Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Robinson Crusoe
 The second part of Robinson...


The surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073540/00001
 Material Information
Title: The surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2, 332 p., 8 leaves of plates : ill. ; 17 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Glaisher, William ( Publisher )
Bowden, W ( Printer )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Publisher: William Glaisher
Place of Publication: London (265 High Holborn)
Manufacturer: W. Bowden
Publication Date: 186-?
Subjects / Keywords: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; with illustrations.
General Note: Spine title: Robinson Crusoe; p. 231: The second part of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Probably same as Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 468, dated 186-, with publisher given as Glaishek sic.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: University of Florida's copy inscribed 1872.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28121082
System ID: UF00073540:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 16a
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 30a
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
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        Page 50
        Page 51
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        Page 54
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        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
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        Page 90
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        Page 93
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        Page 100
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        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
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        Page 114
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        Page 140a
        Page 141
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        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 204a
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        Page 211
        Page 212
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        Page 221
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        Page 224a
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
    The second part of Robinson Crusoe
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
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        Page 292
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        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 310a
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
        Page 316
        Page 316a
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 323
        Page 324
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        Page 326
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        Page 331
        Page 332
Full Text

Crusoe in his Hut.








. FrontisiecO


. 30

. 141


. 225

. 3

. 81











good family, though not of that country, mly father
being a foreigner of Bremen, wh~o settled first at
Hull. He grot a good estate by merchandise, and, leaving
off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from whence he
had married my mother, whose relations were named
Robinson, a Ver'y good family in that country, and from
whom I was called Robrinson Kreutanzaer; but, by the
usual corruption of words in England, we are now called,
nay, we call ourselves, and write our name, (hwosoe; and
so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers; one of whlom was a lieu-
tenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders,
formerly commanded by the famous colonel Lockhart, and
wvas killed at the battle near IDunkirk against the Spaniards.
What became of my second brother I never knew, any
more than my father or mother did know what was
become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any
trade, my head began to be filled very early with rambling
thoughts. My father, who was very ancient, had given
me a competent share of learning, as far as house educa-
tion _and a country free-school generally goes, and designed
me Tor the law; but I would be satisfied with nothing but
gSging to sea: and my inclination to this led me so stronglCy
agamate the wvill,nay, the commands of my father, and


against all thle entreaties and persuasions of my mother
and other friends, that there seemed to be somnethingi fatal
in that natural propensity, tendiing directly to the life of
misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave nmn, gave me serious and
excellent counsel against what he foresaw was mly design.
He called me one morning into his chamber, where he was
confmned by the gout, and expostulated very warmlly wfithl
me upon this subject. He aske~rd me what reasons, 2nore
than az mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving myIJ
father's house, and my native country; where I might be
w-ell introduced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune
by application and industry, with a life of case and
pleasure. Hie told me it was men of desperate fortunes
on one hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise,
and make themselves famous in undertakings of a nature
out of the common roadl; that these things were all either
too far ab~ove me, or too far below mle;that mineo was thle
middle state, or what might be called the upper station of
lowu life, which he had found, by long experience, was the
best state in the world; the most suited to human happ~i-
ness, uot exposed to the miseries and hardships, the labour
and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in thle most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, nor to
precipitate myself into miseries, which nature, and the
station of life I was born in, seemed to have provided
against. In a word, he said that he would do very kind
things for me, if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed; so he would not have so much hand in my mis-
fortunes, as to give me any encouragement to go away : and
to close all, he told me, I had my elder brother for an ex-
ample, to whom he had used the same earnest persuasidns
to keep him from going into the Low Coluxtry wars; but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to run
into the army, where he was killed: and though he said
hie would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture
to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God
would not bless me; and I would have leisure hereafter to


Jreflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was
truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did not know
it to be so himself ; I say, I observed the tears run down
hris face very plentifully, especially when he spoke of my
having leisure to repent, and none to assist me, he was so
moved, that he broke off the discourse, and told ine, his
heart was so full, he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed
who could be otherwise t And I resolved not to think of
going abroad any more, but to settle at home according to
mny father's desire. But, alas a few days wore it all off ;
andi, in short, to prevent any of my father's farther impor-
tunities, in a few weeks after I resolved to run quite away
from him. However, I did not act so hastily neither, as
the first heat of my resolution prompted; but I took mgs~
mother at a time when I thought her a little pleasanter"I
than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never
settle to any thing with resolution enough to go through
with it; and my father had better give me his consent,
than force me to go without it : that I was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade,
or clerk to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should
certainly run aw~ay from my master before my time warsl
ouzt, and go to sea : and if she would speak~ to my father
to let me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more, and I would promise
by a double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a greatt passion. She told mi,
she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to mly father
upon any such subject; and that, for her part, she would
not have so much hand in my destruction; and I should
never have it to say, that my mother was willing, when
my father was not.
Though my mother refused to mention it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the discourse
to him; and that my father, after shewing a great concern'
.at it, said to her, with a sigh, That the boy might bej


happy, if he would stay at hlome; but if he goos abroad,
he will be the most miserable wretch that ever was born:r
I will not consent to it."
It was not till almost La year after this that I broke
loose, thought in the meantimee I continued obstinately
deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and frequently
expostulating with mly father and mother about their beings
so positively determinedi against what they knew my in-
clination prompted me to. But being one day at Hull,
whithler I went casually, and without any purpose of
making anl elopomlent that timle; one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and
prompting me to go withl hlim, that it should cost me
nothing for mly passage, I consulted neither father nor
mother anly more, nor so much as sent theml word of
it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, without
asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any con-
sideration of circ~umstances or consequences, and in an ill
hour, God knows, on thle first of September, 1651l, I went
on board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or con-
tinuedl longer, than mine. Thle ship was no sooner out of
the Humiber, but the wlind began to blow, and the sea to
rise, in a most frightful manner; andl, as I had never been
at sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and
terrified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon.
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the
judgment of Heaven, for my wicked leaving my father's
house, and abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of
my parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entreaties,
came now fresh into my mind; and my conscience, w~hich~
was not yet come to that pitch of hlardness to which it has
been since, reproached me with the contempt of advice,
and the breach of mly duty to God and my father.
All this while the storms increased, and the sea went.
very high, .though nothing like what I have seen many
times since; no, nor wha~t I saw a few days after. But
it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known any thing of the matter. I
expected every wave would have swanllowed us up, andl


that every time the sh~ip fell down, as I thought it did, in
the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more.
In this agony of mind, I made many: vows and resolutions,
that if it pleased God to spare my life in this one voyage,
if ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would
go directly home to mny father, and never set it into a ship
again while I lived: that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
These wise and sober thoulghts lasted all the while the
storm continued, and indeed some time after; but the next
day the wind abated, and the sea calmer, and I began to
be a little inured to it. However, I was very grave for all
that day, being also a little sea-sick still : but towards.night-
the weather cleared up), the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed: the sun went down per;
fectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon
it, the sight was, I thought, the most delightful that ever
I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful: looking with wonder upon the
seaz, that was so rough and terrible the day before, and
could be so cahn and so pleasant in so little a time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my
companion, who had indeed enticed me away, comes to
me: "WYell, Boh," says he, clapping me upon the shoulder,
" how do you do alter it t I warrant you were frightened,
wa~'nt you,1last night, when it blew but a calpfull of wind!"
" A capfull, d'you call it," said I, "'twas a terrible storm.*
" A storm, you fool you l" replies he, do you call thath~i
storm 1 Why it was nothing at all; give us but a good
ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squatll
of wind as that: but, you're but a fresh-water sailor, B~ob.
Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all
thatt. If you see what charming weather 'tis now 9" To
make short th~is sad part of my story, we went the way of
all sailors: the punch was made, and I was made half
drunk with it, and in that one night's wickedness I
drowned all my repentance, all mly reflections upon my
past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a


word, as thle sea was returned to its smoothness of surface,
and settled calmness, by thea abatement of that storm, so
the hurry of my thoughts being over, my fears and ap~pre-
hensions of beings swallowed up by the sea being forgotten,
and the current of my former desires returned, I entirely
forgot the vows and promises I made in mly distress; and1i
I had, in five or six days, got as complete a victory over
conscience, as any young fellow thant resolved not to be
troubled with it could desire. But I was to have another
trial still; and Providnce, as in such cases generally it
does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuses.
The sixth day of our being ait sea, we came into Yarmouth
Roads: the wind having been contrary, rand thle weather
catlm, we had made but little way since the storm. Here
we were obliged to come to anchor : and here we lay, the
wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or
eight days : during which time a great many ships from
Newcastle came into thle same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too
fresh; and, after we had lain four or five days, blew very
hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good as a
harbour, thre anchorage good, a7nd our ground-tackle very
strong ~ our men were unconcerned, and not in the least
apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth, after the manner of the sea : but theo eighth day in
the morning the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our top-mlasts, and make every thing anug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible.
BGy noon, thle sea went very high indeed; our ship rid
forecastle in, shipped severalseas, and we thought once or
twice our anchor had come home ; upon which our1 master
ordered out the sheet-anchor, so that we rode with two
anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
B3y this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now
I began to see terror and amazement in the faces even of
the seamen themselves. The master, though vigilant in
t~he business of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and
out of his cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to him.


self, say several times, Lord, be merciful to us We shall
be all lost: we shall be all undone!" and the like.
During these first hurries I was lying stupid in my cabin.
I thought the bitterness of death had been past ; and
that this would be nothing too, like the first But when
the master himself came by me, and said we should be all
lost, I was dreadfully frighted. I got up out of my cabin,
andl looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us every
three or four minutes. When I could look about, I could
see nothing but distress around us. Two ships that rid
near us, we found had cut their masts by the board, being
deep laden; and our men cried out that a ship, which rid
about a mile ahead of us, was foundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the
roads to sea, at all, adventures, and that not with a mast
standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so much
labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away, with only their sprit sail
out, before the wind.
Towards the evening, the mate and boatsawain begged
the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast,
which he was very unwilling to do; but the boatswain
protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would founder,
he consented : and when they had cut away the fore-mast
the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much,
they were obliged to cut it away also, and make a clear
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at
all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had been in
such a fright before at but a little. But the worst was
not come yet : the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never seen
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden,
and so wallowved in the sea, that the seamen every now
and then cried out, she would founder. It was my advan-
tage in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the
boatswvain, and some others more sensible than the rest,


at their prayers, and expecting every moment that th~e
ship would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night,
and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see, cried out we had
sprung a leak; another said, there was four feet water in
the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump. At
that very word my heart, as I thought, died within me;
and I fell backwards upon the side of the bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, th~e men roused me, and told me,
that I that was able to do nothing before, was as well able
t~o pump as another : at which I ~stirred up, and went to
the pump, and worked very heartily. While this was
doing, the master, seeing some light colliers, who, not able
to ride out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away
to sea, and would come near us, ordered to fire a gun as
a signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had broke,
or some dreadful thing happened. In a word, I was so
surprisedi that I fell down in a swoon. As this was a
time when everybody had his own life to think of, nobody
minded me, or whlat was become of me : but another man
stepped up to the pumnp, and thrusting me aside with his
foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a
great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in th~e hold, it
was apparent that the ship would founder; and though
the storm began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible
she could swim till we might run into any port, so the
master continued faring guns for help; and a light ship,
w~ho had rid it out just ahead of us, ventured a boat out
to help us. It was wvith the utmost hazard the boat came
near us; but it was impossible for us to get on board, or
for the boat to lie near the ship-side, till at last the men
rowing velry heartily, and venturing their lives to save
ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they,
after much labour and hazard, took hold of ; and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their boat.
It was to no purpose for them or us, after we wvere in the
boat, to think of reaching to their own ship : so all agreed


to let her drive, and only to pull her in towards shore as
much as we could; and our master promised them, that if
the boat was stayed upon shore, he would make it good to:
their master. So partly rowing, and partly driving, our
boat went awvay to the northward, sloping towards the
shore, almost as far as Wintertonness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out
of our ship, but we saw her sink : and then I understood,
for the first time, what was meant by a ship foundering,
I muust acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up, when
the seamen told me she was sinking ; for, from that
moment, they rather put me into the boat, than that I
might be said to go in; my heart was, as it were, dead
within me, partly with fright, partly with horror of mind,
and the thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet labourling
at the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see
(when our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see
the shore) a great many people running along the strand,
to assist us when we should come near. But we made but
slow way towards the shore; nor were we able to reach it,
till, being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward towards Cromer; and so the land
broke off a little the violence of the wind. Here we got
in; and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
on shore; and walked afterwards on foot to Yarmouth;
where, as unfortunate men, we were used with great hu*
manity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who
assigned us good quarters, as by particular merchants and
owners of ships; and had money given us sufficient to
carry us either to London, or back to Hull, as we thought
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Kull,
and have gone home, I had been happy.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy
that nothing could resist ; and though I had several timnes
loud calls from my reason, and my more composed judg-
ment, to go home, yet I had no power to do it,.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and
who was the master's son, was now less forward than1 L.


The first time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmlouth,
which was not till two or three days, for we were sep~arated
in the town to several quarters, his tone was altered;
and, looking very melancholy, and shakingr his head, asked
me how I did : and telling his father who I was, and how
I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad; hris father turning to me with a grave and
concOerne tone, "L Young man," says he, "' you ought never
to go to sea any more; you ought to take this for a, plain
and visible token, that you are not to be a seafaringr nmn."
" Why, sir," said I, will you go to sea no more 1" That
is another case," said ho; it is my calling, and thlerefore
my duty; but, as you made this voyage for a trial, you soo
what a taste Heaven hlas given you of what you are to
expect if you persist : perhaps all this has befallen us on
your account, like Jonah~ in the ship of Tarshish. P'ray,"
continues he, what are you ? and on whalt account did
yougSo to sea 4" Upon that I told him some of my story ;
at the end of ~which he burst out with a strange ktindl of
passion. What hlad I done," says he, that such an
unhappy wretch should comeo into mly ship 8 I would not
set my foot in theo same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds However, he afterwardis talked very gravely to
me, exhorting me to go back to mly father, and not tempt
Providence to mly ruin; told me I might see a. visible
hand of Heaven against me : "L And, young mnan," said he,
" depend upon it, if you do not go back, whlerever you go,
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disatppoint-
ments, till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We pabrted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no0 more : which wayY he went, I know not.
As for me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled
to L~ondon by land: and there, as well as on the road, had
many struggles with myself, what course of life I should
take, and whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions that
offered to my thoughts; and it immediately occurred to
me how I should be laughed at among the neighbours, and
should be ashamed to see not my father and mother only,
but even every body else.


