Front Cover
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073541/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe who lived twenty- eight years on an uninhabited island, with an account of his deliverance
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 144 p., <1> leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
James, U. P ( Uriah Pierson ), 1811-1889 ( Publisher )
Publisher: Pub. by U.P. James
Place of Publication: Cincinnati (No. 167 Walnut St.)
Publication Date: <186-?>
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Ohio -- Cincinnati
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956
Statement of Responsibility: with illustrations.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: An abridgement of part I of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Publisher's advertisement p. <4> of cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073541
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27081386

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
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    Title Page
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    Robinson Crusoe
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Full Text








With xIlustrationa.


'Iftoullt of is pfllittsana.







Uninlabiteb Jslanb.



With Ilustrations.

No. 186 WALMIu STnae.




I wAs born at York, in the year 1632, of a
reputable family. My father was a native of Bre-
men, who, by merchandising at Hull for some time,
gained a very plentiful fortune. He married my
mother at York, and, as her maiden name was Rob-
inson, I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; which not
being easily pronounced in the English tongue, we
are commonly known by the name of Crusoe.
I was the youngest of three brothers. No
charge or pains were wanting in my education.
My father designed me for the law, yet nothing
would serve me but I must go to sea, both against
the will of my father, the tears of my mother, and
entreaties of friends. One morning my father ex-
postulated warmly with me : What reason," says
he, have you to leave your native country with

a more certain prospect of content and happi-
ness, to enter into a wandering condition of un-
easiness and uncertainty! He recommended to
me Agar's wish, neither to desire poverty nor
riches; that a middle state of life was the most
happy; and that the high towering thoughts of
raising our condition by wandering abroad were
surrounded with misery and danger, and often
ended with confusion and disappointment. I en-
treat you, nay, I command you (says le,) to
desist from these intentions. If you will go,
(added lie,) my prayers shall, however, be offer-
ed for your preservation; but a time may come,
when desolate, oppressed, or forsaken, you may
wish you had taken your poor despised father's
ootmsel.--le pronounced these words with such
a moving and paternal eloquence, while floods of
ears ran down his aged cheeks, that it seemed
to stem the torrent of my resolution. But this
soon wore off; and a little after I informed my
mother that I could not settle at any business,
my resolutions were so strong to see the world,
and begged she would gain rmy father's consent
only to go one voyage, which if it did not prove
prosperous, I would never attempt a second.
But my desire was as vain as my folly in asking.
My mother passionately expressed her dislike to
this proposal, telling me that as she saw I was
bent on my own destruction, contrary to their
will and my duty, she would say no more, bu*
leave me to myself to do whatever I pleased.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when
one time being at Hull, I met a school-fellow of
mine going along with his father, who was mas-
ter of a ship, to London; and acquainting him
with my wandering desires, he assured me of a
free passage, and a plentiful share of what was
necessary. Thus, without imploring a blessing,

or taking farewell,of my parents, I took shipping
ou the 1st of September, 1651.
Upon the 6th day, we came to an anchor in,
Itarwich road, where we lay wind-bound with
some Newcastle ships; and there' being a good
anchorage, and our cables sound, the seamen for-
got their late toil and danger, and spent the time
as merrily as if ihey bad been on shore. But on
the eighth day, there arose a risk gale of wind,
which prevented our tiding it up the river; and
it still increasing, our ship rode forecastle in, and
shipped several large seas.
It was not long before horror seized the sea-
men themselves, and I heard the master express
this melancholy ejaculation, Lord have mercy
upon us, we shall all be lost and undone! TFQr
my part, sick unto death, I kept my cabin, till
the universal and terribly dreadful apprehension.
of our speedy fate made me get upon deck, and
there was affrighted indeed. The .sea went
mountains high: I could see nothing but distress
around us: two ships had cut away their masts,
and another had foundered;, two more that hadt
lost their anchors, were forced out to the.ioercy,
of the ocean; and, to save our lives, we were
forced to cut our foremast and mainmast quite
Who is there so ignorant as not to judge of
my dreadful condition? I was but t fresh-watoe
sailor, and therefore seemed more terrified.
Our ship was very good, but overloaded; which
made the sailors often cry out, She will founder.
words I then was ignorant of. All this, while,
the storm continuing, and rather increasing, the
master and the more sober part of theomen went
to prayers, expecting death every moment, In,
the middle of the night one cried out, We b~a
sprung a leak: anorter, 'That there was, four feet


water in the hold. I was just ready to expire
with fear, when immediately all hands were call-
ed to the pump; and the men forced me also in
that extremity to share with them in their labor.
While thus employed, the master spying some
colliers, fired a gun as a signal of distress; and
I not understanding what it meant, and thinking
that either the ship broke, or some dreadful thing
happened, fell into a swoon. Even in that con-
dition of woe, nobody minded me, excepting to
thrust nme aside with their feet, thinking me
dead; and it was a great while before I recovered.
Happy it was for us, when upon the signal
given, they ventured out their boat to save our
lives. All our pumping had been in vain, ami
vain had all our attempts been, had they not come
to our ship's side; and our men cast them a rope
over the stern with a buoy to it, which aftergreat
difficulty they got hold of, and we hauling them
to us, got into their boat, and left our ship which
we perceived sink within less than a quarter of
an hour; and thus I learnt what was meant by
foundering at sea. And now the men incessant-
ly labored to recover their own ship; but the
sea ran so high, and the wind blew so hard, that
they thought it convenient to haul in shore,
which with great difficulty and danger at last we
happily effected, landing at a place called Cromer,
not far from Winterton light-house; from whence
we all walked to Yarmouth, where, as objects of
pity, many good people furnished us with the
necessaries to carry us either to Hull, or London.
Strange! that after all this, I did not, like the
prodigal son, return to my father; who hearing
of the ship's calamity, for a long time thought me
entombed in the deep. No doubt but I should
have shared in his fatted calf, as the Scripture
expresseth it; but my wayn ard disposition still

pushed me on, in spite of the powerful convie*
tions 6f reason and conscience. When we had
been at Yarmouth three days I met my old com-
panion, who had given me the invitation to go on
board along with his father. His behaviour and
speech were altered, and, in a melancholy manner.
he asked me how I did? telling his father who It
was, and how I had made this voyage for a trial:
only to proceed farther abroad. Upon which their
old gentleman turning to me. said, Young man,
you ought never to go to sea any more, but to
take this fur a certain sign, that you will never
rosper in a sea-faring condition. Sir, answered.
, will you take the same resolution1 It is a
different case, said he, it is my calling, and con-'
sequently my duty; but as you have made this
voyage fur a trial, you see what ill luck heaven
has set before your eyes;,and perhaps our mi.
series have been on your account, like Jonah in
the ship of Tarshish. But pray what are you,
and on what account did you go to seal' Upon
which, I very freely declared my whole story; at.
the end of which he made this exclamation Ye
sacred powers! what had I committed, that such
a wretch should enter into my ship, to heap upon
me such a deluge of miseries! But soon, eookl
lecting himself, Young man, said be, if you do
not go back, depend upon it, wherever you go,
you will meet with disasters, and dieppioint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon,
you. And so we parted. ,* '
I thought at first to return home; but shame
opposed that good notion, as thinking'I should
be laughed at by my neighbors and acquaint-
ances. So strange is the nature of youth!
They are not ashamed to sin, but yet ashamed to
repent; and so far from being sorry for thbas
actions for which they may be accounted foolau

they think it folly to return to their duty, which ir
the principal mark of wisdom. In short. I tra.
yelled up to London, resolving upon a voyage,
and a voyage I soon heard of, by my acquaint-
ance with a captain who took a fancy to me, to
go to the coast of Guinea. Having some mo-
ney and appearing like a gentleman, I went on
board, not as a common sailor or foremast-man;
nay, the commander agreed that 1 should go that
voyage with him without any expense; that I
should be his messinate and companion, and that
I was welcome to carry any thing with me', and
make the best merchandise I could.
I blessed my happy fortune, and humbly
thanked my captain for his offer, and acquainting
my Ifrinds in Yorkshire, forty pouiis were sent
me, the greatest part of which mn dear father
and mother contributed, with which I bought toys
and triples as the captain directed me. My cap-
tain also taught mne navigation, how to keep an
account of the ship's course, take an observation.
and led me into the knowledge of several usefu
branches of the mathematics. And indeed this
voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant;
for I brought hormo five pound nine ounces of
gold dust, for my adventure, which produced, at
my return to London, almost three hundred
pounds; but in this voyage I was extremely
sick, being thrown into a violent fever, through
excessive heat, trading upon the coast from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the line
But, alas! my dear friend the captain soon
departed this life after his arrival. This was a
sensible grief to me; yet I resolved to go ano-
ther voyage with his mate, who had' now got
command of the ship. This proved a very un-
successful one; for though I did not carry *:

RO6tM5iON OChtUfM E.' 11
hund red pounds of my hkte acquided- whakthj: (so,
that I had two hundred pounds left, which: re
posed with the captain's widow, who waS an ho:
nast gentlewomdn,) yet my misfortunes isi tlis
unhappy voyage were very great. For our ship.
sailing towards the Canary Islandd, we were
chased by a Salce rover, and in spite of all.the
haste we could make, by crowding as much can.
vass as our yard's could spread, or our, masts
carry, the pirate gained upon us, so that we pre-
pared ourselves to fight. They had eighteen
guns, and we had but twelve. About three in
the afternoon there was a desperate engagedbent,
wherein many were killed and wounded onboth
sides: but finding ourselves overpowered, with'
numbers, our ship disabled, and ourselves too.
impotent to have the least hopes of success, we.
were forced to surrender; and accordingly we
were all carried prisoners into the port of Salee.
(fur men were sent to the Emperor's. court to
be sold there; but the pirate captain taking o-,
tice of me, kept me to be his own slave.
In this condition, 1 thought myself the Mostt
miserable creature orn heart i, and the prophecy of
my father came afresh into rm thoughts. :,How.,
ever, my condition wasi better than I thought it
to be, as will soon appear. Some hopes, indeed;
I had that my new patron-would' go tosea again,
where he might be takes by a Spaaish.or Portu-
ghuse man of war, add ,thenfshouldbeset'at
liberty. But ii'this I was mistaken;for he.nerv:
er took me with himrt,:bt:left me to look aAfer-his
little garden, and ;d the drudgery tofhis house
and when he returned from sea, would make mq
lie in the cabin and look afterthe stip. l!thadua.
6ne that I co~ t communicate mroybothogiti~ia
4hlich were b"tinbatly 'meditatingrmy Magep
No Englishman, Irishsntn, or Bobtohman teoi

but myself: and for two years I could see no-
thing practicable, but only pleased myself with
the imagination.
After some length of time, my patron as I
found, grew so poor. that he could not fit out his
ship as usual; and then he used constantly, once
or twice a week, if the weather was fair, to go
out a fishing, taking nme and a young Moorish
boy to row the Ihnit; and so much pleased was
he with me for miy dexterity in catching tile fish,
that lie would olten stnd Ime with a Moor, who
was one of his kinllsmen, and the youth before
mentioned, to catch a dish of fish for him.
()One morning, as we were ut sport, there arose
Isch a Ihick Ifo, that we lost night of tihe shore;
and rowing, we knew not which way, we labor-
ed sill the night, and in the morning we found
ourselves in the ocean, two leaguca from land.
However, we attained there at length, and made
the greatest haiRste, because our stomachs were
exceedingly sharp and hungry. In order to pre-
vent such disasters for tihe future, my patron or-
dered a carpenter to build a little state room or
cabin in the middle of the long boat: with a
place behind it to steer and hail home tl.e main-
sheet, with other conveniences to keep him from
the weather, as also lockers to pit in all manner
of provisions; with a handsome shoulder-of-
mutton sail gibing over the cabin.
In this, he frequently took us out a fishing;
and one time, inviting two or three persons of
distraction to go with him, laid in provisions ex.
traordinary; providing also three fissees, with
powder and shot, that they might have some
sport fowling along the sea-coast. The next
morning, the boat was made clean, her ancients
and pendants out, and every thing ready: but
their minds altering, my patron ordered us to go

a fishing, for that his guests would certainly sup
with him that night.
And now 1 began to think of my deliverance
indeed. In order to this, I persuaded the Moor
to get some provisions on bourd, and to procure
some powder and shot, pretending to kill sea4
curlews, which he innocently and readily agreed
to. In short, being provided with all things ne-
cessary,we sailed out.
When we had passed the castle, we fell to
fishing; but though I knew there was a bite, I
concealed the matter, in order to put farther out
to sea. Accordingly we ran a league farther,
when, giving the boy the helm, and pretending to
stoop for something, Lseized Muley by surprise
and threw him overboard. As he was an excel-
lent swimmer, he soon arose and made towards
the boat; upon which I took out a fusee, and
presented it at him: "Muley," said I, "1 never
yet designed to do you any harm, and seek no.
thing now but my freedom. I know you are
able enough to swim to shore, and save your life;
but if you are resolved to follow me to the en-
dangering of mine, the very moment you pro-
ceed, I will shoot you through the head." The
harmless creature, at these words, turned himself
from me, and I make no doubt, got safe to land
Then turning to the boy Xury, I perceived ho
trembled at the action; but I put him out of all
fear, telling him, that if he would be true and
faithful to me, I would do well by him and
not hurt him.
We then pursued aor voyager I kept to the
southward, to the truly Barbarian coast; but ip
the dark of the evening, 1 changed my course,
that I might keep near the shore; and having a
fresh' gale of wind, with a very pleasant smooth
sea, by three o'clock next day, I was one hundred

and fifty miles beyond the Emperor of Moroca
C'O's domlinioIns. I contiled MCsailing for five days
iisucceiively, till such time as thet wind shifting
to the southwardi, mail t ml co ieludte, that if any
vessel was in chaIse of mus, they would proceed
no fairther.
Aftl'r so much Iat igne and thought, I anchored
at the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or
wlierc, nieithelr (!id I theil see ally people. W hat
I |pria,'ipally w;inted w;a fresh water; atid I was
rciolvce about thI dusk of' tie evening to swimi
ashore: Iibt ino sootier the gloomy clouds ot
niglit he''an to siitcctt the dtclining day, than woe
heard siich bIarkinig, raut'i g, sand howling of wild
creat rc,, that ,onc, iniiiht.hlave thought the very
stroln{c'st IImostetis of nature had thuir residence
there. 'oor Xury, who was almost dead with
f(ar, cit ro:atetd lIme not to go on shore tlat night.
Slppose- I don't Xnry," said I, "and in the
il0orinlg wire siotild sce ilcll who are worse than
those wv f'itr, wihat thelln!" '") den we may
give themli ttli shoot fun,"' said lie, laughing,
"and thle g-iun Ilak; them' all runt away." The
wit, and hro ikn i'ngl isli which the Iboy had learn
ed aiminlwlg thie ci'aptives of oulr nation, pleased mno
entirely, and matiie lle still fonder of him than
blefor. \We could get but little sleep all night
for the terrible howlintgs they made; and indeed
we were very Imtlih atfrighted.
'The next morning, l#was resolved to go on
shore to lgt in fresh water, and venture myself
am)long tile lieasts or savages, should either at.
tack Imu. X'ury said he would take one of the
jars asnd bring mle someo. I asked him why he
would go and not 11 The poor boy answered,
If' wild mans come, they eat me, you go away."
hlis, indeed, increased my affection for the
child. "\Well. dear Xury," said 1, we will

h6OriNqOT CRUo0F. Sfc
both go ashore, both kill wild mans, and they
shall eat neither of us.". So giving Xury A
piece of bread to eat, we waded ashore, carrwyif
nothing with uis but our arms, arid two jars fob
water. I did not go out of sight of the boat, ti
dreading the savage coming down the river
in their canoes: but the boy seeing a lot de*
scent or vale about a mile in the country, he
wandered to it; and then running back to me
with great precipitation, I thought he was pur
sued by some savages or wild beasts; upon
which I approached, resolving to perish, or pro-
tect himi from darnge'r. As lie came nearer to me,
I sawv something hanging over his shoulder,
which was a creature lhe had shot, like a hare, but
different in color, and with longer legs, how-
ever we were glad of it, for it proved wholesome
and noi risking meat; but what added to our joy
was, my boy assured me there was plenty of
water, and that lie "saw no wild mans." And
greater still was our comfort when we fonnd
fresh water in the creek where we were when the
tide was out, without going so far up into the
In this place I began to hope that I should
meet some of the English trading vessels, who
would relieve and take us in.
The place I was in was, no doubt, that wild
country inhabited only by a few, that lies be-
tween the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and
the negroes. It is filled with wild beasts, and
the Moors use it for hunting chiefly. From this
place I thought I saw the top of the mountain
Teneriffe, in Hie Canaries, which made me try
twice to attain it, but as often was I driven back,
and so forced to pursue my fortune along shord.
Early one morning we came to an arihor
under a little p6i'nt of lInd, but pretty high; a~d

