, returning to London, eluded
the wide-sweeping and bloody revenge with which the
government visited the actors in that unfortunate move-
ment. He soon after embarked in business as a sort
of agent between the London hosiers and the country
manufacturers, and, being free by birth, took up his
living as a citizen of London. This happened in 1687-8,
on the eve of the revolution, a crisis when neither stock-
ings nor citizenship could keep De Foe from pen and
ink ; and accordingly he joined the numerous assailants
of the tottering power of King James. Of the revolu-
tion, he was not only a supporter-he hailed it with
enthusiastic joy; and ever after observed the 4th of
November, the anniversary of the landing of the Prince
of Orange, as a holiday. In October 1689, when King
William and Queen Mary paid their first ceremonial
visit to Guildhall, Daniel De Foe appeared conspicu-
ously in the procession as one of a royal regiment of
volunteer horse, made up of the chief citizens (chiefly
dissenters), and who, gallantly mounted and richly ac-
coutred, made a very great show. He admired the
character of King William to a degree of enthusiasm,
and, unlike the generality of the English people, re-
tained a warmly grateful sense of his services to British


liberty and freedom of conscience. As an exposure
of the absurd cry that the king was a foreigner, De
Foe wrote his poetical satire, entitled The True-born
Englishman, a piece which, though deficient in polish,
is a masterpiece of good sense and just reflection, and
shows a thorough knowledge both of English history
and of the English character. It is, indeed, a complete
and unanswerable exposure of the pretence set up by
the English to a purer and loftier origin than all the
rest of the world, instead of their being a mixed race
from all parts of Europe, settling down into one common
name and people. King William was so much gratified
by this publication as to extend his personal friendship
to the author, who was often closeted with him during
the latter part of his Majesty's life. His pen, however,
added more to his celebrity than his fortunes. Having
engaged in the Portuguese and Spanish trade, he lost
a vessel by shipwreck, and, from one cause or other,
miscarried in business of two or three descriptions. Like
most falling men, he committed some errors in attempt-
ing to retrieve his affairs. They could not, however,
have been very unpardonable, as he was not made bank-
rupt, and his creditors agreed to take his own personal
security for the composition. What is still more to his
credit, after being fully discharged, he continued to pay
to the extent of his power, to the amount of some thou-
sand pounds. The fact is equally characteristic, that,
while in this state of depression, he occupied himself in
projecting ways and means for the government, which
obtained him a small place and other countenance, and
restored him to comparative competence.
The death of King William in 1701 was a misfortune
for De Foe. Under Queen Anne, the high church sys-
tem waxed more and more furious and intolerant, till,
in the end, an university preacher was able, with im-
punity, to lead an infatuated mob through the streets of
London, pulling down the dissenters' places of worship,
burning their private dwellings, and making it unsafe
for one of that profession to be seen abroad. The esta-
blished clergy, in general, cherished the most embittered


feelings towards the dissenters, and desired to see them
subjected to very severe penalties. De Foe marked,
with an exact eye, the extravagant notions which the
heat of the time had engendered in the minds of these
men, and, under the title of The Shortest Way with
the Dissenters, brought out a pamphlet, in which he
caricatured the whole under a semblance of the most
serious earnest-insomuch that, at first, the pamphlet
was highly extolled by the clergy as a more than usually
uncompromising demonstration of their favourite views.
When it was at length discovered that the author was
only burlesquing the sentiments of the clergy, he was
immediately denounced as one of the most profligate of
men; nor were even his own brethren, the dissenters,
so sure of the propriety or expediency of his satire as
to stand up in his defence. A prosecution for a seditious
libel, in which the accusers hypocritically overlooked
the real, as opposed to the apparent tendency of the
pamphlet, was instituted against him. He was more-
over cheated into a plea of guilty, by the expectation
of a pardon, when, to the eternal disgrace of justice,
a sentence followed, inflicting a triple appearance
in the pillory, a fine of two hundred merks, imprison-
ment during the queen's pleasure, and sureties for
good behaviour for seven years. The firmness of
character of this extraordinary man was strikingly
exemplified by the fortitude with which he endured
the ignominy of the first part of his sentence, and the
total ruin of his affairs (and at the time he possessed a
wife and six children), which followed a prosecution so
merciless. Instead of yielding to despondency, his
elastic mind fell back upon its resources, and, besides
the immediate production of his caustic satire, termed
A Hymn to the Pillory, during his imprisonment, which
lasted nearly two years, he commenced his celebrated
journal, The Review; published a collection of his
works; kept up a pamphleteering warfare on various
public topics, with all his usual activity; and in no re-
spect showed any mental yielding to his fallen fortunes.


Pope, in his Dunciad, has made an ungenerous allusion
to the circumstances:
See whee on high stands unabashed De Foe
But De Foe had ten thousand times more real gloryin
enduring the honourable dishonour of the pillory for an
effort in behalf of humanity and toleration, than what
the author of the Rape of the Lock had in any single
transaction of his fretful and capricious life.
It is a remarkable fact that De Foe was condemned
for patriotic conduct under a Whig ministry, and that
he was released and consoled by a Tory one. On the
accession of Harley and Bolingbroke to power, the for-
mer interceded for and obtained his liberation, and pre-
vailed upon the queen to supply the money for his fine
and expenses. This can scarcely be called a disinte-
rested proceeding, as the object evidently was to buy off
a writer of whom the new cabinet had some reason to
stand in dread. De Foe accepted from Harley the
charge of acting as a confidential agent, at Edinburgh,
in the transactions of the Union between Scotland and
England-a duty which he is allowed to have discharged
with activity and zeal, and chronicled in his History of
the Union with much ability. It does not appear that
he either employed his pen, or gave his personal ser-
vices, in behalf of any of the expressly Tory measures
of this celebrated cabinet; he only abstained from writ-
ing against it, which was the least that his obligations
to Harley would allow him to do. He had, besides, an-
other and equally cogent reason for doing little at this
time in behalf of the popular cause. The popular cause
was hardly true to itself. The mass of the community
were led away by the insane cry of The church is in
danger," from the pursuit of their own proper objects,
into a defence of others with which they had nothing to
do. De Foe, whose mind went always in the van of the
age, suffered more from the party which he led than
from that which he opposed; so that it could hardly be
wondered at if he at last drew off from active combat,
and contented himself with merely cherishing in his
own bosom those abstract principles which he considered


his fellows not yet fitted to realise. Having published
a pamphlet, in which he ironically urged the people to
bring in the Pretender, by a caricatured use of all the
Jacobite arguments, he was prosecuted for it by a co-pa.
triot, named William Benson, who, being utterly unable
to see the real drift of the jeu d'esprit, conceived that
the author was in league with the disinherited Stuart, and
endeavoured to bring him to trial accordingly for high
treason. It was only through the friendly zeal of the
Tory Harley, and his representations to Queen Anne,
that De Foe was released from Newgate, whither he
had been committed on the judges' warrant for writing
something in defence of his pamphlet, after its presen-
tation to the grand jury, and his being compelled to
give bail to appear for trial. Such was the perseve-
rance of his enemies on this occasion, that his ministe-
rial friends thought it most advisable to cover him by
a formal royal pardon, to which event he has alluded
with considerable humour.
De Foe's defence of a proposed commercial treaty
with France, on grounds which exhibit the clearness of
his ideas on that subject to great advantage, brought
on a still greater torrent of enmity and abuse; until at
length the accession of King George I., which he had
strenuously supported, by depriving him of every spe-
cies of protection, drove him from politics altogether.
His spirit seemed at last to give way to so much unre-
lenting enmity, and a slight fit of apoplexy ensued-an
event which rendered an appeal which he soon after
published, in defence of his conduct and writings, more
particularly impressive.
At the verge of threescore, struck with one fit of
apoplexy, and tormented with the gout and stone, this
persecuted, but most virtuous and ingenious man, re-
tired to Stoke Newington, and turned to an employment
which might rather have been expected to engage him
in the bloom and verdure of life-namely, the writing
of romances. His Robinson Crusoe, which was among
the first, appeared in 1719, and immediately obtained
that degree of public favour which it has ever since main-


tainted. The original idea was communicated to him by
a Scottish mariner, named Alexander Selkirk, who had
been left for three or four years upon the uninhabited
island of Juan Fernandez, inthe Pacific Ocean, and from
which he had been rescued by Captain Woodes Rogers,
in his voyage round the world. It has a merit which does
not belong to any of the other romances of De Foe; for
while these in general refer to the very lowest and most
profligate characters in social life, and are, therefore, of
very questionable moral tendency, this legend of the
lone and melancholy sea is a complete abstraction from
all polluting scenes, depending for its interest solely
upon the sympathy which we feel for a human being
placed in such an extraordinary situation, and the in-
geniously minute and well-conceived train of circum-
stances and adventures which the author has imagined
for his hero. The great beauty of this fiction," says
a recent reviewer, "consists, not in the hero, but his
situation, and the admirable manner in which he is
made to adapt himself to it. Human sympathy attends
his every action, and the simple and natural pathos of
a plain unsophisticated man on the sublimity and awful-
ness of perfect solitude, moves more than would all the
feeling and eloquence of Rousseau, had he attempted
a similar story. No wonder this tale is translated into
all the European languages, and even into Arabic,
as we are informed by Burckhardt." The eulogium
upon this esteemed production by Sir Walter Scott, is
too just to be passed over. "Robinson Crusoe," says
he, has obtained a ready passport to the mansions of
the rich and the cottages of the poor, and communicated
equal delight to all ranks and classes of the community.
Whilst youth and ignorance have found ample scope
for entertainment in the succession of incidents, told
with all the simplicity and verisimilitude of real life, it
has commended itself to the more enlightened, as one
of those rare efforts of genius that places its author in
the first rank amongst the writers of invention. As a
narrative replete with incidents, it stands unrivalled
for its natural and easy transitions from one part of


the story to another, unencumbered by irrelative mat-
ter or display of useless ornament. The whole machi-
nery is strictly subservient to the main object of the
story, and its various parts are so nicely adjusted, that
there is nothing wanting to complete the chain or to
heighten the interest. Few works have been more gene-
rally read, or more justly admired-few that have
yielded such incessant amusement, and, at the same
time, have developed so many lessons of practical in-
The other productions of De Foe, the histories of
Moll Flanders, Captain Singleton, and Colonel Jack,
though also possessing great merit as works of fiction,
have never been generally esteemed by the world. His
Account of the Great Plague of London in 1665, has
been more popular, but being put forth as a veritable
work-and not what it ought to have been, a work partly
fictitious in its details-it has not obtained a place in
libraries of legitimate history.
Notwithstanding the number and success of his pub-
lications, De Foe, we lament to add, had to struggle
with pecuniary difficulties, heightened by domestic
afflictions. To the last, when on the brink of death, he
was on the verge of a jail; and the ingratitude and ill-
behaviour of his son, in embezzling some property
which De Foe had made over for the benefit of his
sisters and mother, completed his distress. He was
supported in these painful circumstances by the assist-
ance and advice of iMr Baker, the celebrated natu-
ralist, who had married his youngest daughter Sophia.
After lingering some time in great distress both of
body and mind, he breathed his last on the 24th of April
1731, when he was about seventy years of age.




My Birth and Parentage-At nineteen years of age I determine
to go to Sea-Dissuaded by my Parents-Elope with a School-
fellow, and go on board Ship-A Storm arises, during which I
am dreadfully frightened-Ship founders-Myself and Crew
saved by a Boat from another Vessel, and landed near Yar-
mouth-Meet my Companion's Father there, who advises me
never to go to Sea more, but all in vain.
I WAS born, in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a
good family, though not of that country, my father being
a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first at Hull. He
got a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving off his
trade, lived afterwards at York, from whence he had
married my mother, whose relations were named Ro-
binson, a very good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called
-nay, we call ourselves, and write our name-Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was a lieu-
tenant-colonelto an English regiment of foot in Flanders,
formerly commanded by the famous Colonel Lockhart,
and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk against the
Spaniards: what became of my second brother, I never
knew, any more than my father or mother did know,
what was become of me.


Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts. My father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far as
house education and a country free school generally
go, and designed me for the law: but I would be sa-
tisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclina-
tion to this led me so strongly against the will-nay,
the commands-of my father, and against all the en-
treaties and persuasions of my mother and other friends,
that there seemed to be something fatal in that propen-
sion of nature, tending directly to the life of misery
which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject. He asked me
what reasons, more than a mere wandering inclination,
I had for leaving my father's house and my native
country, where I might be well introduced, and had a
prospect of raising my fortune by application and in-
dustry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told me
it was only men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or
of aspiring superior fortunes on the other, who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make
themselves famous in undertakings of a nature out of
the common road; that these things were all either too
far above me, or too far below me; that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper station
of low life, which he had found, by long experience, was
the best state in the world-the most suited to human
happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of man-
hind, and not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, am-
bition, and envy, of the upper part of mankind. He
told me, I might judge of the happiness of this state by
this one thing, namely, that this was the state of life
which all other people envied; that kings have fre-
quently lamented the miserable consequences of being
born to great things, and wished they had been placed


in the middle of the two extremes, between the mean
and the great; that the wise man gave his testimony
to this, as the just standard of true felicity, when he
prayed to have neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that
the calamities of life were shared among the upper and
lower part of mankind; but that the middle station had
the fewest disasters, and was not exposed to so many
vicissitudes as the higher or lower part of mankind;
nay, they were not subjected to so many distempers
and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those were
who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagances, on
one hand, or by hard labour, want of necessaries, and
mean or insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences
of their way of living; that the middle station of life
was calculated for all kind of virtues, and all kind
of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the hand-
maids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,
quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and
all desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
of it; not embarrassed with the labours of the hands
or of the head; not sold to a life of slavery for daily
bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances,
which rob the soul of peace and the body of rest; not
enraged with the passion of envy, or the secret burning
lust of ambition for great things-but in easy circum-
stances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living without the bitter; feeling
that they are happy, and learning, by every day's ex-
perience, to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, or to
precipitate myself into miseries, which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against-that I was under no necessity of seeking my
bread-that he would do well for me, and endeavour
to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had


been just recommending to me; and that, if I was not
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere
fate, or fault, that must hinder it; and that he should
have nothing to answer for, having thus discharged his
duty, in warning me against measures which he knew
would be to my hurt. In a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at
home as he directed, so he would not have so much
hand in my misfortunes as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away-and, to close all, he told me, I had
my elder brother for my example, to whom he had
used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from
going into the Low Country wars, but could not pre-
vail, his young desires prompting him to run into the
army, where he was killed-and though he said he
would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me-and I would have leisure hereafter
to reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.
1 observed, in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself-I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, especially when
he spoke of my brother who was killed; and that when
he spoke of my having leisure to repent, and none to
assist me, he was so moved, that lie broke off the dis-
course, and told me, his heart was so full he could say
no more to me.
I was sincerely afflicted with this discourse-as, in-
deed, who could be otherwise h-and I resolved not to
think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But, alas a few days
wore it all off; and, in short, to prevent any of my
father's further importunities, in a few weeks after, I
resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act so hastily neither, as the first heat of my resolu-
tion prompted, but I took my mother at a time when I
thought her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told
her, that my thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing

noBItnsN ORltSOr. 15

the world, that I should never settle to any thing with
resolution enough to go through with it, and my father
had better give me his consent, than force me to go
without it-that I was now eighteen years old, which
was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an
attorney-that I was sure, if I did, I should never
serve out my time, but I should certainly run away
from my master before my time was out, and go to sea
-and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did not like
it, I would go no more, and I would promise, by a
double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told
me, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my
father upon any suchsubject-that he knew too well what
was my interest, to give his consent to any such thing
so much for my hurt-and that she wondered how I
could think of any such thing, after the discourse I
had had with my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me-
and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was
no help for me; but I might depend I should never
have their consent to it-that, for her part, she would
not have so much hand in my destruction-and I should
never have it to say, that my mother was willing when
my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards, that she reported all the dis-
course to him; and that my father, after showing
a great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, That
boy might be happy, if he would stay at home; but if
he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch
that ever was born-I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the meantime I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and fre-
quently expostulating with my father and mother about
their being so positively determined against what they
knew my inclinations prompted me to. But being one
day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without any


purpose of making an elopement that time-but, I say,
being there, and one of my companions being going by
sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me
to go with him, with the common allurement of a sea-
faring man, that it should cost me nothing for my pas-
sage, I consulted neither father nor mother any more,
nor so much as sent them word of it; but leaving them
to hear of it as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing or my father's, without any consideration of circum-
stances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the 1st of September 1651, I went on board a ship
bound for London. Never any young adventurer's mis-
fortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer,
than mine. The ship was no sooner got out of the Hum-
ber, but the wind began to blow, and the sea to rise in
a most frightful manner; and as I had never been at
sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect
upon what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken
by the judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty; all the good
counsel of my parents,my father's tears and my mother's
entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my con-
science, which was not yet come to the pitch of hard-
ness to which it has been since, reproached me with the
contempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea went
very high, though nothing like what I have seen many
times since-no, nor what I saw a few days after: but
it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known any thing of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up, and
that every time the ship fell down, as I thought it did,
in the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise
more. In this agony of mind, I made many vows and
resolutions, that if it would please God to spare my life
in this one voyage, if ever I got once my foot upon dry
land again, I would go directly home to my father, and
never set it into a ship again while I lived; but 1 would


take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries
as these any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of
his observations about the middle station of life, how
easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, nor trouble
on shore; and, in short, I resolved that I would, like
a true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and indeed some time after;
but the next day the wind was abated, and the sea
calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it. How-
ever, I was very grave for all that day, being also a little
sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared
up, the wind was quite over, and a charming fine even-
ing followed; the sun went down perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning; and having little or no wind,
and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight
was, as I thought, the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful-looking with wonder upon
the sea, that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so pleasant in so little a time
after: and now, lest my good resolutions should con-
tinue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me away,
comes to me. "Well, Bob," sayshe, clapping me upon
the shoulder, how do you do after it I warrant you
were frightened, weren't you, last night, when it blew
but a capful of wind "A capful d'ye call it said
I, 'twas a terrible storm." "A storm, you fool you 1"
replies he, "do you call that a storm why it was no-
thingat all; give us but a good ship and sea-room, and
we think nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come, let us make
a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that: d'ye see
what charming weather 'tisnow To make short this
sad part of my story, we went the way of all sailors;
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with
it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all
my repentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct,
all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as the sea

18 nosBISON cnusnr.

was returned to its smoothness of surface, and settled
calmness, by the abatement of that storm, so, the hurry
of my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten, and
the current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises that I made in my dis-
tress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflection;
and the serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to
return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and
roused myself from them, as it were from a distemper;
and, applying myself to drinking and company, soon
mastered the return of those fits (for so I called them) ;
and I had, in five or six days, got a complete victory
over my conscience, as any young fellow that resolved
not to be troubled with it could desire. But I was to
have another trial for it still; and Providence, as in
such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me en-
tirely without excuse ; for if I would not take this for a
deliverance, the next was to be such an one, as the
worst and most hardened wretch among us would con-
fess both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yar-
mouth roads; the wind having been contrary and the
weather calm, we had made but little way since the
storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor,
and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, namely,
at south-west, for seven or eight days; during which
time, a great many ships from Newcastle came in to the
same roads, as the common harbour where the ships
might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and not
in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time
in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea; but the
eighth day in the morning, the wind increased, and we
had all hands at work to strike our top-masts, and make


every thing snug and cose, that the ship might ride as
easy as possible. By noon, the sea went very high in-
deed, and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several
seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor had come
home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and
the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time, it blew a terrible storm indeed; and
now, I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as
he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear him,
softly to himself, say several times, Lord be merciful
to us! we shall be all lost-we shall be all undone !"
andthe like. During these first hurries, I was stupid,
lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper. I could ill resume the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon,
and hardened myself against: I thought the bitterness
of death had been past; and that this would be nothing,
too, like the first. But when the master himself came
by me, as I said just now, and said we should be all lost,
I was dreadfully frighted: I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw:
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes; when I could look about, I could
see nothing but distress round us. Two ships that rid
near us, we found, had cut their masts by the board,
being deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship,
which rid about a mile a-head of us, was foundered.
Two more ships, being driven from their anchors, were
run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and
that with not a mast standing. The light ships fared
the best, as not so much labouring in the sea; but
two or three of them drove, and came close by us,
running away with only their sprit-sail out, before the
Towards the evening, the mate and boatswain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which hewas veryunwilling to do; but the beat-


swain protesting to him, that if he did not the ship
would founder, he consented; and when they had cut
away the foremast, the mainmast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut it
away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one must judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
nie at that time, I was in tenfold more Iorror of mind
upon account of my former convictions, and the having
returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me into such a
condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with such
fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged they had
never seen a worse. We had a good ship, but she was
deep laden, and wallowed in tle sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder. It
was my advantage, in one respect, that I did not know
what they meant by founder, till I inquired. However,
the storm was so violent, that I saw, what is not often
seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others more
sensible than the rest, at their prayers, and expecting
every moment when the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down on pur-
pose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak; another
said, there was four feet water in the hold. Then all
hands were called to the pump. At that very word, my
heart, as I thought, died within me; and I fell back-
wards upon the side of my bed where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that
I that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
to pump as another; at which I stirred up, and went
to the pump, and worked very heartily. While this
was doing, the master seeing some light colliers, who,
not able to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and
run away to the sea, and would come near us, ordered


to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I, who knew no-
thing what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought
the ship had broke, or some dreadful thing happened.
In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when every body had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, or what was
become of me; but another man stepped up to the
pump, and, thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie,
thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the hold,
it was apparent that the ship would founder; and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not pos-
sible she could swim till we might run into a port, so
the master continued firing guns for help; and a light
ship, who had rid it out just a-head of us, ventured a
boat out to help us. It was with the utmost hazard
the boat came near us; but it was impossible for us to
get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship side,
till at last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out a
great length, which they, after much labour and hazard,
took hold of, and we hauled them close under our stern,
and got all into their boat. It was to no purpose for
them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reach-
ing to their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive,
and only to pull her in towards shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat
was staved upon shore, he would make it good to their
master: so, partly rowing, and partly driving, our boat
went away to the northward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, but we saw her sink: and then I under-
stood, for the first time, what was meant by a ship
foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had
hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for, from that moment they rather put me
into the boat, than that I might be said to go in, my


heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright,
partly with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what
was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labour-
ing at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we
could see (when our boat mounting the waves, we were
able to see the shore) a great many people running
along the shore to assist us, when we should come near;
but we made but slow way towards the shore, nor were
we able to reach the shore, till being past the light-house
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence
of the wind. Here we got in, and, though not without
much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men,
we were used with great humanity, as well by the ma-
gistrates of the town, who assigned us good quarters,
as by particular merchants and owners of ships, and
had money given us sufficient to carry us either to Lon-
don, or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my father,
an emblem of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even
killed the fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship I
went in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it was a
great while before he had any assurance that I was not
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist: and though I had several
times loud calls from my reason and my more composed
judgment to go home, yet I had no power to do it. I
know not what to call this, nor will I urge that it is a
secret, overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be
before us, and that we push upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoidable
misery attending, and which it was impossible for me
to escape, could have pushed me forward against the
calm reasoning and persuasions of my most retired
thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as
I had met with in my first attempt.