In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of life
to lead. Aa irresistible reluctance continued to going
home; and as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the
distress I had been in wore off: and as that abated, the
little motion I had in my desires to return wore off with
it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and
looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away; from my
father's house, presented the most unfortunate of all enter-
prises to my view; and I went on board a vessel bound
to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a:
voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these adventures,,
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though ~I.
might, indeed, have worked a little harder than ordinary;
yet at the same time I had learned the duty and office of
a fore-mast man ; and in time might have qualified myself
for a mate or lieutenant, if not for a master. But as it
was always my fate to choose for the worse, so I did here ;
for, having money in my pocket, and good clothes onl my
back, I would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learned to do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good comu-
pany in Lonldon. I first fell acquainted with the mnuaste
of a ship who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to go
agi.This captain, taking a fancy to my conversation,
which was not disagreeable at that time, hearing me say I
had a mind to see the world, told me, if I would go the
voyage with him, I should be at ndi expense; I should to
his messmate and companion; and if I should carry any
thing with me, I should have all the advantage of it
that the trade would admit; and perhaps I might meet,
with some encouragement.
I embraced the offer, and entering into a strict friend~-
ship with this captain, who was an honest plain-dealing:
man, went the voyarge with him; and carried a small
adventure with me, which, by the disinterested honesty~


of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably;
for I carried about E40 in suchl toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This 40 I hadl mustered
together by the assistance of some of my relations whom
I correspondied with, and who, I believe, got my father, or
at least my mother, to contribute so much as that to my
first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful
in all my adventures, and which I owe to th~e integrity
and honesty of mly friend the captain, under whom I also
got a competent knowledge of the masthematics, and the
rules of navigation; learned how to keep an account of
the ship's course, take~ an observation, and, in short to
understandl some things that were needful to be understood
by a sailor. I brought home five pounds nine ounces of
g~old-dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London,
on my return, almost 300 ; and this filled me with those
aspiring thoughts which have since completely my ruin.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader, and mly friend,
to my great misfortune, dying soon after hLis arrival, I
resolved to go th~e same voyage again : and I em~barked in
the same vessel writhl he wh~o was his mate in the former
voyage, and had now got the command of the ship. This
was the unhappiest voyage that ever man made; for
though I did not carry quite 100 of my newv-gained
wvelth, so that I had 2300 left, and which I lodged with
muy friend's widow, who was very just to me--yet I fell
into terrible misfortunes, the first was this, viz.: our ship,
making her course between those islands and the Alfrican
shore, was surprised in the gray of th~e morning by a
IVoorish rover of Salleo, who gave chase to us with all the
sail she could make. WeV crowded also as much canvas as
our yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have got
clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us, and would
certainly come us with us in a few hours, we! prepared to
fight,, our ship having twelve guns, an~d the rogue eighteen.
About three in the afternoon he came up with us, and
bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter, instead
-of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight of
-our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadlside


upon him, wh~lich made him sheer off again, after returning
our fire, and poured in also his small shot from near two
hundred men which he had on board. However, we had
not a man touched, all our men keeping close. He pre--
pared to attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but,
laying us on board th~e next time upon our other quarter,
he entered ninety menupon our decks, who immediately
fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rigging. We~
plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests, and
such like, and cleared our decks of them twice. However,
to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed, and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield; and were carried all
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I
apprehended; but I was kept by the captain of the rover
as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change
of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave,.
I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, which I
thought was now brought to pass, and that I could not be
worse. B~ut, atlas this was but a taste of the misery
I wvas to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this
As my new patron or master had taken mle home to his
house, I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would be
some time or other his fate to be taken by a Spanish or
Portugal nmn-of-wvar, and then I: should be set at liberty.
But this hope of mine was soon taken away; for when
he went to sea, he left me on shore to look after his little
garden, and to do the common drudgrery of slaves about
his house; and when he came home again from his cruise,
he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and whack
method I might take to effect it; but found no way that
had the least probability in it. So that for two years,
though I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet
I never had the least prospect of putting it in practice,


After about two years, an odd circumstance presented
itself, which put the old thoughts of making some
attempt for my liberty again in my head. My patron lying
at home longer than usual, without fitting out his ship,
which as I heard was for wvant of money, he used, once
or twice a week, sometimes oftener if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the
road fishing; and as he always took me and a young
Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him very
merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish;
inasmuch that sometimes he would send me with a Moor,
one of his kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing with him in
a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were
not half a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and,
rrowing we knew not whither, or which way, we laboured
all day, and all the next night; and when the morning
came, we found we had pulled off to sea, instead of
pulling in for shore, and that we were at least two leagues
from the land. However, we got well in again, though
with a great deal of labour, and some danger.
But mly patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future, and, having
lying by him the long-boat of our English ship which he
had taken, he resolved he would not go a fishing any
more without a compass, and some provision : so he
ordered the carpenter of his ship to build a little state-
room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like that
of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer, and
room before for a hand or two to work the sails. She
sailed with what we called a shoulder-of-mutton sail; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very
anug and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a
slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some small lockers
to put in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to
drink--particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a fishing; and
.as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened one day that he had


appointed to go out in this boat, with two or three Moors
of some distinction, and for whom he had provided
extraordlinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
lover night a larger store of provisions than usual; and
had ordered me to get ready three fusils with powder and
~shot, which were on board his ship; for that they designed
some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited t~he
next morning, when, by and by, my patron came on
board alone, and told me his guests had put off going,
upon some business that fell out, and ordered me with the
man~ and boy, as usual, to go out wvith the boat and catch
some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his house.
He commanded me, too, that as soon as I had got some
fish, I should bring it home to his house. All which I
prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance darted
into my thoughts, for nowv I found I was like to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being gone, I:
prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing business, but
for a voyage; though I knew not, neither did I so mnuch
as consider, whither I would steer; for anywhere to get
out of that place was my wish.
My first contrivance was to muake a pretence to speakito
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on boati);
for I told him we must not presume to eat of ouir patron's
bread. He said, that was true; so be brought a large
basket of biscuit, of their kind, and three jars of fresh
water into the boat. I knew where my patron's case of
bottles stood, which, it was evident by the make, were
taken out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat, while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a gred~
l~ump of bees'-wax into the boat, which weighed about half
a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of which were of great
) use to us afterwards ; especially the wax to make candlelin
Another trick I tried upon him, which he innocently came
into also. H~is name was Ismael, which they called Muley,
or Moley; solI called to him: Moley," said I, "our


patron's guns are all on board the boat : can you not get
a little powder and shot ? it may be we may kill some
alcamies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves; for I
know he keeps the gunners stores in the ship." He brought
a great leather pouch, which held about a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with shot,
that had five or six: pounds, with some bullets, and put
all into the boat. At the same time I had found some
powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I:
filled one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost
empty; and thus, furnished with everything needful, we
sailed out of the port to fish.
After we had fished for some time, and catched noth~ingr,
\I said to the Moor, This will not do: we must stand
farther off." He, thinking no ha~rml, agreed; and, as I had
the helm, I run the boat out near a league farther, and
Sth~en brought her to, as if I would fish; when, giving the
boy the helm, I stopped forward to where the Moor was,
Sand makings as if I stooped for something behind him, I
Took him by surprise and tossed him overboard into the
sea. He rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and
called to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go
all over the world with mec. He swamzn so strong after the
boat, that he would have reached me very quickly, there
beingr but little wind; upon which I stepped into th~e
cabin, and fetchling one of the fowling-pieces, I presented
it ait him, told him I had done him no hurt, and if he
would be quniet, I would do him none : But," said I,
"L you swim well enough~ to reach the sh-ore, and the sea is
calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do
you no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot
you through~ the head, for I am resolved to have my
liberty." So he turned himself about and swam for the
shore, and I make no doubt but he reached it with ease,
for he was an excellent swimmer.
I then turned to the boy, whom tlxey called Xury, and
said to him, Xur~y, if you will be faithful to me, I'll make
you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet, and his father's
beard), I must throw you into the sea too." The boy


Escape from Ballee.


smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that I could
not mistrust him; and he swore to be faithful to me, and
go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I
stoodl out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching
to windward, that they might think me gone towards the
Strait's mouth (as indeed anyone that had been in their
wits must have been supposed to do) ; for who would have
supposed we were sailed on to the southward, to the Bar-
barian coast, where whole nations of negroes were sure to
surround us with their canoes, and destroy us; where we
could never once go on shore, but we should be devoured
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human kind Z
But, as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I changed
my course, and steered directly south and by east, bend-
ing my course a little towards th~e east, that I might keep
in with the shore; and having a fair fresh gale of wind,
and a smooth quiet sea, I made such sail, that, I believe,
by the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when I
first made land, I could not be less than 150 miles south
of Sallee, quite beyond the Emperor of Morocco's
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Mloors, that
I would not go on shore, or come to an anchor, till I had
sailed in that manner five days 3 and then the wind shift-
ing to the southward, I concluded that if any vessels were
in chase of me, they would now give over; so I ventured
to make to the coast, and came to an anchor in the mouth
of a little river, I knew not what or where, neither what
latitude, or what country. I neither sawv nor desired to see
any people : the principal thing I wanted was fresh water.
We came into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim
on shore as soon as it was dark and discover the country;
but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild crea-
tures, of we knew not wbat kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on
shoretillday. "LWell, Xury," said I, "Lthen I won't;
but it may be that we may see men by day, who will be as
had to us as those lions." Then we may give them the


shoot gun," says Xury, laughing, makethem runway."~
Such English Xury spoke, by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer
him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it:
we dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say
stil, for we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw
vast great creatures, we knew not what to call them, of
many sorts, come down to the sea-shore, and run into the
water, wallowing and washing themselves for the pleasure
of cooling themselves: and they made such hideous howl-
ings and yelling that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frighted, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both~ worse frighted when we heard one of the
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we
could not see h~im, but we might hear him by his blowing
to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said it
was a lion, and cried out to me to weigh the anchor, and
row awaty. ": No," says I, "L Xury, we can slip our cable
with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us
far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the crea-
ture whateverr it was) within two oars' length, which some-
thing surprised me : however, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door and, taking up my gun, fired at him, upon
which he immediately turned about and swam towards the
shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible noises
and hideous cries and howlings that were raised, as well
upon the edge of the shore as higher within the country,
upon the noise or report of a gun; a thing, I have some
reason to believe, those creatures had never heard before.
This convinced me that there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore
in the day, was another question too; for, to have fallen
into the hands of any of the savages, had been as bad as
to have fallen into the paws of lions and tigers.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint in the
boat. Xury said, if I would let him go on shore with one
of the jars, he would find if there was any wa~zter, and


'bring some to me. I asked him wvhy he would go, why I
should not go, and he stay in the boat. The boy answered
with so much affection that made me love him ever after.
Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me; you go way."
"' Well, Xury," said I, we will both go ; and if the wild
manan come, we will kill them : they shall eat neither of
us." So we hauled the boat in near the shore, and waded
on shore, carrying nothing but our arms, and two jars for
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river : but the
boy seeing a low place, about a mile up the country, ram-
bled to it, and by and by I saw him come running to-
wards me. I thought he was pursued by some savage, or
frighted with some wild beast, and I ran forward towards
him to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I sawv
something hanging over his shoulders, which was a crea*
ture that he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour,
and longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and it
was very good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury
came with, was to tell me he had found water, and seen
no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such
pains for water, for a little higher up the creek we found
the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but a
little way up : so we filled our jars, and feasted on the
hare we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having
seen no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew
very well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape
de Verd Islands also, lay not far off. But as I had no in-
struments to take an observation, I knew not where to
look for them, or when to stand off to sea towards them.
We made on to the southward continually, for ten or
twelve days, livings very sparingly on our provisions, which
Began to abate very much, and going no oftener in to the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. MBy design
in this was to make the river Gambia or Benegal, that is
to say, any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in


hopes to meet with some Europeatn ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish there among the Negroes.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days.
longer, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and
as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to-
look at us : we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark nak~ed. I was once inclined to have gone on
shore to them, but Xury said to me, No go, Nlro go."
However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that I might talk
to them, and I found they ran along the shore by me a
good way. I observed they had in their hands, long
slender sticks, which Xury said were lances, and that they
would throw them a great way with good aim : so I kept
at a distance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could, and particularly made signs for something to eat,
They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my
sail, and lay by, andl two of them ran up into the country,
and in less than half an hour came back, and brought with
them two pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as is the
produce of their country; but we neither knew what the
one or the other was : however we were willing to accept
it. B3ut how to come at it was our next dispute, for I
was not for venturing on shore to them, and they were as
much afraid of us; but they brought it to the sh~ore, and
laid it down, and went and stood a great way off, till we
fetched it on board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing-
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered that
instant to oblige theml wonderfully; for while we were-
lying by the shorce, came two mighty creatures, one pur-
suing the other. As the two creatures ran directly into
the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon the
Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam
about as if they had come for their diversion : at last, one
of them began to come nearer our boat than at first I
expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded my
gun with all possible expedition, andl badle Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I


fired, and sthot him directly ino the head. Immediately
he sunk down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life ; and
so indeed he was. He immediately made to the shore;
but, between the wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the
~strangling of the water, he died just before he reached it.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun : some of them
fell down as dead with very terror. BIut when they saw
the creature dead, and sunk in the water, and that I made
signs to them, they took heart and came to the shore, and
began to search for the creature. I found him by his
blood staining the water, and by the help of a rope, which
I flung round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they
dragged him on the shore, and found that it was a most,
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree;
a~nd the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think~ what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire, and
the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran up directly
to the mountains from whence they came, nor could I at
that distance know what it was. I found quickly the
Negroes were for eating the flesh of this creature, so I was
wiling to have them take it as a favour from me, which,
when I made signs to them that they might take him,
they were very thankful for. They offered me some of the
flesh, which I declined, making as if I would give it them,
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very
freely, and brought me a great deal more of their provision,
which, though I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then
I made signs to them for some water, and held out one of
any jars to them, turning its bottom upward, to shew that.
it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled. They
~called immediately to some of their friends, and there
cae two women, and brought a great vessel made of
earth, and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set
down for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with mly
jars, and filled them all three.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
.and water; and, leaving mly friendly Negroes, I made


forward for about eleven days more, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of
four or five leagues before me, and, the sea being very calm,
I kept a large offing to make this point; at length, doubling
the point at about two leagues from the land, I saw plainly
land on the other side to seaward; then I concluded, as ib
was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd,
and those the islands, called from thence Cape de Verdt
Islands. However, they were at a great distance, and I
could not well tell what I hadl best to do.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into
the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm, when
on a sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship
was a sail !" and the foolish boy was frighted out of his
wits, thinking it must needs he some of his master's ships
sent to pursue us. I jumped out of the cabin, and imme-
diatelylsawr that it was a Portuguese ship, and, as I thought,
wa~s bound to the coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when
I observed the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they wiere bound some other way, and did not designr to
go any nearer to the shore, upon which I stretched out to
sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with th~em if
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be
able to come in their way, but that they would be gone
by before I could make any signal to them; but after I
had crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they, it
seems, saw me, and so shortened sail to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and made a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw. Upon these signals
they very kindly brought to, and in about three hours I
came up with them.
They asked me what Iwas in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French; but I understood none of them : but at
last a Scots sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I
answered him, and told him, I was azi Englishmnan, that I
had made mny escape out of slavery from the Moors at
Sallee. Then they bade me come on board, and very krindly
took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus de-


livered from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition, and I offered all I had to the captain of the ship,
as a return for my deliverance ; but he generously told me
he would take nothing from me, but that all I had should
be delivered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. "LFor,"
says he, I have saved your life on no other terms than as
I would be glad to be saved myself 3 and it may one time
or other be my lot to be taken up in the same condition."
No, no," says he, Signor Inglese [Mr. Englishman],
I will carry you to the Brazils in charity, and these things
wvill help you to buy subsistence there, and your passage
home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in
the performance to a tittle, for he ordered the seamen that
none shoulld offer to touch anything I had. As to my boat
it was a very good one, and he told me he would buy it of
me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would have for
it. I told him he had been so generous to me in every
thing that I could not offer to make any price of the boat,
but left it entirely to him; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty pieces
of eight for it at Brazil. He offered me also sixty pieces
of eight more for my boy Xury, but I was very loathe to
sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully
mn procuring my own. However, he offered me this medium
that he would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, Xury was
Wiligt owt i.e had a very good voyage to the B3razils, and arrived ~
in All Saints ~Bay in about twenty-two days.- And now I:
was once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life ; and what to do next with myself, I
was to consider. The generous treatment the captain gave
me I can never enough remember; he would take nothing
of me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the
leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, and what else
I was willing to sell; in a word, I made about 220 pieces
of my cargo, and with this stock I went on shore.
I had not been long here, but seeing how well the
planters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved, .