the tide beginning to flow, we lay ready to go
tfrther in; but Xury, whose youthful and pene-
trating eyes were sharper than mine, in a soft
tone desired me to kepi far from land, lest we
should he devoured; F'or look yonder, Ilister,
and see de dreadful monster fast asleCp on de
side of de hill." Accrondingly looking where he
pointed, I espied a tearful monster indeed. It
was a terrible great lion that lay oi shore, cov-
ered as it were ,y sh o a h o pit)i e o the hill.
" Xury," said I, youl .hall go on shore anl kill
himi." But the boy lokidi amazed. M3e kill
him!" says he, hie eat lme at one Imouth,'"-
mainiVing olne imo uthful. I'l on which I bid lim
liu still, and charging mly higgest giu> with twj
sligs, and a good charge of powder, I took the
best aim I could to shoot lhim through the head;
but his leg lyiig over his nose, the slig broke his
knee bone. The lt>i, awaiting with the pain,
got up, hut soon 1ell down, giving the most hide-
ous groan I ever heard; huit taking my second
piece, I shot him tirouiigh the hlead, and then he
lay struggling tor life. ('pon this Xiiry took
heart, and desired moy leave to go on shore.
" t(o, then," said 1. I pon which, taking a little
gun in one hand, he swain to the shore with the
otlier, and coming close to thu lion pit a period
to his life, by shooting him again through the
Buit this wvas spending our ammunition in vvim,
the flesh not being good to eat. Xury was like
a champion, and comes on board for a hatchet
to cut off the head of his enemy; but wanting
strength to perform it, he cut oif anil brought me
a foot. I bethought me, however, that his skin
would be of use. This cost Xury and ule a
whole day: when spreading it on the top of our
cabin tlie hot beams of the sun effectuallv dried

it in two days time, and it afterwards served met
for a bed to lie on.
And now we sailed southerly, living sparingly
on our provisions, and went no oftener on shore:
than we were obliged for fresh water, in hopes
to meet some European ship. If providence did
not favor me, my next course was to seek for,
the islands, or lose my life among the negroes
in a word, either I must meet with some ship, or
certainly perish.
One day as we were sailing along, we saw
people stand on the shore looking at us; we
could also perceive they wereblack, and stark
naked. I was inclined to go on shore; but Xury.
cried, No, no; however, 1 approached nearer,
and I found they ran along the shore by me a
long way. They had no weapons in their hands
except one, who held a long stick, which Xur)
told me was a lance, with which they could kill
at a great distance. I talked to them by signs,
and made them sensible that I wanted some-
thing to eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat,
while two of them ran up into the country, and
in less than half an hour came back and brought,
with them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn,
which we kindly accepted; and to prevent any;
fears on either side, they brought the food to the
shore, laid it down, then went and stood a great
way off, till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.
Ihut white we were returning thanks to them,
being all we could afford, two mighty- creatures
came from the mountains, one as it were pursu-
ing the other with great fury, which we were.the:
rather inclined to believe, as they seldom appear
but in the night, and both these swiftly paying
by the negroes, jumped into the sea, wantonly.
swimming about, as though.the diversion of, th4

waters had put a sop to their ferceness. At
last one of them coming nearer to my boat than
I expected, or desired, I shot him directly
through the head, upon which he sunk immedi-
ately, yet rising again, he would have willingly
made to the shore, but between the wound and
the struggling of the water, lie died before he
could reach it.
It is impossible to express the consternation
the poor negroes were iin at the firing of my gun;
much less can I mention their surprise, when
they perceived the creature to be slain by it. I
made signs to them to draw near it with a rope,
aid then gave it to them to haul on shore. It
was a beautiful leopard, which made me desire
its skin; and the negroes seeming to covet the
carcase, I freely gave it to them. As for the
other leopard, it mad# to shore, and ran with a
prodigious swiftness (ot of sight. The negroes
having kindly furnished me with water, and with
what roots and grains their country afforded, I
took my leave, and, after eleven days sail came
in sight of the Cape de Verd. But the great
distance I was from it, and fearing contrary
winds would prevent me reaching them, 1 began
to grow melancholy and dejected, when upon a
sudden Xury cried out, Master, Master," look.
ing as affrighted as if it was his master's ship
sent in search of us. But I soon discovered
she was a Portuguese ship. Upon which I strove
for life to come up to them. But in vain had
it been, if through their perspective glasses, they
had not perceived us, and shortened their sail to
let us come in. Encouraged at this, I set up my
patron's ancient, and fired a gun, both as signals
of distress; upon which they very kindly lay to,
so that in three hours time I came up with them.
They spoke to me in Portuguese, Spanish, and

Freech, but none of these did I undertamd, till
at length a Scots sailor called, and then I toldhkbi
I was an Englishman, who had escaped from the
Moors at Salee, upon which they took ma kir.dl
on board with all my effects. '
Having a pleasant voyage to the Brauil, we
arrived in the Bay de Todos los Santes, or, All
Saints Bay, in twenty-two days after. And
here I cannot forget the generous treatment of
the captain. He would take nothing for n*y pasa
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's
skin, and thirty for the lion's. Every thint h
caused to be delivered, and what I Would sell,
he bought. In short, I made 210 pieces of my
cargo, and with this stock I entered once more,
as I may say into the scene of life.
To be brief, I bought a settlement next to an'
honest and kind neighbor, born at Lisbon, of
English parents, whose plantation joiling to
mine, we improved very amicably together; Both'
our stocks were low: and for two year we
planted only for food; but the thirds yearwe
planted some tobacco, and each of us diessed'
a large piece of ground the ensuing yet~afo*
planting sugar-canes.
I was in some measure settled, before the eaps
tain who took me up departed from the Brutil
One day I went to him, and told him what took
I had in London, desiring his assistnee in'get-
ting it seat out to me; to which the ged gentle-
man readily consented, but would only hewe me
send for hal my money, lest it should inisearry
which, if it did, I might still have the vemainder
to support me; and so taking letters of procura-
tian from me, bid. m trouble myself no further,
abott it.*
And indeed, Ie not only procured the raiene
( hadldrawn feA upton ay captain's wide br

seat me over a adrvant, with a cargo proportion*
able to mi condition. He also sent me tools of
all sorts, iron work and utensils necessary for
my plantation.
SWealth now increasing on me, and uncommon
success crowning my prosperous labor, I
light have rested hnppy in that middle state of
life my father so often recommended; yet no-
thing would content me. Having lived four
years in Brazil, 1 had not only learned the lan-
guage, but contracted acquaintance with the
most eminent planters, and even with the mer-
chants of St. Salvadore, three of whom came one
morning to me saying thdy had a secret proposal
to make. After enjoining me to secrecy, they
told me they had. mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea, in order to stock the plantation with ne-
groes, which as they could not be publicly sold,
they would divide among them; and if I would
go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the
trading part, I should have an equal share of the
negroes, without providing any stock. The thing
indeed was fair enoiuh, had I been in another
condition: however 1 could not resist the pro-
posal, but accepted the offer, upon condition of
their looking after my plantation.
The ship being fitted out, and all things ready,
we setsail the first of September 1669. We
sailed northward upon the coast, from whence
going farther into the ocean out of the sight of
land, we steered as though we were bound for
the island of Fernand de Noremba, leaving the
island on the east, and then it was we met with
a terrible tempest, which continued for twelve
days successively, so that the winds carried .as
wheresoever they pleased. In this perplexity,
om of our men died, and a man and a eby wdre
washed overboard. When thp wether dleued1

RteBiNsoir entsofe sI
up a little, we found ourselves upon: tlhe'ooa t of
.Guinea. Upon this the captain gave retsonsrot
returning which I opposed, counselling:dhit to
stand away for Barbadoes, which as IU supposed
might be attained in fifteen days. So altering
our course, we sailed northwest and by wet id
order to reach the Leeward Islands, but a second
storm succeeding, drove us to the westward, so
that we were justly afraid of falling into tre
hands of cruel savages, or the paws of the de-
vouring beasts of prey.
SIn this great distress, one of the men, early/ ~
the morning, cried out, Land! land! which hd
had no sooner said, than our ship strlck upooit
qand bank, and, in a moment, the da brbke over
her in such a manner that we expected we
should perish immediately. We knew not wheto
we were, or upon what land we were driven; Whe-
ther it was an island, or the maini inhabited,,or
not inhabited; and we eould ot so much as hope
that the ship would hold. out many minutes, with-
out breaking in pieces, unless the wibdi by a mir-
acle should turn 'about immediately. While we
stood looking at obe another, expecting death
every moment, the mate lays hold of thelboat,
and with the help of the rest, got her flung o*er
the ship's side; into this we all got, being eleven
in number, and committed ourselves' td6 Gtd'
mercy, and the wild sea. And now we saw that'
this last effort would not be a sufficient protecJ
tion from death, so high did the sea rise, that it
was impossible the boat should live. As to ma-
king a sail, we bad:none,,neither if we hal cotrM
we otake use of any. So that when we hidlrow-
ed&errather:wbre driven about a lotgad1 ad' a
half,.a aging wave, like a lofty mountain, came
rolling astern of us, and took us with such fuky,
that ocemit overset the boat. Thus' being

swallowed up in a moment, we had only time to
call upon the awful name of God, and to implores
in dying ejoculations, his infnite mercy to re.
ceive our departing souls.
Men are generally counted insensible, when
struggling in tie pangs of death; but while I was
overwhelmed with water, I had the most dread.
fil apprehensions imaginable; for the joys of
heaven, and the torments of hell, seemed to pro.
sent themselves before me in these dying ago.
nies, and even small space of time, as it were,
between life and death. I was going I thought
I know not whither, in a dismal gulf unknown,
and as yet unperceived, never to behold my
friends, nor the light of this world any morel I
strove however to the last extremity, while
mny companions were overpowered and entombed
in the deep; and it was with great difficulty I
kept my breath till the wave spent itself, and,
retiring back, left me on the shore half dead with
the water 1 had taken in. As soon as I had got
on my feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest another
wave should pursue me, and carry me back again.
But for all the haste I made, I could not avoid it;
for the sea came after me like a high mountain,
or a furious enemy; so that my business was to
hold my breath, and by raising myself on the
water, to save myself by swimming. The next
dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep, but at the same time, carried me with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore,
when raising myself, I held out as well as possi.
ble, till, at length, the water having spent itself,
began to return, at which I struck forward, and
feeling ground again with my feet, I took to my
heels. ihus being served twice more, I was at
last dashed against a piece of rock, in such a
manner as left me senseless, but reoov ri.n a

little before the return of the *ave, whtoh no
doubt would then overwhelm me, I held fast by
the rock till those succeeding waves abatedl; ad
then fetching another run, was overtaken by a
small wave, which was soon conquered. 'Bot
before any more could overtake me, I reached
the main land, where lamberint up the cliffs of
the shore, tired and almost spent, I sat down on
the grass, free from the danger of the obamin
No tongue can express the transports that my
soul felt at this happy deliverance. I wMa wrap
ap in contemplation, and often lifted np imy hand&
with the profoundest humility, to the I)line
Power for saving my tife; when the rest of my
companions were all drowned. And now I bes
gan to cast my eyes around, and to behold what'
plaoe I was in, and what I had next to do. It
colkid see no house nor people; I was weti yet
had no clothes to shift me; hungry mand thiNty*
tet had nothing to eat or drink, no'weapon to
destroy any creature for my sestenanee, nor de
fend myself against devouring beasts; is short
I had nothing but a knife, a tobaoo pipe, sad ,
box half filled with tobacco. The 'darksoms
night coming upon me, increased my feared ot
being devoured by 'wild crealtres; my miad was
plunged into despair, 'ad' having no prospect, as
1 thought, of life before ume, I prepared-for rno
their kind of death thal what I had lately becaped
I walked about a furlong,) to see if I could find'
any fresh water, which I did to my great joy
and taking a quid of tobacco to present hunger,
I got up into a thidk bushy tree, and seating my.
self so that I ooWuld~ot fall, a deep sleep over-
took me, and for that night, buried my serrowi
Mi a quiet repose.
It was broad day the next morning before I

awoke, when I not only perceived the tempest
was ceased, but saw the ship driven almost as
far as the rock before mentioned, which was
about a mile from the place where I was.-
Wheb. I came down from my apartment in the
tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles dis-
tant on my right hand, lying on shore as the
waves had cast her. I thought to have got to
her; but there being an inlet of water about
half a mile's breadth between it and me, I re.
turned again towards the ship, as hoping to find
something for my more immediate subsistence.
About noon when the sea was so calm that I
could comiu within a quarter of a mile of her, it
was to my grief I perceived, that if we had kept
on board, all our lives would have been saved.
These thotights, and my solitude, drew tearn from
my eyes, though all in vain. So resolving to
get to the ship. I stripped and leaped into the
water; when swimming round her, I was afraid
1 could not get any thing to lay hold of; but it
was my good fortune to espy a small piece of
rope hanging down so low, that, by the help of
it, though with great diliculty, I got into the ship,
Hero I found that the ship was bilged, and had
a great deal of water in her, her stern was lifted
up against a bank, and her head almost in the
water. All her quarter, and what was there,
were free and dry. The provisions 1 found in
good order, and losing no time, ate while I was
doing other things. 1 also found some rum, of
which 1 took a little; and now I wanted for no-
thing except a boat, which indeed was all, to
carry away what was needful for ine.
Necessity occasions a quickness of thought
We had several spare yards, a spare topmast or
two, and two or three large spars of wood. With
those I fell to work, and slung as many of them

overboard as I could manage, tying every one of
them with a rope that they might not drive away.
This done, I went down the ship's side and tied
four of them fast together at both ends, in form
of a raft, and laying two or throe short pieces of
plank upon them cross-ways, I found it would
bear me but not any considerable weight. Upon
which I went to work again, cutting a spar* top6
mast into three lengths, adding them to my raft
with a great deal of labor and pains, I then,
first laying upon it all the planks and boards I
could get, next lowered down three of the sea.
men's chests after I had filled them with bread,
rice, three Dutch cheese, five pieces of dried
goat's flesh, and some lEuropean corn, what lit*
tie the rats had spared; and for liquors, I found
several cases of bottles, in which were some oor.
dial waters, and four or five gallons of arraok.
By this time the tide beginning to flow, I per.
ceived my coat, waiscoat and shirt swim away
which I had left on shore; as for my linen
breeches and stockings, I swam with them to
the ship; but 1 soon found clothes enough
though I took no more than I wanted for the
present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to work
with, and after a long search, I found out the
carpenter's chest, which I got safe down on my
raft. I then looked for arms and ammunition and
in the great cabin found two good fowling pieces,
two pistols, several powder horns filed, a small
bag of shot, and two rusty swords I likewise
found throo barrels of powder, two of which
were good, but the third had taken water, also
two or three broken oars, two saws, an axe, and
a hammer. I then put to sea, and in getting to
shore had three encouragements. 1. A smooth
calm sea: 2. The tide rising and setting in tothb
shore: 3. The little wind there was, bloWing

towards land. After I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft driving a little distance from the
place where I first landed, and when I perceived
an opening of the land, with a strong current of
the tide running into it, upon which I kept the
middle of the stream. But great was my con-
cern, when on a sudden the forepart of my raft
ran aground. But after some time, the rising of
the water caused the raft to float again, and corn
ing up a little river, with land on both sides, I
landed in a little cove, as near the mouth as poes
sible, the better to discover a sail, if any such
providentially passed that way.
Not far off, I espied a hill of stupendous height,
surrounded with smaller hills about it, and thi-
ther I was resolved to go and view the country,
that I might see what part was best to fix my
habitation in. Accordingly, arming myself with
a pistol, a fowling-piece, powder, and ball, I
ascended the mountain. There I perceived I
was in an island, encompassed by the.sea, no
distant lands to be seen, but scattering rocks
that lay to the west; that it seemed to be a bar.
ren place, and as I thought only inhabited by
wild beasts. I perceived abundance of fowls,
but was ignorant of what kind, or whether goal
for nourishment. I shot one of them at my re-
turn, which occasioned a confused screaming
among the other birds; and I found it, by its
color and beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its
flesh was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft I brought my effects
on shore, which work spent that day entirely,
and fearing that some cruel beast might devour
me in the night time while I slept, I made a kind
of hut, or barricade, with the cheats and boards
I had brought on shore. That night I slept very
comfortably; and the next morning my thoughts

were employed to make a further attempt to tei
ship, and bring away what necessaries 1 could
ind, before another storm should break her in
pieces. Accordingly, I got on board as befdri
and prepared a second raft far better than thq
first; upon which I brought-away the carpenterie
stores, two or three bags of nails, a great jack*
screw, a dozen or tiro of hatchets, and a grind-
stone. I also took two or three iron crows, two
barrels of musket bullets, another fowlisg-pieceg
a small quantify of powder, and a:large bag fill
of small shot. Besides these, I took ~ll the men's
clothes I could find, a spare foretopwaik, a home
mock and some bedding; and thus completiaC
my second cargo, I made all the haste on shore I
could, fearing some wild beast might destroy
what I had there already. But I only found a
little wild cat sitting on one of the cheats, which
not seeming to fear te or the gun that I present
ed at her, I threw her a piece of biscuit, which
she instantly eat and departed.
When I had got these effects on shore, I went
to work, in order to make me a little tent with
the sail and some poles,.which I.had cut for the
purpose, and having finished it, what things might
be damaged by the weather, I brought in, pilig
all the empty chests and casks in a circle ,the
better to fortify it against any sudden attempt of
man or beast. After this I blocked the doors with
some boards, and an empty chest turned the
long way out. I then charged my gun and pistol
and laying my bed on the ground, slept as coa*
fortably till the next morning; as though I bad
been in a christian country.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me a long
time, yet despairing of a sudden deliverance,
and fearing that both ammunition and proisions
might be spent before such a thing happened, I