My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days, for we
were separatedinthe townto several quarters-Isay, the
first time he saw me, it appeared his tone was altered;
and, looking very melancholy, and shaking his head,
asked me how I did: and telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in
order to go farther abroad, his father, turning to me
with a very grave and concerned tone, e Young man,'
says he, you ought never to go to sea any more; you
ought to take this for a plain and visible token, that you
are not to be a seafaring man." Why, sir," said I,
" will you go to sea no more?" That is another case,"
said he, it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a taste
Heaven has given you of what you are to expect, if you
persist: perhaps all this has befallen us on your ac-
count, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray," con-
tinues he, "what are you? and on what account did
you go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my
story; at the end of which he burst out with a strange
kind of passion: "1 What had I done," says he, that
such an unhappy wretch should come into my ship
I would not set my foot in the same ship with thee
again for a thousand pounds." This indeed was, as I
said, an excursion of the spirits, which were yet agitated
by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he could
have authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorted me to go back to my fa-
ther, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me,
I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me : And,
young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go
hack, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father's words
are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket, I


travelled to London by land; and there, as well as on
the road, had many struggles with myself, what course
of life I should take, and whether I should go home or
go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately oc-
curred to me how I should be laughed at among the
neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even every body else;
from whence I have since often observed, how incon-
guous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, namely, that they are not
ashamed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to
bg esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning,
which only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home; and as I staid a while, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and, as that
abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a return
wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from
my father's house, that hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that im-
pressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and
even the command of my father-I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortu-
nate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on board
a vessel bound to the coast of Africa; or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adven-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though
I might indeed have worked a little harder than or-
dinary, yet, at the same time, I had learned the duty
and office of a foremastman, and in time might have


qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a
master. But as it was always my fate to choose for
the worse, so I did here; for, having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman; and so I neither
had any business in the ship, nor learned to do any.

Make a trading voyage to Guinea very suceessfully-Death of
my Captain-Sail another Trip with his Mate-The Vengeance
of Providence for Disobedience to Parents now overtakes me-
Taken by a Sailee Rover, and all sold as Slaves-My Master
frequently sends me a-fishing, which suggests an ideaof escape
-Make my escape ianan open Boat, with a Moresco Boy.
IT was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty good com-
pany in London, which does not always happen to such
loose and unguided young fellows as I then was, the
devil generally not omitting to lay some snare for them
very early; but it was not so with me. I first fell ac-
quainted with the master of a ship who had been on
the coast of Guinea; and who, having had very good
success there, was resolved to go again; and who, taking
a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all disa-
greeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to
see the world, told me, if I would go the voyage with
him I should be at no expense-I should be his mess-
mate and his companion; and, if I could carry any
thing with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and, perhaps, I might meet
with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer; and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest and
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honesty of my friend, the captain, I increased
very considerably; for I carried about forty pounds in
such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This forty pounds I had mustered together by the as-


distance of some of my relations, whom I corresponded
with, and who, I believe, got my father, or at least my
mother, to contribute so much as that to my first ad-
This was the only voyage which I may say was sue-
cessful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the
integrity and honesty of my friend, the captain; under
whom also I got a competent knowledge of the mathe-
matics, and the rules of navigation-learned how to
keep an account of the ship's course, take an observa-
tion, and, in short, to understand some things that were
needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as he took
delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in
a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a mer-
chant: for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
gold dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London,
at my return, almost three hundred pounds; and this
filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since
so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too;
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
climate-our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the
Line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I
resolved to go the same voyage again; and I embarked
in the same vessel with one who was his mate in the
former voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man
made; for though I did not carry quite 100 of my
new gained wealth, so that I had 200 left, and which
I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very just to
me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage;
and the first was this--namely, our ship, making her
course towards the Canary Islands, or rather between
those islands and the African shore, was surprised, in
the grey of the morning, by a Moorish rover of Sallee,
who gave chase to us with all the sail she could make.


We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but find-
ing the pirate gained upon us, and would certainly come
up with us in a few hours, we prepared to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rover eighteen. About
three in the afternoon he came up with us, and bringing
to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead of
athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of
our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside
upon him, which made him sheer off again, after return-
ing our fire, and pouring in also his small shot, from near
two hundred men which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He
prepared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves;
but laying us on board the next time upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who im-
mediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, pow-
der-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck of them
twice. However, to cut short this melancholy part of
our story, our ship being disabled, and three of our men
killed, and eight wounded, we were obliged to yield,
and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a port be-
longing to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended: nor was I carried up the country to
the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but
was kept by the captain of the rover, as his proper prize,
and made his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for
his business. At this surprising change of my circum-
stances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I was
perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back upon
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me; which I thought
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not
be worse-that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken
me, and I was undone without redemption. But, alas!
this was but a taste of the misery I was to go through,
as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home to


his house, so I was in hopes that he would takeme with
him when he went to sea again, believing that it would
be some time or other his fateto be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal man-of-war, and that then I should be set at
liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken away;
for when he went to sea, he left me on shore to look
after his little garden and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again
from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to
look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it; but found no way that
had the least probability in it. Nothing presented to
make the supposition of it rational; for I had nobody
to communicate it to that would embark with me-no
fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or Scotsman
there, but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
thle least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thought of making some attempt
for my liberty again in my head: my patron lying at
home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship,
which, as I heard, was for want of money, he used con-
r 1n6. once or twice a-week, sometimes oftener, if the
..l.. was fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go
out into the road a-fishing; and as he always took me
and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made
him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me
with a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and the youth, the
Moresco, as they called him, to catch a dish of fish for
It happened one time that going a-fishing with him in
a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we
were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of
it; and rowing we knew not whither, or which way, we
laboured all day, and all the next night; and when the
morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea, in-
stead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were at

least two leagues from the land: however, we got well
in again, though with a great deal of labour, and some
danger, for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the
morning; but, particularly, we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having
lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which
he had taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any
more without a compass and some provision; so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also was an
English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a
place to stand behind it to steer, and haul home the
mainsheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand
and work the sails. She sailed with what we call a
shoulder-of-mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the
top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had
in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table
to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some bottles
of such liquor as he thought fit to drink, particularly
his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a-fishing; and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened one day, that he had
appointed to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or
for fish, with two or three Moors of some distinction,
and for whom he had provided extraordinary; and had
therefore sent on board the boat over night a larger
store of provisions than usual, and had ordered me to
get ready three fusils with powder and shot, which
were on board his ship; for that they designed some
sport of fowling, as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ancient and pendants out, and every thing to accommo-
date his guests; when by and by my patron came on
board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
upon some business that fell out, and ordered me,
with the man and boy, as usual, to go out with theboat,
and catch them some fish, for that his friends were to


sup at his house; he commanded me, too, that as soon
as I had got some fish, I should bring it home to his
house: all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have
a little ship at my command; and my master being gone,
I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business,
but for a voyage, though I knew not, neither did I so
much as consider, whither I would steer; for any where
to get out of that place was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak
to this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on
board; for I told him we must not presume to eat of
our patron's bread. Hcsaid,that was true; so he brought
a large basket of rusk, or biscuit of their kind, and three
jars with fresh water, into the boat. I knew wheremy
patron's case of bottles stood, which it was evident by
the make were taken out of some English prize, and I
conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on
shore, as if they had been there before for our master:
I conveyed also a great lump of bees'-wax into the boat,
which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a
parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and aham-
mer, all which were of great use to us afterwards, espe-
cially the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His
name was Ismael, whom they called Muly, or Moley;
so I called to him: Moley," said I, "our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder
and shot I It may be we may kill some aleamies (a fowl
like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship." "Yes," says he, I'll
bring some ;" and accordingly he brought a great leather
pouch, which held about a pound and a half of powder,
or rather more, and another with shot, that had five or
six pounds, with some bullets, and put all into the boat:
at the same time I had found some powder of my mas-
ter's in the great cabin, with which I filled one of the
large bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pour-
ing what was in it into another; and thus furnished


with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port to
fish. The castle which is at the entrance of the port,
knew who we were, and took no notice of us; and we
were not above a mile out of the port before we hauled
in our sail, and set us down to fish. The wind blew
from the north-north-east, which was contrary to my
desire; for had it blown southerly, I had been sure to
have made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to
the bay of Cadiz; but myresolutions were, blow which
way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and watched nothing
-for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them-I said to the
Moor, This will not do-our master will not be thus
served-we must stand farther off." He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat, set the
sails; and as I had the helm, I ran the boat out near a
league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward
to where the Moor was, and making as if I stooped
for something behind him, I took him by surprise with
my arm under his twist, and tossed him clear overboard
into the sea: he rose immediately, for he swam like a
cork, and called to me, begged to be taken in, told me
he would go all over the world with me. He swam so
strong after the boat, that he would have reached me
very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which
I stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowl-
mg-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him, I had
done him no hurt, and if he would be quiet I would do
him none-" But," said I, you swim well enough to
reach to the shore, and the sea is calm-make the best
of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm; but
if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through the
head, for I am resolved to have my liberty"-so he
turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor


with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was no
venturing to trust him. When he was gone, I turned
to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said to him,
" Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make you a
great man; but if you will not stroke your face to be
true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's
beard), I must throw you into the sea too." The boy
smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming,
I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretch-
ing to windward, that they might think me gone to-
wards the Straits' mouth, as indeed any one that had
been in their wits must have been supposed to do; for
who would have supposed we were sailed on to the
southward to the truly barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their
canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go
on shore, but we should be devoured by savage beasts,
or more merciless savages of human kind
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little toward the east, that I might keep
in with the shore: and having a fair, fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such sail, that I be-
lieve, by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon,
when I first made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Sallee, quite be-
yond the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or, indeed,
of any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop, or go on shore, or"
come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I had
sailed in that manner five days; and then the wind
shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if any
of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and come-
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not

what or where-neither what latitude, what country,
what nation, nor what river: I neither saw, nor desired
to see, any people-the principal thing I wanted was
fresh water. We came into this creek in the evening,
resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was dark, and
discover the country; but as soon as it was quite dark,
we heard such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring,
and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and
begged of me not to go on shore till day. Well,
Xury," said I, then I won't; but, it may be, we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury, laugh-
ing, make them run wey." Such English Xury spoke
by conversing among us slaves. However, I was glad
to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram,
out of our patron's case of bottles, to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night-I say
still, for we slept none-for in two or three hours we
saw vast great creatures (we knew not what to call
them) of many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing themselves
for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they made
such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed
heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I
too; but we were both more frighted when we heard
one of these mighty creatures come swimming towards
our boat. We could not see him, but we might hear
him by his blowing, to be a monstrous, huge, and furious
beast; Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so for
aught I know. Poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor, and row away. No," says I, Xury, we can
slip our cable with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they
cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I
perceived the creature (whatever it was) within two
oars' length, which something surprised me; however,
I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up




my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately
turned about, and swam to the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises,
and hideous cries and cowlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore, as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of a gun; a thing I
have some reason to believe those creatures had never
heard before. This convinced me, that there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast; and
how to venture on shore in the day, was another ques-
tion too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers; at least, we were equally ap-
prehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint
left in the boat ; when or where to get it was the point.
Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go ? why
I should not go, and he stay in the boat? The boy an-
swered with so much affection, that made me love him
ever after. Says he, If wild mans come, they eat
mc, you go wey." Well, Xury," said I, we will
both go, and if the wild mans come, we will kill them;
they shall eat neither of us." So I gave Xury a piece
of rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's
case of bottles, which I mentioned before; and we
hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and waded on shore, carrying nothing but our
arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river: but
the boy, seeing a low place about a mile up the country,
rambled to it; and by and by I saw him come running
towards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage,
or frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward
towards him to help him; but when I came nearer to
him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders, which
was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but different


in colour, and longer legs: however, we were very glad
of it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that
poor Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek where
we were, we found the water fresh when the tide was
out, which flows but a little way up; so we filled our
jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed, and pre-
pared to go on our way, having seen no footsteps of
any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to the coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd islands also, lay not far off from the coast.
But as I had no instruments to take an observation to
know what latitude we were in, and did not exactly
know, or at least not remember, what latitude they
were in, and knew not where to look for them, or when
to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise I might now
easily have found some of these islands. But my hope
was; that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of
their vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now
was must be that country, which, lying between the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the negroes,
lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts; the
negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther south
for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not thinking it
worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness--and, in-
deed,both forsaking it because of theprodigious numbers
of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furious creatures,
which harbour there; so that the Moors use it for their
hunting only, where they go like an army, two or three
thousand men at a time-and, indeed, for near an hun-
dred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste uninhabited country by day, and heard
nothing but howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the


Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out, in hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I re-
solved to pursue myfirst design,and keep alongthe shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once, in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor under
a little point of land which was pretty high; and the
tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther in.
Xury, whose eyes were more about him than it seems
mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that we had
best go farther off the shore: For," says he, look-
yonder lies a dreadful monster, on the side of that hil-
lock, fast asleep." I looked where he pointed, and saw
a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a terrible great
lion that lay on the side of the shore, under the shade
of a piece of the hill that hung, as it were, a little over
him. Xury," says I, you shall go on shore and kill
him." Xury looked frighted, and said, Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth! "-one mouthful he meant: how-
ever, I said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still,
and I took our biggest gun, which was almost musket-
bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down ; then I loaded another
gun with two bullets; and the third-for we had three
pieces-I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the
best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him
into the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little
above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee
and broke the bone. He started up, growling at first,
but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got
up upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar
that ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had
not hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and, though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but
lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and


would have me let him go on shore. "Well, go," said
I; so the boy jumped into the water, and, taking a little
gun in one hand, swam to shore with the other hand,
and coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear, and shot him into tie head again,
which despatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to
us. However, Xury said he would have some of him;
so he comes on board, and asked me to give him the
hatchet. For what, Xury said I. Me cut off his
head," said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him,
and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might, one way or other, be of some value to us;
and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him; but Xury was much the
better workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it.
Indeed, it took us both up the whole day, but at last
we got off the hide of him, and, spreading it on the top
of our cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days'
time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.