if I could get license to settle there, I would turn planter
among theml; resolving, in the meantime, to find out some
way to get my money, which I had left in London, remitted
to me. To this purpose I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan
for my plantation and settlement, and such a, one as might
be suitable to the stock which L proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. My stock was but low as well as
his, and we rather planted for food than anything else for
about two years. However, we began to increase, and our
land began to come into order, so that the third year we
planted some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece
of groturd ready for planting canes in the year to come;
but we both wanted help ; and now I found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong that never did right, was
no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on. I was
gotten into an employment quite remote to my genius, and
directly contrary to the life I delighted in, and for which
I forsook my father's house, and broke through all his
good advice. In this manner I used to look upon my
condition with the utmost regret. I had nobody to con-
verse with, but now and then this neighbour ; no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands; and I used to
say, I lived just like a man cast away upon some desolate
I was in some degree settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; when,
telling him what little stock I had left behind me in
London, he said, Signor Inglese, if you will give me
letters, withL orders to the person who has your money in
London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as
I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper for this
country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all
subject to changes and disasters, I would have you give


orders for 100 sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, so that if it come safe, you may order the rest the
same way, and if it miscarry, you may have the other half
to have recourse to for your supply. This was so whole-
some advice, and looked so friendly, that I could not but
be convinced it was the best course I could take; so I
accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman with
whom I had left my money, and wrote the English
~captain's widow a full account of all my adventures, my
slavery, escape, and how I had met with the Portugal
~captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and what
conditions I was now in, with all other necessary direc.
tions for my supply; and when this honest captain came
to Lisbon he found means to send over not the order only,
but a full account of my story, to a merchant at London,
who presented it to her; whereupon she not only deli-
vered the money, but sent the Portugal captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested this 100 in English
goods, such as the captain had written for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to
me to the Brazils; among which, without my direction,
he had taken care to have all sorts of tools, iron-work,
and utensils necessary for my plantation, which were of
great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made,
tfor I was surprised with the joy of it; and my good
steward, the captain, had laid out the E5, which my
friend had sent him for a present for himself, to purchase
;and bring me over a servant, under bond for six years'
service, and would not accept of any consideration, except
;a little tobacco, which I would have him accept, being of
my own produce.
lieither was this all; but my goods being all English
manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I found
means to sell them to a very great advantage; so that I
may say, I had more than four times the value of my farst
.cargo, and was now infmnitely beyond my poor neighbour;
for the first thing I did, I bought a negro slave, and


another European servant besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
I went on the next year with great success. I raised
fifty great rolls of tobacco more than I had disposed of
for necessaries among my neighbours, and these fifty rolls
being each of above 1001b. weight, were well cured and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And
now, increasing in business and in wealth, my head began
to be full of projects and undertakings beyond my reach.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen me, for
which my father so earnestly recommended a quiet retired
life, and which he had. so sensibly described the middle
station of life to be full of; but other things attended!
me, and I was still to be the wvilful agent of all my own
Having now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and
beginning to thrive and prosper very well upon my
plantation, I had not only learned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my fellowv-
planters, as well as among the merchants of St. Salvadore,
which was our port, and I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the
manner of trading with the 1Yegroes there, and how easy
it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such as
beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and
the like, not only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants'
teeth, &c., but negroes for the service of the Brazils.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses
on these heads, but especially to that part which related
to the buying negroes, which was a trade at that time not
only not far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been
carried on by the assientos, or permission of the kings of
Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the public stock, so
that few negroes were bought, and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came to me
the next morning, and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had discoursed of with them the:


last night, and they came to make a secret proposal to me.
They told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go
to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well, as I, and
were straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it
wa~s a trade that could not be carried on, because they
could not publicly sell the negroes when they came home,
so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among their
own plantations ; and, in a word, the question was,.
whether I would go their supercargo in the ship, to-
manage the trading part upon the coast of Guinea: and
they offered me that I should have my equal share of the:
negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it;
been made to any one that had not had a settlement and
plantation of his own to look after, and with a good stock
upon it. But for me, that was thus established, to think
of such a voyage, was the most preposterous thing that;
ever man, in such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no
more resist the offer, than I could restrain mny first-
rambling designs, when my father's good council was lost
upon me. In a word, I told them I would go with all
my heart, if they would undertake to look after my
plantation in my absence, and would dispose of it to such
as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all engaged
to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so;
and I made a formal wnl, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed:
in my will: one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped to England. I also took all:
possible precaution to keep up my plantation.
Accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur--
nishhed, and all things done as by agreement by my-
partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour
again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my father and mother at.


Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six guns,
land fourteen men, besides the master, his boy, and
myself. We had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the
negroes, such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd
-trifles, especially little looking glasses, knives, scissors,
hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing
.away to the northward, with design to stretch over for
the African coast. We had very good wveathe~r, only ex-
cessively hot, all the wa~y, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther off at
:sea, we lost sight of land. We were, by our last observa-
tion, in 7i degrees, 22 minutes, northern latitude, when a
violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our
knowledge : it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive; and
scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever fate and
-the fury of the winds directed. During these twelve
days, I need not say that I expected every day to be
;swallowed up; nor did any in the ship expect to save
their lives.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the
master made an observation as well as he could, and
found that he was upon the coast of Guiana, or the
north part of B3razil, beyond the river Amlazon ; and now
he began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky, and much disabled, and, looking
over the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
recourse to, till we came within the circle of the Caribbee
Islands, and therefore resolved to stand away for Bar-
~badoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to avoid the
indraught of the Bay or Gulf of MiIexico, we light
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail;
whereas we could not possibly make our voyage to the
coast of Africa, without some assistance both to our ship,
.and to ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, in order to
:reach some of our English islands, where I hoped for


relief 3 but a second storm came upon us, which carried
us away with the same impetuosity westward, and drove-
us out of the way of all human commerce. In this
distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our-
men, early one morning, cried out Land !" and we had
no sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of
seeing whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship
struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, the sea broke over-
her in such a manner that we expected we should all
perish immediately.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the-
like condition, to describe or conceive the consternation
of men in such circumstances. In a word, we sat looking
one upon another, and expecting death every moment,
and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little or nothing more for us to do in
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little-
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the-sand, and
sticking too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were
in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing to do but
to think of saving our lives as well as we could. We had
a boat at our stern, just before the storm, but she was first,
stayed by dashing against the ship's rudder, and in the
next place she broke away, and either sunk or was
driven off to sea, so there was no hope from her. We
had another boat on board; but how to get her off into.
the sea, was a doubtful thing.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of the
boat, and with the help of the rest of the men, they got
her flung over the ship's side, and getting all into her, let
go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to
God's mercy, and the wild sea.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all
saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the boat could
not escape, and that we should be inevitably drowned.
As to making sail, we had none; nor, if we had, could we
have done anything with it; so we worked at the oar
towards the land, though with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution; for we all knew, that when the boat


came near the shore, she would be dashed inr a thousand
pieces, by the breach of the sea. HRowever, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner; and
the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling, as well as we
could, towards land.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
atnd a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-
likre, came, rolling astern of us, and took us with such a
fury, that it overset the boat at once, and separating us as
wvell from the boat as from one8 another, gave us not time
hardly to say, 0 God !" for we were all swallowed up in
:a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I
felt when I sunk into the water, for though I swam very
wvell, yet I could not deliver myself from the waves so as
to draw breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather
spent itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had so
much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing
myself nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the land as
fast as I could, before another wave should return, and
take me up again. But I soon found it was impossible
to avoid it, for I saw~ the sea come after me as high as a
greatt hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with ; my business was to
hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I
could, and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and
pilot myself towards the shore, if possible; my glealtest
concern now being that the wave, as it would carry me a
great way towards the shore when it came on, might not
carry me back again with it, when it gave back towards
the sea.
The wave that came up~on me again, buried me at onee
:twenty or thirty feet deep in its own bodly, and I could
~feel myself carried with a mighty force and~ swiftnless
.towvards the shore a very great way; but I held my breath,
.andl assisted myself to swim still forward with all my



might. I was ready to burst with holding my breath,
wvhen, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my immediate
relief, I found m~y head and hands shoot out above the
surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds
of time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me
greatly, gave me breath and new courage. Finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck for-
ward against the return of the waves, and felt ground
again with my feet. I stood still a few moments to
recover breath, and till the water went from me, and then
I took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had,
farther towards the shore. But twice more I was lifted
up by the waves, and carried forwards as before, the
shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal to
me ; for the sea having hurried me along as before, landed
me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of rock, and
that with such force as it left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath, as it were, quite out
of my body, and had it returned again immediately, I
must have been strangled in the water; but I recovered
a little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I
should be covered again wpith the water, I resolved to hold
~fast by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if
possible, till the wave went back. Nowv, as the waves
were not so high as at first, being near land, I held my
hold till the wave abated, and then fetched another run,
which brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as
to carry me away; and the next run I took I got to the
main land, where, to my great comfort, I clambered up
the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass,
free from danger, andi quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a case
wherein there some was minutes before scarce any room
to hope.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and
mly whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contem-


plation of my deliverance, making a thousand gestures
and motions which I cannot describe, reflecting upon all.
my comrades that were drowned, and that there should
not be one soul saved but myself 3 for, as for them, I
never saw them afterward, or any sign of them, except
three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that were not.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the breach
and froth of the sea being so big, I could hardly see it, it
lay so far off; and considered, Lord how was it possible
I could get on shore !
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part
of my position, I began to look around me, to see what
kind of place I was -in, and what was next to be done, and
I soon found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had
a dreadful deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to
shift me, nor anything either to eat or drink to comfort
me, neither did I see any prospect before me, but that of
perishing with hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts :
and that which was particularly afflicting to me, was,
that I had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creatures
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-pipe,
and a little tobacco in a box; this was all my provision,
and this threw me into terrible agonies of mind, that for
a time I ran about like a madman. Night coming upon
me, I began with a heavy heart to consider what would
be my lot, if there were any ravenous beasts in that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time, was to get up into a thicky bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved to
sit all night, and consider the next day what death I should
die; for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I walked about
a furlong from the shore, to see if I could find any fresh
water to drink, which I did to my great joy; and having
drank, and put a little tobacco in my mouth, to prevent
hunger, I went to the tree, and getting up into it, en-


dleavoured to place myself so as thant if I should sleep I
might not fall; and having cut me a short stick like a
truncheon for my defence, I took up my lodging ; and hav-
ing been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept
as comfortably as I believe few could have done in my con-
dlition ; and foundl myself the most refreshed with it that
I think I ever was on such occasion.
When I wakedl it w~as broad day, the weather clear, and
the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell
as before ; but thant which surprised me most was that the
ship was lifted off in the night, from the sand where she
lay', by the swelling of the tide, andi was driven up almost
as far as the rock, which I first mentioned, where I had
been so bruised by the dtashing~ me against it. This being
within about a mile from the shore where I was, and the
ship seeming to stand upright itself, I wished myself on
board, that at least I mighlt save some necessary things
for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I
looedl about me again; and the first thing I found was
the boat, which lay as 'the wind and thle sea had tossed
her upon the land, about two miles on my right hand. I
walked as far as I could upon the? shore, to have reached
her, but found a neck or inlet of water between me and
the boat, which was about hsalf a mile abroad; so I came
back for the present, being more intent upon getting at
the ship, where I hoped to find something for my present
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and the
tide ebbedl so far out, that I could come within a quarter
of a mile of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing
of my grief, for I saw evidently that if we had kept on
board we had been all safe. I resolved, if possible, to get
to the ship ; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather
was hot to extremuity, and took the water; but when I
came to the ship my difficulty was how to get on board ;
for as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there
was nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam
round her twice, andl the second time I espied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,


hangingr down by the forechains, so low that with
difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got
up into the forecastle of the ship. My first work was to
search and see what was spoiled, and what was free; and
first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry an~d
untouched by the water; and being well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room and filled my pockets with.
biscuit, and ate it ais I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. Now I wanted. nothing but a boat to
furnish myself wvith- many things which I foresaw would
be very necessary to me.
WVe had several spare yards, and two or three large
spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or two in the ship;
I resolved to work with these, and flung as many of them
overbooard as I could manage for their weight, tying every
one with a rope, that they might not drive away. When
this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at bothl ends
as well as I could in the form of a raft ; and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I
found I could walk upon it very well, but that it was not
able to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light;
so I went to work, and with a carpenter's saw I cut a
spare top-mast into three lengths, and added them to my
raft, with a great deal of labour and pains; but the hope
of furnishing myself with necessaries encouraged me to
go beyond what I should have been able to have done
upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care wvas what to load it with, and how
to preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea :
but I was not long considering this; I first laid all the
planks or boards upon it that I could get, and having con-
sidered well what I most wanted, I first got three of the
seamen's chests, which I had broken open and emptied,
and lowered them down upon my raft. The first of these
I filed with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch
cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh which we lived
much upon, and a little remainder of European corn. As


~for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging to
our skipper, in which were some cordial waters, and in all
about five or six gallons of arrack : these I stowed by
themselves, there being no need to put them into the
chest, nor any room for them. While I was doing this, I
found the tide began to flow, though very calm, and I
had the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim away ; as
for my breeches, which~ were only linen and open knee'd,
I swam on board in them, and mly stockings. Of clothes
I found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use. After long searching I found out the car-
penter's chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to
me, and much more valuable than a ship-10ading of gold
would have been at that time. I got it down to my raft,
even whole as it was, without losing time to look into it,
for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin,
and two pistols : these I secured first, with some powder-
horns, a small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I
knew there were three barrels of powder in the ship, but
knew not where our gunner had stowed them, but with
much search I found them, two of them dry and good, the
third had taken water : those two I got to my raft with
the arms. And now I thought myself pretty well freighted,
and began to think how I should get to shore with them,
having neither sail, oar, nor rudder, and the least capful
of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements. First, A smooth and calm
sea. Secondly, The tide rising and setting in to the shore.
Thirdly, W;hat little wind there was, blew me towfards the
land. And thus, having found two or three broken oars
belonging to the boat, and besides the tools which were in
the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer, and
with this cargo I put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts,
mly raft went very well, only that I found it drive a little
distant from the place where I had landed before, by which
I:I perceived there was some indraught of the water, and
a 2


consequently I hoped to find some creek~ or river there,
which I might make use of as a port to get to land with
mly cargro.
As I imagined, so it wass; there appeared before me a
little opening of the land. I found a strong current of
the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could,
to keep in the middle of the stream. But here I had like
to have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think verily would ha~ve broken my heart : for knowing
nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground, at one end of it,
upon a shloal, not being aground at the other end, it wanted
but a little that all my cargo had slipped off towards the
end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water; I did
my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with
all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I
was in, but, holdings~ up the chests with all my might,
stood in that manner near half an hour, in which time the
rising of the water brought me a little more upon a level:
and a little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had, into the
channel, and then driving up higher, l at length found my
self in the mouth of a little river, with land on both sides,
and a strong current of tide running up.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the
creek~, to which with great pain and difficulty I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with
my oalr, I could thlrust her directly in; but here I had
like to have dipped all mry cargo into th~e sea again; for
that shore being pretty steep, that is to say sloping, there
was no place to land, but where one end of the float, if it
ran on shore, would lie so highl, and the other sink lower,
as before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All that-
I could do, was to wait till the tide was at the highest,
keeping th~e raft wvith~ my oar, like an anchor, to hold the
side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground,
which I expectedl the water would flow over ; and so it did.
As soon as I found water enough~ I thrust her upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored her, by
sticking my two broken oars into the ground, one on one


side near one end, and one on the other side near the other
end; and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left
my raft and all mly cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for mly habitation, and where to stow my
goods, to secure them from whatever might happen. There
was a hill not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and
a horn of powder, and, thus armed, I trv~e~lledl for discovery
up to the top of that hill, where, after I had with great
labour and difficulty got up, I immediately saw my fate, to
my great affliction : viz. that I was in an island, environed
every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some
rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small islands,
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as
I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild
beasts, of which, however, I saw none ; yet I saw abundance
of fowls, but knew not their kinds, neither, when I killed
them, could I tell what was fit for food, and what not.
At my coming back I shot at a great bird, which I sawv sit-
ting upon a tree, on the side of a large wood. I believe it
wats the first gun fired there since the creation of the world.
I had no sooner fired,, but from all the parts of the wood
there arose an extraordinary number of fowls, of many sorts,
snaking a confused screaming and crying, every one accord-
ing to his usual note; but not one of them of any kind
~that I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to be
.a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resemnblinga it, but it
had no talons or claws more than common: its flesh was
carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft,
and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took
me up the rest of the day. What to do with myself at
night I knew not, nor indeed where to rest.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself round
with the chests and boards, that I had brought on shore,
and made a kind of a, hut for that night's lodging : as for


food, I yet saw not which way to supply myself, except.
that I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out
of the wood where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great
many things out of the ship, which would be useful to me,
and particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
other things as might come to hand, and I resolved to
make another voyage on board the vessel, if possible ; and
as I knew that the first storm that blew must necessarily
break her all in pieces, I resolved to set all other things
apart, til I got everything out of the ship that I could.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft ; not so unwieldy as thre first, nor did I load it so hard;
but yet I brought away several things very useful to me;
as first in the carpenter's store I found two or three bags
full of nails and spikes, a great screw jack, a dozen or two
of hatchets, sand above all, that most useful thing called a
Grindstone : all these I secured, together with several things
belonging to the gunner, particularly two or three iron
crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets,
and another fowrling piece, with some small quantity of
powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great;
roll of sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not
hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes that.
I could find, and a spare fore- topsail, hammock, and some
bedding; and with this I loaded my second raft, and
brought them also safe on shore, to my very great comfort,
I was under some apprehensions during my absence from
the land, that at least my provisions might be devoured on
shore; but when I came back, I found no sign of any
visitor, only there sat a creature like a wild cat upon one-
of the chests, which, whlen I came towards it ran away to
a little distance, and then stood still. She sat very com-
posed and unconcerned, and looked full in my face, as if
she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gunl at her; but as she did not understand it, she was
perfectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away;
upon which I tossed her a piece of biscuit, though by the
way I was not very free of it, for my store was not great,


However, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to it,
smelled of it, and eat it, and looked (as pleased) for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more; so she
marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I was
fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring them by
parcels, for they were too heavy, beings large caskls) I went
to work to make a little tent with the sail and some poles
which I cut for that purpose ; and into this tent I brought
everything that I knew would spoil, either with rain or
sun; and I piled all the empty chests and casks up in a
circle round the tent, to fortify it fr~om any sudden
attempt, either froml man or beast.
When I had dlone this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set on
end without, and spreading one of the beds upon the
ground, laying my two pistols just at my head, and my
gun at length by me, I went to bed for the first time, and a
slept very quietly all night, being very weary and heavy;
for the night before I had slept little, and had laboured
very hard all day, as well to fetch those things from the
ship, as to get them on shore.
I hlad the biggest magazine of all kindZs now that ever
was laid upt I believe for one man~; but I was not satisfied
still, for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I
thought I ought to get every thing out of her that I could;
so every dlay at low water, I went on board, and brought
away something or other. The third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all
the small ropes and rope-twvine I could get, with a piece of
spare canvas, which wa~s to mend the sails upon occasion,
and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that at
last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages, I
found a great hogshead of bread, three large runlets of ruml
or spirits, a box of sugar and a barrel of fine flour : this
was surprising to me, because I had given over expecting
any more provisions except what was spoiled by the water.
I emptied the hogshead of the bread, and wrapt it up,
parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out;


and in a word, I got all this safe on shore also, though at
several times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered th~e ship of what was portable, andi fit to hand
out, I began with the cables; and cuttings the great cable
into pieces, such as I could move, I got two cables and a
hawser on shore, with all the iron-workr I could get; and
having cut down the sprit-sail-yard, and the mlizen-yard,
and everyrthinga I could to make a large raft, I loaded it
with aill those heavy goods, and came away. But my
good luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy,
and so overladen, that after I was entered the little cove,
where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able
to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me an~d all m~y cargo into the water. As for myself,
it was no great harml, for I w~as near the shore; but as to
my cargo it was great part of it lost, especially the iron,
which I expected would have been of great use to me.
However, when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces
of cable ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite
labour, for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a work
which fatigued mle very much. After this, I went every
day on board, and brought away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and had been
eleven times on board the ship, in which time I had
brought away23 all that one pair of hands could well- be
supposed capable to bring, though~ I believe verily, had
the calm weather held, I should have brought away the
whole ship, piece by piece. But preparing thre twelfth
time to go on board, I found the wind began to rise;
however, at low walter, I went on board, and though I
thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that
nothing more could be found, yet I discovered a locker,
with drawers in it, in one of which I foundl two or three
razors, and one pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen
good knives and forks; in another, I found about thirty-
six pounds value in money, some European coin, some
Brazil, some pieces-of-eight, come gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. "L O
drug said I, aloud, wh;at art thou good for ? Thou


art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.
One of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no
manner of use for thee. However, upon second thoughts,
I took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of canvas,
I began to think of making another raft; but I found the
sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter
of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore : and it pre-
sently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to
make a raft, with the wind off shore, and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began, other-
wise I might not lbe able to reach the shore at all : ac-
cordingly I let myself down into the water, and awam
across the channel, which lay between the ship and the
sand, and even that with difficulty enough, partly with
the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughitess of the water, for the wind rose very hastily, and
before it was quite higlx water it blewv a storm.
But I had got home to my little tent, where I lay with
all my wealth about me very secure :. it blew very hard
all that night; and in the morning, when I looked out,
behold, no more ship was to be seen !
M~y thoughts were now wholly employed abouli aecuring
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or
.wvild beasts, if any were in the island; and I had many
thoughts of the method how to do this,.imd what kind of
dwelling to make ; whether I should., make me a cave in
the earth, or a tent : and, in short, I resolved upon bo~th;
the manner and description of whiich it'may not be im-
proper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settle-
ment, particularly because it was upon a low moorish
ground near the sea, and I believed would not be whole-
some, and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it ; so I resolved to find a more_ healthy and
more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in mye situation; first, health
and fresh water; secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun; thirdly, security from ravenous creatures, whether
man or beast ; fourthly, a view to the sea, that if Grod
sent any ship) in sigh~t, I might not lose any advantage for
mly deliverance.


In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hil, whose front towards this
little plain was as steep as a house-side, so that nothing
could come down upon me from the top. On the side of
this rock there was a hollow place, worn a little way in,
like the entrance or door of a cave, but there was nots
really any cave or way into the rock at all.
On the flat of the green, just below this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay
like a green before my door, and at the end of it descended
irregularly every way down to the low grounds by the sea-
side. It was on the N.N.W. side of the hill, so that it
was sheltered from the heat every day, till it came to a
T. and by S. sun, or thereabouts, which in those coun-
tries is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I draw a half-circle before the
hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-
diameter, from the rock, and twenty yards in its diamneter,
from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm,
like piles, the biggest end being out of the ground about
five feet and a half, and sharpened on the top,; the two
rows did not stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had out in the
sh~ip, and laid them in rows one upon another, within the
circle between these two rows of stakes, up to the top,
placing other stakes in the inside, leaning against them,
about two feet and a half high, like a spur to a post; and
this fence was so strong, that neither man nor beast could
get into it, or over it. This cost mle a great deal of time
and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods, bring
them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be, not by a door,
but by a short ladder, to go over the top; which ladder,
when I was in, I lifted over after me; and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all the
world, and consequently slept secure in the night, which-
otherwise I could not have done; though, as it appeared


afterwards, there was no need of all this caution from the
enemies I apprehended danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried
all my riches, all muy.provisions, ammunition, and stores,.
of which you have the account above; and I made a large
tent also, which, to preserve me from the rains, that in:
one part of the year are very violent there, I made double,.
viz. : one, smaller tent within, and one larger tent above:
it; and covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin,.
which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which I
had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was in-
deed a very good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every-
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus en-
closed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which till
now I had left open, and so passed and repassed, as I
said, by a short ladder.
Whlen I had done this, I began to work my way into
the rock; and bringing all the earth and stones that I
dug down, out, through~ mly tent, I laid them up within
my fence in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the
ground within about a foot and a half ; and thus I made
a cave just behind my tent, which served me? like a cellar
to my house.
It cost mle much labour, and many days, before all these
things were brought to perfection; and therefore I must
go back to some other things which took up some of my
thoughts. At the same time it happened, after I had laid
my scheme for the setting up my tent, and making the
cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick dark cloud,
a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I
was not so mluch surprised with the lightning, as I was
with the thought which darted into my mind as swift as
the lightning itself : O my powder My very heart sunk
within me, when I thought, that at one blast all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing me food, as I thought, entirely
depended : I was nothing near so anxious about my onit


danger; though, had tlxe powder took fire, I had never
kEnown who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the
.storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and
fortifying, and applied myself to make bags and boxes to
separate my powder, and to keep it a little and a little in
a parcel, in hopes, that whatever might come, it mlight
not all take fire at once, and to keep it so apart, that it
should not be possible to make one part fire another. I
finished this work in about a fortnighlt, and I think my
powder, which was in all about 1401b. weight was divided
into no less than a hundred parcels. As to the barrel
that had been wet, I did not apprehend anly danger from
~that, so I placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I
called miy kitchen; and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out
;at least once every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill any thing fit for food, and,
as near as I could to acquaint myself with wha~tt the island
produced. The first time I went out, I dliscoveredl, that
here were goats in the island, which was a, great satis-
faction to me; but then it was attended with. this mis-
fortune to me, viz. : that they were so shy, so subtle, and
so swift of foot, that it was the difficultest thing in the
world to come at th~em. I observed, if they saw me in
Ithe valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they would
sun away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no
notice of me; from whlence I concluded, that by the
position of their optics, their sight was so directed downv-
-ward, that they did not readily see objects that were
,above them. So afterwards I took this method : I always
climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had
frequently a fair mark.
The first shot I mlade among those creatures, I killed a
she-goat which had a little kid by her, which she gave
suck to, which grieved me heartily; but when the old
sne fell, the kid stood stock-still by her till I came and took


her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one-
with me upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure ; upon which I laid down the daml, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes-
to have bred it up tame, but it would not eat, so I was
forced to kill it, an~d eat it myself. These two supplied
me with flesh a great while, for I ate sparingly, and saved
my provisions (mly bread especially) as much as possibly
I could.
Havinng now fixed my habitation, I foundc it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to
burn ; and what I did for that, as also how l enlarged my
cave, and what conveniences I made, I shall give a full
account of it in its place : but I must first give some
little account of myself, and of my thoughts about living,
which it may well be supposed were not a few.
And now, to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the
world before, I shall take it from its beginning, and con-
tinue it in its order. It was, by my account, the 30th of
September, when in the manner as above said, I fist set
foot upon this horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in
its autumnal equinox, was almost just over my head ; for
I reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude of
9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts, that I should lose my reckoning
of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and should
even forget the Sabbath days from the working days :
but to prevent this, I cut it with~ my knife upon a large
post in capital letters ; and making it into a great cross I
set it up on the shore where I first landed; viz. : I came
on shore here the 30th of September, 1659. Upon the
sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with my
knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly,
monthly, and yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe, that among `the
many things which I brought off the ship in the several


voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made to it, I got
several things of less value, but not at all less useful to
me, which I omitted setting down before; as in particular,
pens, inik, and paper, several parcels in the captain's,
anate's, gunner's, and carpenter's keeping, three or four
compasses, some mathematical instruments, dials, perspec-
tives, charts, and books of navigation, all which I hud-
dled together, whether I might want them or no; also I
found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among
my things; somve Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other books,
all which I carefully secured. And I must not forget that
we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog,
he jumped out of the ship of himself, and swam on shore
to me the day after I went on shore with my first cargo,
and was a trusty servant to me many years. As I observed
before, I found pen, ink, and paper, and I husbanded to
the utmost; and I shall shew, that while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I could
not; for I could not make any ink, by any means that I
could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and of
these, this of ink was one, as also a spade, pick-axe, and
shovel, to dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and
thread; as for linen, I soon learned to want that without
much diffculty.
This want of tools made every work I did go heavily,
and ~it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished
my little pale, or surrounded habitation: the piles, or
stakes, which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a
long time in cutting and preparing in the woods, and more
by far in bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two
days in cutting and bringing home one of those posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which pur-
pose I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last be-
thought myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,


though I found it, yet made driving those posts or piles
very laborious and tedious work. B~ut what need I have
been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in 9
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing; not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but few
heirs, as to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon
them, and afflicting my mind; and as my reason began
now to master my despondency, I began to comfort myself
as well as I could, and to set the good against the evil,
that I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and
creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the miseries I
suffered, thus :


But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company was.
But I am singled out too,
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death; and
IHe that miraculously saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not abarved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But l am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes( I
could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on tan is-.
land where I see no wild
beasts to hurt me, as I saw
on the coast of Africa; and
what if I had been ship-
wrecked there 3

I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out, and se-
parated, as it were, from all
the world to be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, solitary, one banished
from human society.
I have no clothes to cover

I am without any defence,
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.


I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully sent
to, or relieve me. the ship in near enough to
the shore, that I have gotten
out so many necessary things
as will either supply my
wants, or enable me to sup-
ply myself, even as long as
I live.

Upon the wh~ole, there was an undioubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in thle world so miser-
able, but there was something nzegatice, or somethings
p'ositive, to be thankful for in it.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my con-
dition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see if I could
spy a ship, I began to apply myself to accommodate mly
way' of living, and to make things as easy to me as I
I have already described my habitation, whlich. was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of
posts and cables, but I might rather call it a wall; for I
raised a kind of wall up against it of turfs, about two feet
thick on the outside; and after some time (I think it was
a year and a half) I raised rafters from it, leaning to the
rock, and thatched or covered it with boughs of trees, and
such things as I could get to keep out the rain, which I
found at some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I hadi made behind
me; but I must observe too, that, at first, this was a con-
fused heap of goods, which, as they lay in no order, took:
up all my place; I had no room to turn myself : so I set
myself to enlarge my cave, and work~ed farther into the
earth; for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily
to the labour I bestowed on it : and so, when I foundl I
was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock; and, then turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come
out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it was a


back wray to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave me
room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such neces-
sary things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair
and a table ; for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write or eat,
or several things, with so much pleasure without a table.
So0 I went to work; and here I must needs observe,
that as reason is the substance and original of the mathe-
matics, so by stating and sqluaring everything by reason,
and by making the most rational judgment of thingapivery~
man may be, in time, master of every mechanic art. Ihhti~
never handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I wanted
nothing but I could have made it, especially if I had tools :
however, I made abundance of things, even without tools,
and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board,
I hlad no other wa~y but to cut down a tree, set it on an
edlge before me, and hew it flat on either side withn my
axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and
then dub it smooth wvith my adze.
However, I mlade me a table and a chair, in the first
place, and this I did out of the short pieces of boards that
I brought on my raft from the ship ; but when I had
wrought out some boards, I made large shelves of the
breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along
one side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work, and, in a word, to separate everything at large in
their places, that I might easily come at them; also, I
knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to hangs my guns,
and all things that would hang up. So that my cave
looked like a general magazine of all necessary things ; and
I had everything so ready at my hand, that it was a great
-pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and espe-
cially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
Andl now it was when I began to keep a journal~ of
every day's employment, of which I shall here give you
the copy (though in it will be told all these particulars


over again), as long as it lasted; for at last, having no
more ink, I was forced to leave it off.

SEPTEMBER 30, 1659.-1, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadfill storm in the
offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island,
which I called the Island of Despair, all the rest of the
ship's company being drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz., I hadl
neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to,
and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but death before
me, either that I should be devoured by wild beasts,
murdered by savages, or starved to death for want of food.
At the approach of night, I slept in a tree, for fear of
wild creatures; but slept riundly, though it rained all
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise,
the ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on
shore again much nearer the island, which, as it was some
comfort on one hand (for seeing her sit 'upright, and not
broken in pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I might get
on board, and get some food and necessaries out of her for
iny relief), so, on the other hand, it renewed my grief at
.he loss of my comrades, who, I imagined, if we had all
stayed on board, might have saved the ship, or at least
that they would not have been all drowned, as they were;
and that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried
us to some other part of the world. I spent great part of
this day in perplexing myself on these things; but at
length seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand
as near as I could, and then swam on board. This day
also continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I could
out of the ship, which I brought on shore every tide of
flood upon rafts. Much rain also in these days, though


with some intervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this
was the rainy season.
October 24. I overset my raft, and aUl the goods I had
got upon it; but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when the
tide was out.
October 25. It rained all night, and all day, with some
gusts of wind, during which time the ship broke in pieces,
the wind blowing a little harder than' before, and was no
more to be seen, except the wreck of her, and that only at
low water. I spent this day in covering and securing the
goods which I saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
October 26. I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix myJ habitation, greatly concerned
to secure myself fromz any attack, in the night, either from
wild beasts or men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper
place under a rock, and marked out a semicircle for my
encampment, which I resolved to strengthen with a work,
wall, or fortification, made of double piles, lined within
with cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though some
part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went into the island with
mly gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country;
wvhen I killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home,
which I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1.--I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
November 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and
the pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place I had
marked out for myl fortification.
November 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which wvere very good food. In the.
afternoon, went to work to make me a table.
November 4i.--This morning I began to order my timej3
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
time of diversion--viz., every morning I walked out with


my gunl for two or three hours, if it did not rain; then
employed myself to workr till about eleven o'clock; then
eat what I had to live on : and from twelve to two I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot, and then
in the evening to work again. The working part of this
day and the next were wholly employed in making my
table, for I was yet but a very sorry workman, though
time and necessity made me a complete natural mechanic
soon after, as I believe it would do any one else.
November 5.--This day I went abroad with my gun
and mly dog, and killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft,
but her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed I
took of thle skins and preserved them. Coming back, by
the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-fowls which I did
not understand, but was surprised and almost frighted
with two or three seals which, while I was gazing at, not
well knowing what they were, got into the sea, and escaped
me for that time.
November 6.--After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to mly
liking, nor was it long before I learned to mend it.
NSovember ~.--Now it began to be settled fair weath~er.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th
was Sunday, according to mny reckoning), I took wholly
up to make me a chair, and, with much ado, brought it to
a tolerable shape, but never to please me ; and even in
the making I pulled it to pieces several times. Note: I
soon neglected keeping my Sundays; for, omitting my
mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
November 13.--This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth, but it was accompanied
w-ith terrible thunder and lightning, which frighted me
direadfully, for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over,
I resolved to separate my stock of powder into ,as many
little parcels as possible, that it might not be in danger.
November 14, 15, 16.-T'lhese three days I spent in
making little sqluare: chests or boxes, which~ might hold
about a pound, or two pounds at most, of powder; and so
putting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure and
remote from one another as possible. On one of these


three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat, but
I knew not wvhat to call it.
November 17.-This day I began to dig behind my
tent into the rock, to make room for my farther conve-
niency. Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work : viz., a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow
or basket; so I desisted from my work, and began to
consider how to supply that want, and make me some
tools. As for the pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows I
which were proper enough though heavy : but the next
thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely
necessary that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually
without it but what kind of one to make I knew not.
November 18.--The next day, in searching the wvoods,
I found a tree of that wood, or like it, w~hichl, in the
Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding hardness :
of this, with extreme labour, and almost spoiling my axe, I
cut a piece, and brought it home, too, with difficulty
~enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The excessive hard-
ness of the wood, and having no other wvay, made me a
long while upon this machine; for I worked it effectually,
by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade, the
handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would
not last me so long : however, it served well enough for
the uses which I had occasion to put it to : but never was
.a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long a
I was still deficient, for want of a basket, or a wheel-
;barrow.: a basket I could not make by any means, having
no such thing as twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware, or at least none yet found out; and, as to the
wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the wheel;
but that I had no notion of, neither did I know how to
go about it ; besides, I had uo possible way -to make iron
gudgeonss for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run in, so
I gave it over. And so for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made a thing like a hod,. which
the labourers carry mortar in, when they serve the brick-