sved as much as I could; and so long as the ship
remained in that condition, I daily brought away
one necessary or other: particularly, the rigging,
sails, and cordage, some twine, a barrel of wet
powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal, three casks
of rum, and indeed what was most welcome to
me, a whole hogshead of bread.
The next time I went, I cut .the cables in
pieces, carried off a hawser whole, with a great
deal of iron work, and made another raft; but
this being so unwieldy, by the too heavy burden
upon it, and I not being able so dexterously to
guide it as the former, both my cargo and myself
were overturned. For my part all the damage
I sustained was a wet skin; and at low water,
after much labor in diving, I got up most of the
cables, and some pieces of iron. I'hirteen days
had I now been on the island, and eleven days
on board, bringing away all that was possible.
As I was going the twelfth time, the wind began
to rise; however I ventured at low water, aad
rummaging the cabin, in a locker, I found se4e-
ral razors, scissors, and some dozens of knives
and forks, and in another, thirty-six pounds in
pieces of eight, silver and gold. I wrapt the mo.
ney up in a piece of canvas, and began to think of
making another raft, but I soon perceived the
wind beginning to rise, a fresh gale blowing from
the shore, and the sky overcast with clouds and
darkness. So thinking a raft to be in vain, I let
myself into the water with what things I had
about me; and it was with great difficulty I got
ashore, when soon after it blew a fearful storm.
That night I slept very contentedly in my little
tent, surrounded with all my effects; but when I
looked out in the morning, no more ship was to
be seen. This much surprised me for the pre*
sent: yet when I considered that I had lost no

thie, abated no pains, and :had got every thing,
useful out of her, I comforted myself in the best
manner, and entirely submitted to divine Prwevii
dence. ..
My -next thoughts were," how I -houtd defend
and secure myself from savages and wild beasts,
if any such were in the island.
When I considered the ground where T'wai
that it was marshy, and had no fresh water near
it, my resolutions were to search for a soil hean
thy and well watered, where I might not onlIy be
sheltered from the son's scorching heat, but be
more conveniently situated, as well to be secure.
ed from wild men, and beasts of prey, as more*
easily to discover any distant sail, should it ever:
so happen.
And indeed it was n6t long before I had my:
desire. I fbund a little plain near a rising ill,l
the front toWirds which; being as steep as ai
houseside, nothing could 'descend on ame from
the topv '
On the side of this; rock Was a tittle hollow
place, resembling tvn entrance or door of a ove
Just before this place, on the circle of the green,
I resolved my tent should stand. This phli did'
not much exceed. a hundred yards bread, and!
about twioe as long; like a delightful green be*
fore my doors with a pleasing, though irregular
descent every way to theidw grounds by the sea
side, sheltered from t-e excessive heat, of the
son. After this, I drte a semicircle, twenty
yards Min diameter, driving dowh two vows of
strong stakes not six inches from each other.,
Then, with the pieces ef cable which I had out
on board, I regularly laid them in a circle be-a
tweei the piles, up to their tops, whioh Were more i
than five feet out of the earth, and. thed drove aun-.
other rvSl l, iles, looking within side aieste~

baum,between two or three feet high which made
me conclude it a little castle, impregnable b"
rmen abd beasts. And for my bettor security 1
would have no door, but entered in and come out
by the help of a ladder, which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which I
carried all my riches, ammunition and store.
After which, working on the rock, what with the
dirt and stones I dug out, I not only raised my
ground two feet, but made a little cellar to my
mansion-house; and this cost me many days Ia-
oor and pains. One day in particular, a show
ar of rain falling, thunder and lightning ensued
which put me in terror lest my powder should
take fire, and not only hinder my necessary sub-
sistence, by killing my food, but even blow up
me and my habitation. To prevent which I fell
to making boxes and bags, in order to separate
it, having by me near 150 lb. weight. And thus
being established king of the island, every day
I went out with my gun to see what I could kill
that was fit to eat. I soon perceived numbers of
goats, but very shy; yet having watched them
narrowly, and seeing I could better shoot off the
rocks than when in the low grounds, 1 happened
to shoot a she-goat suckling a young kid; which,
not thinking its dam slain, stood by her uncon-
cerned; and when I took the dead creature up,
the young one followed me even to the enclosure.
I lifted the kid over the pales, and would willing.
ly have kept it alive, but finding it could not be
brought to eat, I was forced to slay it also or my
Thus, entered into as strange a state as ever
any man was in, I had most melancholy appre-
bensions concerning my deplorable condition;
and many times the tears would plentifully run
down my face, when I considered how I wasade

bor'ed from all communication with humap kin4i
I et while these desponding cogitations wou,!y
seem to make me accuse Providence, other good
thoughts would interpose and reprove me after
this manner: "Well, supposipg you aro desqlate%
is it not better to be so, than totally perishl Why
should you complain, when not only your lifeia
preserved, but the ship driven into your reach,hi
order to take what was necessary out of her for
a subsistence?" But to proceed: it was, by the
account I kept, the thirtieth of September, when
I first landed on this island. About twelve days
after, fearing lest I should lose my reckoning of
time, nay even forget the sabbath days for want
of pen, ink, and paper, I carved with a knife up-
on a large post, in great letters, I came on shore,
Sep. 30, 1659, and set it up in the similitude of
a cross, on the sea shore where I landed. Every
day I cut a notch with my knife a the sides
of the square post, and that on theo sabbaAh was
as long again as the rest, and every first day of
the month as long again as that long one. In
this manner I kept my calendar weekly, month-
ly, or yearly reckoning of time. But had I
made a more strict search (as I did afterwards,)
I need not have set up this mark., For amoetI
the parcels belonging to the gunner, carpentert
and caplaip's mate, I found those very things I
wanted; particularly pens, ink, and paper; al-
so I found two or three compasses, qsome matbhe.
matical instruments, dials, persootive glasses,
books of navigation, ,three English Bibles, and
several other good bool(s, which I carefully put
up. Here I cannot, but call to mind, our having
a dog and two oats on board, whom I made Ina
habitats with ime in my oastle, Though oneo
might thini)j had all tse necessaries that were
desira'lo, yet still I found several thumsP wasting.

My ink was daily wasting: I wanted needles,
pins, and thread, to mend or keep my clothes to-
gether: and particularly a spade, pick-axe, or
shovel, to remove the earth. It was a year be.
fore I finished my little bulwark; and having
some intervals of relaxation, after my daily wan
during abroad for provision, I drew up this plan
alternately, as creditor and debtor, to remind me
of the miseries and the blessings of my life, undet
so many various circumstances:

I am cast upon a
desolate island, hav-
ing no prospect of a
welcome deliverance.
How miserable am I,
singled out from the
enjoyment or company
of all mankind.

Like a hermit (ra-
ther should I say a
lonely anchorite,) am
I forced from human
My clothes, after
some time will be worn
out, and then I shall
have none to cover

When my ammuni-
ton is wasted, then
hall I remain without
any defence against

But yet I am pre
served while my cor
panions have perished
In the raging sea.
Yet set apart to
be spared from death.
And he, who has so
preserved me can de-
liver me from this con-
However, I have
food to eat, and even
a happy prospect of
subsistence whilst life
At present I enjoy
what is absolutely
needful; and the cli-
mate is so hot, that
had I ever so many
I should hardly .wear
Yet even thus, I see
no danger of any to
hurt me, as in Africa;
and what if I bad beea


wild men and beasts.

I have no creature,
no soul to speak to;
none to beg assistance
from. Some comfort
would it be to resound
my woes where I am
understood, and beg
assistance where
might hope for relief.

cast away upon that
Is there not God to
conve se with, and is
not he able to deliver
thee? already has he af-
forded thee sustenance
and put it in thy power
to provide for thyasef,
till, he sends thee ade-

And now, easing my mind a little by these Mo-
oections, I began to render my life u easy as
I,must here add to the description I have
given of my habitation, that having raised a tuaf
wall against the outside of it, I thatched it to
close as might keep it from the inolemeacy of
the weather; I also unproved it within, enmlied
my cave, and made a passage and a door i the
rock, which came out beyond the plse.of y
fortification. I next proceeded to make chair
and table, and so began to study such meeha*nial
arts as seemed to me practicable. .Whelin
wanted a plank or board, I hewed down atree
with my hatchet, making it as thin with my as
as possible, and then smooth enough with an adxe,
to answer my designs; yet thoughI could make no
more this way than one board out of a tree, in
length of time I got boards enough to shelter all
my stores, every thing being regularly placed and
my guns securely hanging against the side of,a
rock. This made it a very pleasant aight to me,
being the result of vast labor and greatidiligencoe
which leaving tor a while, and me to the enjoy*
ment of, I shall give the reader an account of
some parts of my journal (rtm the day of :uV


landing, till the setting of my. habitation, -s
heretofore shown.

September 30th, 1659, 1, unhappy Robinson
trusoe, having suffered shipwreck, was driven
on this desolate island, which I named the
Desolate Island of Despair, the rest of wy oft-
panions being swallowed up in the tempestuous
ceean. The next day I spent in consideritiou
of my unhappy circumstances, having no prot-
pect but of death; either to he starved with hus-
ger, or devoured by wild beasts or merciless
Oct 1. That morning, with great comfort, I
'eheld the ship drove ashore. Some hopes 1
ld! that when the storm was abated I might be
able to get some food ard necessaries oat of
Jlerj which I conceived were not damaged, be-
cause the ship did stand upright. At this time,
I lamented the loss of my companions, and our
-misfortune in leaving the vessel. When I per-
ceived the ship, as it were, to lie dry, I waded
through the sands, then swam aboard, the wea-
ther being very rainy, and with scarcely any
To the 14th of this month, my time was em-
ployed in making voyages every tide, getting
what I could out of the ship. The weather very
wet and uncertain.
Oct. 25. My raft, and all the goods thereoa
.were overset; yet I recovered most again at low
Oct. 26. It blew hard, and rained nip'ht and
day, when the ship went in pieces, so that nothing



was seen of her but the wreck at low water.
This day I secured my goods from the incste
mency of the weather.
Oct. 26. I wandered to see where I could
find a place convenient for my abode: I fixed
upon a rock in the evening, marked out a half
moon, intending to erect a wall fortifed with
piles, lined within with pieces of oableos ad
covered with turf.
M.N.' 3. I shot two wild-fowls, resembiag
ducks, which were good to eat, and in the fter-
noon ma&e me a table.
.Nov. 4. I began to live regularly. la t*e
morning I allowed myself two or thr6e beuis to
walk out with my gun; I then worked till near
eleven o'clock; and afterwards refreshed myself
with what I had to eat. From twelve to to,4I
would lie down to sleep. Extreiet satry
weather. In the evening go to work agokin
.Nov. 5 Went out with my gun and dogthot
a wild cat with a soft skin, but her.flsh was good
for nothing. The skins of those killed I pre-
served. On my return I perceived-hany wild
birds, and was terrified by some seals which
made offto sea.
.N'ov. 6. Completed my table.
Aov,. 7. Fair weather. I worked to the t1th,
but omitted the 11th, which according to amy
calculation, I supposed to be Sunday.
.Nov. 17. I began to dig in the rook, yet was
obliged to desist for want of a pick-axe, shovel
and wheel-barrow. Iron crows I used to supply
the place of the first, but with all my art I dould
not make a wheel-barrow. '
.Nov. 19. It was my fortune to ied a tree re*
sembling what the Bra2ilians call an irootree
I had like to spoil my axe with cutting it, it
being very hard, and exceedingly heavy; yet


with much labor and industry I made a sort of
spade out of it.
.Nov. 23. These tools being made, I daily
carried on my business; eighteen days I allowed
for enlarging my cave, that it might serve me,
not only for a ware-house, but kitchen, parlour
and cellar. I commonly lay in the tent, unless
the weather was so rainy that I could not lie dry.
So wet would it be at certain seasons, that I
was obliged to cover all within the pale with long
poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the
rock, and load them with flags and large leaves
of trees resembling a thatch.
Dec. 10. No sooner did I think my habitation
finished, but suddenly a great deal of the top
broke in, so that it was a mercy I was not buried
in the ruins. Tlhif occasioned a great deal of
pains and trouble to me before I could make it
firm and durable.
Dec. 17. I nailed up some shelves and drove
nails and staples in the wall and posts, to hang
every thing out of the way.
Dec. 20. Every thing I got into its place,
then made a sort of dresser, and another table.
Dec. 27. I chanced to light on some goats,
shot one, wounded another; I led it home in a
string, bound up its leg, and cured it in a little
time; at length it became so tame and familiar
as to feed before the door, and follow me where
I pleased. This put me, in mind to bring up
tame creatures, in order to supply mo with food
after my ammunition was spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. The weather being exces-
sively hot, with little air, obliged me for the
most part to keep within doors.
Jan. 3, to 14. My employment this time
was to finish the wall before described, and
search the island. I discovered a kind of pi-

geons, like our house-pigeons, in a nest among
the rocks. I brought them home, nursed them
till they could fly, and then they left me. Af-
ter this, I shot some, which proved excellent
food. Some time I spent vainly contriving to'
make a cask: I may well say it was in vaia, be-
cause I could neither joint the staves, ibr fix
the heads, so as to make it tight; so' having
that, I took some goat's tallow I had by me,
and a little oakum for the wick, and provided
myself with a lamp, which served idU eid 'of
But now a very strange event happened: For
being in the height of my search, what should
come into my hand, but a bag which was usdd
to hold corn (as I supposed,) for the fowls; so
immediately resolving to put gunpowder into it
shook all the husks and dirt, upon one side of
rock, little expecting what the consequence
would be. The rain had fallen plentifully a
few days before; and about a month after, to
my great amazement, something begin to look
out very green and nourishing; and' when I
came to view it more nicely, every day as it
grew, I found about ten or twelve earg of green
barley of the very same shape and make as that
in England.
I can scarcely express the agitation 'f my
mind at this sight. Hitherto I had lobked
upon the actions of this life no otherwise than
only as the events of blind chance and fortune.
But now, the appearance of this barley, Nour-
ishing in a barren' soil, and my ignorance in
not conceiving how it should come there, made
me conclude, "that miracles were Iot yet ce*s-
ed;" nay, I even thought that God had appoint-
ed it to grow there without seed, 'purely for
my sustenance in this miserable and desolate

island. And indeed such great effect had this
upon me, that it often made me melt into tears
through a grateful sense of God's mercies; and
the greater still was my thankfulness, when I
perceived about this little field of barley, some
rice stalks, also wonderfully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded
there must be some more corn in the island;
and therefore made a diligent search, narrowly
among the rocks; but not being able to find
any, on a sudden it came into my mind, how I
had shaken the husks of corn out of the bag
and then my admiration ceased, with my grati-
tude to the Divine Being, as thinking it was but
natural, and not to be conceived a miracle,
though even the manner of its preservation
might have made me own it as a wonderful
event of God's kind providence.
It was about the latter end of June when the
ears of the corn ripened, which I laid up very
carefully, together with 20 or 30 stalks of rice;
epexecting one day I should reap the fruit of
my labor; yet four years were expired before
I could allow myself to eat any barley bread,
and much longer time before I had any rice.
After this, with indefatigable pains and indus-
try for three or four months, at last I finished
my house on the 14th of April, having no way
to go into it, but by a ladder against the wall.
April 16. I finished my ladder, and ascended,
it; afterwards pulled it up, then let it down on
the other side, and descended into my new ha-
bitation, where I had space enough, and so for-
tified, that nothing could attack me without
scaling the walls.
.But what does all human art and industry.
avail, if the blessing of God does not crown
our labors? Or who can stand before the Al-

tnrghty, when lie stretcheth forth his arm? Fxr,
one time as I was at the entrance of my cave,
there happened such a dreadful earthquake,
that not only the roof of the cave came tumbling.
about my ears, but the posts seemed to crack
terribly at the same time. This puat nmein a
great amazement; and running to the ladder
and getting over the wall, I then plainly knew
it was an earthquake, the place I stood on sus.
training three terrible shocks in legs than three
minutes. But judge of my terror-when I saw
the top of a great rock roll into the sea; I then
expected the island would be swallowed up
every moment: and what made the scene still
more dreadful, was to see, the sea thrown into
the most violent agitations and disorders by this
tremendous accident.
For my part, I expected every moment to be
swallowed up. At the moving of the earth, I
was, as it were, sea-sick; and very much afraid
lest the rock, under which'was my fence and
habitation, should overwhelm me and it in a
lasting tomb.
It was not long after, when a. horrible tem-
pest arose at the same time attended with a
hurricane of wind, Three hours did this storm
continue, and in so violent a manner as to teat
the very trees up by the roots, which was suc.
cedededby abundance of rain. When *the temn*
pest was over, 1. went to my teat; but the rain
coming on in a furious manner, I'was obliged
to take shelter in the cave, where I was forced
to cut a channel through my fortificationt to
let the water out. It continued raining all that
night, and some time the next day. These ac,
clients made me resolve,l as soon as the wea-
ther cleared up, to build me a little hut in some
open place, walled round,I to. defend me fruo

wild creatures and savages; not doubting, but
at the next earthquake, the mountain would
fall on my habitation and me, and swallow up
all in its bowels.
April 16-20. These days I spent in con-
triving how and in what manner I should fix
my place of abode. All this while, I was un-
der the most dreadful apprehensions. When
I looked round my habitation, every thing I
found in its proper place. I had several de-
bates whether 1 should move or not; but at
length resolved to stay where I was, till I
found out a convenient place where I might
pitch my tent.
April 22. When I began to put my resolu-
tions in practice, I was stopped for want of
tools and instruments to work with. Most of
my axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned
by cutting the hard timber that grew on the
island. It took me a full week to make my
grindstone of use to me; and at last I found
out a way to turn it about with my foot, by help
of a wheel and a string.
April 30. My bread falling short, I allowed
myself but one biscuit a day.
.May 1. As I walked along the sea-shore
I found a barrel of gunpowder, and several
pieces of the wreck which the sea had flung up.
Having secured these, I made to the ship, whose
stern was torn off, and washed a great distance
ashore; but the rest lay in the sands. This, I
suppose, was occasioned by the earthquake. I
now resolved to keep my old place of abode!
and also to get to the ship that day, but found
it impossible.
May 3. This day I went on board, and with
my saw sawed ofl one of the beams, which kept
her quarter-deck. I then cleared the sand till

blood. I caught some fish, but they were hot
wholesome. The same day, I also caught a
young dolphin.
May 5. This day also I repaired to the
wreck, and sawed another piece of timber,
and when the flood dame, I made a float of
three great planks, which were driven ashore
by the tide.
May 6-9. These days, I brought off the
iron bolts, opened the deck with the iron crow,
and carried two planks to land, having made
way into the very middle of the wreck.
.May 10-13. All this time I spent in bring
ing off great quantities of irotn and timrrber.
May 15. Took with me two hatchets 'on
purpose to cut off some lead from the roll put
all in vain, for it lay too low under water.
JMay 24. To this day, I worked on thb
wreck, and with great difficulty loosened some
things so much with the crow, that at the'firbt
blowing tide, several casks floated out, and se-
veral of the seamen's chests; yet that day no-
thing came to land but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead which had some pork in it. I con-
tinued working to the 15th of June; (except
necessary times for food and rest,) and had I
known how to build a boat, I had timber aid
planks enough; I had also near 100 weight ot
sheet lead.
June 16. As I was wandering towards tho
sea-side, I found a large tortoise or turtle, be.
ing the first I had seen on the island, tho',gl
as I afterwards found, there were many on the
other side of it.
June 17. This-day I spent in cooking it,
found in her threesdore egs, and he flesh tbo
most savory and pleasant I eve tasted in m:

