Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 The life of Daniel DeFoe
 Robinson Crusoe
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073539/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: vi, 416 p. : 1 col. ill. ; 13 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
William Nicholson and Sons
S.D. Ewins & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: William Nicholson and Sons
S.D. Ewins & Co.
Place of Publication: Wakefield
London (22 Paternoster Row)
Manufacturer: W. Nicholson and Sons
Publication Date: 186-?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- Wakefield
England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: Spine and cover title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe"--P. 263.
General Note: Date from NUC citation below.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073539
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27966251

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The life of Daniel DeFoe
        Page v
        Page vi
    Robinson Crusoe
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text








S.U I g"Wl tC, y A iwtti mmd loo tieo U-,W ,
Pag 54








THE author of Robinson Crusoe was Daniel Foe, which,
from caprice, or other motive, he lengthened with a pre-
fix, calling himself De Foe. He was a native of London,
born in the year 1660, of humble parentage. His father,
James Foe, was a butcher. Daniel De Foe, at first
engaged in trade: from the business of a hosier he passed
to that of a pantile maker, without success. From want
of prudence, or dislike to his occupations, the only reward
of his schemes was embarrassment and distress.
In the speculations of the literary world he was more
fortunate. In 1701, when Kiug William, during the vio-
lence of parties was censured for his attachment to, and
employment of foreigners, De Foe espoused the cause of
his monarch, and ridiculed his enemies in a satirical
poem, called "The True-born Englishman." This pro-
duction was honoured with an enormous sale: and he was
encouraged to write another satire, entitled, "Reforma-
tion of Manners," in which he attacked the vices of some
persons of eminent rank.
A pamphlet, called The Shortest Way with the Dis-
senters," was so mistaken, or so misrepresented, that it
was declared by the House of Commons to be of a libel-
lous nature. De Foe, for his offence, was subjected to
fine, imprisonment, and even the pillory. He did not
give his enemies much reason to exult over his despond-
ence; for the subject which he took to amuse his prison
hours, was "A Hymn to the Pillory." During his con-
finement he also undertook the "Review," a periodical
work of considerable importance in the republic of learn-
ing, if, as has been imagined, it suggested the idea of the
Tattler and Spectator, which have enriched our language
with essays of incomparable beauty.
De Foe was employed in promoting the union of Eng-
land and Scotland, of which event he also wrote the his-
tory. Whatever glory he gained from interfering in the
bitter differences of politics, he gained little solid satis-
faction. A second imprisonment, which he suffered,
taught him the fate which he was to expect from the
animosity of political opponents. He began to take a
more quiet and useful path of literature in 1715, and pub-
lished a religious work, called The Family Instructer."
Of his many other productions we may notice The Hims

tory of the Plague In 1665'" a novel, entitled, "The
History of Colonel Jack,"-"A new Voyage round the
World, by a Company of Merchants,"-" The History of
Roxana,"-" The Memoirs of a Cavalier,"-" The History
of Moll Flanders," and a book, entitled "Religious Court-
ship," which has passed through many editions.
But De Foe's reputation rests chiefly upon his Robin-
son Crusoe," a work which almost every one has read in
his childhood, and the pleasing impressions of which are
scarcely obliterated from the memory in old age. Its
simple and perspicuous style is admirably suited to the
capacity of youth; it possesses enough of the marvellous
to delight the imagination; and the sentiments which it
inspires are such as need not be renounced or corrected
in mature age. Respecting this work there is a story
which it is incumbent to relate, although it has never
been fairly authenticated. It has been affirmed, (says
the Encyclopcedia Britannica,) that when Captain Woodes
Rogers touched at the island dof Juan Fernandez, in the
South Sea, he brought away Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch
seaman, who, having been left ashore there, had lived
upon the island in desolate solitude for the space of four
years. When Selkirk returned to England, it is said, that
he wrote a narrative of his adventures, and put the papers
in the hands of De Foe, to digest for publication; but that
he ungenerously converted the materials into the cele-
brated History of Robinson Crusoe." Part of this story
may be true, and part false. That De Foe might have had
the inspection of Selkirk's journal is very possible; and by
his powers of description, and skill in composition, he
might have expanded into an entertaining narrative, what
in its original form was a dull and awkward composition.
But that he was guilty of any fraud or injustice towards
Selkirk, is a suspicion which his character of general in-
tegrity should induce us to reject. As there is no credible
proof against him, we are bound to give him an acquittal,
both because he is not able to vindicate himself, and one
who has so entertained the rising generation, has more
than an ordinary right not to be condemned upon doubt-
ful accusation.
Daniel De Foe died at Islington, in the year 1731. His
daughter was respectably settled in life, by marrying
Henry Baker, an eminent naturalist.