This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel,.
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which I
made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less,
than four days.
November 23. My other work having stood still be-
cause of my making these tools, when they were finished
I went on; and, working every day as my strength and'
time allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in widening;
and deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods com-
Note.--Duringa all this time I worked to make this
room, or' cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a
warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a;
cellar; as for a lodging, I kept to the tent, except that.
sometimes in the wet season it rained so hard, that I could'
not keep myself dry, which caused me afterwards to cover
all my place within my pale with long poles, in the fornt
of rafters, leaning against the rock, and load them with
flags, and large leaves of trees, like a thatch.
December 10.--I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when, on a sudden (it seemed I had made it too=
large), a great quantity of earth fell down from the top*
and one side, so much that, in short, it frighted me, and
not without reason too; for if I had been under it, I had:
never wanted a grave-digger. I had a great deal of work-
to do over again; for I had the loose earth to carry out,
and, what was of more importance, I had the ceiling tot
prop up, SO that I might be sure no more would come
December 11.--This day I went to work with it
accordingly, and got two shores, or posts, pitched uprigohtb
to the top, with two pieces of boards across over each
post. This I finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured, and the posts, standing in rows, served me
for partitions to part off my house.
December 17.--From this day to the 20th, I placed'
shelves, and knocked up nail: on the posts, to hang every
thing up that could be hung up; and now IC began to be
in some order within doors.


December 20.--Now I carried everything into the cave,
and began to furnish mly house, and set up some pieces of
boards, like a dresser, to order my victuals upon; but
boards began to be very scarce with me. Also I made me
another table.
December 24.--Much rain all night and all day; no
stirring out.
December 25.-R~ain all day.
December 26.-No rain, and the earth much cooler
than before, and pleasanter.
December 27.--Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string; wvhen I
had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg, which was
N.B.--I took care of it tha~t it lived, and the leg grew
well and as strong as ever; but by nursing it so lorg it
grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and
would not go away. This was the first time that I enter-
tained a thought of breeding up some tame creatures,
that I might have food when my powder and shot was all
December 28, 29, 30, 31.--Great heats and no breeze;
so that there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening
for food. This time I spent in putting all my things in
order within doors.
January; 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late, with my gaun, and lay still in the middle of the
day. This evening, going farther into the valleys, which
lay to the centre of the island, I found there was plentyof
goats, though exceeding shy, and hard to come at. How-
ever, I resolved to try if I could not bring mly dog to hunt
them down.
January 2. Accordingly, the next day, I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats ; but I was mistaken,
for they all faced about upon the dog, and he knew his
danger too well, for he would not come near them.
January 3. I began mly fence or wall, which, being still
jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to
make very tlxick and strong.
[N.B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit


what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe,
that I was no less time than from the 3rd of January to
14th of April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall,
though it was no more than about twenty-four yards in
length, being a half circle, from one place in the rock, to
another place about eight yards from it, the door of the
cave being in the centre behind it.]
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes, weeks together ;but I
thought I should never be perfectly secure till this wall
was finished : andl it is scarce credible what inexpressible
labour every thing was done with, especially the bringing
piles out of the woods, and driving them into the ground ;
for I made them much bigger than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded
myself that if any people were to come on shore there,
they would not perceive anly thing like an habitation :
and it was very well I did so, as may be observed hereafter,
upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for
game every day, when the rain permitted me, and made
frequent discoveries in these wvalks of something or other
to my advantage; particularly, I found a kind of wild
pigeon, which build not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but
rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the rocks : andl
talking some young ones, I endeavoured to breed them up
ta~me, and did so; but when they grew older, they flew
away, which perhaps was at first for want of feeding them,
for I had nothing to give them: however, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household tffairs, I found
myself wanting in many things, which I thought at first
it wa~s impossible for me to make, as indeed as to some of
them it was : for instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped. Ihad a small runilet or two, as I observed before,
but I could never arrive to the capacity of making one by
them, though I spent many weeks about it; I couldl neither
put in the heads, or join the staves so true to one another,


as to make them hold water ;so I gave that also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so
that as soon as it wvas dark, which was generally about
seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed. I remembered
the lump of bees-wax, with which I made candles in my
African adventure ; but I had none of that now : the only
remedy I had, was, that when I had killed a goat, I saved
the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay, which I
baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum,
I made me a lamp, and this gave me light, though not a
clear steady light, like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that rummaging my things, I found
a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been fdlled with
corn : what little remainder of corn had been in the bag,
was all devoured by the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag
for some other use I shook the husks of corn out of it, on
one side of my fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now mentioned,
that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice of any thing,
and not so much as remembering that I had thrown any
thing there, when about a month after or thereabouts, I
saw some few stalks of something green shooting up on
the ground, which I fanciedl might be some plant I had not
seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly astonished, when,
after a little longer time, I saw about ten or twelve ears
come out, which were perfect green barley, of the same
kind as our European, na~y, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confu-
sion of my thoughts on this occasion : I had hitherto acted
upon no religious foundation at all ; indeed I had very few
notions of religion in my head, nor had entertained any
sense of anly thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as
a chance, or, as we lightly say, what pleases God ; without
so much as inqu~iring into the end of Providence in these
things, or His order in governing events in the world : but,
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I knew
was not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not
how it came there, it startled me strangely, and I began to
suggest, that God had miraculously caused this grain to


grow, without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance in that wild miserable
I not only thought these the pure productions of Provi-
dence for mly support; but, not doubting but that there
was more in the place, I went all over that part of the
island where I had been before, peering in every corner,
and under every rock, to see for more of it; but I could
not find any. At last it occurred to me, that I had shaken
the bag of chicken's meat out in that place ; and then the
wonder began to cease; and I must confess, my religious
thankfulness to God's providence began to abate too, upon
the discovering that all this was nothing but what was
common, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen providence, as if it had been mira-
culous; for it was really the wvork of Providence as to me,
that should order or appoint, that ten or twelve grains of
corn should remain unspoiled (when thle rats had destroyed
all the rest), as if it had been dropped from heaven : as
also that I should throw it out in that particular place,
where, it being in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up
immediately 3 whereas, if I had thrown it any where else,
at that time, it had been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure,
in their season, which was about the end of June; and
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all agaain,
hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient to supply
me with bread : but it was not till the fourth year that I
could allow myself the least grain of this corn to eat, and
even then but sparingly, as I shall say afterwards in its
order; for I lost all that I sowed the first season, by not
observing the proper time, for I sowed just before the dry
season, so that it never came up at all, at least not as it
would have done : of which, in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or
thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care.
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to
get my wall done ; and, the 14th of April, I closed it up,
contriving to go into it, not by a door, but over the wall;,


by a ladder, that there might be no sign on tUhe outside of
my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder : so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let
it down on the inside. This was a complete enclosure to
me; for nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had
almost all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed,
for all on a sudden I found the earth came tumbling down
from the roof of my cave, and from the edge of the hill
over my head, and two of the posts I had set up in the
cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared,
and got over my wrall for fear of the pieces of the hill which
I expected might roll down upon me. I no sooner stepped
upon the firm ground but I saw it was a terrible earth-
qunake; I perceived also the very sea was put into a vio-
lent motion by it, and I believe the shocks, of which there
wrere three, were stronger under the water than on the
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for
some time I began to take courage, and yet I had not
heart enough to get over my wall again for fear of being
buried alive, but still sat upon the ground greatly cast
down and disconsolate, not knowing what to do. When
on a sudden it came into my thoughts that these winds
and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the:
earthquake itself was spent and over, and I might venture
into my cave again. With this thought my spirits began
to revive, and I went in and sat me down in my tent, but
the rain was so violent that I was forced to go into myi
cave, though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it
should fall on my head.
It continued raining all that night, and great part of'
the next day, sio that I could not stir abroad, but my mind
being more composed I began to think what I had best do,.
concluding that if the island was subject to these earth-
quakes there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open
place, which I might surround with a wall as I had done


here, and so make myself secure from' wild beasts or men,
but concluded if I staid where I was I should certainly
one time or other be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved that I would go to work
with all speed to build a wall with piles and cables, etc.,
:in a circle as before, and set mly tent up in it when it was
finished. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morninga I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a great
loss about my tools. I had three large axes, and abun-
dance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic
with the Indians), but with much chopping and cutting
knotty hard wood they were all full of notches and dull,
:and though I had a grindstone I could not turn it, and grind
my tools too. At length I contrived a wheel with a
string, to turn it with my foot that I might have both my
hands at liberty. This machine cost mue a full week's
Ivork, to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two wh~ole days Itook up in grind-
ing my tools; my machine for turning my grindlstone per-
;forming very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been low a
great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself
to one biscuit cake a day, which made my heart very
May 1. In the morning, looking towrardls the sea-side,
the tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore,
bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a cask : when I
came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or three pieces
of the wreck of the ship, which were driven on shore by
.the late hurricane; and looking towards the wreck itself,
I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water than it
used to do. I examined the barrel which was driven on
.shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but
it had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as
;a stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
:present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I could to
the wreck of the ship to look for more.
When I came dlown to the ship, I found it strangely re-
anoved; the forecastle, wh-ich before layS buried in the sand,


was heaved up at least six feet; and the stern, which wai
broken to pieces, andl parted from the rest by the force of
the sea, soon after I had left rummaging her, was tossed;
as it were, up, and cast on one side; and the sand was
thrown so high on that side next the stern, that whereas
there was a great place of water before, so that I could not;
come within a quarter of a mile of the wreck without;
swimming, I could now walk quite up to her wh~en thei
tide was out. I was surprised with this at first, but soon
concluded it must be done by the earthquake, and as by
this violence the ship was more broken open than
formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the
sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted mly thoughts from the design of
removing my habitation, and I busied myself mightily,
that day especially, in searching whether I could make any
wray into the ship ; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for that all the inside of the ship was choked up.
with sand. However, as I had learnt not to despair of
any thing, I resolved to pull every thing to pieces that I
could of th~e ship, concluding that every thing I could get
froml her would be of some use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part, or
quarter-deck together : and when I had cut it through, I
cleared away the sand as well as I could, from the side
which lay highest; but the tide coming in, I was obliged:
to give over for that time.
MayI 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I
dunrst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when, just going
to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a
long line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks, yet I fre-
qu~ent~ly cabught fish enough, as much as I cared to eat, all
which I dried in the sun, and eat them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks,
which I tied together, and made swim on shore, when the
tide of flood came on.
May 6. W~orkedi on the wreckr, got several iron bolts out


of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of
giving it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but with an intent not
to work; but found the weight of the wreck had broken
itself down, the beams being out, that several pieces of the
ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside of the hold lay so
-open, that I could see into it ; but almost full of water and
May 8. Went to the wrec, and carried an iron crow to
wr~ench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the
water or sand. I wrenched open two planks, and brought
them on shore also with the tide. I left the iron crow in
the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow, made
way into the body~ of the wreck, and felt several casks, and
loosened them with the crow, but could not break them
up. I felt also the roll of English lead, and could stir it ;
but it was too heavy to move.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the wreck,
and got a great deal of pieces of timber, and boards or
planks, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. I carried two hatchets to try if I could not cut
a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one
hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as it lay about
a foot and a half in the water I could not make anly blow
to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blowved hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the water, but
I stayed so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore,
at a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see
what they were, and found it was a piece of the lead, but
too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck,
and with hard labour, loosening some things so much with
the crow, that the first flowing tide several casks floated out,
and two of the seamen's chests, but the wind blowing
from the shore nothing came to land that dlay, but pieces


of timber and a hogshead which had some Brazil pork in,
it, but the salt water and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
~except the time necessary to get food, which I had always
appointed, during this time of my employment, to be when
tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed out;
and by this time I had gotten timber and plank, and iron
work enough to have built a good boat if I had known
how, and I also got at several times, and in several pieces,
near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side I found a large
tortoise or turtle, this was the first I had seen, which it
seems was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place
or scarcity, for had I happened to be on the other side of
the island I might have had hundreds of them every day,
as I found afterwards, but perhaps had paid dear enough
for them.
June 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
three-score eggrs, and her flesh was to me at that time the
most savoury and pleasant that ever I tasted in my life,
having had no flesh but of goats and fowls since I landed
in this horrible place.
June 18. Rained all day, and I staid within. I thought
at this time the rain felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very il, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my head,
and feverish.
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with the
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no
help. Prayed to God for the first time since the storm off
Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why, my thoughts
being all confused.
June 22. A little better, but under dreadful appre-
hensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and then
.a violent head-ache.
Juna24. Much better.
June lb. An ague very violent, the fit held me seven
hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.


June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat took
my gun, but found myself very weak ; however I killed a
she-goat, and with much difficulty got it home and broiled
some of it and eat, I would fain have stewed it and made
some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The agoue again so violent that I lay a-bed all.
day, and neither eat nor drank. I was ready to perish for
thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stand up or to get
myself any water to drink; prayed to God again, but was
light-headed, when I was not I was so ignorant that I
knewv not what to say, only I lay and cried, 'Lord, look
upon me Lord, pity me Lord, have mercy upon me !' I
suppose I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the
fit wearing off I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the
night. WJhen I awoke I found myself much refreshed,
but weak and exceedingly thirsty; however, as I had no
water in my whole habitation I was forced to lie till
morning, and went to sleep again In this second sleep I
had this terrible dream :
I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the out-
side of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after
the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend from a
great black cloud in a bright flame of fire,, and light upon
the ground. He was all over as bright as a flame, so that
I could but just bear to look towards him, his countenance
was most inexpressively dreadful, impossible for words to
describe; when he stepped upon the ground with his feet
I thought the earth trembled, just as it had dolie before
the earthquake, and all the air looked to my apprehension
as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved
forward towards me with a long spear or weapon in his
hand to kill me, and ivhen he came to a rising ground at
some distance he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible
that it is impossible to express the terror of it, all that I
can say I understood wvas this : "L Seeing all these things
have not brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt dlie.'2
At which words I thought he lifted up the spear that was
in his hand to kill me.
It is not possible to describe the impression that re-
mained on my mind when I w~okre from this terrible dream.