Make for the Southward, in hopes of meeting with some Euro-
pean Vessel-See Savages along Shore-Shoot a large Leopard
-Am taken up by a Merchantman-Arrive at the Brazils, and
buy a Settlement there-Cannot be quiet, but sail on a Voyage
of Adventure to Guinea-Ship strikes on a Sand-bank in un-
known Land-All lost but myself, who am driven ashore, half-
AFTER this stop, we made on to the southward conti-
nually for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on
our provisions, which began to abate very much, and
going no oftener into the shore than we were obliged to
do for fresh water: my design in this was, to make the


river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any where
about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to meet
with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands,
or perish there among the negroes. I knew that all
the ships from Europe, which sailed either to the coast
of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East Indies, made
this Cape, or those islands; and, in a word, I put the
whole of my fortune upon this single point, either that
I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land was
inhabited; and in two or three places, as we sailed by,
we saw people stand upon the shore to look at us: we
could also perceive they were quite black, and stark
naked. I was once inclined to go on shore to them;
but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to me,
"No go, no go." However, I hauled in nearer the
shore that I might talk to them, and I found they ran
along the shore by me a good way: I observed they
had no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, and
that they would throw them a great way with good
aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by
signs as well as I could, and particularly made signs
for something to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my
boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon this,
I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two of
them ran up into the country, and in less than half an
hour came back, and brought with them two pieces of
dry flesh and some corn, such as is the produce of their
country; but we neither knew what the one nor the
other was: however, we were willing to accept it. But
how to come at it was our next dispute, for I was not
for venturing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all, for
they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and went
and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them. for we had nothing

nBOsItON CBV0E. 20

to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
very instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we
were lying by the shore, came two mighty creatures,
one pursuing the other (as we took it) with great fury
from the mountains towards the sea: whether it was
the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in
sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than we
could tell whether it was usual or strange, but I believe
it was the latter; because, in the first place, those rave-
nous creatures seldom appear but in the night; and, in
the second place, we found the people terribly frighted,
especially the women. The man that had the lance, or
dart, did not fly from them, but the rest did: however,
as the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the negroes,
but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about
as if they had come for their diversion. At last one
of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load
both the others. As soon as he came fairly within my
reach, I fired, and shot him directly into the head: im-
mediately he sank down into the water, but rose in.
stantly, and plunged up and down as if he was struggling
for life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to
the shore; but between the wound, which was his mor-
tal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun;
some of them were even ready to die for fear, and fell
down as dead with the very terror. But when they
saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that
I made signs to them to come to the shore, they took
heart, and came to the shore, and began to search for
the creature. I found him by his blood staining the
water, and by the help of a rope, which I slung round
him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him
on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard,
spotted and fine to an admirable degree, and the ne-


groes held up their hands with admiration to think
what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire
and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up
directly to the mountains from whence they came, nor
could I at that distance know what it was. I found
quickly the negroes were for eating the flesh of this
creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a
favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
Immediately they fell to work with him, and though
they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily,
than we could have done with a knife. They offered
me some of the flesh, which I declined, making as if I
would give it them, but made signs for the skin, which
they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provision, which, though I did not un-
derstand, yet 1 accepted; then I made signs to them
for some water, and held out one of my jars to them,
turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called im-
mediately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burned, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down
for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it
was, and water; and, leaving my friendly negroes, I
made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very
calm, I kept a large offing to make this point: at length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land,
I saw plainly land on the other side to sea-ward; then
I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that this
was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called from
thence Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at


a great distance, and I could not well tell what I had
best to do; for, if I should be taken with a fresh of
wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm,
when, on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master,
a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was frighted
out of his wits, thinking it must needs be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we were
gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped out of
the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but
what she was, namely, that it was a Portuguese ship,
and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea for
negroes. But when I observed the course she steered,
I was soon convinced they were bound some other way,
and did not design to come any nearer to the shore;
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could,
resolving to speak with them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not
be able to come in their way, but that they would be
gone by before I could make any signal to them; but
after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair,
they, it seems, saw me by the help of their perspective
glasses, and that it was some European boat, which, as
they supposed, must belong to some ship that was lost;
so they shortened sail to let me come up. I was en-
couraged with this; and as I had my patron's ancient
on board, I made a waft of it to them for a signal of
distress, and fired a gun, both which they saw, for they
told me they saw the smoke, though they did not hear
the gun. Upon these signals they very kindly brought
to, and lay by for me, and, in about three hours' time,
I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of
them: but, at last, a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was
an Englishman-that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee. They bade me come
on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.


It was an inexpressible joy to me, as any one would
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition as
I was in, and immediately offered all I had to the cap-
tain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance; but he
generously told me lie would take nothing from me,
but that all I had should be delivered safe to me when
I came to the Brazils. For," says he, I have saved
your life on no other terms than I would be glad to be
saved myself; and it may one time or other be my lot
to be taken up in the same condition: besides," said
he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way
from your own country, if I should take from you what
you have, you will be starved there, and then I only
take away that life I have given. No, no, Seignor
Inglese," says lie, "Mr Englishman, I will carry you
thither in charity, and those things will help you to buy
your subsistence there, and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in his proposal, so he was just
in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the sea-
men, that none should offer to touch any thing I had:
then he took every thing into his own possession, and
gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
have them; even so much as my earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he
saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it ? I told him
he had been so generous in every thing, that I could
not offer to make any price of the boat, but left it en-
tirely to him ; upon which ie told me, he would give me
a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces of eight for
it at Brazil; and when it came there, if any one offered
to give more, he would make it up : lie offered me also
sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury, which I
was loath to take; not that I was not willing to let the
captain have him, but I was very loath to sell the poor
boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in pro-
curing my own. However, when I let him know my
reason, he owned it to be just, and offered me this
medium, that he would give the boy an obligation to


set him free in ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon
this, and Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I
let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all con-
ditions of life; and what to do next with myself I was
now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember. He would take nothing of
me for my passage-gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I had
in my boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship
to be punctually delivered me; and what I was willing
to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of my
guns, and a piece of the lump of bees'-wax, for I had
made candles of the rest-in a word, I made about two
hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended to
the house of a good honest man like himself, who had
an ingeino, as they call it-that is, a plantation and a
sugar-house-I lived with him some time, and ac-
quainted myself by that means with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there,
I would turn planter among them; resolving, in the
meantime, to find out some way to get my money,
which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalisation, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my planta-
tion and settlement, and such a one as might be suit-
able to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.
1 had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born
of English parents, whose name was Wells, and in
much such circumstances as I was. I call him neigh-


bour, because his plantation lay next to mine, and we
went on very sociably together. My stock was but low,
as well as his; and we rather planted for food, than
any thing else, for about two years. However, we be-
gan to increase, and our land began to come into order;
so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and
made each of us a large piece of ground ready for
planting canes in the year to come; but we both wanted
help: and now I found, more than before, I had done
wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on-
I was gotten into an employment quite remote to my
genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in,
and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice-nay, I was coming into
the very middle station, or upper degree of low life,
which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at
home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as I
had done; and I used often to say to myself, I could
have done this as well in England among my friends,
as have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at such dis-
tance, as never to hear from any part of the world
that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with,
but now and then this neighbour-no work to be done
but by the labour of my hands; and I used to say, I
lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
island, that had nobody there but himself. But how
just has it been, and how should all men reflect, that,
when they compare their present conditions with others
that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by
their experience-I say, how just has it been, that the
truly solitary life I reflected on in an island of mere
desolation should be my lot, who had so often unjustly
compared it with the life which I then led, in which,


had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceed-
ing prosperous and rich.
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend, the
captain of thp ship, that took me up at sea, went back;
for the ship remained there, in providing his loading,
and preparing for his voyage, near three months; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
" Seignor Inglese," says he, for so he always called
me, "if you will give me letters, and a procuration
here in form to me, with orders to the person who has
your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon,
to such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper for this country, I will bring you the pro-
duce of them, God willing, at my return; but, since
human affairs are all subject to changes and disasters,
I would have you give orders but for one hundred
pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your stock, and
let the hazard be run for the first; so that, if it come
safe, you may order the rest the same way, and, if it
miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse
to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly,
that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the
gentlewoman with whom I had left my money, and a
procuration to the Portuguese captain, as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the humanity
of his behaviour, and what condition I was now in, with
all other necessary directions for my supply; and when
this honest captain came to Lisbon, he found means,
by some of the English merchants there, to send over,
not the order only, but a full account of my story, to a
merchant at London, who represented it effectually to
her; whereupon, she not only delivered the money, but,
out of her own pocket, sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.


The merchant in London vesting this hundred pounds
in English goods, such as the captain had writ for, sent
them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them
all safe to me to the Brazils; among which, without my
direction (for I was too young in my business to think
of them), he had taken care to have all sort of tools,
iron-work, and utensils, necessary for my plantation,
and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made,
for I was surprised with joy of it; and my good steward,
the captain, had laid out the five pounds, which my
friend had sent him for a present for himself, to pur-
chase, and bring me over a servant under bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any considera-
tion, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and things
particularly valuable and desirable in the country, I
found means to sell them to a very great advantage;
so that I may say I had more than four times the value
of my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my
poor neighbour, I mean in the advancement of my
plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought me a
negro slave, and an European servant also-I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me from
But as abused prosperityis oftentimes made the means
of our greatest adversity, so was it with me. I went on
the next year with great success in my plantation: I
raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on my own ground,
more than 1 had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours; and these fifty rolls being each of above a
hundred weight, were well cured and laid by against
the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now, increas-
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to he full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach ; such as
are, indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me,


for which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet
retired life, and of which he had so sensibly described
the middle station of life to be full; but other things
attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent of all
my own miseries; and particularly to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my
future sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these
miscarriages were procured by my apparent obstinate
adhering to my foolish inclination of wandering abroad,
and pursuing that inclination, in contradiction to the
clearest views of doing myself good *a fair and plain
pursuit of those prospects and those measures of life,
which nature and Providence concurred to present me
with, and to make my duty.
As I had done thus in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go
and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of rising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest gulf of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of
this part of my story: you may suppose, that, having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and begin-
ning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plantation,
I had not only learnt the language, but had contracted
acquaintance and friendship among my fellow-planters,
as well as among the merchants at St Salvadore, which
was our port; and that in my discourse among them, I
had frequently given them an account of my two voy-
ages to the coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with
the negroes there, and how easy it was to purchase
upon the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives,
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only
gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but
negroes for the service of the Brazils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which re-