June 18. I staid within this day, there be
ing a contintil rain; and it was somewhat
more chilly and cold than iisiual.
June 19. Exceedingly ill, taken with a
trembling and shivering.
June 'o. Awake all night, ny head racked
with pain, and feverish.
June '21. Sick unto death, and terrified
with dismal apprehensions of imy condition.
Prayed to God more frequently, but very con-
June 22. Something better, but still uneasy
in my mind.
June 23. Agaiu relapsed much as before.
June 24. Mended a secud time.
June '25. A violent ague for seven hours,
cold and hot fits, succeeded with faint sweats.
June '6. Better, but very weak; yet I scram
bled out, shot a she goat, brought it home, and
broiled some of it. I would willingly have stew-
ed it and made some broth, but had no pot.
June '27. All this day I was atllicted with an
ague; thirsty, yet could, nut help myself to
water: prayed to God in these words: *' Lord,
in pity look upon me! Lord, have mercy upon
Ame-have mercy upon me!" After this I fell
asleep, which, when I awaked, 1 found had
inuch refreshed me.
I rose up, in a pensive manner, being so
thoughtful that I could not go to sleep: and
fearing the dreadful return of my distemper, it
caused me to remember that the Brazilians use
tobacco for almost all diseases. I then went
to my chest, in order to find some, where hcawea
no doubt, directed ye; to find a cure, both for
soul and body; for there I found one of the
bibles, which, till this tiWn, I had neither lei-
sure nor inclination to look into: I took botu

the tobacco and that out of my chest, and lail,
them on the table. Several ,eperimets did I,
try with, the tobacco. Flirpt, I ,took a piece of
leaf and chewed it; but it being very gre and.
strqqg,,alnost stupified me; next, stteepqd .it
in .some rum an hour or two, resolving when 1.
went to bed to take a dose of it; ad, in, the,
third place, I burnt some over a pan of f6ie,
holding my nose over it so 19ng as I could eai
dure it without suffocation.
In the intervals of this operation, though U)t
head was giddy and disturbed by the tobacco, I
took up the bible tOfread. No sooner didj, open,,
but tlere appeared to me these wo'ds, "Call
on me in the day of trouble and I will deliver
thee, apd thou shalt glorify:me."
At first, this sentence made a very deqp .imr,
pression ,n my heawt:, butt soon wore off agaip
when I considered the word ** del4vr"k'was
foreign to me. And as the children ,of :IJsrae
said, when they were promised flesh to eat, "Can,
God spread a table in the wilderness!" ,i like;
manner I began to say, Can (od himselfdeliyver
me from this desolate island! However, the
words would still return to my mind, ad after.
wards made a greater impression upon me. As
it now was very late,.and the tobacco had 4.qze4
my head, I was inclined to sleep; but bhefpr I
would lie down, I fell on my knees, and implored
the promise that God had made to me in Ae hbply
Scriptures, that, if I called on him in the d)ay
of trouble, he would deliver me."
With much difficulty ] afterwards dr4nk fle
rum, wherein I had steeped' the tobacco, wbiqh,
flying into my head, threw me into, such.a pro
found sleep, that it was tree o'clock ,t nex;
day before I awoke, or rather I believe, I le.t
'. {**. .!

two days, having certainly lost a day in my ac-
count, and I could never tell any other way.
When I got tip, my spirits were lively and
cheerful; my stomach much better, being very
hungry; and, in short no fit returned the next
day, which was the 29th, but I found myself
much altered for the better.
July 3. The fit quite left me, but very weak.
In this condition, I often thought of these words,
"I will deliver thee;" and while at sometimes
I would think of the impossibility of it, other
thoughts would reprehend mr, for disregarding
the deliverances I had received even from the
most forlorn and distressed condition. I asked
myself, what regard have I had to God for his
abundant mercies? Have I done my part? "He
has delivered me, but I have not glorified him;"
as if I had said I had not owned and been
thankful for these as deliverances, and how
could I expect greater? So much did this sen-
sibly touch my heart, that I gave God thanks
for my recovery from my sickness in the most
humble posture.
July 4. This morning I began seriously to
ponder dn what is written in the New Testa-
ment, resolving to read a chapter every morn-
ing and night, as long as my thoughts would en-
gage me.
As soon as I set about this work seriously, I
found my heart deeply affected with the impiety
of my past life. After this, I begged of God to
assist me with ris Holy Spirit in returning to my
duty. One day, in perusing the Scriptures; I
came to these words, "He is exalted a Prince
and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give
remission:" Immediately I laid down the book,
and, with uplifted hands to heaven, loudly cried,
0 blessed Jesus, thou son of David! Jesus, thou

exalted Prince and Saviour, give me repen-
tance;" And now, indeed, I prayed with a true
sense of my condition, and a more certain hope,
founded on the word of God. Now I had a dif-
ferent sense of these words, "Call on me, and I
will deliver thee"-that is, from the dreadful
load of guilt, which oppressed my sinful soul-
and not from a solitary life. In a word, I came
to this conclusion, that a deliverance from sin
was a much greater blessing than a deliverance
from affliction.
To the 14th of July I walked about with my
gun, little and little at a time, having been re-
duced to the greatest extremity of weakness.
The applications and experiments I used were
perfectly new: neither could I recommend them
to any one's practice. For though they carried
off the fit, they weakened me very much; and I
had frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs
for some time. From hence I learned, that go.
ing abroad in rainy weather, especially when
at was attended with storms and hurricanes of
wind was most pernicious to health. I had now
been above ten months in the island; and as dur-
ing that time I had seen none of human kind, I
accounted myself sole monarch; and as I grew
better, having secured my habitation to my
mind, I resolved to make a tour of my kingdom,
in order to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey. I first
went to the creek, where I had brought my rafts
on shore; and travelling farther, found the tide
went no higher than two miles up, where there
was a little brook of running water, on the bank
of which were many pleasant savannahs, or mea-
dows, smooth, plain and covered with grass. On
the rising parts, where I supposed the water did
not reach, I perceived a great deal of tobaooo

growing to a very strong stalk. Several other
plants 1 likewise found, the virtues of which I did
not understand. I searched a long time for the
cassava root, which I knew the Indians in that
climate made their broad of; but all in vain.
There were several plants of aloes, though at
that time I knew not what they were: likewise
I saw several sugar canes, but imperfect for
want of cultivation. With these few discoveries
I came back that night, and slept contentedly in
miy little castle.
The next day, being the 16th, going the same
way, but farther than the day before, I found
the country more adorned with woods aid trees.
Hero I perceived ditlerent fruits in great abun-
dance. Melons in plenty lay on the ground, and
clusters of grapes, ripe and very rich, spread
over the trees. You may imagine 1 was glad of
this discovery, yet ate very sparingly, lost I
should throw myself into a t1nu or fever. The
grapes I found of excellent use; for when I dried
them in the suin, which preserved them as dried
raisins are kept, they proved very wholesome
and nourishing, and served me in those seasons
when no grapes were to he had.
The night drawing on apace, I ascended up a
tree, and slept very colnfortab)ly, though it was
the first time I hadl slept out of my habitation
And when the morning came, I proceeded with
great please re on my way, travelling about four
miles, as I iman:;ined, by the length of the valley.
At the end of this valley I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the
west; there I find a spring of fresh water, pro-
ceedoing out of the side of the hill, with its chrys-
tal sttcams running directly east. And indeed
here my senses were charmed with the most
beautiful landscape nature could aflfrd; for the

country appeared so ftonrishing, green and de.
lightfil, that to me it seemed like a planted gar.
den. I then descended on the side of that deli-
cious vale, whei I found abundance of cocoa,
orange, lemon, and citron trees, but very ild
and barren at that time. As for the limes, they
were delightful and wholesome, the juice of
which I afterwards used to mix in water, which
made it very cool and refreshing. And now I
was resolved to carry home and lay up a storf
of grapes, limes, and lemons, 'against the ap-
proaching wet season. So laying them up in
separate parcels, and then taking a few of each
with me, I returned to my little castle, sftei
having spent three days in this journey. Before
I got home, the grapes were so bruised that they
were utterly spoiled; the limes indeed were
good, but of those I could bring only a few. *
July 19. Having prepared two bags, I return
ed thither again; but to my great surprise found
all the grapes spread about, trod to pieces, aid
abundance eaten, which made me conclude
there were wild beasts thereabout. To pte'ent
this happening aain, I gathered a large quantity
of the grapes, and hung them on the out branch
of the tree, both to keep them unhurt, and that
they might cure and dry in the sun; and having
well loaded myself with limes and lemons; I re-
turned once more to my old place of residence.
And now, reflecting on the fruitfulness of this
valley, the pleasantness of its situation, its secu-
rity ifrom storms, and the delightfulness of tbb
adjacent woods, I concluded I was settled in
the worst part of the country, and therefore was
thinking to remove my habitation.
BHit when I considered again, that though it
was pleasant, it was off from the sea-side, where
there was a possibility, some time or other, a

ship might either be driven or sail by; and that
to enclose myself among hills and woods must
certainly put an end to my hopes of deliverance;
I resolved to let my castle remain where Provi-
dence had first placed it. Yet, so delighted was
I with this place, that I made me a little kind
of bower, surrounding it with a double hedge,
as high as I could reach, well staked and filled
with bulrushes: and having spent a great part
of the month of July, I think it was the first of
August before I began to enjoy my labor.
August 3. Perceiving my grapes to be dry, I
took them from the trees, and they proved excel-
lent good raisins of the sun: the most of which I
carried to my cave; and happy for me I did so,
by which I saved the best part of my winter
August 14. This day it began to rain; and
though I had made me a tent like the other, yet
having no shelter of a hill to keep me from
storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat to, I
was obliged to return to my old castle. The
rain continued more or less every day till the
middle of October; and sometimes so violently,
that I could not stir out of my cave for several
days. This season I found my family to increase,
for one of my cats that had run away from me,
and which I thought had been dead, returned
about August, with three kittens at her heels,
like herself. From these cats proceeded such
numbers, that I was forced to kill and destroy
them as I would do wild beasts or vermin.
To the 26th of this month, I could not stir out,
it raining incessantly: when, beginning to want
food, I was compelled to venture twice-the first
of which times I shot a goat, and afterwards
found a very large tortoise. The manner of regu-
lating my food was thus: a bunch of raisins ~r-

red me, for my breakfast; a piece of goat's flesh
or turtle boiled for my dinner, and two or three
turtle eggs for my supper. While the rain lasted, I
daily worked two or three hours at enlarging
my cave, and, by degrees, worked it on towards
one side of the hill, and made a door or way out,
which came beyond my fence or wall; and so I
came in and out this way. But after I had done
this, I was troubled to see myself thus exposed;
though I could not perceive any thing to fear, u
goat being the biggest creature I had seen upot
this island.
September 30. Casting up the notebes on rmy
poet, they amonated to 365, 1 concluded this to
be the anniversary of my landing; and therefore,
humbly prostrating myself on the ground, con
fessing my sias, acknowledging God's righteous
judgments upon me, and praying to Jesnu Christ
to have mercy upon me, I fasted for twelve
hours till the going down of the sue; and then
eating a biscuit and a bunch of grapes, laid ms
on a bed, and with great comfort took miy eighth
repose. Till this time, I seldom had distinguishi
ed the sabbath day; but now I made a longer
notch than ordinary for the days of rest, and dt-
vided the weeks as well as I could, though I
found I had lost a day or tw6 in my aceoint
My ink failing soon after, I omitted in my daily
memorandum things of an indifferent nature, and
contented myself to write down only the mobt
remarkable events of my life. The rainy and
dry seasons appeared now regu ar to me, and
experience taught me how to provide foe them,
yet in one thing I am going to relate, my eXpe-
rience very much failed me. You may call to
mind, what I have mentioned of some barley aad
rice which I had saved-about thirty stalks or
the former, and twenty of the latter; and, at

that time, the sun's being in its southern posi
tion, going from me, together with the rains,
made me conclude it a very proper season to
sow it. Accordingly I dug up a piece of ground
with my wooden spade, and dividing it into two
parts, sowed about two thirds of my seed, pre-
serviog by me a handful of each. And happy it
was I did so; for no rains falling, it was choked
Up, and never appeared above the earth till the
wet season came again, and then part of it grew
as if it had been newly sown.
I was resolved still to make another trial; and
seeking for a moister piece of ground near my
bower, i there sowed the rest of my seed in Feb.
ruary, which, by having the rainy months of
March and April to water it, yielded a nobin
crop, and sprung up very pleasantly. I had still
saved part of the seed, not daring to venture all,
and by the time I found out the proper seasons to
sow it in, and that I might expect every year
two seed-times and two harvests, my stock
amounted to above half a peck of each sort ot
No sooner were the rains over, but the stakes
which I had cut from the trees, shot out like wil-
lows, the first year after lopping their heads. I
was ignorant of the tree I cut them from; but
they grew so regularly beautiful, that they made
a most lively appearance, and so flourished in
three years time, that I resolved to cut more of
them; and these soon growing, made a glorious
fence, as afterwards I shall observe.
And now I perceived that the seasons of the
year might generally be divided, not into sum-
mer and winter, as in Europe, but into wet and
dry seasons, as in this manner:
From February 15, Rainy, sun coming near
To ( ~pril 15, the equinox, 2 months.

From April 15, Dry, sun getting narth
To ugust 16, fom the line,4 month.
From A.Agust 15, Wet, the sun beipg then
To October 15, come back 2 months.
From October 15, Dry, sun running mouth of
To February 15, the line 4 months.
The wet seasons would continue longer or
shorter, as the wind continued or ceased to blew
But having found the ill consequences of being
abroad in the rain, I took care beforebasd to
furnish myself with provisions: and, during the
wet months, sat within doors a much as possible.
At this time I contrived to make many:handy
things that I wanted, though it cost we much
labor and pains before I could accomplish them.
The first I tried was to make a basket; but all
the twigs I could get, proved so brittle, that I
could not then perform it. It now proved of
great use to me, that, when a boy, I took great
delight in standing at a baket-maker's, in the
same town where my father lived, to view his
men at work: like other boys, being curious to
see the manner of their working these things,
and very officious to assist. I perfectly learned
the method of it, and wanted nothing but the
tools. And it coming into my mind, that the
twigs of that tree of which I made my stakes,
might be as tough as a sallow, willow, or oiers,
growing in England, I resolved to make an ex*
periment, and went the next day to my country
seat, and found some fit for my turn; and after
cutting down a quantity with my hatchet# dried
them in my pale, and when fit to work with,car-
ried them to my cave, where I employed myself
in making several sorts of baskets, insomuch
that I could put in whatsoever s pleased. Itis
true, they were not cleverly nade, yet they sea
red my turn upon all occasions.