I had, alas!i no Divine knowledge; wha~t I had received
by the good instruction of mly father was then worn out
by an uninterrupted series for eight years of seafaring
wickedness, and a constant conversation with none but
such as were like myself, wicked and profane to thle last
degree. I do not remember that I had in all that time one
thought that so mluch7 as tended either to looking upwards
towards God, or inwards towards a reflection upon my own
ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of
good or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me,
aznd I was all tha~t the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed to be,
not having the least slu~se either of the fear of God in
dangers, or of thankfulness to God in deliverance.
It is true when I got on shore first here and found all
mly ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was sur-
prised with a kindl of ecstasy and some transports of soul,
which, had the grace of God assisted, might have come up
to true thankfulness, but it ended where it began, in a
mere common flight of joy, or, as I may say, being glad I
was alive, without the least reflection upon the dis-
tinguished goodness of the hand which had preserved me,
a-nd had singled me out to be preserved when all the rest
were destroyed. Even when I was afterwards made sensible
of my condition, how I was cast on this dreadful place,
cut of th~e reach of human kind, out of aill hope of relief,
or prospect of redemption, these were thoughts which very
~seldom entered into my head. B3ut I return to my journal.
June 28.--Having been somewhat refreshed with the
sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got
up : and though the fright and terror of my dream was
very great, yet I considered, that the fit of the ague would
return the next day; and now was my time to get some-
thing to refresh and support myself when I should be ill:
aznd the first thing I did, I filled a large square case bottle
w~ith water, and set it upon my table in reach of my bed ;
andl to take off the chill or agrueish disposition of the
water, I put a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together; then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh,
andc broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little; I


walkedl about, but w~as very weak, and withal, very sad
and lieavy-h~earted in the sense of my miserable condition,
dreading the return of my distemper the next day : at
night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs,
which I roasted in the ashes, and eat, as we call it in the
shell; and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked
God's blessings to, even, as I could remember, in my whole
After I had caton, I tried to walk; but found myself
so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never
wenlt out without that); so I went but little way, and
sat down upon thle ground, looking out upon the sea,
which was just before mle, and very cahn and smooth. As
I sat here, some such thoughts as these occurred to me.
WhaI:t is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much ? Whence is it produced ? And what am I, anid
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human andl Brutal,
whence are we ?
Sure we are all made by some secret power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky : and who is that 1
Then it followed most naturally : it is God that has
made it all. Well, b~ut then it came on strongly : If
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them
all, and all things that concern them; for the Beings that
could make all things, must certainly have power to guide
and direct them.
If so, nothing canl happen in the great circuit of his
works, either without his knowledge and appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition;
and if nothing happens without his appointment, he has
appointed all this to befall mle. Immediately it followed,
WChy has God done this to me' ? What have I done to be
thuns used ?
Mly conscience presently checked me in that inquiry, as
if I had blasphemed; and methougiht, it spoke to me like
a voice, Wro~tch dost thou ask what thou hast done ?
3Look back upon a dreadful mispent life3, and ask thyself
what thou hast not done 1 Ask, why is it that thou wvert
not long ago decstroyedl ? Why wert th~ou not drowned in


Yazrmouth roads a killed in1 the flight, whecn the shaip was
taken by the Salle man-of-warP d-evoured by wild beasts on
the coast of Africa1 or, drowvned here, when all the crew
perished but thyself2 I )ost thou ask, Whazt have I dionea
I was struck dumb with these reflections, as one aston-
ished, aind had not a word to answer to myself ; but rose
up, pensive andc sad, walked back to my retreat, went up
over my waUl, as if I had been going to bed; but mly
thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination to
sleep; so I salt dowvn in my chair, and lighted my lamp,
for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehensions of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it oc-
curred to my thoughts that thj B3razilians take no physic
but their tobacco, for almost all distempers; and I had a
piece of a roll of tobacco in one of the chests, which was
quite cured, and some that was green, and not quite
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest
I found a, cure both for soul and body. I opened the 4
chest, and found what I looked for, viz. the tobacco; and
as the few books I had saved lay there too, I took out one
of the B3ibles which I had mentioned before, and which,
to this time, I had not found leisure or so much as incli-
nation, to look into.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as to my
distemper, or whether it was good for me or no ; but I
tried several exrperimenlts with it, as if I was resolved it
should hit one way or another. I first took a piece of a
leaf, and chewed it in my mouth, which, indeed, at first,
almost stupified my brain; the tobacco being green and
strong, and that I had not been much used to it : then I
took some and steeped it an hour or two in ruux, and re-
solved to take a dose of it when I lay down; and lastly, I
burnlt some upon a pan of coals, and held my nose close
over the smoke of it, as long as I could bear it, as well for
the heat as the virtue of it, and I held it almost to suffo-
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible,
and began to nread; but my head was too much disturbed
with the tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time:


only, having opened th~e book casually, the first words
that occurred to me were these, Call on me in the day of
trouble, and I will deliver, and thou shalt, glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case, and made some im-
pression upon my thoughts at the time of reading them,
though not so much as they did afterwards; for, as for
being delivered, the word had no sound, as I may say to
me; the thing was so remote, so impossible in mly appre-
hension of things, that I began to say as the children of
Israel did, when they were promised flesh to eat, Can
God spread a table in the wilderness ?" So I began to
say, Can God himself deliver me from this place Z Alnd
as it wa~s not for many years that any hope appeared, this
prevailed very often upon my thoughts. But, however,
th~e words made a great impression upon me, and I musedl
upon them very often. It grew now late, and the tobacco
had, as I said, dozed my head so much, that I inclined to
sleep : so I left my lamp burning in the cave, lest I should
wasnt anything in the night, and went to bedt; but before
I lay down, I did what I never had done in all my life,
I kneeled down and prayed to God to fulfil the promise to
me, that, if I called upon him in the day of trouble, he
would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect prayer
was over, I drank the rum in which I had stepped the
tobacco, which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that
indeed, I could scarce get it down. Immediately upon
this I went to bed, and I found presently it flew up into
my head violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and
waked no more tml by the sun, it must necessarily be near
three o'clock in the afternoon the next day : nay, to this
hour, I am partly of the opinion that I slept all the next
day and night, and till almost three the day after; for
otherwise I knew not how I should lose a day out of my
reckoning in the days of the week, as it appeared some
years after I had done ; for if I had lost it by crossing and
recrossing the line, I should have lost more than one day;
but certainly, I lost a day in my account, and I never
knew which way.
Be that, however, one wayr or other, when I awaked I
found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my spirits lively


and cheerful. WThen I got up I was stronger than I was
the day before, and mny stomach better; for I was hungry,
and, in short, had no fit the next day, but continued much
altered for the better. This was the 20th.
The 30th was my well day, of couxwe, and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. -I killed
a sea-fowl or two, something like a brand-goose, and
brought them~ home, but was not very ~forward to eat
theml; so I eat some more of the turtle's eggs, which were
very good. This evening I renewed the medicine, which
I had supposed did me grood the day before, viz., the
tobacco steeped in rumn, only I did not take so much as
before, nor did I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head
over the smoke. However, I was not so well the next
day, which was th~e 1st of July, as I hoped I should have
been; for I had a little spice of the cold fit, but it was
not much.
July 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways, and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July 3. I missed the fit for good and all, though I did
not recover my full strength for some weeks after. While
I was thus gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedi-
inglyy upon this Scripture, I will deliver thee and the
impossibility of my deliverance lay much upon my mind,
in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I was discouraging
myself with such thoughts, it occurred to my mind, that
I pored so much upon my deliverance from the main afflic-
tion, that I disregarded the deliverance I had received;
and I was, as it were, made to ask myself such questions
as these: viz. Have I not been delivered, and wonderfully
too, from sickness; from the most distressed condition
that could be, and that was so frightful to me 1 And
what notice had I taken of it ? Had I done my part 8
God had delivered me : but I had not owned and been
thankful for that as a deliverance: and how could I ex-
pect greater deliverance. Th~is touched my heart very
much, and immediately I kneeled down, and gave God
thanks aloud for my recovery from sickness.
July 4. In the morning, I took the Bible; and, be-


ginning at the New Testament, I began seriously to read
it, and imposed upon myself to read a while every morn-
ing and every night, not tying myself to a number of
chapters, but as long as my thoughts should engage me.
It was not long alter I set seriously to this work, b-ut I
found mly heart more deeply and sincerely affected with
the wickedness of my past life. The impression of my
dream revived, and the words, All these things have not
brought thee to repentance," ran seriously in my thoughts.
I was earnestly begging of God to give me repentance,
whlen it happenedl providentially, the very day, that, read-
ing the Seripture, I came to these words, He is exalted
a Prince, and a Saviour, to give repentance, and to give
remission." I threw down thle book, aind, with my heart
as well as my hands lifted up to Heaven, in a kind of
ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud, Jesus, thou Son of
David, Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Saviour, give me
repentance !" This was the first time that I could say, in
the true sense of the word, that I prayed in all my life ;
for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and with
a true Scripture view of hope, founded on the encourage-
muent of the word of God ; and from this time, I may say,
I began to have hope that God would hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned abovo,
Call on me, and I will deliver you," in a different sense
from what I hlad ever done before; for then I had no
notion of any thing being called deliverance, but my being
dleliveredi froux the captivity I was in; for though I was
indeed at large in the place, yet the island was certainly a
prison to me, and that in the worst sense in the world ;
but now I learned to take it in another sense. Now, I
looked back upon my past life with such~ horror, and mly
sinls appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought nothing of
God but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore down
all my comfort. As for my solitary life it was nothing; I
did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or think
of it; it wIas all of no consideration in comparison with
this; and I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall
read it, that whenever they come to a true sense of things,
they will find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing,
than deliverance from affliction.


But I return again to my journal.
1Vy condition began now to be, through not less miserable
as to mly way of living, yet much easier to my mind; and
mly thoughts beingr directed, by a constant reading of the
Scripture, and praying to God, to things of higher nature,
I had a great deal of comfort within, which till now I
knew nothing of. Also, as my health~ and strength re-
turned, I bestirred myself to furnish myself with every
things that I wanted, and make my way of living as regullar
as I could.
From the 4ith of July to the 14th, I was chiefly em-
ployed in walking about with my gun in my hand, a little
and a little at a time, as a man that was gathering up his
strength after a fit of sickness : for it is hardly to be im-
:agined how Jow I was, and to what weakness I was re-
duced. I had been now in this unhappy island above ten
months; all possibility of deliverance from this condition
seemed to be outirely taken from me : and I firmly believe
that no human shape had ever set foot upon that place.
Having now secured mly habitation, as I thought, fully to
my mlind, I had a great desire to make a more perfect dis-
covery of the island, and to see what other productions I
might find, which yet I knew nothing of.
It was the 15th of July that I began to take a more
particular survey of the island itself. I went up the creek
first, where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I
found, after I came about two miles up, that the tide did
not flow any higher, and that it was no more than a little
brook of running Tiater, and very fresh and good. On the
banks of this brook, I found many pleasant savannas o
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass; and on
the rising parts of them, next to the higher grounds, where
the water, as it might be supposed, never overflowed, I
found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to a
great and very strong stalk. There were divers other
plants, which I had no notion of, or understanding about.
I searched for the cassava root, whichl the Indians makle
their bread of, but could find none. I saw large plants of
.aloes, but did not then understand them. I saw several
sugaar-canes, but wFild, and, for want of cultivation, im-


perfect. I contented myself with these discoveries for this
t~ime, and came back;, musing with myself what course I
might take to know the virtue and goodness of any of the
fruits or plants which I should discover, but could bring
it to no conclusion; for, in short, I made so little observa-
tion while I was in the BIrazils that I knew veryr little of
th~e plants of the field that might serve me to any purpose
now in my distress.
The next dlay, the 16th, I went up the same way again,
and after going somewhat farther than I had gone the day
before, I found the brook and the savannas began to cease,
and thre country become more woody than before. In this
part I foundl different fruits, and particularly I found
melons upon the ground in great abundance, and grapes
up~on the trees : the vines had spread indeed over the
trees, and th~e clusters of grapes were just now in their
prime, very ripe and rich. This wvas a surprising dis-
covery, and I was exceeding glad of them; but I was
warned by experience to eat sparingly of them, remember-
ing that when I was ashore in B~arbary the eating of
grapes killed several of our Englishmen, who were slaves
there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers: but I
founnd an excellent use for these grapes, and that was to
cure or dry them in the sun, and keep theml as dried
grapes or raisins are kept, which I thought would be, as:
indeed they were, as wholesome and as agreeable to eat
when no grapes might be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to
myr habitation, which, by the way, was the first night, as
I might say, I had lain from home. In the night I took
my first contrivance, and got up into a tree, where I slept
well, and the next morning proceeded upon my discovery,~
travelling near four miles, as I might judge by the length
of the valley, keeping still dlue north, with a ridge of
hills on the south and north side of me.
Aht the end of this march, I came to an opening, where
the country seemed to descend to the west; and a little
spring of fresh water, which issued out of the side of the
hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due east; and the
country appeared so fresh, so green, so flourishing, every


thing being in a constant verdure or flourish of spring,
that it looked like a planted garden. I descended a.
little on the side of that delicious valley, surveying it
with~ a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with other-
azfficting thoughts), to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly,.
and had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it,
I might have it in inheritance, as completely as any lord
of a manor inl England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange and lemon and citron-trees; but all wild,
and few bearing any fruit, at least not then. However,
the green limes that I gathered were not only pleasant to-
eat, but very wholesome; and I mixed their juice after-
ward with water, which made it very wholesome, and
very cool and refreshing.
I found now I had business enough to gather and carry
home; and I resolved to lay up a store, aswmell of grapes-
as limes and lemons, to furnish myself for the wet season,
which I knew was approaching. In order to this, I
gathered a great heap of grapes in one place, and a lesser
heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes anti
lemons in another place; and, takings a few of each with
me, I travelled homeward, and resolved to come again,
and brings a bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry
the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I
came home (so I must now call my tent and my cave);
but, before I got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the
richness of the fruit, and the weight of the juice, having
broken them and bruised them, they were good for little-
or nothing : as to the limes, they were good, but I could
bring but a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having-
made me two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I
was surprised, when coming to my heap of grapes, which.
were so rich and fine when I gathered them, I found
them all spread abroad, trod to pieces, and dragged about,
some here, some there, and abundance eaten and de--
voured. B3y this, I concluded there were some wild.
creatures thereabouts, which had done this; but what,
they were, I knew not.


However, as I found there was no laying them upon
heaps, and no carryinga them away in a sack, but that one
way they would be destroyed, and the other way they
would be crushed with their own weight, I took another
course; for I gathered a large quantity of the grapes, and
hung them upon the out-branches of the trees, that they
might cure and dry in the sun; and as for the limes and
lemons, I carried as many back as I could well stand
When I came home from this journey, I contemplated,
with great pleasure the fruitfulness of that valley, and
the pleasantness of the situation, the security from storms
on that side of ~the water, and the wood; and concluded
`that I hlad pitched upon a place to fix my abode, which
was, by far, the worst part of the country. Upon the
whole, I beganL to consider of removing m1y habitation,
and to look out for a place equally safe as where I now
wmas situate, if possible, in that pleasant fruitful part of
the island. This thought ran long in my head, the plea-
.santness of the place tempting me ; but when I came to
a nearer view of it, and to consider that I was now by
the sea-side, where it was at least possible that something
-might happen to my advantage, aind that the same ill
fate that brought me hither, might bring some other
unhappy wretches to th~e same place; and though it was
scarce probable that any such thing shlouldl ever happen,
yet to enclose myself among the hills and woods, in the
centre of the island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to
render such an azffair niot onlyr improbable, but impossible;
.and that therefore I ought not by any means, to remove.
However, I was so enamoured with this place, that I
spent much of my time there, for the whole remaining
part of the month of July; and though, upon second
thoughts, I resolved not to remove, yet I built me a little
kind of a hower, and surrounded it at a distance with a,
strong fence, being a double hedge, as hligh as I could
-reach, well staked and filled between with brushwood ;
.and here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three nights
together, always going over it with a ladder, as before,
so that I fancied now I had my country house, and my


sea-coast house ; and this work took me up to the
beginnings of August.
I had but newly finished mhy fence, and began to enjoy
myl~ labour, when the rains came on, and made me? stick
close to my first habitation ; for though I had made me a
tent like the other, with a piece of a sail, and spread it
very well, yet I had not the shelter of a hill to keep me
from storms, nor a cave behind me to retreat into, when
the rains were extraordinary.
About the beginning of August, as I said, I had
finished my bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3rd
of August, I found the grapes I had hung up were per-
fectly dried, and indeed were excellent good raisins; so I
began to take them down from the trees, and it was very
happIy that I did so, for the rains which followed would
have spoiled them, and I had lost the best part of my
winter food; for I had above two hundred large bunches
of them. No sooner had I taken them all down, and
carried most of them home to mly cave, but it began to
ramn; and from hence, which was the 14th of August, it
rained more or less every day, till the middle of October;
and sometimes so violently that I could not stir out of my
cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase
of my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one
of my cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had
been dead; and I heard no more tale or tidings of her,
tin, to my astonishment, she came home about the end of
August, with three kittens. This was the more strange
to me, because, though I had killed a wild cat, as I called
it, with my gun, yet I thought it was .s a uite different
.3ind from our European cats; yet the young cats were
the same kind of house-bred, like the old one ; and both
2ny cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three cats, I afterward became to be so pestered
with cats, that I was forced to kill them like vermin, or
wvild beasts, and to drive them from my house as much as
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain,
so that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to