lated to buying negroes, which was a trade at that
time not only not far entered into, but, as far as it was,
had been carried on by the assientos, or permission, of
the kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the
public, so that few negroes were bought, and those ex-
cessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had discoursed with them of
the last night, anu they came to make a secret proposal
to me; and, after enjoining me secrecy, they told me,
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea;
that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it
was a trade could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home, so
they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the ne-
groes on shore privately, and divide them among their
own plantations; and, in a word, the question was,
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea 1 and
they offered me, that I should have my equal share of
the negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it
been made to any one that had not had a settlement
and plantation of his own to look after, which was in a
fair way of coming to be very considerable, and with a
good stock upon it. But for me, that was thus entered
and established, and had nothing to do but go on as I
had begun, for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other hundred pounds from England, and
who, in that time and with that little addition, could
scarce have failed of being worth three or four thousand
pounds sterling, and that increasing too-for me to think
of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that
ever man in such circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer than I could restrain my first


rambling designs, when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with
all my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to
such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings, or covenants,
to do so; and I made a formal will, disposing of my
plantation and effects in case of my death, making the
captain of the ship that had saved my life as before, my
universal heir, but obliging him to dispose of my effects
as I had directed in my will, one half of the produce
being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation; had I used half as
much prudence to have looked into my own interest,
and have made a judgment of what I ought to have
done, and not to have done, I had certainly never gone
away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and
gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards; to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect
particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates
of my fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly,
the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and
all things done as by agreement by my partners in the
voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again, the 1st
of September 1659, being the same day eight years that
I went from my father and mother at Hull, in order to
act the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the
master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no large
cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit for our
trade with the negroes, such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, standing
away to the northward upon our own coast, with design


to stretch over for the African coast, when they came
about ten or twelve degrees of northern latitude, which,
it seems, was the manner of their course in those days.
We had very good weather, only excessively hot, all the
way upon our own coast, till we came to the height of
Cape St Augustino, from whence, keeping farther off at
sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the isle Fernand de Noronha, holding our
course north-east by north, and leaving those isles on
the cast. In this course we passed the Line in about
twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation,
in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern latitude,
when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out
of our knowledge: it began from the south-east, came
about to the north-west, and then settled into the north-
:oist; from whelnce it blew in such a terrible manner,
that for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive, and, scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and during those twelve days, I need not say that I
expected every day to be swallowed up, nor, indeed, did
any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men dead of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the twelfth
day, the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as lie could, and found that he was
in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he was
twenty-two degrees of longitude difference west from
Cape St Augustino; so that he found he was gotten
upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part of Brazil,
beyond the river Amazons, toward that of the river
Oroonoque, commonly called the Great River, and began
to consult with me what course he should take; for the
ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and he was
going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that, and, looking over the
charts of the sea-coasts of America with him, we con-
cluded, there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourseto,till we came within the circle ofthe Caribbee


Islands; and therefore resolved to stand away for Bar-
badoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the in-
draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily per-
form, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail: whereas
we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa, without some assistance, both to our ship and
With this design we changed our course, and steered
away north-west by west, in order to reach some of our
English islands, where I hoped for relief: but our voy-
age was otherwise determined; for, being in the latitude
of twelve degrees, eighteen minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that, had all our lives been
saved as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being
devoured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one
of our men, early in the morning, cried out, Land !"
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look out,
in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we were,
but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, her
motion being so stopped, the sea broke over her in such
a manner that we expected we should all have perished
immediately; and we were immediately driven into our
close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consternation
of men in such circumstances: we knew nothing where
we were, or upon what land it was we were driven-
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or
not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes with-
out breaking in pieces, unless the winds, by a kind of
miracle, should turn immediately about. In a word,
we sat looking one upon another, and expecting death
every moment, and every man acting accordingly, as

preparing for another world; for there was little or
nothing more for us to do in this: that which was our
present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that,
contrary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet,
and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet, the ship having thus struck upon the sand,
and sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we
were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we could.
We had a boat at our stern just before the storm; but
she was first staved by dashing against the ship's rud-
der, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either
sunk or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope
from her. We had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however,
there was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship
would break in pieces every minute, and some told us
she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and, with the help of the rest of the men, they got
her slung over the ship's side, and getting all into her,
let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number,
to God's mercy and the wild sea; for though the storm
was abated considerably, yet the sea went dreadfully
high upon the shore, and might well be called den wild
zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we
all saw plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat
could not live, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making sail, we had none, nor, if we had, could
we have done any thing with it; so we worked at the
oar towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like
men going to execution; for we all knew, that when the
boat came nearer the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However,
we committed our souls to God in the most earnest
manner; and the wind driving us towards the shore,
we hastened our destruction with our own hands, pull-
ing as well as we could towards land,



What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation was
if we might happen into some bay or gulf, or the mouth
of some river, where, by great chance, we might have
run our boat in, or got under the lee of the land, and
perhaps made smooth water. But there was nothing
of this appeared; but, as we made nearer and nearer
the shore, the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade us ex-
pect a watery grave. In a word, it took us with such
a fury, that it overset the boat at once; and, separating
us as well from the boat as from one another, gave us
not time hardly to say "Oh God for we were all swal-
lowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sank into the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves
so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me,
or rather carried me, a vast way on towards the shore,
and, having spent itself, went back, and left me upon
the land almost dry, but half dead with the water I took
in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as breath
left, that, seeing myself nearer the mainland than I
expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make
on towards the land as fast as I could, before another
wave should return and take me up again. But I soon
found it was impossible to avoid it; for I saw the sea
come after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as
an enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend
with-my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming,
to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible-my greatest concern now being, that
the sea, as it would carry me a great way towards the
shore when it came on, might not carry me back again
with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at




once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I
could feel myself carried with a mighty force and swift-
ness towards the shore a very great way; but I held
my breath, and assisted myself to swim still forward
with all my might. I was ready to burst with holding
my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out
above the surface of the water; and though it was not
two seconds of tine that I could keep myself so, yet it
relieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage.
I was covered again with water a good while, but not
so long but I held it out; and, finding the water had
spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again
with my feet. I stood still a few moments to recover
breath, and till the water went from me, and then took
to my heels, and ran with what strength I had farther
towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves,
and carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea, having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of a
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the
blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body, and, had it returned again
immediately, I must have been strangled in the water;
but I recovered a little before the return of the waves,
and, seeing I should be covered again with the water,
I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to
hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being
near land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet
did not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and
the next run I took I got to the mainland, where, to my
great comfort, I clambered up the clifts of the shore,

and sat me down upon the grass, free from danger,
and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case
wherein there was, some minutes before, scarce any
room to hope. I believe it is impossible to express to
the life what the ecstacies and transports of the soul
are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of the very
grave; and I do not wonder, now, at that custom, namely,
that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his
neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has
a reprieve brought to him-I say, I do not wonder that
they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very
moment they tell him of it, that the surprise may not
drive the animal spirits from the heart, and overwhelm
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contem-
plation of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures
and motions which I cannot describe-reflecting upon
all my comrades that were drowned, and that there
should not be one soul saved but myself-for, as for
them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign of
them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when, the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord! how was
it possible I could get on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to see
what kind of place I was in, and what was next to be
done; and I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in
a word, I had a dreadful deliverance: for I was wet,
had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either to eat
or drink to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect
before me but that of perishing with hunger, or being
devoured by wild beasts; and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me was, that I had no weapon either




to hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to
defend myself against any other creature that might
desire to kill me for theirs-in a word, I had nothing
about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
in a box ; this was all my provision, and this threw me
into terrible agonies of mind, that, for a while, I ran
about like a madman. Night coming upon me, I began,
with a heavy heart, to consider what would be my lot
if there were any ravenous beasts in that country, see-
ing at night they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir,
bu iI. ... i. grew near me, and where I resolved
to .r ,1 .... ... I consider the next day what death I
should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked
about a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find
any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my great joy;
and having drunk, and put a little tobacco in my mouth
to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up
into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that if I
should sleep I might not fall; and having cut me a
short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence. I took up
rmv Todrin.- and, having been excessively fatigued, I
f." I .1 and slept as comfortably as, I believe,
few could have done in my condition, and found myself
the most refreshed with it that I think I ever was on
such an occasion.

Appearance of the Wreck and Country next day-Swim on
board of the Ship, and, by means of a contrivance, get a quan-
tity of Stores on Shore-Shoot a Bird, but it turns out perfect
Carrion--Moralize upon my Situation-The Ship blown off
Land, and totally lost-Set out in search of a proper Place for
a Habitation-See numbers of Goat-Meelancholy Reflections.
WHEN I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and


swell as before; but that which surprised me most was,
that the ship was lifted off in the night from the sand
where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, and was
driven up almost as far as the rock which I first men-
tioned, where I had been so bruised by the dashing me
against it; this being within about a mile from the
shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand up-
right still, I wished myself on board, that, at least, I
might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat, which lay as the wind and the sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the shore
to have got to her, but found a neck, or inlet of water,
between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more
intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh
renewing of my grief: for I saw evidently, that if we
had kept on board, we had been all safe-that is to say,
we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been so
miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort
and company, as I now was. This forced tears from
my eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I
resolved, if possible, to get to the ship-so I pulled off
my clothes, for the weather was hot to extremity, and
took the water. But when I came to the ship, my
difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board;
for, as she lay aground and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore-chains, so low as that with great
difficulty I got hold of it, and, by the help of that rope,
got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found
that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water


in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank of
hard sand, or rather earth, and her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water:
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that was
in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled, and
what was free: and first I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water ; and
being very well disposed to eat, 1 went to the bread-
room and filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as
I went about other things, for I had no time to lose. I
also found some rum in the great cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough
of to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted
nothing but a boat, to furnish myself with many things
which I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had; and this extremity roused my application.
We had several spare yards, and two or three large
spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the ship;
I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung as many
of them overboard as I could manage of their weight,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive
away. When this was done, I went down to the ship's
side, and, pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast
together at both ends as well as I could, in the form of
a raft, and laying two or three short pieces of plank
upon them crossways, I found I could walk upon it
very well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light; so I went to work,
and, with the carpenter's saw, I cut a spare topmast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with
a great deal of labour and pains; but hope of furnish-
ing myself with necessaries, encouraged me to go be-
yond what I should have been able to have done upon
another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reason-
able weight: my next care was what to load it with,
and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf
of the sea; but I was not long considering this. I first


laid all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I first
got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my
raft. The first of these I filled with provisions, namely,
bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and a little re-
mainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we brought to sea with us, but the
fowls were killed. There had been some barley and
wheat together, but, to my great disappointment, I found
afterwards that the rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As
for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and
in all above five or six gallons of rack: these I stowed
by themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor no room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and
I had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waist-
coat, which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim
away; as for my breeches, which were only linen, and
open-kneed, I swam on board in them and my stock-
ings: however, this put me upon rummaging for clothes,
of which I found enough, but took no more than I
wanted for present use, for I had other things which
my eye was more upon: as, first, tools to work with on
shore; and it was after long searching that I found out
the carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship-load
of gold would have been at that time. I got it down to
my raft, even whole as it was, without losing time to
look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols: these I secured first, with some
powder-horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and good, the third had taken


water; those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And
now I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began
to think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and the least capful of wind
would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm sea;
2. The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; S. What
little wind there was blew me toward the land: and
thus, having found two or three broken oars belonging
to the boat, and, besides the tools which were in the
chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer; and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile, or there-
abouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it
drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and, consequently, I hoped to find
some creek or river there, which I might make use of
as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me
a little opening of the land, and I found a strong cur-
rent of the tide set into it, so 1 guided my raft as well
as I could to keep in the middle of the stream; but
here I had like to have suffered a second shipwreck,
which, if I had, I think verily would have broke my
heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being
aground at the other end, it wanted but a little that all
my cargo had slipped off towards that end that was
afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did my utmost,
by setting my back against the chests, to keep them in
their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but, holding up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time
the rising of the water brought me a little more upon
a level; and, a little after, the water still rising, my
raft floated again, and I thrust her off with the oar I
had into the channel; and then, driving up higher, I at
length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with
land on both sides, and a strong current, or tide, run-

For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, and I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might make
use of as a port to get to land with my cargo."