But still I wanted two necessary things. I had
-no cask to hold my liquor, except two almost full
of run, a few bottles of an ordinary site, and
some square case bottles;. neither had I a pot #6
boil any thing in, only a large kettle nndt to
make broth, or stew a bit of meat. I wanted
likewise, at the beginning of this dry season a
tobacco pipe; but for this I afterwards found an
Sept myself employed in planting my second
row of stakes. But remembering that when I
travelled up to the brook I had a mind to see
the whole island, I now resumed my intention-
and taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two biscuit
cakes, a great bunch of raisins, with a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual, I began
my journey. Having passed the vale where my
bower stood, I came within view of the sea lying
to the west; when, it being a clear day, I fairly
described land, extending from the west to the
southwest about ten or fifteen leagues, as I con-
eluded; but could not say whether it was an
island or a continent. Neither could I tell what
this place might be; only thought it was part of
America, and where I might have been in a mis-
erable condition had I landed. Again, I con-
sidered, that if this was the Spanish coast, cer-
tainly, one time or the other, I should see some
ships pass by; and if it was not, then it mnst be
tim savage coast, between the Spanish country
and Brazil, which abounds with cannibals or
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of
the island much more pleasant than wine; the
fields fragrant, adorned with sweet flowers and
verdant grass, together with several very fine
woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made -me long for one to be my companion; but

It was' with great difficulty I coul4 ,-kaqk o-n
down with my stick; and I kapt him at .inoo
some years, before I could get him tq oaU n kb
In the low grounds I found various sorts f
hares and foxes as I took them to be, but rpuch
different from those in England. 8eyrqra of
these I killed, but never ate them; .neither iR
deed bad I any occasion; for abounding with
goats, pigeons, turtle, and grapes, I equl4:defy
any market to furnish me a better,tWb(p., Ia
this journey I did not travel above two miks a
day, because I took several turns and wip4isp,
to see what discoveries I could make, retWriog
weary enough to the place, where I designed to
rest al night, which was either in a treeo or to q
place which I surrounded with :stakes, #hat a
wild creature might suddenly surprise me.
When I came to the sea-shore, I was amazq4
to see the splendor of it. Its strand was cover-
ed with shells of the most beautiful Ash, and
constantly abounding with innumervb*)e turtles,
and fowls of many kinds, which I was igporasa
of. except thbse called penguins. I spight hbav
shot as many as I pleased, but, wap qparing of
my ammunition, rather choosiog.,to ,kiiU a s
goat, which I did with much difficulty,,qa ccauwt
of the flatness.of the country.' ..
Now, though this -ourney prmde4d',e, poa,
pleasing satisfaction, yet my habitation, wys s,
much to my liking, that I did not P*pine at mpy
being seated on the wont part of the is0j I
continued my journey, travelling abopt .twelv#
miles further toward the eat, w 1i, I. "t a
great pile on, the shore for a mark,. oeocludai
that my nexct:jourpey should briar~pid to thp
other side of the island, east from nofsm4te, a p
so round till 1 cameto Amy post aigam .M, 4 J I

a constant view of the country, I thought I could
not miss my way; but scarce had I travelled
three miles, when I descended into a very large
valley, so surrounded with hills covered with
wood, that having no guide but the sun, and to
add to my misfortune, the weather proving very
hazy, I was obliged to return to my post by the
sea-side, and so backwards the same way I
came. In this journey my dog surprised a kid,
and would have killed it had I not prevented him.
As I had often been thinking of getting a kid
or two, and so raising a breed of tame goats to
supply me after my ammunition was spent, I took
this opportunity of beginning: and, having made
a collar for this little creature, with a string
made of rope-yarn, I brought it to my bower, and
there inclosed and left him; and having spent a
month in this journey, at length I returned to my
old habitation.
Nobody can doubt of my satisfaction, when I
returned to my little castle, and reposed myself
in my hammock. After my journey I rested
myself a week, which time I employed in making
a cage for my pretty poll. I now began to re-
collect the poor kid I had left in the bower, and
immediately went to fetch it home. When I
came there, I found the young creature almost
starved; I gave it some food, and tied it as
before; but there was no occasion, for it followed
me like a dog: and as I constantly fed it, be.
came so loving, gentle, and fond, that it com-
menced one of my domestics, and would never
leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox
being now come, I kept the 30th of September
in the most solemn manner, as usual, it being
the third year of my abode in the island. I spent
the whole day in acknowledging God's mercies,

in giving thanks for making this solitary life as
agreeable, and less sinful, than that of human
society; and for the communication of his grace
to my soul, in supporting, comforting, and en-
couraging me to depend upon his Providence, and
hope for his eternal presence in the world to
Indeed, I often did consider how much more
happy I was, in this state of life, than in that
accursed manner of living I formerly used;
sometimes, however, when hunting, or viewing
the country, the anguish of my soel would break
out upon me, and my very heart would sink
within me; to think of the woods, the mountain,
the deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner
locked up within the eternal bars and bolts of the
ocean, in an uninhabited wilderness, without
hope, and without redemption. In this condition
I would often wring my hands, and weep like a
child: and evbn sometimes in the middle of my
work, this fit would often take me; and then I
would sit down and sigh, looking on the ground
for an hour or two together, till such time as my
grief got vent in a flood' of tears.
One morning, as I wis fully employed in this
manner, I opened my Bible, when immediately I
fixed my eyes upon these words,-"I will never
lette thee, nor forsake theel" Surely, if God
does not forsake me, what matters it, since he
can make me more happy in this state of life,
than if I enjoyed the greatest splendor io the
world And wheneve- 1 opened or shut the
Bible, I blessed kind P--vidEnce, that directed
my good friend in Engan to send it among my
goods without my order, and for assistidgIme to
save it from the power of the tgiing ocean.
And now beginning my third year, my several
:daily employment were these: Fir4 my duty

to heaven, and diligently raadingi the Holy
Scriptures, which I did twice or thrice everyday;
Secondly, Seeking provisions with iny gun, which
commonly took me lip, when it did not rain, three
hours every morning; Thirdly. 'lThe ordering,
curing, preserving and cooking what I had killed,
or catched for my supply, which took nme up S
great part of the day; for in the middle of the
day, thi sun being in its height, it was so bot,
that I could not stir out; so that I had but
four hours in the evening to work in: and
then the want of tools, of assistance, and skill,
wasted a great deal of time to little purpeoe.
1 was no less than two and forty days, making a
board fit for a long shelf which two suwyors, with
their tools and saw-pit, would have cut out ot
the same tree in half a day. It wa% of a large
tree, as my board was to be broad. I was three
days in cutting it down, and two more in lopping
off the botughtl, and reducing it to a pitco of tim
her. Thus I hacked and hewed otrf acli side,
till it became light to move; then I turned it,
made one side of it smooth and flat as a board
from end to end, then turned it downward, cut-
ting the other side, till 1 brought the plank to be
about three inches thick, and smooth on both
sides. Any body may judge my great labor
and fatigue in such a piece of work; but thieb
went through with patience, as also many other
things, that my circumstances made neoessiry
for me to do.
The harvest months, November and Decem-
>er, were now at hand, in which I hal tie plea-
sing prospect of a very good crop. But here I
mot with a new misfortune; for the goats and
hares having tasted of the sweetness of the blade.
kept it so short that it had uo strength to shoot up
into a stalk. To prevent this I aiclo.td it with

a hedge, and by day shot some of its d.vourseni
and my ldo, which I bad tied to the field.Pte,
keeping barking all night, so frightened ttme
creatures that I got entirely rid of them.
Blit no soonr did I get rid of these, taan
other enemies appeared; to wit, whole Boolk
of several sorts of birds, who only waited til.my
back was turned, to ruin me, So much did this
provoke me, that I let fly, and killed threeof tihe
malefactors; and afterward served them as they
do notorious thieves in England, huag Utem up
in chains as a terror to other. And, indeed, so
good an effect had this, that they .ot oilyforsook
the corn, but all that part of the island, so long
as these criminals hung there.
My corn having ripened apace, thq latter end
of December, which was my second harvest, I
reaped it with a scythe, made of one of my
broad swords. I had no fatigue in cutting down
my first crop, it was so slender. The ears I
carried home in a basket, rubbing the grain out
with my hands, instead of threshing it; and,
when my harvest was over, found ny half peok o'
seed had produced nearly two bushels of rice,
and two bushels and a half of barley. And now
I plainly foresaw, that by God's goodness, I
should be furnished with bread: but. yet l. ma
concerned, because I knew not how to grind or
make meal of my corn, neither knew I how to
bake it into bread. I would not, however, taste
any of the crop, but resolved to preserve it
against uext season, and, in the mean while,use
my best endeavors to provide amylWf with other
SBut where were my labor to endl. the wmat
of a plough to turn up the earth, or hovel to4AA
it, I conquered by making me a wooden pa4.i,
Ahe waet of a harrow I appliedd, by dragaeg

-over the corn a great bough of a tree. When it
was growing, I was forced to tfnce' it; when
ripe, to nmow it, carry it home, thr from the chaff, and save it And, nfor all, I
wanted a mill to grind it, a sieve to dress it, yeast
and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it. This set my brains to work, to find
some expedient for every one of tlheso enoessa-
ries, against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was
to prepare e me more land. I pitched upon two
large flat pieces of ground, near my castle, for
that purpose, in which I sowed my seed, and
fenced it with a good hedge. This took me tip
three months: by which time, the wet season
coming on, and the rain keeping me within doors,
I found several occasions to employ myself;
and. while at work, uied to divert myself with
talking to my parrot, teaching him to know and
peak his own name PI'o, the first welcome word
I ever heard spoken in the island. I had been a
long time contriving how to make earthen ves
eels, which I wanted extremely; and when I
considered the heat of the climate, I did not
doubt but, if I could find such clay, I might
botch up a pot, strong enough, when dried in the
sun, to bear handling, and to hold any thing that
was dry, as corn, meal, and other things.
To he short, the clay I found; but it would
occasion the most serious person to smile, to see
what awkward ways I took, and what ugly mis
shapen things I made; how many either fell out
or cracked by the violent heat of the sun, and
fell in pieces when they were removed, so that I
think it was two months before I could perfect
any thing; and even then but two clumsy things
in imitation of earthen jars. ''heso, however, I
very gently placed in wicker baskets, made oa

purpose for them, and between the pot and the
htaskets, stuffed it full of rice and barley straw
and these I presumed would hold my dried corn,
and perhaps the meal, when the corn was bruised.
As for the smaller things, I made them with
hotter sIhcie; much as little round pots, lat
dishes, pitchers, and pipkins, the sun baking
them very hard.
Yet st;ll I wanted one thing absolutely neces-
sary, and that was an earthen pot, not only to
hold my liquid, but also to bear the fire which
none of these could do. It once happened that
as I was putting out my fire I found thorein a
broken piece of one of my vessels, burnt hard
as a rock, and red as a tile. 'This made me think
of burning some pots; and having no notion of
a kiln, or of glaring them with lead, I fxed
three large pipkins, and two or three pots in a
pile one upon another. The fire I piled round
the outside, and dry wood on the top, till I saw
the pots in the inside red hot, and found that they
did not crack at all: and when I perceived
thin perfectly red, 1 let them stand in the fire
about five or six hours, till the clay meltod by the
extremity of the heat, and would have run to
glass had I suffered it; upon which, I slacked
my fire by degrees, till the redness abated; and
watching them till the morning, I found I had
three very good pipkins, and two earthen pots,
as well burnt and fit for my turn as I could desire.
The first use to which I turned my pipkina
was to make some salt, which I had long want-
ed. For this purpose, I filled them with sea-
water, and kept it slowly boiling over the fire
till the whole of the water had boiled away in
steam, leaving, at the bottom of the vessel, a
thin crust of Watt, which 1 found very good for
givwan a relish tu my food

The next concern I had, was to got me a
stone-mortar to beat some corn in, instead of a
maill to grind it. Here, indeed, I was at a great
Joss, as not being fit fur a stone-cutter; and
many days I spent to find out a great stone big
enough to cut hollow and make tit for a mortar
and strong enough to boar the weight of a poes
tie, that would break the corn without filling
it with sand. Bit all the stones of the island
being of a mouldering nature, rendered my
search fruitless; and thon I resolved to look
out a great block of hard wood; which having
found, I formed it by my axe and hammer, and
then, with infinite labor, made a hollow in it,
just as the Indians of Brazil make their canoes.
When I had fianihed this 1 made a great pestle
of iron-wood, and laid thorn up against my
succeeding harvest.
My next business was to make me a sieve, tr
sift my meal and part it from the bran and husk
Having no fine thin canvass to search the meal
through, I could not tell what to do. What linen
I had was reduced to rags; I had goat's hair
enough, but neitlier tools to work it, nor did I
know how to spin it. At length I remembered
I had some neck-clolth of calico or musLin of
the sailors, which I had brought out of the ship,
and with these, I mado three small sieves proper
enough for the work.
I come now to consider the baking part.
The want of an oven I supplied, by making
some earthen pans very broad, but not deep.
When I had a mind to bake, I made a great fire
upon my hearth, the tiles of which 1 had made
myself, and when the wood was burnt into live
coals, I spread them over it, till it became very
hot; then sweeping them away. I set down my
loaves, and whelming down the earthen p9~

upon them, drew the ashes and coals all around
the outsides of the pots to continue the hest;
and in this manner I baked my barley loaves, as
well as if I had been a complete pastry oo0k,
and also made of the rice, several cakes aod
It is no wonder that all these things took mb
iup the best part of a year, since what iate-
mediate time I had, was bestowed managing
my new harvest and husbandry; for in the proper
season, I reaped my corn, carried home and
laid it up in the ear, in my large baskets, till I
had time to rub, instead of thrashing it. And
now indeed, my corn increased so niuch, that It
produced me twenty bushels of barley, and as
much of rice, that I not only began to ime it
freely, but was thinking how to enlarge my barnt,
and resolved to sow as much at a time as would
be suflcient for a whole year.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I
had seen on the other side of the island, ran in
my mind. I still meditated a deliverance from
this place, though the fear of greater misfortunbs
might have deterred me from it. For allowing
that I had attained that place, I ran the hazard
of being killed and eaten by the devouring canni-
bals; and if they were not so, yet I might be slain,
as other Enropeans had been, who fell into their
hands. Notwithstanding all this, my thoughts
ran continually upon that shore. I now wished
for the long boat with the shoulder oftmutton sail.
I went to the ship's boat, that had been cast a
great way on the shore in the late storm. She
was removed but a little; and her bottom beidg
turned up by the impetuosity and surge of the
waves and wind, I fell to work with all the
strength I had, and with levers and rotlers Ihad
cut from the wood, to turn her, aandrepair the

damages she had sustained. This work took me
up three or four wooks, when findingl my little
strength all in vain, I fell to undermning it by
digging away the sand, and a) to Itmake it fall
down, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide
it in the fall. lBit after thin was done, I was still
unable to stir it up, or to get under it, much loe
to move it forward towards the water, and so I
was forced to give it over.
Thi disappointment, however, did not frighten
me. I began to think, whether it was not possible
for me to mnake a canoo or PIrigi such as the
Indians make of the trunk of a tree. Hlnt here
I lay under particular inconvcniences; want o.
tools to mnake it, and want of hands to Imove it
into the water when it was made. IIowvver, to
work I went upoln it, stopping all their inquiries I
could snake with this very sinIplo answer I mnuad
to myself. let's first make it: I'll warrant I'll find
some way or other to get it along when it is done.
I first cut down a cedar troo which was five
feet ten inches diamontor at the lower part next
the stump, and four feet eleven inclnhes diameter
at the end of twenty-two foot, after which it
lessened for a space, and then parted into
branclhe. Twenty days was I hacking aud
hewiing it at the buottou, foliuteen moro in cutting
off the brasnc:lhen and limbn, and a wholu month
in shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As for
the inside, I was three weeks with a mallet and
chisel, clearing it in such a manner, as that it
was big enough to carry 26 ien, Inmluch bigger
than any canoe 1 ever saw in my life, and coneo-
quently sufficient to transport mn and all my
effects to that wished for shure I so ardently
Nothing remained now, but indeed the great-
est difficulty, to get it into the water, it lying

about 100 yards from it. To remedy the first io-
convenience, which was a rising hill between the
boat and tho crook, with wonderful pains and
labor I digK into the surface of the earth, and
made a declivity. But when this was done, all
the strength I had was insullicient to move it,
as it was when I first made the attempt. I then
proceeded to tmcasure the distance of ground,
resolving to make a canal, in order to bring the
water to the canoe, since I could not bring the
canoe to the water. But as this seemed to be
impracticable to m)self alone, under the space
of eleven or twelve years, it brought me into
some sort of counideratiou; so that I concluded
this also to be impossible, and the attempt vain.
1 now saw, and not before, what stupidity it is to
begin work l)efuro we reckon its costs, or judge
rightly our own abilities to go through with its
In the height of this work my fourth year ex
pired from the time I was cast on this island.
At thin time I did not forget my anniversary,
but kept it with rather greater devotion than
before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
looked upon this world as a thing I had nothing
to do with; and very well might 1 say, as father
Abraham said unto Dives, L Between me and
those there is a gulf fixed." And indeed I was
separated from its wickedness too, having nei-
ther the litt of the Ofesh, the lust of the eye, nor
the pride of life; I had nothing to covet, being
lord, king and emperor over the whole country
I had in possssion, without dispute and without
control: I had loadings of corn, plenty of turtle;
timber in abundance, and grapes above measure.
What was all the rest to me! the money I had
lay by me as despicable dnrss, which I would
freely have given for a gross of tobacco pipes or a