be much wet. In this confinement I began to be
stralitened for food; but venturing out twice, I one day
killed a goat; and the last day, which was the 26th,
found a very large tortoise, which was a treat to me; and
my food was regulated thus : I eat a bunch of raisiixs for
my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh, or of the turtle,
for my dinner, broiled (for, to my great misfortune, I had
no vessel to boil or stow any things); and two or three of
the turtle's eggs for supp~er.
During this confinement in mly cover by the rain, I
worked daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave ;
and, by degrees, worked it on towards one side, till I
came to the outside of the hill, and made a door or way
out, which came beyond my fetnce or wall, and so I came
in and out this way. 13ut I was not perfastly easy at
lying so open; for, as I had managed myself before, I
was in a perfect enclosure, whereas now I thought I lay
exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there was any
living thing to fear, the biggest creature that I hand yet
seen upon the island being a goat.
September 30th. I was now come to the unlnhppy an-
niversaryr of my landing. I cast up the notches on my
post and found I hlad been on shore three hlundredl and
sixty-five days. I kept this day as a solemn fast, settings
it apart to religious exercise, prostratinlg myself on the
ground with the most serious h~umiliation; and having
not tasted the least refreshment for twelve hours, even
till the going down of the sun, I then eat a biscuit cake
and a bunch of grapes, and~ we-nt tor bed finfishingr the day
as I began it. I had all this time observed no Sabbat~h-
day; for as at first I had no sense of religion upon my
mind, I had after some time omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary for the
Sabbath-day, and so did not really know what any of the
days were; but now having cast up the days as above, I
found I had been there a year, so I divided it into weeks,
and set apart every day for a Sabbath; though~ found at
the end of my account, I had lost a day or two in mlyY
A little after this, my ink began to fail me, and so I


contented myself to use it more sparinnnnnnnn;gly, and to write
down only the most remarkable events of my life, without
continuing a, daily memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to
appear regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as
t~o provide for them accordingly. But I bought all my
experience before I had it : and this I am going to relate,
was one of the most dliscou~raingr experimenltathat I made
at all. I have mentioned, that I had saved thle few ears
of barley and rice, which I had so surprisingly found
spring up as I thought of themselves, and now I thought
it a proper time to sow it after the rains. Accordingly
I dug up a piece of ground, as well as I could, with~ my
wooden spade, and dividing it into two parts I sowed my
grain; but as I was sowing it casuaillyr occurred to me
that I would not sow it all at first, because I did not
know when was the proper time for it; so I sowed about
two-thirds of the seed, leaving about a handful of each.
It was a great comfort to me afterwards that I did so; for
not one grain of that I sowed this time came to anything;
for the dlry months following, the earth having had no
rain after the seed was sown, it hadi no moisture to assist
its growth, and never came up at all till the wet season
had come again, and then it grew as if it had been but
newly sown.
Finding: mly first seed did not grow, which I imagined
was by the drought, I sought for a moist piece of ground
to make another trial in, and dug up a piece of ground
near my new bower, and sowed the rest of my seed in
February, a little before the vernal equinox; and this,
having the rainy months of Mdarch and April to water it,
sprungo up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop;
but having part of the seed left only, and not daring to
sow all that I had yet, I had but a small quantity at last,
my whole crop not amounting to above half-a-peck of
each kind. But by this experiment I was made master of
my business, and knew exactly when the proper season
wvas to sow, and that I might expect two seedl-times and
two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing I made a little discovery,


which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the
rains were over, and the weather began to settle, which
was about the month of November, I made a visit up the
country to my bower, wvhere, though I had not been some
months, yet I found all things just as I left them. The
circle, or double hedge, that I had made, was not only
firm and entire, but the stakes which I had cut off of
some trees that grew thereabouts were all shot out, and
grown with long branches, as much as a willowv-tree
usually shoots the first year after 10pping its head. I
could not tell what tree to call it that these stakeslwere.
cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to
see the young.trees grow; and I prunedi them, and. led
them up to grow as much alike as I could; and it is
scarce credible how beautiful a figure they grew into in
three years, so that though the hedge made a, circle of
about twenty-five yards in diameter, yet the trees, for such
I mnight now call them, soon covered it, and it was a com-
plete shade, sufficient to lodge under all the dry season.
This made me resolve to cut some more stakes, and
make a hedge like this, in a semicircle, round the wall of
mly first dwelling, which I did; and placing. the trees or
stakes in a double row, at about eight yards' distance
fromt my first fence, they grew presently, and were at first
a fine cover to my habitation, and afterwards served for
a defence also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might
generally be divided, not into summer andi winter as in
Europ~e, but into the rainy season and the dlry season,
which were generally thus :

Half February,
March ainy, the sun being then on or near
Half April, 'teeunx
Half April,
afe Dry, the sun being then to the north
July, of the line.
Half August,


Half August,
September n ain, the sun being then come back.
Half October,
Half Ostober,
Decemberof th~e line.
Half Feb~ruary,

The rainy season sometimes held longer or shorter, as
th~e winds happened to blow; but this was the general
observation I made. After I had found the ill conse-
quence of being abroad in the rain, I took care to furnish
myself with provisions beforehand, that f-inight not be
obliged to go out; and sat within doors as much as
possible during the wet months.
In this time I found much suitable employment; par-
t'icularly, I tried many ways to make myself a basket,
-but all the twigs I could get for the purpose proved so
brittle that they would do nothing. It proved of ex-
cellent advantage to me now, that when I was a boy I
used to take great delight in standing at a basket-maker's,
in th~e town where my father lived, to see them make
their wickrer-w~are; and being, as boys usually are, very
officious to help, and a great observer of the manner how
they worked those things, and sometimes lending a hand,
I had by this means so full knowledge ~of the methods of
it that I wanted nothing but the; materials i when it
came into my mind that the twigs of that tree, front
wvhence I cut my stakes that grewv, might possibly be
as tough as the sallows and willows and osiers in England;
and I resolved to try. Accordingly the next day I
went into my country house, as I called it, and cutting
some of the smaller twigs I found them to my purpose as
much as I could desire : whereupon I came the next time
prepared with a hatchet to cut down a quantity, which I
soon found, for there was great plenty of them. These
I set up to dryr within my circle or hedge, and when they
were fit for use I carried them to my cave, and here
during the next season I employed myself in making, as


avell as I could, a great many baskets, both to carry earth
sr to carry or lay up any thing as I had occasion and
though I did not finish them very handsomely, yet; I
mlade theml sufficiently serviceable for myl purpose; and
especiatlly I made strong deep baskets to place my corn in,
instead of sacks, when I should come to have any quarntity
of it.
Having mastered this difficulty-, and employed a world
of time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how
to supply two wants. I had no vessels to hold any thingr
that was liquid, except two runlets, which were ahnost
full of r~um, and some glass bottles, some of the, common
size, and others which were case bottles square, for the
holding of waters, spirits, &c. I had not so much as a
pot to boil any thing in, except a great kettle which I
saved out of the ship,, and which was too big for such
uses as I desired it for, viz., to make broth and stew a bit
of meat by itself. The second thing I would fain have
had wvas a tobacco-pipe, but it was impossible for me to
make one; however I found a contrivance for that too at
I employed myself in planting mhy second row of stakes
or piles, andl in this wick~er-work~ all the summlner or dry
season; wh~en another business took me up more time
than it could be imagined I could spare. I mentioned
before that I had a great m~ind to see the whole island,
and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to where
I had built mly bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved
to travel quite across to the sea-shore on that side; so
-taking mly gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger
quantity of powder and shot than usual, withl two biscuit
cakies, anld a great buncli of rasins in my pouch, fo~r my
store, I began my journey. When I had passed the
vale where my bower stood, as above, I camle in1 view of
the sea, to the west; and it being a very clear day I fairly
dlescried land, whether an island or a continent I could
not tell; but it lay very high, extending from the
Wi~. to the WY. S. W. at a. very great distance; by my
guess it could not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.


I could not tell what part of the world this might be,
otherwise than that I knew it must he part of America;
and as .I concluded, by all my observations, must be near
the Spanish dominions, and perhaps wfas all inhabited by
savages, where, if I should have landed, I had been in a
worse condition than I was now.
After some paruse upon this affair, I considered that if
this land was the Spanish coast, I should certainly one
time or other see some vessels pass or repass one way or
other; but if not, then it was the savage coast between
the Spanish country and the Brazils, which were indeed
the worst of savages, for they are cannibals, and fail not
to murder and devour all the human bodies that fall into
their hands.
With these considerations I walked leisurely forward,
and found that side of the island w-here I now was~ much
pleasanter than mine, the open or savannah fields sweet,
adorned with flowers and grass, and full of very 'fine
woods. I saw abundance of parrots, and fain would I
have caught one if possible, to have kept it to be tame,
anld taught it to speak to me.~ I did, after some pains-
taking, catching a young parrot; for I knocked it down
with a stick, and having recovered it, I brought it home,
but it was some years before I could make him speak.
I was exceedingly diverted with this journey. I found
in the low grounds hares, as L. thought them to be, and
foxes, but they differed greatly from all the other kinds
I had met with; nor could I satisfy myself to eat them,
though~ I killed several. But I had no'need to be ven-
turous, for I had no want of food, but had plenty, even
to dainties.
I never travelled in this journey above two miles out-
right in a day, or thereabouts ; but I took so many turns
and returns to see what discoveries I could make, that I
came weary enough to the place where I resolved to sit
down for all1nih~t ; and then I either reposed myself ina
tree, or surrounded myself w~itht a ow of stakes set upright
in the ground, either from one tree to another, or so as no
wild creature could come at me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore I was surprised to see


that I had taken up my lot on the worst side of the
island; for here indeed the shore was covered with in-
numerable turtles; whereas on the other side Ihad found
but three in a year and a half. Here was also an infinite
number of fowls, of many kinds, some of which I had
seen, and some of which I had not seen before, and many
of them very good meat; but such as I knew not thle
names of, except those called pengu~ins. I could have shot
as many as I pleased, but was very: sparing of mly powder
and shot; and therefore hadl more mind to kill a she-goat,
if I could, which I could better feed, on. And though there
were many goats here, more than on my side of the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that I could
come near them, the country being flat and even, and
they saw me much. sooner than when I was on the hill.
I travelled along th~e shore of the sea, towards the east,
I suppose, about twelve miles; and then setting up a
great pole upon the shore for a mark, I concluded to go
home again; and that the next journey I took I should
be on the other side of the island, east from my dwelling,
and so round, till I came to my post again; of which in
its plag~e.
I took another way to come back than that I went,
thinking I could easily keep all the island so much in my
view, that I could not mriss finding my first dwelling, by
viewing the country; but I found myself mistaken, for
being come about two or three miles, I found myself
descended into a very large valley, but so surrounded
with hills, and those hills covered with woods, that I
could not see which was my way by any direction but
that of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well
the position of the sun ait that time of the day.
It happened, to my farther mlisfortune, that the weather
proved hazy for three or four days, while I was in this.
valley; and not being able to see the sun, I wandered
about very uncomfortably, and at last was obliged to ~find
out thne sea-side, look for my post, and come back the
same way I went; and then, by easy journeys, I turned
homeward, the weather being exceedingly hot; and my
gun, "ammnition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.


In this journey mly dog surprised a young kid, and
seized upon it; and I running in to take hold of it, caught
it, and saved it alive from the dog. I had a great mind
to bring it home, if I could; for I had often been musing
whether it might not be possible to get a kid or two, and
so raise a breed of tame goats, which might supply me
when my powder and shot should be all spent. I made
a collar to this little creature, and with a string, which I
made of some rope-yarn, which I always carried about me,
I led him along, though~ with some difficulty, till I came
to my bower, and there enclosed him, and left him ; for I
was impatient to be at home, from whence I had been
absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to
come into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammockr-
bed. This little wandering journey, without any settled
place of abode, had been so unpleasant to me, that my own
house, as I called it to myself, was a perfect settlement to
me compared to that; and it rendered everything about
me so comfortable, that I resolved I would never go a great
way from it again, while it should be my lot to stay on the
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself
after my long journey, during which, most of the time was
taken up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my
poll, who began now to be a mere domestic, ~and to be
mighty well acquainted with me. Then I began to think
of the poor kid, which I had pent in within my little circle,
and resolved to go and fetch it hom, or give it some food :
accordingly I went, and found it where I left it, for indeed
it could not get out, but was almost starved for want of
food. I went and cut coughs of trees, and branches of
such shrubs as I could find, and threw it over : and hav-
ing fed it, I tied it as I did before to lead it away; but it
was so tame with being hungry that I had no need to
have tied it, for it followed me like a dog : and as I con-
tinually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it became from that time one of my
domestics also, and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,


and I kept the 30th of September in the same solemn
manner as before, being the anniversary of my landing on
the island, having now been there two years, and no more
prospect of being delivered than the first day I came there.
It was now that I bega sensibly to feel how much more
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, abominable life I led all the past
part of my days. In this disposition of mind, I began
mly third year : and thouglx I have not given the reader
the trouble of so particular an account of my works 'this
year as the first; yet in general it may be observed that I
was very seldom idle, having regularly divided my timle
according to the several daily employment that were
before me; such as, First, my duty to God, and readings
the Scriptures, which I constantly set apart some time for
thrice every day. Secondly, The going: abroad with mly
gun for food, which generally took me up three hours in
every morning when it did not rain. Thirdly, the ordler-
ing, curing, preserving, and cooking, what I had killed or
catched for mly supply; these took up great lpart of the
dayS. Also it is to be considered that in the middle of the
dlay, when the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the
heat was too great to stir out, so that about four hours inl
thle evening was all the time I could be supposed to work
in; with this exception that sometimes Ichnaned mly
hours of hunting and working, and went to work inl thle
morning and abroad with my gun in th~e afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labour I desire may be
added the exceediing laboriousness of my work, the many
hours which, for want of tools, want of help, and want of
skill, everything tha~t I did took up out of my time. For
example, I was full two-and-forty days making me a board
for a long shelf, which I wanted in my cave; whereas
two sanyers, with their tools and a, saw-pit, would have
cut six of th~eml out of the same tree in half a day.
My case was this : it was to be a large tree which was
to be cut down, because my board was to be a broad one.
This tree I was three days a cutting down, and two more
cutting off the bough~s, and reducing it to a log or piece of
timber. With inexpressible hacking and hewing, I re-


duced both the sides of it into chips, till it began to be
light enough to move; then I turned it, and made one
side of it smooth and flat as a board froml end to end;
then turning that side downwards, cut thle other side, till
I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and
smooth on both sides. Anyone may judge the labour of
my hands in such a piece of work, but labour and patience
carried me through that and many other things. I only
observe this in particular to show the reason why so much
of my15 time went away with so little work, viz., that what
might be a little to be done with help and tools, was a
vast Elbour, and requiredl a prodigious time to do alone
and by hand.
I was now in the months of Novembler and Decemlber
expecting my crop of barley and rice. The ground I had
manured or dug up for them was not great; for mly seed
of each was not above the quantity of half a peck, for I had
lost one whole crop by sowing in the dry season, but now
my crop promised very well, when, on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again, by enemies of several
sorts, which it wa~s scarce possible to keep from it ; at
first, the: goats, and wild creatures which I called hares,
whlo, tasting the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night
and day as soon as it came up, and eat it so close that it
could get no time to shoot up into stalk.
This I saw no remedy for but by making an enclosure
about it with a hedge, which I did with a great deal of
toil, and the more because it required speed, the creatures
daily spoiling my corn. However, as my arable land was but
small, suited to my crop, I got it totally well fenced in about
three weeks' time ; and shooting some of the creatures in
the daytime, I set my dog to guard it in the night, tying
him up to a stake in the gate, where he would stand and
bark all night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook
thle place, and~ the corn grew very strong and well and
b9aBut as the beasts ru~ined me before whlile my corn waos
in the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now,
when it was in the ear; for going along by the place to
see how it thlrove, I saw mly little crop surrounded with


fowls, of I know not how many sorts, who stood, as it
were, watching till I should be gone. I immediately let
Hly among them (for I always had my gunc with m1e). I
had no sooner shot but there rose up a little cloud of fowls,
which I had not seen at all, from among the corn itself.
This touched me sensiblyr; for I foresawv thant in a few
days they would devour all my hopes; that I should be
starved and never be able to raise a crop at all ; and what
to do I could not tell. However, I resolved not to lose
my corn if possible, thought I: should watch it night and
day.~ In the first place, I went among it to see what
damage was already dlone, and found they had spoiled a
good deal of it ; bsut that as it waLs yet too green for them,
the loss was not so great, but that the remainder was likely
to be a good crop if it could be saved. I staid by it to
load my gun, and then, coming away, I could easily see the
thieves sittings upon all the trees about me, as if they only
waited till I was gone away, and the event proved it to be
so; for as I walked off as if I was gone, I was no sooner
out of their sight but they dropped down, one by one,
into the corn again. I was so provoked, that I could not
have patience to stay till more came on, knowing that every
grain that they eat now was, as it might be said, a peck
loaf to me in the consequence; but com-ing up to the
hedge I fired again, and killed three of them. This was
what I ~wished for; so I took them up, and served them
as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz., hanged
them in chains for a terror to others. It is impossible to
imagine ahnost that this should have such an effect as it
had; for the fowls would not only not come at thle corn,
but, in short, they forsook all that part of the island, and I
could never see a bird near the place as long as mly scare-
crows hung there. This I was very glad of, you may be
sure; and, about the eixd of December, which was our
second harvest of the year, I reaped my crop.
I was sadly put to it for a scythe, or a sickle, to cut it
down, and all I could do was to make one as well as I
could out of one of the broad-swords, or cutlasses, which I
saved among th~e armis out of the ship. However, as my
crop was but small, I had no great difficulty to cut it down.