ning up. I looked on both sides for a proper place to
get to shore; for I was not willing to be driven too
high up the river, hoping, in time, to see some ship at
sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as near the
coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which, with great pain and difficulty, I
guided my raft, and at last got so near as that, reach-
ing ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly in:
but here I had like to have dipped all my cargo in the
sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that is to
say, sloping, there was no place to land but where one
end of the float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower as before, that it would en-
danger my cargo again: all that I could do, was to wait
till the tide was at the highest, keeping the raft with
my oar like an anchor, to hold the side of it fast to the
shore, near a flat piece of ground, which I expected the
water would flow over; and so it did. As soon as I
found water enough-for my raft drew about a foot of
water-I thrust her on upon that flat piece of ground,
and there fastened, or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground-one on one side, near one
end, and one on the other side, near the other end;
and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my
raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happens
Where I was, I yet knew not; whether on the conti-
nent or on an island-whether inhabited or not inha-
bited-whether in danger of wild beasts or not. There
was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up
very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills which lay as in a ridge from it northward.
I took out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the
pistols, and a horn of powder; and thus armed, I tra-
velled for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got to the
top, I saw my fate to my great affliction, namely, that


I was in an island, environed every way with the sea-
no land to be seen, except some rocks which lay a great
way off, and two small islands less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.
I found also, that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, ex-
cept by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their kinds;
neither, when I killed them, could I tell what was fit for
food, and what not. At my coming back, I shot at a great
bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree on the side of a
great wood: I believe itwas the first gun that had been
fired there since the creation of the world. I had no
sooner fired, but, from all parts of the wood, there arose
an innumerable number of fowls of many sorts, making
a confused screaming, and crying every one according
to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that
I knew. As for the creature I killed, I took it to be a
kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling it, but
had no talons, or claws, more than common; its flesh
was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day: and what to do
with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where to
rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground, not
knowing but some wild beast might devour me ; though,
as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with thle chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging. As for food, I yet saw not which way to supply
myself, except that I had seen two or three creatures
like hares run out of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to
me, and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and
such other things as might come to land, and I resolved
to make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible;

and as I knew that the first storm that blew must ne-
cessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all
other things apart, till I got every thing out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council (that is to
say, in my thoughts), whether I should take back the
raft; but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved
to go as before, when the tide was down, and I did so,
only that I stripped before I went from my hut, having
nothing on but a checked shirt and a pair of linen trou-
sers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me; as first, in the carpenter's stores, I found two or
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack,
a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone: all these I secured,
together with several things belonging to the gunner,
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
of musket-bullets, seven muskets, and another fowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a
large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up
to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that
I could find, and a spare foretop-sail, hammock, and
some bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft,
and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might be de-
voured on shore; but, when I came back, I found no
sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature, like a wild
cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I came towards
it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still: she
sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in
my face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me.
I presented my gun at her, but as she did not under-
stand it, she was perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did


she offer to stir away; upon which I tossed her a bit
of biscuit, though, by the way, I was not very free of
it, for my store was not great: however, I spared her
a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it,
and looked, as pleased, for more; but I thanked her,
and could spare no more-so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels-for they were too heavy, being large casks-
I went to work to make me a little tent, with the sail
and some poles which I cut for that purpose; and into
this tent I brought every thing that I knew would spoil,
either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to for-
tify it from any sudden attempt, either from man or
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up on end without, and, spreading one of the beds upon
the ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and
my gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first
time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was very
weary and heavy ; as the night before I had slept little,
and had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all
those things from the ship as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever
was laid up, I believe, for one man, but I was not sa-
tisfied still; for, while the ship sat upright in that pos-
ture, I thought I ought to get every thing out of her
that I could : so every day, at low water, I went on
board, and brought away something or other; but par-
ticularly the third time I went, I brought away as
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder; in a word, I brought
away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain to
cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time as I
could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as
mere canvass only.


But that which comforted me more still, was, that last
of all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these,
and thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship
that was worth my meddling with-I say, after all this,
I found a great hogshead of bread, and three large run-
lets of ruin or spirits, and a box of sugar, and a barrel
of fine flour; this was surprising to me, because I had
given over expecting any more provisions, except what
was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogs-
head of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by par-
cel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out: and, in a
word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, hav-
ing plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to
baud out, I began with the cables; and cutting the great
cable into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables
and a hawser on shore, with all the iron work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail-yard, and the
mizen-yard, and every thing I could, to make a large
raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy and overladen, that, after I
had entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest
of my goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I
did the others, it overset, and threw me and all my cargo
into the water. As for myself, it was no great harm,
for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo, it was,
great part of it, lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite labour;
for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work which
fatigued me very much. After this, I went every day
on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship; in which time I had
brought away all that one pair of hands could well be
supposed capable to bring, though I believe verily, had
the calm held, I should have brought away the whole
ship, piece by piece: but, preparing the twelfth time to


go on board, I found the wind began to rise; however,
at low water, I went on board, and though I thought I
had rummaged the cabin so effectually as that nothing
more could be found, yet I discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with some ten or
a dozen of good knives and forks; in another I found
about thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, some
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. 0
drug I" said I, aloud, what art thou good for ? thou art
not worth to me-no, not the .-:r. F the ground;
one of those knives is worth .-I I.. I. .i; I have no
manner of use for thee; even remain where thou art,
,;;1 t +- t' bottom as a creature whose life is not
Si .. However, upon second thoughts, I took
it away, and, wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I
began to think of making another raft; but, while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the
wind began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew
a fresh gale from the shore. It presently occurred to
me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore, and that it was my business to be
gone before the tide of flood began, otherwise I might
not be able to reach the shore at all: accordingly, I let
myself down intothewater, and swam across the channel
which lay between the ship and the sands, and even that
with difficulty enough, partly with the weight of things
I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water,
for the wind rose very hastily, and, before it was quite
high water, it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew very
hard all that night, and in the morning when I looked
out, behold, no more ship was to be seen! I was a little
surprised, but recovered myself with this satisfactory
reflection, namely, that I had lost no time, nor abated
no diligence, to get every thing out of her that could be
useful to me, and that indeed there was little leftin her
that I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.

W. T7.

I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of
any thing out of her, except what might drive on shore
from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her after-
wards did; but those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about secu-
ring myself against either savages, if any should appear,
or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had
many thoughts of the method how to do this, and what
kind of dwelling to make-whether I should make me
a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth: and, in
short, I resolved upon both, the manner and descrip-
tion of which it may not be improper to give an ac-
count of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it; so I resolved to find a more healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me--lst, Health and fresh
water I just now mentioned; 2dly, Shelter from the
heat of the sun; 3dly, Security from ravenous crea-
tures, whether man or beast; 4thly, A view to the sea,
that, if God sent any ship in sight, I might not lose any
advantage for my deliverance, of which I was not will-
ing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that no-
thing could come down upon me from the top: on the
side of this rock there was a hollow place worn a little
way in, like the entrance or door of a cave, but there
was not really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent: this plain was not above
an hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and
lay like a green before my door, and at the end of it
descended irregularly every way down into the low
grounds by the sea-side. It was on the north-north-


west side of the bill, so that I was sheltered from the
heat every day, till it came to a west-and-by-south sun,
or thereabouts, which in those countries is near the
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its
semidiameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its
diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top: the two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows, one upon another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a
spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither
man nor beast could get into it, or overit: this cost me
a great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and drive
them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top; which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me: and so I
was completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in the
night, which otherwise I could not have done; though,
as it appeared afterward, there was no need of all this
caution from the enemies that I apprehended danger
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, of which you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from the
rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, namely, one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among
the sails.


And now I lay no more, for a while, in the bed which
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was,
indeed, a very good one, and belonged to the mate of
the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus en-
closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which,
till now, I had left open, and so passed and repassed,
as 1 said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock, and, bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug down, out through my tent, I laid them up within
my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it raised
the ground within about a foot and a half; and thus I
made me a cave just behind my tent, which served me
like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many days before all
these things were brought to perfection; and, therefore,
I must go back to some other things which took up
some of my thoughts. At the same time, it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent,
and making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from
a thick dark cloud, sudden flash of lightniughappened,
and after that a great clap of thunder, as is naturally
the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning as I was with a thought which darted into
my mind, as swift as the lightning itself: Oh, my
powder my very heart sank within me, when I thought
that, at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed,
on which, not my defence only, but the providing me
food, as I thought, entirely depended: I was nothing
near so anxious about my own danger, though, had the
powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes, to separate the powder, and to keep it
a little and a little in a parcel, in hope that, whatever
might come, it might not all take fire at once, and
to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to


make one part fire another. I finished this work in
about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which, in
all, was about two hundred and forty pounds weight,
was divided in not less than a hundred parcels. As to
the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any
danger from that, so I placed it in my new cave, which,
in my fancy, I called my kitchen; and the rest I hid
up and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet
might come to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out once at least every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself as to see if I could kill any thing'fit for
food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. The first time I went out,
I presently discovered that there were goats in the is-
land, which was a great satisfaction to me; but then,
it was attended with this misfortune to me, namely,
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot,
that it was the most difficult thing in the world to come
at them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubt-
ing but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened; for, after I had found their haunts a little, I
laid wait in this manner for them. I observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the
rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright; but
if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon the
rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I con-
cluded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight
was so directed downward, that they did not readily
see objects that were above them: so afterwards I took
this method; I always climbed the rocks first, to get
above them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The
first shot I made among these creatures I killed a she-
goat, which had a little kid by her which she gave suck
to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old one
fell, the kid stood stock still by her till I came and took
her up; and not only so, but, when I carried the old
one with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me
quite to my enclosure; upon which I laid down the
dam, and took the kid in my arms, and carried it over


my pale, in hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would
not eat, so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself.
These two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I
ate sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread es-
pecially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel
to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I en-
larged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall
give a full account of in its place; but I must first give
some little account of myself, and of my thoughts
about living, which, it may well be supposed, were not
a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for, as I
was not cast away upon that island without being driven,
as is said, by a violent storm, quite out of the course of
our intended voyage, and a great way, namely, some
hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course of the
trade of mankind, I had great reason to consider it as
a determination of Heaven, that, in this desolate place,
and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made
these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate
with myself why Providence should thus completely
ruin his creatures, and render them so absolutely mi-
serable, so without help abandoned, so entirely de-
pressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thankful
for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and, parti-
cularly, one day walking, with my gun in my hand, by
the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of
my present condition, when reason, as it were, expos-
tulated with me the other way, thus:-" Well, you are
in a desolate condition, it is true; but pray, remember,
where are the rest of you I Did not you come eleven
of you into the boat Where are the ten ? Why were
they not saved, and you lost 1 Why were you singled
out ? Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I
pointed to the sea. All evils are to be considered with



the good that is in them, and with what worse attended
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was fur-
nished for my subsistence, and what would have been
my case if it had not happened, which was an hundred
thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place
where she first struck, and was driven so near the shore
that I had time to get all things out of her. What
would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, with-
out necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and pro-
cure them ? "Particularly," said I, loud, though to
myself, what should I have done without a gun, with-
out ammunition, without any tools to make any thing,
or to work with-without clothes, bedding, a tent, or
any manner of covering ?" and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner as to live without my gun
when my ammunition was spent; so that I had a tole-
rable view of subsisting without any want, as long as I
lived: for I considered, from the beginning, how I should
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for
the time that was to come, even not only after my am-
munition should be spent, but even after my health or
strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my
ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean, my
powder being blown up by lightning; and this made
the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it lightened
and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy
relation of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it from
its beginning, and continue it in its order. It was,
by my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island, when the sun being, to us, in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reckoned
myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of nine de-
grees twenty-two minutes north of the Line.