- knd.mvll to grind my corn in a word, thi
'nature and experience of these things dictated
to me this just reflection. That (he good things
of this world are no further good to us than as
they are for our use; and that whatever we may
heap up, we can but enjoy as much as we tse atid
no more.
These thoughts rendered my mind more eavy
than usual. Every time I sat down to meat, I dkl
eat with thankfulness, admiring the providential
hand of God, who, in this wiklerness had spread a
table to me. And now I considered what Ienjoy-
ed, rather than what I wanted; compared my pro-
sent condition with what I at first expected it
should be; how I should have done, if I had got no
thing out of the ship: that I must have perished
before I had caught fish or turtles; or lived had I
found them, like a mere savage, by eating their
raw, and pulling then to pieces with my claws,
like a beast. I next compared my station to
that which I deserved; how undutiful I had beef
to my parents; how destitute of the fear ef
God; how void of every thing that was good;
and how ungrateful for those abundant mercies I
had received from heaven, being fed, as it were
by a miracle, even as great as lH'lijali's being fed
by ravens; and east on a place where there are
no venomous creatures to poison or devour mb
in short, making God's tender mercies matter of
great consolation, I relinquished all sadness, and
gave way to contentment.
As long as my ink continued, which with wa-
ter I made last as long as I could, I used to mi
nute down the days of the month on which any
remarkable thing happened.
The next thing that wasted after ny ink, was
the biscuit, which I had brought out of the ship;
"ad though I allowed myself but one cake a day

for about a twelvemonth, yet I was quite out.t
bread for nearly a year, before I got any corn of
my own.
In the next place, my clothes began to de-
cay, and my linen had been gone long before.
However, I had preserved about three dozen of
the sailor's chequered shirts which proved great
refreshmient to me, when the violent beams fthe
sun would not sulfur me to bear any of the seaz
men's heavy watch-coats; which made me turn
tailor, and, after a minirable botching' manner
convert then to jackets. To preserve my head,
I made a cup of goatskins, with the hair out*
wards to keep out the rain; which indeed served
me so well, that afterward I made a waistcoat
and open-knued breeches of the same: and then
I contrived a sort of umbrella, covering it with
skins, which not only kept out the heat of the
sun, but the rain also. Thus being easy and
settled in my mind, my chief happiness was to
converse witii (God, in most heavenly and conm
portable ejaculations.
For five years after this, I cannot say any exi
traordinary thing occurred to me. My chiet
employrnoit was to cure my raisins, and plant
my barley anti rio, of both which I had a year'e
provision beforr-hand. lint though I was disi
appointed in my first canoe, I made it at inter.
mediate times, my business to make a second of
much inferior size: and it was two years before
I had finished it. But as I perceived it would
in nowise answer my design of sailing to the
other shore, my thoughts were confined to takcrt
tour round the island, to see what further dis,
coverios I could make. To this intent, after
having moved her to the water, and tried how
she would sail, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail of'the ship's sails that lay

by me. I then made lockers or boxes at the
end of it to put in necessaries, provision and
ammunition, which would preserve them dry
either from the rain, or the spray of the sea; and
in the inside of the boat, I cut me a long hollow
place to lay my gun, and to keep it dry, made a
cover for it. My umbrella, I fixed in a step in
the stern, like a mast, to keep the heat of the
sun off me. And now resolving to see the
circumference of my little kingdom, I victualled
my ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of
my barley bread loac~,. an earthen pot full of
parched rice, a little bottle of rum, half a goat,
powder and shot, and two, watch-coats. It was
the sixth of Novemn u'r, in the sixth year of my
reign, or captivity, that 1 set out on this voyage;
which was much lnigerr ttan I expected, being
obliged to put far;tlir out, by reason of the rocks
that lay a great ivway in the sea.
And indeed, so much did these rocks surprise
me, that I was for piiting back, fearing that if I
ventured farther, it wuouli be out of my power
to return: in this iucertainty I came to anchor
just off the shore, to wlicch I waded with my gun
on my shoulder, and then climbing up a hill,
which over-looked ti:at 1p.int, I saw the full ex-
tent of it, and so resolved to run all hazards.
In this prospect from the hill, I perceived a
violent current running to the east, coming very
close to the point; which I the more carefully
observed, thinking it dangerous, and that when I
came to it, I might be driven into the sea by its
force, and not able to return to the island: and
certainly it must have been so, had I not made
this observation; for on the other side was a
like current, with this dilfirence, that it set off at
a greater distance; and I perceived there was a
strong eddy under the' laud; so that my chief

business was to work out of the first current,
and conveniently get into the eddy. Two days I
staid here, the wind blowing very briskly east-
southeast, which being contrary to the current,
leaves a great breach of the sea upon the point;
so it was neither fit for me to keep too near the
shore, on account of the breach; nor stand at
too great distance for fear of the streams. That
night the wind abating, it grew so calm, that I
ventured out: and here I may be a monument to
all rash and ignorant pilots; fAr I was no sooner
Come to the point, and not above the boat's
length from shore, but I was got into deep
water, with a current like a mill-race, which
drove my boat along so violently, that it was im-
possible for me to keep.near the edge of it, for it
forced me more and more out from the eddy to
the left of me, and all I could do with my paddles
was useless, there being no wind to help me.
Now I began to look upon myself as quite
lost, since, as the current ran on both sides of
the island, I was very certain they must join
again, and then I had no hopes but of perishing
for want, in the sea, after what provision I had
was spent, or before, if a storm should happen to
Who can conceive the present anguish of om
mind at this calamity? with longing eyes did I
look upon my little kingdom, and thought the
island the pleasantest place in the universe. Hap.
py, thrice happy desert, said I, shall I never see
thee more! Wretched creature! wither am I
going? Why did I murmur at my lonesome
condition, when now I would give the whole
wide world to be thither again! While I was
thus complaining, I found myself to be driven
about two leagues into the sea; however, I la.
bored till my strength was far spent, to keep my

boat as far north as I pot sihly could, to that side
of the c rrent whero Ihe eddy lly. About noon
I perceived a little breue.e of wind, spring np
from the *outhlinoiollt-atrSt, which overjoyed my
heart; and I was till moro eluted, when in about
half an hour, it blew a gentllo fine nglo. Iad any
thick weatlhtr sipriii up, I had bton lost another
way: for having g no compais on board, I should
never have lfo.iid the way to teoer towards the
island if once it had disappeared; ilut it provingK
the contrary, I st upi I my imut again, spread my
sail und stood awa;y north ward, as nlluch as I could
to get rid of the current. An d no sooner did the
boat begin to st tretch aW ay, bht I perceived by the
clearness of the w Iter, a clhangfo of the (icrrent was
near; fur, where it wau Nitronir the water wits foul,
and where it was clear the c(lrrent abatod.
'Those who have been in the likeo calamitti
with liy owvn, imay itess rny prlentl excess of
joy, how heartily I ran ily boat in the, streami of
this eddy, and hiowV jioyl'lly I spread Iy sail to
the refreshing wv ind, t and tin IcheerrIfully before it
with a snmart tide uintder l)ot. Iiy the assistance
of this eddy, I wa' carried above a lo.ngue home
again, when, being in Ithe wake of the island, be.
twixt the two culrrents, I fiuld tho water to be
in a sort of a stand. A liit four o'clock in the
afternoon, I reached within a leaPtei of the island
and perceived tihe points of the rock, which cause.
ed this disaster, stretching out, as I observtd be.
fore, to the southward, which throwing off the
current more southerly, hau oc:'a:rioned another
eddy to the north. Bit having a fair brisk gale,
I stretched across this eddy, and in an hour came
within a mile of the shore, where I )soon landed to
my unspeakable cor ftiri; and after an humble
prostration, thanking (;od for my deliverance,
with a resulutiouu to lay all thoughts of escaping

aside, I brought my boat safe to a little core, and
laid me down to take a welcome repose. When
I awoke, I was considering how I might get my
boat home; and coasting along the shore 1 came
to a good hay, which ran up to a rivulet or brook,
where, finding a harbor, I stowed her as safe as
if hie had been in a dry dock, made on purpose
fur her.
I now perceived myself not far from the place
where before I had travelled on foot: so taking
nothing with mre, except ny giun and umbrella,I
bieganll iay journey, and in the evening came to
my bower, where I aguin laid me down to rest.
I had not slept long before I awakened in great
surprise, by u strange voice that called me seve
ral times, "Robini, Robin, lobhinsoo Crusoe,
poor Robin! Where ire you, Robinson Crusoet
Where are youth! Where have you been"
tMo fast was I aRleep, that at first I did not
awake thloroutghly: but half asleep, and half
awake, I thought I dreamed that somebody spoke
to me. But as the voice repeated, "Robinsoa
Crutsoe," several times, being terribly frighten*
ad, I started up in the utmost confusion; and no
sooner were my eyes fully open, but I beheld my
pretty poll sitting on the top of the hedge, and
soon knew that it was ,he that called me; for
just in iuch bewailing language, I used to talk
and teach him; which he so exactly learned, that
he would sit upon my finger, and lay his bill close
to my face, and cry, "poor Robinson Crusoe,
where are you! where have you been how came
yot here!" and such like prattle I had constant.
tly taught him. But even though I know it to
be the parrot, it was a great time before I could
adjust myscif: being amazed how the creature
got thither, and that he should fix about that
place and no where alse. But now being astu~t

ed it could be no other than my honest "Poll,"
my wonder ceased, and reaching out my hand,
and calling "Poll," the creature came to me fa-
miliarly, and perched upon my thumb, as he was
wont, constantly prating to me with "poor Ro-
binson Crusoe, and how did 1 come hero, and
where had 1 been!" as if the bird was overjoyed
to see me, and so I took him home along with
me. I was now pretty well cured of rambling
to sea; yet I could wish my boat, which had cost
me so much trouble and pains, on this side the
island once more, but this, indeed was impracti-
cable. I therefore began to lead a very retired
life, living nearly a twelvemouth in a very con-
tented manner, wanting for nothing but conver-
sation. As to mechanic labors, which my
necessities obliged me to, I fancied I could, upon
occasion, make a tolerable carpenter, worm the
poor tools I had to work withal, but good. Be-
sides, as I improved in my earthenware, I con-
trived to make them with a wheel, which I found
much easier and better, making my work shape.
ly, which before was rude and ugly. But, I
think I never was so much elevated with my own
performance or project as when able to make a
tobacco-pipe, which, though it proved an awk-
ward clumsy thing, yet it was very sound, and
carried the smoke perfectly well, to my great
I also improved my wicker ware, made me
abundance of necessary baskets, which, though
not very handsome, were very handy and conve-
nient to fetch things home in, as also for holding
my stores, barley, rice, and other provisions.
My powder beginning to fail, made me ext-
mine after what manner I should kill the goats or
birds to livp on, alter it was all gone. Upon
which I contrived many ways to ensnare the

goats aud see if I could catch them alive, partly,
cularly a she-goat with youug.
At last I had my desire; for, making pit-falls
and traps, baited with barley and rice, 1 found,
one morning, in one of them. an old he goat, and
in tih other, throu kids, one male, and two.fe-
So boisterous was the old one, that I could
not bring him away. But I forgot the old pro-
verb, "1 lhat hunger will tanie a lion-' for, had I
kept him three or four days without provisions,
and then give him usueRo water with a little corn,
he would have been as tame as a young kid.
The other creatures I bound with strings toge.
other; lbut I had great diflculty, before I could.
bring them to my habitation. It was some time
before they would feed; but, throwing them
sweet corn, it so much tempted then, that they
began to be tamer. From hence I concluded,
that if I designed to furnish myself with goat's
flesh, when my aminmunition was spent, the time-.
ly brooding them up, like a flock of sheep about.
inm settlement, was the only method I oould take.
I concluded also that I must separate the wild
from the tame, or else they would alwaywrun wild
as they grew up; and the best way for this, was
to have smne enclosed piece of ground, well
fenced, either with a Ihedge or pale, to keep tbhn
so effectually, that those within might not.break
out, nor those without break in. 8ch.aaunder-
taking was very great for one pair of.hands, but,
as there was an absolute necessity for doing it,
my first care was to find a convenient piece.et
ground, where there was likely to be. a herbage
fur them to eat, water to drink, and cover to
keep them from the sun. I
Here again. I gave another instance of sry .igV
norance and iuexperieuce, pitching upon a piee,

of meadow land so large, that had T enclosed it.
the hedge or pale must have been at least two
miles about. This th.:,iuglt came into my head,
after I had carried it on, I believe, about fifty
yards: I therefore altered my scheme, and re-
solved to enclose a piece of groinid about 150
yards in length, and 10(? in breadth, large enough
for as many as woutil maintain me, till stuh time
as my flock increased, and then I could add more
ground. I uow vigorously prosectlted my work,
and it took nme about three rn ,ntlis in hedging
the first piece; in which Iimre I tethered the three
kids in the best part of it, feeding them as near
me as possible. to make them familiar: at.d, in-
deed, I very often would carry some ears f har-
ley, or a handful of rice, and feed them )ln t of
my hand; by which they Frew so tame, tha' when
my enclosure was finished, and I had leI them
loose, they would run after me for a hanrfiul of
corn. This indeed answered my end: and in a
year and a half's time, I had a flock of about
twelve goats, kids and all; and in two years af-
ter, they amounted to forty-three, besides what I
had taken and killed for my slstenance.
After which. 1 enclosed five several pieces of
ground to feed them in, with pens to diive them
into, that I might take them as I thad occasion.
In this project I likewise found additional
blessings; for I not only had plenty of goat's
flesh, but milk too, which in the beginning, I did
not so much as think of. And, indeed, though I
had never milked a cow, much less a goat, or
seen butter or cheese made, yet, after some
essays and miscarriages, I made me both, and
never afterward wanted.
How mercifully can the Almighty comfort his
creatures, even in the midst of their greatest
calamities! How can he sweeten .the bittercst

evils, and give us reason to magnify him idi
dungeoon and prisons; what a bounteous table
was here spread in the wilderness for me, where
I expected nothing at first, but to perish fur
Certainly any one would have smiled to see
me at dinner. There sat my royal majesty, an
absolute prince and ruler of my kingdom, at-
tended by my dutiful subjects, whom if I pleased,
I could either hang, draw, (quarter, give them
liberty, or take it away. When I dined, I seem-
ed a king, eating alone, none daring to presume
to do so till I had done. Poll, as if he had been
my principal court favorite, was the only person
permitted to talk with me. My old but faithful
dog, now grown exceedingly crazy, continually
sat on my right hand; while my two cats sat on
each side of the table, expecting a bit from my
hand, as a principal mark of my royal favor
These were not the cats I had brought from the
ship; they had been dead long before, and interred
near my habitation by my own hand. But a
couple of their young I had made tame; the rest
ran wild into the woods, and in time grow so im-
pudent, as to return and plunder me of my stores,
till such time as 1 shot a great many, and the
rest left me without troubling me any more. In
this plentiful manner did I live, wanting for no-
thing but conversation. One thing indeed con-
cerned me, the want of my boat; I knew not
which way to get her round the island. One
time I resolved to go along the shore by land to
her, but had any one at home met such a figure
it would either have affrighted him, or made him
burst into laughter; nay, I could not but smile
myself at my habit, which I think in this place
will be very proper to describe.
The cap 1 wore upon my head, was great

high, and shapeless, made of a goat's skin, with a
flap or pent-house hanging down behind, not
only to keep the sun from me, but to shoot the
rain off from running into my neck, nothing being
more perniciuos than the rain falling upon the
flesh in these climates. I had a short jacket of
goat's skin, whose hair hung down such a length
on each side, that it reached down to the calves
of my legs. As for shoes and stockings, I had
none, but made a resemblance of something,
I know not what to call them; they were made
like buskins, and laced on the sides like spatter-
dashes, barbarously shaped, like the rest of my
habit. I had a broad belt of goat's skin dried,
girt round me with a couple of thongs, instead of
buickles; on each of which, to supply the defici-
ency of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and
saw. I had another belt not so broad, yet fast-
ened in the same manner, which hung over my
shoulder, and at the end of it, under my left arm,
hung two pouches. made of goat's skin, to hold
my powder and shot. My basket I carried on my
back, and my gun on my shoulder; and over my
head a great clumsy ugly goat-skin umbrella,
which however, next to my gun, was the most
necessary thing about me. as for imy face, the
color was not so swarthy as a Mulattoe's, or
as might have been expected from one who took
so little care of it, in a climate within nine or ten
degrees of the line. At one time, my beard
grew so long that it hung down above a quarter
of a yard; but as I had both razors and scissors
in store, I cut it all off, and suffered none to grow
except a large pair of Mahometan whiskers, the
like of which 1 had seen worn by some Turks at
Salee, not long enough indeed to hang a hat upon,
but of such a monstcous size, as would have
amazed any one in England to have seen.