In short, I reaped it my way ; for I cut nothing off but the
ears, and carried it away in a great basket which I had
made, and so rubbed it. out with my hands. And at the
end of all my harvesting, I found that out of my half peck
of seed, I had near two bushels of rice, and above two
bushels and a half of barley; that is to say by my guess,
for I had no measure at that time.
However, this was a great encouragement to me; and I
foresaw that, in time, it would please God to supply me
with bread. Andl yet here I was perplexed again, for I
neither knew how to grind or make meal of my corn, or
indeed how to clean it, and part it ; nor, if made into meal,
how to make bread of it; and if how to make it, yet I
knew not how to bake it. These things beingv added to my
desire of having a ctgood quantity for store, and to secure a
constant supply, I resolved not to taste any of this crop,
but to preserve it all for seed against the next season, and,
-in the meantime, to employ all my study and hours of
working to accomplish this great work of providing myself
with corn and bread. It might be truly said that now I
worked for my bread
It is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people
have thought much upon; viz., the strange multitude of
little things necessary in the providing, producing, curing,
dressing, making, and finishing this one article of bread.
I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this
to be my daily discouragement, and was made more and
anore sensible of it every hour. First, I had no plough to
turn up the earth, no spade or shovel to dig it. Well,
this I conquered by making a wooden spade, as I observed
before; but this did my work but in a wooden manner :
and though it cost me a great many days to make it, yet
for want of iron it not only wore out the sooner, but
made my work the harder. However, this I bore with,
and was content to work it out with patience, and bear
with the badness of the performance. When the corn was
sowed, I had no harrow; but was forced to go over it my-
self, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over it, to
scratch the earth, as it may be called, rather than rake or
harrow it.


When it was growing and grown, I have observed already
how many things I wanted, to fence it, secure it, mow or
reap it, cure and carry it home, thresh, part it from the
chaff, and save it. Then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves
to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an
oven to bake it in; and yet all these things I did without,
as shall be observedl; and yet the corn was an inestimable
comfort and adv~antage to me too. All this, as I said, made
everything laborious and tedious to me, but that there was
no help for : neither was mly time so much loss to me,
because as I had divided it, a certain part of it was every
day' appointed to these works; and, as I resolved to use
none of the corn for bread, till I had greater qyuantityv by
me, I had the next six months to apply myself wholly by
labour and invention to furnish myself with utensils proper
for the performing azll the operations necessary for the
making the corn, when I had it fit for my use.
But, ~first, I was to prepare more land, for I had now
seed enough to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did
this, I had a week's work at least to make me a spade,
which, when it was done, was but a sorry one indeed, and
very heavy, and required double labour to work with it.
However, I went through that, and sowed my seed in two
large flat pieces of groundl, as near my house as I could
find them to my mlind, aind fenced them in with a good
hedge, the stakes of which were all cut of that wood which
I had set before, which I knew would grow; so, that, inl
one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or living
hedge, that would want but little repair. This w~ork was
not so little as to take me, up less than three months,
because great part of that time was of the wet season, when
I could not go abroad.
When it rained, and could not go out, I found employ-
ment on thec following occasions; always observing, that
all the while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking
to my parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quicklyt
learned him to knowv his own name, at last, to speak it
out pretty loud, Poll;" which was the first word I ever
heard spoken in the island byr any mIouth but my own,
This, therefore, was not my work, but an assistant to my


workr; for now, as I said, I had a great employment upon
my hands, as follows, viz., I had studied, by some means or
other, to make myself some earthen vessels, which indeed
I wanted sorely-, but knew not where to come at them.
However, considering the heat of the climate, I did not,
doubt but, if I could find out any such clay, I might botch
up some such pot, as might, being dried in the sun, be
hard enough, and strong enough, to bear handling, and to.
hold anything that was dry, and required to be kept so;,
and as this was necessary in preparing corn, meal, &c.,.
which was the thing I was upon, I resolved to make some-
as large as I could, and fit only to stand like jars to hold
what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me,
to tell how many awkwvard ways I took to raise this paste;
what odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of
them fell in, and how many fell out, the clayr not being
stiff enough to bear its own weight; howv many cracked
by the over-violent heat of the sun, being set out too
hastily; and how many fell to pieces with only remoymng,
as well before as after they were dried; and, in a word,.
how, after having laboured hard to find the clay, to dig it,
to temper it, to bring it home, anld work it, I could not.
make above two large, earthen, ugly things, I cannot call
theml jars, in about two months' labour. H-owe~ver, as the-
sun baked these two very dry and hard, I lifted them very
genltly up, and set them down again in two great wicked
baskets, which I had made on purpose for them, that they
might not break; and as between the pot and the basket
there wva8 a little room to spare, I stuffed it funl of the rice
and barley straw; and these two pots, being to stand
always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps-
the meal when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my designr for large
pots, yet I made several smaller things with better success;.
such as little round pots, flat dishes, pitchers, and pipkins,.
and anything my hand turned to; and the heat of the stun
baked them extremely hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get,
an earthen pot to hold what was liquid, and bear the fire,


which none of these could do. It happened after some
~time, making a pretty large fire for cooking my meat, when
I went to put it out, after I had done with it, I found a
broken piece of one of my earthenware vessels in the fire,
burnt as hard as a stone, and red as a tile. I was agreeably
.surprised to see it, and said to myself, that certainly they
night be made to burn wvhole, if they would burn broken.
'This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn some pots. I had no notion of a kiln, such as the
potters burn in, or of glazing them with lead, though I
had some lead to do it with; but I placed three large
pipkins, and two or three pots, in a, pile one upon another,
;and placed my fire-wvood all round it with a g'eat heap of
embers under them. I plied the fire with fresh fuel round
the outside, and upon the top, till I saw the pots in the
inside red-hot quite through, and observed that they did
not crack at all. When I saw them clear red, I let them
stand in that heat about five or six hours, till I found one
of them, though it did not crack, did melt or run; for the
8andi which was mixed with the clay melted by the violence
of the heat, and would have run into glass, if I had gone
on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots began to
;abate of the red colour, and watching them all night, that
I might not let the fire abate too fast, in the morning I
had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins,
;and two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be
desired; and one of them perfectly glazed with the
running of the sand.
My next concern was to get me a stone mortar to stamp
sr beat some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no
thought of arriving to that perfection of art, with one
pair of hands. To supply this want I was at a great loss ;
for, of all trades in the world, I was as perfectly unqualified
for a stone-cutter, as for any whatever : neither had I any
tools to go about it with. I spent many a day to find out
.a great stone big enough to cut hollow, and make fit for a
mortar, and could find none at all, except what was in the
solid rock, and which I had no wyay to dig or cut out; nor
indeed were the rocks in the island of hardness sufficient,
lbut were of a sandy crumbling stone, which would neither


Lear the weight of a heavy pestle, nor would break the
corn without filling it with sand. So, after a great deal
of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over, and
resolved to look out a great block of hard wood, which I
found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the outside
with my axe and hatchet : and then, with the help of fire,
and infinite labour, made a hollow place in it, as the
Indians in Brazil make their canoes. After this, I made
a great heavy pestle or beater, of the wood called the iron
wood, and this I prepared and laid by against I had my
next crop of corn, wThen I proposed to myself to grind, or
rather pound, my corn into meal, to make mly bread.
My next difficulty was to make a sieve, or searce, to
dress my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk,
without which I did not see it possible I could have any
bread. This was a most difficult thing, so much as but to
think on; for, to be sure, I had nothing like the necessary
things to make it with, I mean fine thin canvass, or stuff
to searce the meal through. And here I was at a full stop
for many months; nor did I really know what to do:
linen I had none left but what was mere rags. I had goat's
hair, but neither knew I how to weave or spin it ; and
had I known howv, here were no tools to work it with: all
the remedy that I found for this, was, that at last I did
remember I had, among the seaman's clothes, which were
saved out of the ship, some neckcloths of calico or muslin;
and with some pieces of these I made three small sieves,
but proper enough- for the work, and thus I made shift for
some years. How I did afterwards, I shall shew in
its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered,
and how I should make bread when I came to have corn;
for, first I had no yeast. As to that part, as there was no
supplying the want, so I did not concern myself much
about it; but for an oven, I was indeed in great pain. At
length I found out an expedient for that also, which was
this : I made some earthen vessels about two feet diameter,
and nine inches deep; these I burnt in the fire, as I had
done the other, and laid them by, and when I wanted to


bake, I made a great fire upon mny hearth, which I had
paved with some square tiles, of my own making and
When the fire-wvood was burnt pretty much into embers,
o~r live coals, I drew theml forward upon this hearth, so as
to cover it all over; and there let them lie till the hearth
was very hot : then sweeping away all the embers, I set
dowvn my loaf or loaves, and, wvhelming down the earthen
pot upon them, drew the embers all round the outside of
the pot to keep in, and add to the heat ; and thus, as well
as in the best oven in the world, I backed my barley-loaves,
and became in a little time a mere pastry-cook into the
bargain, for I made myself several cakes of rice and pud-
dingos: indeed I made no pies, neither had I anything to
put into them, supposing I had, except th~e flesh either of
fowls or goats.
It need not be wondered that all these things took me
up most part of the third year of my abode here : for it is
to be observed, that, in the interval of these things, I had
my new harvest and husbandry to manage.
And now indeed my stock of corn increasing, I really
wanted a place to lay it up in; for the increase of the corn
nowv yielded me so much, that I had of the barley about
twenty bushels, and of the rice as much, or more; inso-
much that now I resolved to begin to use it freely, for
my bread had been quite gone a great while ; also I resolved
to see what qunantity would be sufficient for me a whole
year, and to sow but once a year. Upon the whole, I
found that the forty bushels of barley and rice were much
more than I could consume in a year : so I resolved to sow
just the same quantity every year thant I sowed th~e last, in
hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me with
bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing my thoughts ran
many times upon the prospect of land, which I had seen
from the other side of the island; and I was not without
secret wishes that I were on shore there, fancying that
seeing the main land, and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, a~nd
perhaps at last find some means of escape.


Now I wished for my boy Xury, and the long-boat, with
the shoulder of mutton sail, with which I sailed above a
thousand miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in
vain. Then I thought I would go and look at our ship's
boat, which, as I have said, was blown up upon the shore
a great way in the storm when we were first cast away.
She lay almost where she did at first, but not quite; and
was turned, by the force of the waves and the winds,
almost bottom upw~ards, against a high ridge of beachy
rough sand, but no water about her, as before.
If I had had hands to have refitted her, and to havie
launched her into the water, the boat would have done
well enough, and I might have gone back into the Brazils
with her easily enough: but I might have easily foreseen
that I could no more turn her, and set her upright upon
her bottom, than I could remove the island.
This at length set me upon thinking, whether it was
not possible to make myself a canoe, or periagua, such as
thle natives of those climates make; even without tools,
or, as I might say, without hands; viz., of the trunk of a
great tree. This I not only thought possible, but easy;
and pleased myself extremely with the thoughts of making
it, but not at all considering the particular inconveniences
which I lay under more than the Indians did, viz., want
of hands to move it into the water.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that
ever man did who had any of his senses awake.. I pleased
myself with the design, without determining wrhether I
wvas ever able to undertake it : not but that the difficulty
of launching my boat came often into my head; but I put
a stop to my own inquiries into it by this foolish answer,
which I gave myself, Let me first make it, I'll warrant
I'll find some way or other to get it along, when it is
This was a most preposterous method; but the eagerness
of mly fancy prevailed, and to work I went, and felled a
cedar-tree. I question much whether Solomon ever had
such a one for the buildings the temple at Jerusalem; it
was five feet ten inches diameter, at the lower part next
the stumrp, and four feet eleven inches diameter, at the end


of twenty-two feet; after which, it lessened for a, while,
and then parted into branches. It was not without infi-
nite labour that I felled this tree. I was twecnty days
backing and hewing at it at the bottom : I was fourteen
more getting thle branches and limbs, and the vast spread-
ing head of it cut off, which I hacked and hewed through
with my axe and hatchet, and inexpressible labour. After
this it cost me a month to shape it, and dub it to a pro-
portion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that
it might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near
three months more to clear the inside, and work it out so
as to make an exact boat of it. This I did indesed without
fire, by mere mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard
labour, till I had brought it to be a very handsome peria-
gua, and big enough to have carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, I was extremely
delighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than
I ever saw a canoe, or' periagua, that was made of one tree,
in my life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, and there
remained nothing but to get it into the water.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed, though
th~ey cost me infinite labour too : it lay about one hundred
yards from the water, and not more; but the first incon-
venience was, it was uphill towards the creek. Well, to
take away this discouragement, I resolved to dig into the
surface of the earth, and so make a declivity. This I
began, and it cost me a prodigious deal of pains : but wfho
grudge pains, that have their deliverance in view ?l But
when this was worked through~, and this difficulty man-
aged, it was still much at one8; for I Cncld no more stir
t~he canoe, than I could the other boat.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too
late, the folly of beginning a work before we count the
cost, and before we judge rightly of our owvn strength to
go through with it.
I had now been here so long, that many things which I
brought on shore for my help were either quite gone, or
very much wasted, and near spent. My ink had been
quite gone for some time, all but a very little, which I
eked out with water till it was so pale it scarce left anly


appearance upon the paper. As long as it lasted, I made
use of it to minute down the day of the month on which:
any remarkable thing happened to me : and first, by caste
ing up times past, I remember that there was a strange,
concurrence of days, in the various providence which
befel me,.and which, if I had been superstitiously inclined
to observe days as fatal or fortunate, I might have had
reason to have looked upon with a great deal of curiosity.
First, I had observed that the same day that I broke
away from mly father and my friends, and ran away to
Hull, in order,to go to sea, the same day afterwards I was,
taken by the Sallee mlan-of-war, and made a slave. The
same day of the year that I had escaped out of the wreck'
of that ship in Yarmouth roads, that same day of the year
afterwards I made my escape from Satlee in the boat. The-
same day of the year I was born on, viz., the 30th of
September, the same day I had my life so miraculously
saved twenty-six years after, when I. was cast on shore in
this island.
The next thing to my ink's being wasted, was that of
mly bread, I mean the biscuit which I brought out of the
ship. This I had husbanlded to the last degree, allowing
myself but one cake of bread a day, for above a year; and
yet I was qunite without bread for near a year, before I got
any corn of my owvn.
My clothes, too, began to decay mightily. As to linen,
I had none a good while, except some check shirts which
I found in the chests of the other seamen, and which I
carefully preserved, because many times I could bear nd
other clothes on but a shirt; and though it is true that,
the weather was' so ,violently hot that there was no need
of clothes, yet I could not go quite naked, though~ I had
been inclined to it, which I was not.
Upon these views I began to consider about putting the
few ragcs I had, which I called clothes, into some order,
and mly business was now to try if I could not make
jackets out of the great watch-coats which I had by me,
and with such other materials as I had; so I set to work
a tailoring, or rather indeed a botching, for I made most
piteous work of it. However, I made shift to make two