After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath days from the working days;
but, to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon a large
post, in capital letters, and making it into a great cross,
I set it up on the shore where I first landed, namely, I
came on shore here on the 30th of September 1659.
Upon the sides of this square post, I cut every day a
notch with my knife, and every seventh notch was as
long again as the rest, and every first day of the month
as long again as that long one; and thus 1 kept my
calendar, or weekly, monthly, and yearly, reckoning of
In the next place, we are to observe, that, among the
many things which I brought out of the ship in the se-
veral voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it,
I got several things of less value, but not at all less
useful to me, which I omitted setting down before; as,
in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels in
the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping,
three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-
tion, all which I huddled together, whether I might
want them or no. Also, I found three very good Bibles,
which came to me in my cargo from England, and which
I had packed up among my things; some Portuguese
books also, and among them two or three Popish prayer-
books, and several other books: all which I carefully
secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the
ship a dog and two eats, of whose eminent history I
may have occasion to say something in its place; for I
carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years: I wanted
nothing that he could fetch me, nor any company that
he could make up to me-I only wanted to have him
talk to me; but that he could not do. As I observed
before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded


them to the utmost; and I shall show, that while my
ink lasted, I kept things very exact; but after that was
gone I could not, for I could not make any ink by any
means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pick-axe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins,
and thread. As for linen, I soon learnt to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily, and it was near a whole year before I had en-
tirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habitation:
the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as I could
well lft, were a long time in cutting and preparing in
the woods, and more by far in bringing home; so that
I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it
into the ground ; for which purpose I got a heavy piece
of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of
the iron crows, which, however, though I found it, yet
it made driving those posts, or piles, very laborious and
tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedious-
ness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough
to do it int Nor had I any other employment, if that
had been over, at least that I could foresee, except the
ranging the island to seek for food, which I did more
or less every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and
the circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the
state of my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them
to any that were to come after me (for I was like to
have but few heirs), as to deliver my thoughts from
daily poring upon them, and afflicting my mind; and
as my reason began now to master my despondency, I
began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something
to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated it very


impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I en-
joyed against the mercies I suffered, thus:-
I am cast upon a horrible de- But Iamalive,andnotdrown-
solateisland, voidof allhopeof ed, as all my ship's company
recovery. was.
I am singled out and sepa- But I am singled out, too,
rated, as it were, from all the from all the ship's crewto be
world, to be miserable. spared from death; andHethat
miraculously saved me from
death, candelivermefromthis
I am divided from mankind. But I am not starved and
a solitaire, one banished from perishing on a barren place, af-
human society, fording no sustenance.
I have no clothes tocoverme. But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I could
hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, or But I am cast on an island,
means to resist any violence of where I see no wild beasts to
man or beast, hurt me, as I saw on the coast
of Africa; and what if I had
been shipwrecked there?
I have no soul to speak to, or But God wonderfully sent the
relieve me. shipinnearenoughtotheshore,
that I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will either
supply my wants, or enablemo
to supply myself, even as long
as I live.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative or some-
thing positive to be thankful for in it; and let this stand
as a direction from the experience of the most mise-
rable of all conditions inthis world, that we may always
find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set in the description of good and evil on the credit
side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see if 1
could spy a ship-I say, giving over these things, I be-
gan to apply myself to accommodate my way of living,
and to make things as easy to me as I could.


I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent, under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables ; but I might now rather
call it a wall, for 1 raised a kind of wall up against it
of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside; and after
some time-I think it was a year and a half-I raised
rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I
could get to keep out the rain, which I found at some
times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made be-
hind me: but I must observe, too, that at first this was
a confused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order,
so they took up all my place: I had no room to turn
myself, so I set myself to enlarge my cave and works
farther into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which yielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it-
and so, when I found I was pretty safe as to beasts of
prey, I worked sideways to the right hand into the
rock; and then, turning to the right again, worked
quite out, and made me a door to come out, on the out-
side of my pale, or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were
a back way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such ne-
cessary things as I found I most wanted, particularly
a chair and a table; for without these I was not able
to enjoy the few comforts I iad in the world-I could
not write or eat, or do several things, with so much
pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and original of the ma-
thematics, so, by stating and squaring every thing by
reason, and by making the most rational judgment of
things, every man may be in time master of every me-
chanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life, and
yet in time, by labour, application, and contrivance, I
found at last that I wanted nothing but I could have


made it, especially if I had had tools; however, I made
abundance of things even without tools, and some with
no more tools than an adze and a hatchet, which, per-
haps, were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labour-for example, if I wanted a board, I had
no other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge
before me, and hew it flat on either side with my axe,
till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, by this method
I could make but one board out of a whole tree; but
this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than I
had for the prodigious deal of time and labour which it
took me up to make a plank or board; but my time and
labour were little worth, and so they were as well em-
ployed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place-and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft
from the ship; but, when I had wrought out some
boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth
of a foot and a half one over another, all along one side
of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work,
and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their
places, that I might come easily at them. I knocked
pieces into the wall of the rock to hang my guns, and
all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
every thing so ready at my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment; for indeed at first I was in
too much a hurry; and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my journal
would have been full of many dull things. For ex-
ample, I must have said thus .-September the 30th,
after I got to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead
of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited with the great quantity of salt water which


was gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a
little, I ran about the shore, wringing my hands, and
beating my head and face, exclaiming at my misery,
and crying out, I was undone, undone! till, tired and
faint, I was forced to lie down on the ground to repose,
but durst not sleep for fear of being devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been on board
the ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I could
not forbear getting up to the top of a little mountain,
and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then
fancy at a vast distance I spied a sail-please myself
with the hopes of it-and then, after looking steadily till
I was almost blind, lose it quite, and sit down and weep
like a child, and thus increase my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some mea-
sure, and having settled my household stuff and habita-
tion, made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began to keep my journal, of
which I shall here give you the copy (though in it will
be told all these particulars over again) as long as it
lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to leave
it off.

I begin to keep a Journal-Christen my desert Island the Island
of Despair-Fall upon various Schemes to make Tools, Baskets,
&c., and begin to build my house-At a great loss of an Evening
for Candle, but fall upon an expedient to supply the want-
Strange discovery of Corn-A terrible Earthquake and Storm.
September 30, 1659.
I, roon miserable Robinson Crusoe, being shipwrecked,
during a dreadful storm in the offing, came on shore on
this dismal unfortunateisland, which I called the Island
of Despair; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself

at the dismal circumstances I was brought to, namely,
I had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, nor place to
fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but
death before me, either that I should be devoured by
wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night I slept in
a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1.-In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island; which,
as it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing her
sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the
wind abated, I might get on board, and get some food
and necessaries out of her for my relief; so, on the
other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my com-
rades, who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board,
might have saved the ship, or at least that they would
not have been all drowned as they were ; and that had
the men been saved, we might perhaps have built us a
boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to
some other part of the world. I spent great part of
this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length, seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the
sand as near as I could, and then swam onboard. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the lst of October to the 24th.-All these days
entirely spent in many several voyages to get all I
could out of the ship, which I brought on shore, every
tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in these days,
though with some intervals of fair weather; but it
seems this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind; during which time the ship broke in
pieces, the wind blowing a little harder than before,
and was no more to be seen except the wreck of her,


and that only at low water. I spent this day in cover-
ing and securing the goods which I had saved, that rain
might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day,
to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed
upon a proper place under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved to
strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of
double piles, lined within with cable, and without with
From the 26;th to the 30th I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceedingly lard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed
me home, which I afterwards killed also, because it
would not feed.
November 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as I
could, with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber, which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times of
work-of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion: namely, every morning I walked
out with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not
rain, then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock, then ate what I had to live on, and from twelve
to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessively
hot, and then in the evening to work again. The work-
ing part of this day and of the next were wholly employed
in making my table; for I was yet but a very sorry

workman, though time and necessity made me a com-
plete natural mechanic soon after, as I believe it would
do any one else.
Nov. 5.-This day went abroad with my gun and my
dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her
flesh good for nothing: every creature I killed I took
off the skins, and preserved them. Coming back by
the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls, which I
did not understand; but was surprised, and almost
frighted, with two or three seals, which, while I was
gazing at, not well knowing what they were, got into
the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my
liking; nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the
1lth was Sunday), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and even in the making,
I pulled it in pieces several times.-Note. I soon ne-
glected my keeping Sundays; for omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfullyfor fear of my powder. As soon
as it was over, I resolved to separate mystock of powder
into as many little parcels as possible, that it might not
be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16.-These three days I spent in making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about a
pound, or two pound at most, of powder; and so put-
ting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat,
but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
-Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this


work, namely, a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow
or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to
consider how to supply that want, and make me some
tools: as for a pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy; but the next
thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary, that indeed I could do nothing effectually
without it, but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the Bra-
zils they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hardness:
of this, with great labour, and almost spoiling my axe,
I cut a piece, and brought it home too with difficulty
enough, for it was exceedingly heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having no
other way, made me a long while upon this machine;
for I worked it effectually by little and little into the
form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped
like ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not last me so
long; however, it served well enough for the uses which
I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long a-making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a wheel-
barrow: a basket I could not make by any means,
having no such things as twigs, that would bend to
make wicker-ware, at least not yet found out; and as
to a wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel, but that I had no notion of, neither did I know
how to go about it; besides, I had no possible way to
make the iron gudgeons for the spindle, or axis, of the
wheel, to run in, so I gave it over; and so, for carry-
ing away the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made
me a thing like a hod which the labourers carry mortar
in when they serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the
shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me
up no less than four days--I mean always excepting
my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom failed;
and seldom failed also bringing home somethingto eat.


Nov. 23.-My other work having now stood still, be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished
I went on, and working every day, as my strength and
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widen-
ing and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods
Note.-During all this time I worked to make this
room, or cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse, or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and a cellar: as for my lodging, I kept to the tent, ex-
cept that sometimes, in the wet season of the year, it
rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry, which
caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my
pale with long poles in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and load them with flags and large
leaves of trees like a thatch.
December 10.-I began now to think my cave, or
vault, finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made
it too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from
the top and one side, so much, that, in short, it frighted
me, and not without reason too; for if I had been under
it, I had never wanted a grave-digger. Upon this dis-
aster I had a great deal of work to do over again; for
I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which was of
more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
I might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of boards across over each
post; this I finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17.-From this dayto the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked up nails on the posts to hang every thing
up that could be hung up: and now I began to be in
some order within doors.
Dec. 20.-Now I carried every thing into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some pieces
of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals upon;


but boards began to be very scarce with me : also, I
made me another table.
Dec. 24.-Much rain all night and all day; no stir-
ring out.
Dec. 25.-Rain all day.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string: when
I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which
was broke.-N.B. I took such care of it, that it lived,
and the leg grew well and as strong as ever; but by
nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon the little
green at my door, and would not go away. This was
the first time that I entertained a thought of breeding
up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats, and no breeze ; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for
food. This time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors.
January 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys which
lay towards the centre of the island, I found there was
plenty of goats, though exceedingly shy and hard to
come at; however, I resolved to try if I could not bring
my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come near
Jan. 3.-I began my fence, or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved
to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely
omit what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to
observe, that I was no less time than from the 3d of
January to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and


perfecting this wall, though it was no more than about
twenty-four yards in length, being a half circle from
one place in the rock to another place about eight
yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together; but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure until this
wall was finished; and it is scarce credible what inex-
pressible labour every thing was done with, especially
the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving them
into the ground; for I made them much bigger than I
need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself, that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive any thing like a habitation;
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed here-
after, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods
for game, every day, when the rain permitted me, and
made frequent discoveries, in these walks, of something
or other to my advantage ; particularly, I found a kind
of wild pigeons, who built, not as wood pigeons, in a
tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew
older they flew away, which, perhaps, was at first for
want of feeding them; for I had nothing to give them.
However, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make, as indeed, as
to some of them, it was-for instance, I could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or
two, as I observed before, but I could never arrive to
the capacity of making one by them, though I spent
many weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads,
nor joint the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold water, so I gave that also over.