But all this was of no consequence here,there,
being none to observe my behaviour or habit.
And so, without fear and without control, I pro-
ceeded on my journey, the prosecution of which
took me up five or six days. I travelled along
the sea shore, directly to the place where I first
brought my boat to an anchor, to get upon the
rocks; but now having no boat to take care of,
I went over land, a nearer way to the same height
that I was before upon; when looking forward
to the point of the rock. which lay out, and which
I was forced to double with my boat. I was
amazed to see the sea so smooth and quiet, there
being no rippling motion, nor current, any more
than in other places. And now I was convinced
that by observing the ebb and flow of the tide, I
might easily bring my boat round the island
again. But when I began to think of putting it
in practice, the remembrance of the late danger
struck me with such horror that I took another
resolution, though more laborious; and this was:
to make a second canoe, and so have one for one
side of the island, and one for the other.
I had now two plantations in the island; the
first my little fortification, fort, or castle with
many large and spacious improvements; for by
this time I had enlarged the cave behind me with
several little caves, one within another to hold
my baskets, corn, and straw. The piles with
which I made my wall were grown so lofty and:
great, as obscured my habitation. And near this
commodious and pleasant settlement, lay my well
cultivated and improved corn fields, which kindly.
yielded me their fruit in their proper season. My
second plantation was that near my country seat
or little bower, where my grapes flourished, and
where, having planted my stakes,! made enclo-
sures for my goats, so strongly fortified by labor

7 -

and time, that it was much stronger than a wall
and consequently, impossible for then to break
through. As for my bower itself, I kept it con-
stantly in repair, and cut the trees in such a man-
ner as made them grow wild, and form a most
delightful shade. In the centre of this, stood my
tent, thus erected: I had driven four piles in the
ground, spreading over it a piece of the ship's
sail, beneath which, I made me a sort of couch
with the skins of the creatures I had slain, and
other things; and having laid thereon one of the
sailor's blankets, which I had saved from the
wreck of the ship, and covering myself with a
great watch-coat, I took up this place for my
country retreat.
Very frequently, frim this settlement did I use
to visit my boat, and keep her in very good order.
And sometimes would I venture in her a cast or
two from shore, but no farther. But now I en-
treat your attention, whilst I proceed to inform
you of a new, hut most surprising scene of life
which here hefel me.
You may easily suppose, that after having been
here so long, nothing could be more amazing
than to see a human creature. One day it hap-
pened, that going to my boat, I saw the print ot
a man's naked foot on the shore, very evident on
the sand, as the toes, heels, and every part of it.
Had I seen a monster of the most frightful shape,
I could not have been more confounded. My
willing ears gave the sti ictest attention. I cast
my eyes around, but could satisfy neither the
one nor the other. I proceeded alternately to
every part of the shore, but with equal effect;
neither could I see any other mark though the
sand about it was as suispectible to take impres-
nion as that which was so plainly stamped. Thus,
struck with confusion and horror, I returned tc

my habitation, frightened at every bush and trees
taking every thing for men; and possessed with
the wildest idea! That night my eyes never
closed. I formed nothing but the most dismal
imaginations. In a word, all my religious hopes
vanished, as though I thought God would not
now protect me by his power, who had wonder*
fully preserved me so long.
What various chains of events are there in the
life of man! How changeable are our affections,
according to different circumstances! We love
to-day, what we hate to-morrow; we shun one
hour, what we seek the next. This was evident
in me in the most conspicuous manner; for I,
who had so much before lamented my condition,
in being banished from all human kind, was now
ready to expire, when I considered that a man
had set his foot on this desolate island. 'But
when I considered my station of life, decreed
by the infinitely wise and good providence of
God, that I ought not to dispute my Creator's
sovereignty, who had an undoubted right to go-
vern and dispose of his creatures as he thinks
convenient; and that his justice and mercy could
either punish or deliver me, I say when I con.
sidered all this, I conformably found it my duty
to trust sincerely in him, pray ardently to him, and
humbly resign myself to his divine will.
One morning, lying on my bed, these words
of the sacred writings came into my mind, "Call
upon me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver
thee, and thou shalt glorify me." Upon this
sentence, rising more cheerfully from my bed, I
offered up my prayers in the most devout man-
ner; and when I had done, taking up my Bible
to read, these words appeared first in my sight,
" Wait on the Lord, and be of good cheer, and
he shall strengthen th. heart: Wait, I say, on

the Lord." Such divine comfort did this give
me, as to remove all cause of sadness upon that
'Thus. after a world of apprehensions and fears
for three days and niglts, I at last ventured out
of my castle and milked my goats, one of which
was almost spoiled fur want of it. I next (tho'
in great fear) visited my bower, and milked my
flocks there al o; w hen growincr bolder. 1 went
down to the shore affain, and meaiurinff the print
of tie I'(t to mine, to see perhaps whether I my-
self had nrot occasioned that mark, I found it
inmuclh su prior in largeness ; and so returned
home, absolutely convinced, that either some
nmen Iad i)een i ashore, o r that the i land must be
inhabited; and therefore that I mig lit be sur-
prised before I was aware.
1 now he n t to hink of providing for my secu-
rity, and revolvedi in my mind many different
schemes for that pilrp;se. 1 first proposed to cut
down my en closuiress, and turn my tarne cattle
wild into the woods, that the enemy might not
find them, and frequent the island in hopes or
. killing the same. Srccondly. I was for digging up
my cornfields for the same reason. And, lastly, I
concluded to demolish my bower, lest, seeing a
place of human contrivance, they might come
farther, and find out and attack me in my castle.
Sleep was an titter stranger to my eyes that
night; yet nature, spent and tired, submitted to
a silent repse the next morning, and then join-
inm reason with fear, I considered, that this de-
lightful and pleasant island might not be so en-
tirely forsaken as I might think; but that the in-
habitants from the other shore might sail, either
with design or from necessity, by cross winds;
and, if the latter circumstance, I had reason to
believe they would depart the frst opportunity.

However, my fear made me think of a place of
retreat upon an attack. I now repented that I
had made my door to come out beyond my forti-
fication; to remedy which I resolved to make me
a second one. I fell to work, therefore, and
drove betwixt that double row of trees, which I
planted above twelve years before, severalstrong
piles, thickening it with pieces of timber and
old cables, and strengthening the foot of it with
earth which I dui out of my cave. I also made
me seven holes, wherein I planted my muskets
like cannon, fitting them into frames resembli,:g
carriag-s. This being finished with indefatiga-
ble industry, for a great way everywhere, I plan-
ted sticks of osiers like a wood, about twenty
thousand of them, leaving a large space between
them and my wall, that I miltht have room to see
an enemy, and that they might not be sheltered
among the young trees, if they offered to ap-
proach the outer wall. And indeed, scarce two
years had passed over my head, when there ap-
peared a lovely shady grove, and in six it became
a thick wood perfectly impassable. For my safe-
ty I left no avenue to go in or out; instead of
which, I set two ladders, one to a part of the rock
which was low, and then broke in, leaving room
to place another ladder upon that; so that when I
took those down, it was impossible for any man
to descend without hurting himself; and if they
had, they would still be at the outside of my out-
er wall. But while I took all these measures of
human prudence for my own preservation, I was
not altogether unmindful of other affairs. To
preserve my stock of tame goats, that the enemy
should not take all at once, I looked out for the
most retired part of the island, which was the
place where I had lost myself before mentioned,
and there finding a clear piece of land, contain-

ing three acres, surrounded with thick woods, I
wrought so hard, that in less than a month's time,
I fenced it so well round, that my tlocks were
very well secured in it, and I pllt tihereij two he
goats, and ten she ones.
All this labor was occasioned purely by fear-
fil apprehensions, on account of seeing toe print
of a man's foot. And not contented yet with
what I had dune, I searched for another place
towards thle west part of the island, where I might
also retain another flock. 'I'lhn wandering on
this errand more to the west of the island than
ever I had yet done, and casting my eyes towards
the sea, metholighlt I perceive.! boat at a great
distance; I)1tl could not possil:ly tell what it waa
for want of 'm spy-tflass. I considered then, it
was no stran.s *1 in :g to see the print of a man's
foot; and colncitndi.g them cannibals, blessed
God for being cast oil the other side of the is
land, where none of the savages, as I thought,
ever came. Iliit wiien I cam-e d ,wn tile hill to
the shore, which w;as tihe soiltihw.-st p'-int of the
island, I was soon conlirtimed in my opinion: nor
can any one describe may horror and amazement,
when I saw the ground spread with sculls, hands,
feet, and bones of human bodies; and particu-
larly, I perceived a space like a circle, ia the
milst of which had been a tire, about which I
conjectured those wretches sat, and unnaitiirally
sacrificed and devoured their fellow creatures.
The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful
spectacle, both confounded my senses, and made
me discharge frimn my stomach in an excessive
manner. 1 then returned to my habitation;
and in my way thither shedding floods of tears,
and falling down on my bended knees, gave God
thanks for making my nature contrary to those

wretches, and delivering me so long out of their
'Thouigh reason and my long residence here:
had assured me, that the savages never came up
to the thick woody part of the country, and that I
had no reason to be apprehensive of a discovery',
yet such an abhorrence did I still retain, that for
two years after, I confined myself only to my three
plantations; I mean my castle, country seat, and,
enclosure in the woods; though in process of time
my dreadful apprehensions began to wear away.l
Thus my circumstances for some time remaio-
ed very calm and undisturbed; though indeed,,
the terror which the savages had put me in, spoil-
ed some inventions for my own convenience.,
One of my projects was to brew me some beer.
a very whimsical one indeed, when it is consid-
ered, that I had neither casks sufficient, nor
could I make any to preserve it in; neither had)
I hops to make it keep, yeast to make it work,
nor a copper or kettle to make it boil. Perhaps
indeed, after some years, I might bring this to
bear, as I had done other things. But now my
'inventions were placed another way; and day
and night I could think of nothing but how I
might destroy some of these cannibals, when
proceeding to their bloody entertainments- an&
so saving a victim from being sacrificed, that hel
might afterwards become my servant. Many,
were my contrivances for this purpose, and manp
more objections occurred, after I had hatched
them. I once contrived to dig a hole underthe
place where they made their fire, and put therein
five or six pounds of gunpowder, which would
consequently blow up all those that were nearit;
but then I was loth to spend so much upon them,
lest it should not do that certain execution I de-
sired, and only affright and not kill them Hfav

ing laid this design aside, I again proposed to
myself to lie privately in ambush in some conve-
nient place, with my three guns double loaded,
and let fly at them in the midst of their dreadful
ceremony; and having killed two or three of
them at every shot,.fall upon the rest suddenly
with my three pistols, and let not one mother's
son escape. This imagination pleased my fancy
so much that I used to dream of it in the night
time. To put my design in execution I was not
long seeking for a place convenient for my pur-
pose, where unseen 1 might behold every action
of the savages. Here I placed my two mus-
kets, each of which was loaded with a brace of
slugs, and four or five smaller bullets about the
size of pistol bullets; the fooling piece was
charged with nearly a handful of the largest swan
shot, and in every pistol about four bullets. And
thus all things being prepared, no sooner did the
welcome light spread over the element, but I
would issue forth from my castle, and from a lofty
hill, three miles distant, try if I could see any
invaders approach unlawfully to my kiugdom.
But having waited in vain for two or three months,
it grew very tiresome to me.
I now argued with myself, it was better for me
never to attack, but to remain undiscovered as
long as I possibly could; that an opposite con-
duct would certainly prove destructive; for as it
was scarcely to be supposed I could kill them all,
I might be either overpowered by the remainder,
or that some escaping might bring thousands to
my certain destruction. And, indeed, religion
took heir part so much as to convince me how
contrary it was to my duty, to be guilty of shed-
ding human blood, innocent blood, innocent as
to me in particular. whatever they are to one ano-
ther; that I had nothing to do with it, but leave

it to the (: od of all power and dominion, as I said
before, to (i, therein what seemed convenient to
his lihavenly wisdom. And, tlhcrtrfre, on my
knees I thanked the Almighty fur delivering me
from blood-guiltiness, and begged his protec-
tion that I might never fall into their hands.
Thus giving over an attempt which I had rashly
Legun, I never ascended the hill on that occasion
afterward; I only removed my boat, which lay
on the other side of the island, and every thing
that belonged to her, towards the east. into a lit-
tle cove, that there might not be the least shadow
of any boat near, or habitation upon the island.
My castle then became my cell, keeping always
retired in it, except when I went out to milk my
phe goats, or my little flock in the wood, which
was quite out of danger: fur sure I was, that
these savages never came here with expectation
to find any thing, and consequently never wander-
ed flro~ the coast; however, as they might have
several times been on shore.as well before as after
mydreadful apprehensions, I looked back withhor-
ror to think in what state I might have been, had
I suddenly met them, slenderly armed with one
gun only loaded with small shot; and how great
would have been my amazement, if, instead of
seeing the print of one man's foot I had per-
ceived fifteen or twenty savages, who, having
once set their eyes upon me, by the swiftness o!
their feet, would have left me no possibility of
escaping? These thoughts would sink my very
soul, so that I woufd fall into a deep melancholy,
till such time as the consideration of my gratitude
to the divine Being moved it from my heart. I
then fell into a contemplation of the secret
springs of providence, and how wonderfully we
are delivered, when insensible of it; and when
in uncertain mazes or labyrinths of doubt or he-

sitatiom, what secret hint directs us, in the right
way when we intended to go out of it, nay per.
haps contrary to our business, sense, or incliua-
Anxieties of mind, and the care of my preser-
vation, put a period to all future inventions and
contrivances, either for accommodation, or con-
venience, I now cared not to drive a nail, chop a
stick, fire a Egn, or make a fire, lest either the
noise should he heard, or the smoke discover
me. And on this account I used to burn my
earthen rare privately in a cave, which I found
in the wood, and which I made convenient for
that purpose; the principal cause that brought
me here was to make charcoal, so that I might
bake and dress my bread and meat without any
At that time a curious accident happened to
me, which I shall now relate.
While I was cutting down some wood for
making my charcoal, I perceived a cavity behind
a very thick branch of underwood. Curious to
look into it; I attained its mouth, and perceived
it sufficient for me to stand upright in.
But when I had entered, having crept on my
hands and fret throijgh this trait, found the root
higher up. I think about twenty feet. But surely
never mortal saw such a glorious sight before!
the roof and walls of this cave rejected a hun-
dred thousand lights to me from my two candles,
as though they were indented with shining gold,
precious stones, or sparkling diamonds. And
indeed it was the most delightful cavity or grotto
of its kind that could be desired, though entirely
dark. The floor was dry and level, and had a
kind of gravel upon it; no nauseous venemoiu
creatures to be seen here, neither any damp or
wet a'Lut it. I could find no fault but in the

entrance, and I began to think, that even this
might be very necessary for my defence, and
therefore resolved to make it my principal mag-
azine. I brought hither two fowling pieces and
three muskets, leaving only five pieces at my
castle, planted in the nature of cannon. In a
barrel of gunpowder, which I took out of the sea,
I brought away about sixty pounds of good pow-
der, which was not damaged; and this, with a
great quantity of lead for bullets, I removed from
my castle to this retreat, now fortified both by
art and nature.
I fancied myself now like one of the giants
of old, who were said to live in caves and holes
among the rocks, inaccessible to any but them-
selves, or at least, most dangerous to attempt.
And now I defied both the cunning and strength
of the savages, either to find me out or to hurt
I think I was now in the twenty-third year of
my reign, and my thoughts much easier than
formerly, having contrived several pretty amuse-
ments, and diversions to pass away the time in
a pleasant manner. By this time my pretty Poll
had learned to speak English, and pronounce his
words very articulately and plain; so that for
many hours we used to chat together after a very
familiar manner, and he lived no less than twenty-
six years. My dog which was nineteen years
old, sixteen of which hle lived with me, died some
time ago, of mere old age. As for my cats,
they multiplied so fast, that I was forced to kill
or drive them into the woods, except two or three
which became my particular favorites. Be-
sides these, I continually kept two or three house-
bold kids about me, which 1 taught to feed out of
my hand, and two more parrots which could talk
indifferently, and call 1toiusoun Crusoe, but not

so excellently as the first, by my not taking so
much pains with them. I had also several sea
fowls which I had wounded and cut their wings;
and growing tame they used to breed among the
low trees about my castle walls, all of which made
my abode very agreeable.
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy
the enjoyments of tris uncertain state of life,
when we least expect them! It was now the
month of December, and the particular time in
my harvest, which required my attendance in the
fields; when going out pretty early in the mor-
ning, before it was daylight, there appeared to
me from the sea-shore, a flaming light, about two
miles from me at the east end of the island,
where I had observed some savages had been
before, not on the other side, but to my great
affliction it was on my side of the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual
apprehensions, that the savages would perceive
my improvements, I returned directly to my
castle, pulled the ladder after me, making all
things look as wild and natural as I possibly
could. In the next place, I put myself in a pos.
ture of defence, loaded my muskets and pistols,
and committing myself to God's protection, I
resolved to defend myself till my last breath.
Two hours after, impatient for intelligence, I set
my ladder up to the side of the hill, where there
was a flat place, and then pulling the ladder after
me, ascended to the top, where laying myself-
on my belly, with my perspective glass I per-
ceived no less than nine naked savages, sitting
round a small fire, eating as I supposed, human
flesh, with their two canoes hauled on shore,
waiting for the flood to carry them off again.
The consternation I was in at this sight, espe-
cially seeing them near me, was very great; but

When I perceived their coming must be always
with the current of the ebb, I became more easy
in my thoughts, being fully convinced, that I
might go abroad with security all the time of
flood, if they were not before landed. And, in-
deed, this proved just as I imagined; for no
sooner did they all take boat and paddle away
but the tide made northwest. When I saw them
gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and
placing a cciple of pistols in my belt, with my
great sword hanging by my side, I went to the
biil, where at first I made a discovery of these
cannibals, and then saw there had been three ca-
noes more of the savages on shore at that place,
which with the rest, were making over to the
main land.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when
going to the place of sacrifice, the blood, the
bones, and other mangled parts of human bodies
appeared in my sight; and so fired was I with
indignation, that I was fully resolved to be re-
venged on the first that came there, though I lost
my life in the execution. It then appeared to
me, that the visits which they make to this island
are not very frequent, it being fifteen months
before they came again: but still I was very
uneasy, by reason of the dismal apprehensions
of their surprising me unawares; nor dared I
offer to fire a gun on that side of the island where
they used to appear, lest, taking the alarm, they
might return with many hundred canoes, and then
God only knows in what manner I should have
made my end. Thus was I a year or more
before I saw any of these devouring cannibals
But to wave this, the following accident, which
demands attention, for awhile, eluded the force

of my thoughts in revenging myself on those
On the 16th of May (according to my wooden
calendar.) the wind blew exceedingly hard, ac-
companied with abundance of thunder and light-
ning all day, and succeeded by a very stormy
night. The seeming anger of the heavens made
me have recourse to my Bible. Whilst I was
seriously pondering upon it, I was suddenly
alarmed with the noise of a gun, which I con-
jectured was fired upon the ocean. Such an un-
usual. surprise made me start up in a minute;
when, with my ladder, ascending the mountain
as before, that very moment a flash of fire pre-
saged the report ofanothergun, which I presently
heard, and found it was from the part of the sea
where the current drove me away, I could not
but then think, that this must be a ship in distress,
and that these were the melancholy signals for a
speedy deliverance. Great, indeed, was my sor-
row upon this occasion: but my labors to assist
them must have proved altogether vain and fruit-
less. However, I brought together all the dry
wood that was at hand, and making a pretty large
pile, set it on fire on the hill. I wascertain they
plainly perceived it, by their firing another gun
as soon as it began to blaze; and after that seve-
ral more from the same quarter. All night long
I kept up my fire; and when the air cleared up
I perceived something a great way at seadirectly
east, but could not distinguish what it was, even
with my glass, the weather being so very foggy
out at sea. However, keeping my eyes directly
fixed upon it, and perceiving it did not stir, 1
presently concluded it must be a ship at anchor,
and so very hasty was I to be satisfied, that,
taking my gun, I went to the southeast part of
the -island, to the same rocks where I had been

formerly driven away by the current; in which
time, the weather being perfectly cleared up, to
my great sorrow, I perceived the wreck of a ship
cast away upon those hidden rocks I had found
when I was out with my boat; and which, by
making a kind of an eddy, were the occasion of
my preservation.
When I considered seriously every thing con.
cerning this wreck, and could perceive no room
to suppose any of them saved, I cannot explain,
by any possible force of words, what longings
my soul felt on this occasion, often breaking out
in this manner: Oh! that there had been but
two or three, nay, even one person saved, that
we might have lived together, conversed with,
and comforted one another! and so mucl were
my desires moved, that when I repeated these
words, Oh! that there had been but one! my
hands would so clench together, and my fingers
press the palms of my hands so close, that, had
any soft thing been between, they would have
crushed it, while my teeth would strike together,
and set against each other so strong, that it re-
quired some time for me to part them.
Till the last year of my being on this island,
I never knew whether or not any had been saved
out of the ship. I had the affliction, some time
after, to see the corpse of a drowned boy come
on shore, at the end of the island which was next
the shipwreck; there was nothing on him but a
a seaman's waiscoat, a pair of open-kneed linen
drawers, and a blue linen shirt, but no particular
mark to guess what nation he was of. In his
pocket were two pieces of eight, and a tobacco
pipe, the last of which I preferred much more
than I did the first. And now the calmness of
the sea tempted me to venture out in my boat to
this wreck, not only to get something necessary

out of the ship, but perhaps, some living creature
might be on board, whose life I might preserve..
This had such an induence upon my mind, that
immediately I went home, and prepared every
thing necessary for the voyage, carrying on board
my boat, provisions of all sorts, with a good
quantity of rum, fresh water, and a compass:
so putting off, I paddled the canoe along the
shore, till I came to the northeast part of the
Island, from whence I was to launch into the
ocean; but here the current ran so violently, and
appeared so terrible, that my heart began to fail
me; foreseeing, that if I was driven into any of
these currents, I might be carried not only out
of the reach -r sight of the island, but even
inevitably lost in the boiling surges ofthe ocean.
So oppressed was I at these troubles, that I
gave over my enterprise, sailing to a little creek
on the shore, where, stepping out, I sat me down
on a rising hill, very pensive and thoughtful.
I then perceived that the tide was turned, and
the flood come on, which made it impracticable
for me to go out for so many hours.
That night, I reposed myself in my canoe,
covered with my watch-coat instead of a blan-
ket, the heavens being my tester. I set out with
the first of the tide full north, till I felt the bene-
fit of the current; which carried me at a great
rate eastward, yet not with such impetuosity as
before, as to take from me all government of my
canoe: so that in two hours I came up to the
wreck, which appeared to me a most melancholy
sight. It seemed to be a Spanish vessel by its
building, stuck fast between two rocks; her stern
and quarters beaten to pieces by the sea; her
main-mast and foremast were brought off by the
board; that is broken short off. As I ap-
proached nearer, I perceived a dog on board,

who, seeing me coming, yelped and cried: and
no sooner did I call him, but the poor creature
jumped into the sea, out of which I took him up
almost famished with hunger and thirst: so that
when I gave him a cake of bread, no iavenous
wolf could devour it more greedily; and he
drank to that degree of fresh water, that he would
have burst himself had I suffered him.
The first sight I met with in the ship, were
two men drowned in the cook-room, orforecastle,
enclosed in one another's arms: hence I very
probably supposed, that when the vecel struck
in the storm, so high and incessantly did the
waters break in and over her, that the men not
being able to bear it, were strangled by the con
stant rushing of the waves. There were seve-
ral casks of liquor, whether wine or brandy I
could not be positive, which lay in the lower hold,
as were plainly perceptible by the ebbing out of
the water, yet were too large for me to pretend
to meddle with; likewise 1 perceived several
chests, which I supposed belonged to the seamen,
two of which I got into my boat, without ex
amining what was in them. What became of
the sailors I could not certainly tell; and all her
riches signified nothing at that time to any body
Searching farther, I found a cask, containing
about twenty gallons full of liquor, which with
some labor I got into my boat; in the cabin
were several muskets, which I let remain there;
but took away with mte a great powder horn,with
abot.t four pounds of powder in it. I took also
a fire-shovel and tongs, with two brass kettles, a
copper pot to make chocolate, and a gridiron;
all which were extremely necessary to me,
especially the fire-shovel and tongs. And so
wit'a this cargo, accompanied by my dog, I came
away the tide serving for that purpose: and the

.ame evening, about an hour within night I at-
tained the island, after the greatest toil and fa-
tigue imaginable.
That night I reposed my weary limbs in the
boat, resolving the next morning to harbor what
I had gotten, in my new-found under-ground grot
to; and not carry my cargo home to my ancient
castle. Having refreshed myself, and got all
my effects on shore, I next proceeded to examine
the particulars; so tapping the cask, I found
the liquor to be a kind of rum, but not like what
we had at the Brazils, nor indeed near so good
At the opening of the chest, several things a-p-
peared very useful to me; for instance, I found
in one, a very fine case of bottles, containing the
finest and best sort of cordial waters; each
bottle held about three pints, curiously tipt with
silver. I found also two pots full of the choicest
sweetmeats, and two more which the water had
utterly spoiled. There were likewise several
good shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and
about one dozen and a half of white linen hand-
kerchiefs, and colored neckcloths, the former of
which were absolutely necessary for wiping my
face in a hot day; and in the till, I found three
bags of money, in one of which, decently wrapt
up in a piece of paper, were six doubloons of
gold, and some small bars and wedges of the
same metal, which I believe might weigh near a
pound. In the other chest, I only fuund some
cloths of very little value, and about two pounds
of fine glazed powder, in three flasks, kept as I
believe, fur charging their fowling pieces on any
occasion, so that, on the whole I made very little
of this voyage: The money was indeed as
mere dirt to me, useless and unprofitable, all
which I would have freely parted with, for two
or three pair of English shoes and stockings.

things that for many years I had not worn, except
those which I had lately taken off the feet of the
unfortunate men I found drowned in the wreck,
yet not so good as English shoes either for ease
or service. I found no gold in the second chest
so concluded that what 1 took from the first be-
longed to an officer, the latter appearing to have
a much inferior person for its owner. However,
as despicable as the money seemed, I likewise
lugged it to my cave, laying it up securely, as I
did the rest ofiny cargo, and intending to seek
out, and return it to the family of the unfortunate
owner, if ever I should return to Europe; and
after I had done all this, I returned to my boat
rowing or paddling her along till I came to my
old harbor, where I carefully laid her up, and
so made the best of my way to my castle.
When I arrived there, every thing seemed safe
and quiet; so that now, my only business was to
repose myself after my wanted manner, and take
care of my domestic affairs. But though I
might have lived very easy, as wanting for no-
thing absolutely needful; yet still I was more
vigilant than usual, upon account of t Ie savages,
never going much abroad; or if I did, it was to
the east part of the island, where I vas well as-
sured that the savages never came, .id where 1
might not be troubled to carry suiih o heavy load
of weapons for my defence, as I was obliged to
do if I went the other way.
Two years did I live in this anxio., condition;
in all which time, contrary to my former re-
solutions, my head was filler with nothing but
projects and designs how I might escape from this
island; and so much were my wandering thoughts
bent upon a rambling disposition, that had I had
the fame boat that I went from Salee in. I should

have ventured once more to the uncertainty o.
the raging ocean.
Having retired to my castle, after my Ilto
voyage to the ship, my frigate laid up and secured,
as usual, and my condition the same as before,
except being richer, though I had as little oc
casion for riches as the Indians of Peru had for
gold, before the cruel Spaniards came among
them; one night in March, being the rainy season,
in the four and twentieth year ofmy solitude, I lay
down to sleep, very well in health, without dis-
temper, pain, or uncommon uneasiness either of
body or mind; yet notwithstanding, I could not
compose myself to sleep all the night long. All
this ted ious while, it is impossible to express what
innumerable thoughts came into my head. I
traced qiite over, the whole history of my life in
miniature, from my utmost remembrance of
things till I came to this island; and then pro-
ceeded to examine every action and passage that
had occurred since 1 had taken possession of
my kingdom. In my reflections upon the latter,
I was comparing the happy posture of my affairs
in the beginning of my reign, to this life of
anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had discovered
the print of a foot in the sand; that while I con-
tinued without apprehension, I was incapable of
feeling the dread and terror I now suffered
How thankful rather ought I to have been for the
knowledge of my danger, since the greatest hap-
piness a man can be possessed of is to have
sufficient time to provide against it! How stu-
pendous is the goodness of Providence, which
sets such narrow bounds to the sight and know-
ledge of human nature, that while men walk in
the midst of so many dangers, they are kept
serene and calm, by having the events of things
hid from their eyes, and knowing nothing .At

those many dangers that surround them, till per-
haps they are dissipated and vanished away.
About a year and a half after, one morning
early, I was very much surprised by seeing no
less than five canoes all on shore together, on
my side of the island, and the savages that be-
longed to them all landed, and out of my sight.
Upon which, much dispirited and perplexed, I
lay still in my castle; which, however, I put in
a proper posture for an attack; and having for-
merly pro% ided all that was necessary, was soon
ready to enter upon an engagement, should they
attempt it. Having waited for some time, my
impatient temper would let me bear it no longer;
I set my guns at the foot of my ladder, and, as
usual, ascended up to the top of the hill at two
stages, standing, however, in such a manner, that
my head did not appear above the hill, so that
they could not easily perceive me: and here, by
the assistance of my perspective glass, I ob-
served no less than thirty in number around a
fire, feasting upon what meat they had dressed:
how they cooked it, or what it was, I could not
then perfectly tell; but they were all dancing
and capering about the flames, using many fright-
ful and barbarous gestures.
But while, with a curious eye, I was behold-
ing these wretches, my spirits sunk within me,
when I perceived them drag two miserable crea-
tures from the boats, to act afresh the dreadful
tragedy, as I supposed they had done before.
It was not long before one of them fell upon the
ground, knocked down as I suppose, with a club
or wooden sword, for that was their manner;
while two or three others went immediately to
work, cutting him open for their cookery, and
then fell to devour him as they had done the for-
pier: while the last unhappy captive was left by

himself, till such time as they were ready for him.
The poor creature looked round h;m with a sor-
rowful eye, trembling at the thoughts of death;
yet seeing himself a little at liberty, nature, that
very moment, as it were, inspired him with hopes
of life: he started away from them, and ran, with
incredible swiftness, along the sands, directly t
that part of the coast where my ancient and ve
nerable castle stood.
You may well imagine I was dreadfully af-
frighted upon this occasion; when as I thought,
they pursued him in a whole body, all running to-
wards my palace. And now, indeed, I expected
that he would certainly fly to my grove for pro-
tection. However, my spirits beginning to re-
cover, I still kept on my guard; and I now
plainly perceived, there were but three men out
of the number that pursued him. I was iqfinitely
pleased at the swiftness with which the poor
creature ran from his pursuers, gaining so much
groun-d upon them, that I plainly perceived, could
he thus hold it out. for half an hour, there was
not the least doubt but he would save his life from
the power of his enemies.
Between them and my castle, there was a
creek, the very same which I sailed into with all
my effects from the wreck of the ship, on the steep
banks of which, I very much feared the poor
victim would be taken, if he could not swim for
his escape: but soon was I out of pain for him,
when I perceived he made nothing oft, though (
at full tide, but with an intrepid courage, spurred
on by the sense ofdanger, he plunged into the
flood, swimming over in about thirty strokes,
and then landing, ran with the same incredible
strength and swiftness as before. When tbp
three pursuers came to the creek, two of thep,
who I perceived could not swim, happily fo(

themselves, returned to their company, while the
other, with an equal courage but much less swift-
ness attained the other side, as though he was
resolved never to give over the pursuit. And
now or never, I thought, was the time for me to
procure me a servant, companion, or assistant,
and that I was decreed by Providence to be the
instrument to save this poor creature's life. I
immediately descended my two ladders with the
greatest expedition; I took up my two guns,
which, I said before were at the bottom of them;
and getting up again with the same haste to-
wards the hill, I made nearer the sea. In a
word, taking a short cut down the hill, I inter-
posed between the pursuer and pursued, hal-
looing aloud to the latter, who venturing to look
back, was no doubt, as much terrified at me as
at the enemy from whom he fled. I beckoned
to him with my hand, to return back, and, in the
mean time, advanced towards the pursuer. I
was very unwilling to fire lest the restshould hear,
though, at that distance, I questioned whether they
could orno; and being-outof sight of the smoke,
they could not easily have known what to make of
it. The savage stopped as if he had been amazed;
when, advancing towards him, I could perceive
him take his bow from his back, and, after fixing
an arrow to it, preparing to shoot at me, and, with-
out dispute, he might have lodged it in my breast;
but in this absolutely necessary case of self-
preservation, I immediately fired, and shot him
dead, just as his hand was going to draw the fatal
string. All this while, the savage, who bad fled
before, stood still, and had the satisfaction to see
his enemy killed, as he thought, who designed to
take away his life; so affrighted was he with the
fire and noise of my piece, that he stood as it
Were like lot's wife, fixed and immoveable with-

out either sense or motion. This obliged me to
halloo to him again, making the plainest signs I
could to him to draw nearer. I perceived he
understood these tokens, by his approaching to
me a little way, when as if afraid I should kill
him too, he stopped again. Several times did he
advance, and as often stop in this manner, till,
coming more to my view, I perceived him trem-
bling, as if he was to undergo the same fate*
Upon which 1 looked upon him with a smiling
countenance, and still beckoning to him; at
length he came close to me, and kneeled down,
kissed the ground, laid his head upon it, and
taking me by the foot, set it upon his head;
which, as I understood afterwards, was a token of
swearing to be my slave for ever. I took him
up, and making much of him, encouraged him in
the best manner I could. 'he greatest asto-
nishment that my new servant conceived, was
at the manner of killing the savage at such a
distance, without a bow and arrow; and such
was his longing desire to know it, that be first
pointed to the dead carcase, and then made signs
to me to grant him leave to go to it. Upon
which I bid him go, and, as well as I could,
made him sensible I granted his request. But
when he came there how wonderfully was he
struck with amazement! First, he turned it on
one side, then on another, wondering he could
perceive no quantity of blood, he bleeding in-
wardly: and after sufficiently admiring the
wound the bullet had made in the breast, he took
up his bow and arrows, and came back again
upon which, I turned to go away, making signed.
to him to follow, lest the rest missing their com-
panion, might come in pursuit of him, and this I
found he understood very well, by making me to
understand that his design was to bury it, that it


might not be seen; and which by signs again 1
made him sensible I very much approved of.
Immediately he fell to work, and never wasgrave-
digger more dexterous in the world than he was;
for in an instant, as I might say, he scraped a
large hole in the sands with his hands, sufficient
to bury it in; there lie dragged it, and, without
any ceremony, covered it over. I then called
him away,and instead of carrying him directly to
my castle at first, I conveyed him to my cave
on the farther part of the island.
Weary and faint, hungry and thirsty, undoubt-
edly must this poorcreature be, supported chiefly
by the vivacity of spirit, and uncommon transp
ports of joy that his deliverance occasioned
Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to
eat, and water to drink, on which he fed very
cheerfully, to his exceeding refreshment. I then
made him convenient bed, with a parcel of rice
straw, and a blanket upon it, (a bed which I used
myself sometimes) and then pointing to it, made
signs for him to lie down to sleep, upon which
the poor creature went to take a welcome re.
Indeed lie was a very comely, handsome,
young fellow, extremely well made, with straight
long limbs, not too large, but tall and well shaped,
and, as near as I could reckon, about twenty six
years of age. His countenance had nothing in
it fierce or surly, but rather a sort of majesty
in his face; and especially when he smiled, he
had all the sweetness of a European. His hair
was not curled like wool, as many of the blacks
are, but long and black, with the most beautiful,
yet careless tresses spreading over his shoulders,
He had a very high and large forehead, with a
great vivacity and sparkling sharpness in his
eyes. His skin was not so tawny as that of the


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