In the next place, I was at great loss for candle, so
that as soon as ever it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of bees'-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure, but I had none of
that now. The only remedy I had was, that, when I
had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and, with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I
added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp; and
this gave me a light, though not a clear steady light
like a candle. In the middle of all my labours, it hap-
pened that, rummaging my things, I found a little bag,
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn for
the feeding of poultry, not for this voyage, but before,
as I suppose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all de-
voured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag but
husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use-I think it was to put powder in, when
I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use-
I shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my
fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of
any thing, and not so much as remembering that I had
thrown any thing there; when about a month after, or
thereabout, I saw some few stalks of something green
shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I
saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfectly green barley, of the same kind as our Euro-
pean-nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and con-
fusion of my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto
acted upon no religious foundation at all. Indeed, I
had very few notions of religion in my head, or had en-
tertained any sense of any thing that had befallen me,
otherwise than as a chance, or, as we lightly say, what
pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the end


of Providence in these things, or his order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there,
in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially, that I knew not how it came there, it startled
me strangely, and I began to suggest, that God had
miraculously caused this grain to grow, without any
help of seed sown; and that it so was directed, purely for
my sustenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out
of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such a
prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some other
straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of rice, and
which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Pro-
vidence for my support, but, not doubting but that there
was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island where I had been before, peeping in every
corner, and under every rock, to see for more of it;
but I could not find any. At last, it occurred to my
thought, that I had shook a bag of chicken's meat out
in that place, and then the wonder began to cease; and
I must confess, my religious thankfulness to God's pro-
vidence began to abate too, upon discovering that all
this was nothing but what was common, though I ought
to have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen a
providence, as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence, as to me, that should
order or appoint ten or twelve grains of corn to remain
unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as
if it had been dropped from Heaven-as also, that I
should throw it out in that particular place, where, it
being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up imme-
diately; whereas, if I had thrown it any where else at
that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June, and
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all again,


hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to sup-
ply me with bread; but it was not till the fourth year
that I could allow myself the least grain of this corn to
eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall say after-
wards in its order-for I post all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time-for I sowed
it just before the dry season, so that it never came up
at all, at least not as it would have done-of which in
its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same
care, and whose use was of the same kind, or to the
same purpose, namely, to make me bread, or rather
food; for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also after some time. But to return
to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months
to get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it
up, contriving to go into it, not bya door, but over the
wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in the
outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me,
and let it down on the inside. This was a complete
enclosure to me; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without, unless it could
first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and my-
self killed. The case was thus:-as I was busy in the
inside of it, behind my tent, just in the entrance into
my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most dreadful
surprising thing indeed; for on a sudden I found the
earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill, over my head, and two
of the posts I had set up in the cave cracked in a fright-
ful manner. I was heartily scared, but thought nothing
of what was really the cause, only thinking that the top
of my cave was falling in, as some of it had done before ;
and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forward to

ROB10SON 051OO0S. 89

my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there neither,
I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill,
which I expected might roll down upon me. I was no
sooner stept down upon the firm ground, but I plainly
saw it was a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood
on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
with three such shocks, as would have overturned the
strongest building that could be supposed to have stood
on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a rock,
which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea,
fell down with such a terrible noise as I never heard
in all my life: I perceived also the very sea was put
into violent motion by it; and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that
I was like one dead or stupified ; and the motion of the
earth made my stomach sick, like one that was tossed
at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock awaked
me, as it were, and, rousing me from the stupified con-
dition I was in, filled me with horror, and I thought of
nothing then but the hill falling upon my tent and all
my household goods, and burying all at once; and thus
sunk my very soul within me a second timd.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more
for some time, I began to take courage; and yet I had
not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear of
being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground, greatly
cast down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do.
All this while I had notthe least serious religiousthought,
nothing but the common Lord have mercy upon me!"
and when it was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain; soon after that, the wind
rose by little and little, so that in less than half an hour
it blew a most dreadful hurricane: the sea was all on
a sudden covered over with foam and froth, the shore
was covered with the breach of the water, the trees
were torn up by the roots, and a terrible storm it was;
and this held about three hours, and then began to abate,


and in two hours more it was stark calm, and began to
rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much ter-
rified and dejected, when on a sudden it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the conse-
quence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was
spent and over, and I might venture into my cave again:
with this thought my spirits began to revive, and, the
rain also helping to persuade me, I went in and sat
down in my tent; but the rain was so violent, that my
tent was ready to be beaten down with it; and I was
forced to go into my cave, though very much afraid and
uneasy, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, namely,
to cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink,
to let water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and
found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed; and now, to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small cup of rum, which,
however, I did then, and always very sparingly, know-
ing I could have no more when that was gone.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of
the next day, so that I could not stir abroad; but, my
mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do, concluding, that if the island was subject
to these earthquakes, there would be no living for me
in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surround with a
wall as I had done here, and so make myself secure from
wild beasts or men: but concluded, if I staid where I was,
I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it stood, which was just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it should
be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my tent.
And I spent the two next days, being the 19th and 20th
of April, in contriving where and how to remove my


The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that
I never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad without any fence was almost equal to it; but
still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing was
put in order, how pleasantly concealed I was, and how
safe from danger, it made me very loath to remove.
In the meantime, it occurred to me, that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So, with this resolution, I com-
posed myself for a time, and resolved that I would go
to work with all speed, to build me a wall with piles
and cables, &c., in a circle, as before, and set my tent
up in it when it was finished; but that I would venture
to stay where I was till it was finished, and fit to re-
move to. This was the 91st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for
traffic with the Indians); but, with much chopping and
cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of notches
and dull; and, though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it, and grind my tools too; this cost me as much
thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a
grand point of politics, or a judge upon the life and
death of a man. At length I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both
my hands at liberty. Note-I had never seen any such
thing in England, or at least not to take notice how it
was done, though since I have'observed it is very com-
mon there; besides that, my grindstone was very large
and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work
to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been low
a great while, now I took a survey of it, and reduced


myself to one biscuit-cake a-day, which made my heart
very heavy.

Observe the Ship driven farther aground by the late Storm-
Procure a vast quantity of Necessaries from the Wreck-Catch
a large Turtle-I fall ill of a Fever and Ague-Terrible Dream,
and serious Reflections thereupon-Find a Bible in one of the
Seamen's Chests thrown ashore, the reading whereof gives me
great comfort.
MAY 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask. When
I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three
pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on
shore by the late hurricane; and, looking towards the
wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of
the water than it used to do. I examined the barrel
which was driven on shore, and soon found it was a
barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken water, and the
powder was caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled
it farther on shore for the present, and went on upon
the sands as near as I could to the wreck of the ship,
to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed: the forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern
(which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest
by the force of the sea, soon after I had left rummaging
her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one side;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that whereas there was a great piece of water
before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming, I could now walk
quite up to her when the tide was out. I was surprised
with this at first, but soon concluded it must be done
by the earthquake; and, as by this violence the ship
was more broken open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to the land.

nonIsoN onCsoE. 98

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation ; and I busied myself mightily,
that day especially, in searching whether I could make
any way into the ship; but I found nothing was to be
expected of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship
was choked up with sand; however, as I had learned
not to despair of any thing, I resolved to pull every
thing to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding, that
every thing I could get from her would be of some use
or other to me.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could
from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming
in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May 4.-I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when,
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I
had made me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had
no hooks, yet I frequently caught fish enough, as much
as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun, and ate
them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck-cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from
the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on
shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck-got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron work; worked
very hard, and came home very much tired, and had
thoughts of giving it over.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but with an intent
not to work, but found the weight of the wreck had
brought itself down, the beams being cut; that several
pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of
the hold lay so open, that I could see into it, but almost
full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear
of the water or sand; I wrenched open two planks, and


brought them on shore also with the tide : I left the
iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow made
way into the body of the wreck, -and felt several casks,
and loosened them with the crow, but could not break
them up: I felt also the roll of English lead, and could
stir it, but it was too heavy to remove.
May 10, 11, 12,13,14.-Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great many pieces of timber, and boards, or
plank, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge
of one hatchet, and driving it with the other, but as it lay
about a foot and a half in the water, I could not make
any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water;
but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, but
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24-Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some things so
much with the crow, that the first flowing tide several
casks floated out, and two of the seamen's chests; but
the wind blowing from the shore, nothing came to land
that day but pieces of timber, and a hogshead, which
had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and the
sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work everyday to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed during this part of my employment to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
was ebbed out; andbythis time I had gotten timber, and
plank, and iron work enough to have built a good boat,
if I had known how; and also I got at several times,
and in several pieces, near one hundred weight of the
sheet lead.


June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a large
tortoise or turtle; this was the first that I had seen,
which it seems was only my misfortune, not any defect
of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to be on
the other side of the island, I might have had hundreds
of them every day, as I found afterwards, but perhaps
had paid dear enough for them.
June 17th I spent in cooking theturtle: I found in her
three-score eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time,
the most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my
life, having had no flesh but of goats and fowls, since I
landed in this horrid place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I staid within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was some-
thing chilly, which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill, frighted almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no
help. Prayed to God, for the first time since the storm
off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why, my
thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better, but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, ahd
then a violent headache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better; and, having no victuals to eat, took
my gun, but found myself very weak; however, I killed
a she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home, and
broiled some of it, and ate; I would fain have stewed
it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27.-The ague again so violent that I laya-bed
all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to
perish for thirst, but so weak I had not strength to
stand up, or to get myself any water to drink. Praye4


to God again, but was light-headed : and when I was
not, I was so ignorant, that I knew not what to say,
only I lay, and cried, Lord look upon me! Lord pity
me! Lord have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours, till, the fit wearing
off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night;
when I waked, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak, and exceedingly thirsty: however, as I had no
water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till
morning and went to sleep again. In this second sleep
I had this terrible dream:-
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sac when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire, and
light upon the ground. He was all over as bright as a
flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards him;
his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, im-
possible for words to describe; when he stepped upon
the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled,
just as it had done before in the earthquake, and all the
air looked to my apprehension as if it had been filled
with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth but he moved
forward towards me, with a long spear, or weapon, in
his hand to kill me; and when he came to a rising
ground, at some distance, he spoke to me, or I heard a
voice so terrible, that it is impossible to express the
terror of it; all that I can say I understood, was this-
" Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance, now thou shalt die!" at which words, I thought
he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect
that I should be able to describe the horrors of my soul
at this terrible vision-I mean, that even while it was
a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors; nor is it
any more possible to describe the impression that re-
mained upon my mind when I awaked and found it was
but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge. What I had re-


ceived by the good instruction of my father was then
worn out byan uninterrupted series, for eight years, of
seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation with
nothing but such as were, like myself, wicked and pro-
fane to the last degree. I do not remember that I had,in
all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upwards towards God, or inwards towards a
reflection upon my own ways. But a certain stupidity
of soul, without desire of good, or conscience of evil,
had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was all that the
most hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our
common sailors, can be supposed to be, not having the
least sense, either of the fear of God in danger, or of
thankfulness to God in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this
will be the more easily believed, when I shall add, that,
through all the variety of miseries that had to this day
befallen me, I never had so much as one thought of it
being the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment
for my sin-my rebellious behaviour against my father,
or my present sins, which were great--or so much as a
punishment for the general course of my wicked life.
When I was on the desperate expedition on the desert
shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought
of what would become of me, or one wish to God to di-
rect me whither I should go, or keep me from the danger
which apparently surrounded me, aswell from voracious
creatures as cruel savages: but I was merely thought-
less of a God, or a Providence, acted like a mere brute
from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of
common sense only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and ho-
nourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts. When again I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on this
island, I was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a
judgment-I only said to myself often, that I was an
unfortunate dog, and born to be always miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found


all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was
surprised with a kind of ecstacy, and some transports
of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might
have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where
it began, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I may
say, being glad I was alive, without the least reflection
upon the distinguishing goodness of the hand which had
preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed; or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: even just
the same common sort of joy which seamen generally
have, after they have got safe on shore from a ship-
wreck, which they drown all in the next bowl of punch,
and forget almost as soon as it is over; and all the rest
of my life was like it.
Even when I was afterwards, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of
all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon as
I saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not
starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my afflic-
tion wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied my-
self to the works proper for my preservation and supply,
and was far enough from being afflicted at my condition,
as a judgment from Heaven, or as the hand of God
against me: these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my jour-
nal, had at first some little influence upon me, and
began to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought
it had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of thought was removed, all the impression
which was raised from it wore off also, as I have noted
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more
terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing to
the invisible Power, which alone directs such things;
yet no sooner was the first fright over, but the impres-
sion it had made went off also. I had no more sense
of God or his judgments, much less of the present afflic-

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