I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of
a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull. He got a good estate by merchandise, and,
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words,
we are now called, nay, we call ourselves, Crusoe;
and so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers: one of whom was lieu-
tenant- colonel to an English regiment of foot in
Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts. My father had given me a com-
petent share of learning, and designed me for the
law; but nothing would suit me but going to sea;
and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will and the commands of my father, and against
all the entreaties and persuasions of my mother and
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in
that propension of nature, tending directly to that
life of misery which was to befal me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against my design: He called
me one morning into his chamber, where he was


confined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly
with me upon the subject. He asked me what reasons,
more than a mere wandering inclination, I had for
leaving my father's house, and my native country;
where I had a prospect of raising my fortune by ap-
plication and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure.
He said it was men of desperate fortunes who went
abroad upon adventures, to rise by enterprise, and
make themselves famous in undertakings out of the
common road; that these things were either too far
above me, or too far below me; and that mine was
the middle state, or the upper station of low life,
which he had found, by long experience, was the best
state, the most suited to human happiness, not ex-
posed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and
sufferings, of the mechanical part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition,
and envy of the upper classes. He told me I might
judge of the happiness of this state by th is one thing,
viz. that it was the life which all other people envied;
that kings have often lamented the miserable conse-
quences of being born to great things, and wished
they had been placed in the middle of the two ex-
tremes, between the mean and the great; that the
Wise Man gave his testimony to this, as the just stan-
dard of true felicity, when he prayed to have neither
poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe that the calamities of life were
shared among the upper and lower part of mankind;
but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and unexposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind; they were not subjected to
so much bodily and mental pain, as those were, who,
by luxurious living, on one hand, or by hard labour,
scarce and mean diet on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves, as the effects of their way
of living; that the middle station was promotive of
virtue, and enjoyment; that peace and plenty were


the handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance,
moderation, health, society, all agreeable diversions
and pleasures, were the blessings peculiar to the mid-
dle station of life; that this way men went silently
and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
of it; not enraged with the passion of envy, or the
secret lust of ambition for great things, but in easy
circumstances sliding gently through the world, and
sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
After this he pressed me earnestly, and most affec-
tionately, not to play the young man, nor to precipi-
tate myself into miseries, which my station of life
seemed to have provided against; that I was under
no necessity of seeking my bread; that he would
enter me fairly into the station of life which he had
just recommended; and that if I was not happy in
the world, it must be my fate, or fault, that must hin-
der it; and that he should have nothing to answer
for, having discharged his duty in warning me against
measures which would be to my hurt. And, that as
he would do very kind things for me, if I would settle
at home, so he would have no part in my misfortunes,
as to give me encouragement to go away. He said
I had an elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him
from going into the Low Country wars, but could not
prevail his desires prompting him to enter the army,
where he was killed. He said he would not cease to
pray for me; but if I did take that foolish step God
would not bless me; and hereafter I should regret
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though my father did not know
it to be so; I observed the tears copiously to run down
his face, especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and when he spoke of my after-regret,

and none to assist me. he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse, and his heart was so full he could
say no more to me.
I was much affected with this discourse, and I re-
solved not to think of going abroad, but to settle at
home according to my father's desire. But alas! a
few days wore it all off; and to prevent any more of
my father's importunities, in a few weeks after I re-
solved to run away from him. However, I did not
act quite so hastily; but I took my mother at a time
when she was in a pleasant mood, and told her, that
my thoughts were so bent upon seeing the world, that
I should never settle to any thing with resolution
enough to go through with it; and my father had
better give his consent, than force me to go without
it; that I was eighteen years old, which was too late
to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to any attorney,
that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my
time, but should run away from my master before my
time was out, .and go to sea; and if she would speak
to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again and did not like it, I would go no
more, and I would promise by a double diligence to
recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me, she knew it was of no use to speak to my fa-
ther on such a subject; that he knew well what was
my interest, to consent to any thing so much for my
hurt; and that she wondered how I could think of
it, after the discourse I had had with my father, and
such kind and tender expressions, as she knew my
father had used to me: and that if I would ruin my-
self there was no help for me; that I should never
have their consent to it; that she would have no
hand in my destruction, and I should never have it
to say, that my mother was willing when my father
was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,


yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the dis-
course to him; and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, "h That
the boy might be happy, if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I cannot consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the meantime I was deaf to all pro-
posals of settling to business, and frequently expos-
tulating with my father and mother for opposing my
inclination. But being one day at Hull, and one of
my companions being going by sea to London, in
his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common allurement of a sea-faring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so
much as sent them word of it, but leaving them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God's bles-
sing, or my father's, and in an ill hour, God knows,
on the first of September, 1651, I went on board a
ship bound for London. Never any young adven-
turer's misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or .con-
tinued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner
got out of the Humber, than the wind began to blow,
and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and,
as I had never seen the sea before, I was most in-
expressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entrea--
ties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience,
which was not hardened as it has been since, re-
proached me with the contempt of advice, and the
reach of my duty to God and my father.
The storn increased, and the sea went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times

11 .


since, nor what I saw a few days after. But it was
enough to affect me then, who was but a young sai-
lor, and had never seen the sea before. I expected
every wave to swallow us up, and that every time the
ship fell down, as I thought it did, in the trough or
hollow of the sea, we should never rise more. In this
agony of mind, I made vows and resolutions, that if
it pleased God to spare my life, if ever I set my foot
upon dry land again, I would go directly home to my
father, and never set it into a ship again while I
lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
into such miseries again. I saw plainly the goodness
of his observations about the middle station of life,
how easy, how comfortable, he had lived all his days,
and never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or
troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a
true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These thoughts continued during the storm, and
some time after; but the next day the wind abated,
and the sea became calm, and I began to be a little
inured to it. But I was very grave for all that day,
being a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was over, and a fine
evening followed; the sun set perfectly clear, and
rose so the next morning, and having no wind, and a
smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the sight was
the most delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was no longer
sea-sick, but very cheerful; looking with wonder upon
the sea, that was so rough and terrible the day be-
fore, and could be so calm and pleasant in so little
a time after. And lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had enticed me away,
comes to me-" Well Bob," said he, clapping me upon
the shoulder, how do you do after it ? I warrant you
were frightened last night, when it blew but a capful
of wind?"-" A capful d'you call it ?" said I, "'twas
a terrible storm."-" A storm, you fool you! do you


eall that a storm ?" Why it was nothing at all; give
us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that! but you're
but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let us make
a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'you
see what charming weather 'tis now?" In short,
the punch was made, and I was made half drunk with
it, and in that one night's wickedness I drowned all
my repentance, and reflections upon my past conduct,
and all my resolutions for the future. In a word, as
the sea was become calm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears of being swallowed up by the
sea being forgotten, and the current of my former de-
sires returned, I forgot the vows and promises made
in my distress. I found some intervals of reflection,
and serious thoughts would return sometimes; but I
shook them off, and roused myself as from a distem-
per; and applying myself to drinking and company,
soon mastered those fits (for so I called them:) and
I had in five or six days, got a complete victory over
conscience. But I was to have another trial for it
still, and Providence resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse, for, if I would not take this for a de-
liverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into the
Yarmouth Roads, the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-
trary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days; dur-
ing which time a great many ships from Newcastle
came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
But we had not rid here so long, but we should
have tided it up the river, but the wind blew too
fresh, and, after lying four or five days, it blew very:

hard. However, the roads being reckoned as good
as a harbour, the anchorage good, and our ground-
tackle very strong, our men were not in the least ap-
prehensive of danger, but spent the time in rest and
mirth; but the eighth day in the morning the wind
increased, and we had all hands at work to strike our
topmasts, and make every thing snug and close, that
the ship might ride easy. By noon the sea went
very high, and our ship rid forecastle in, shipped
several seas, and we thought once or twice our anchor
had come home, upon which our master ordered out
the sheet anchor, so that we rode with two anchors
a-head, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm, and now I
began to see terror in the faces of the seamen them-
selves. The master, though vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship, yet, as he went in and out of
his cabin by me, I could hear him, softly to himself,
say several times, "Lord, be merciful to us! We
shall all be lost; we shall be undone!" At the first,
I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, and cannot de-
scribe my temper. I could ill resume the first peni-
tence, which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against. I thought the bitterness
of death had been past, and that this would be nothing,
too, like the first. But when the master thus came
by me, and said we should be all lost, I was dread-
fully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and
looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes, and I could see nothing
but distress around us. Two ships that rid near us,
had cut their masts by the board, being deep loaden;
and our men cried out, that a ship, a mile a-head of
us, was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
and not a mast standing. The light ships fared the
best, as.not so much labouring in the sea; but two or


three of them drove close by us, running away, with
only their sprit-sail out before the wind.
Towards the evening the mate and boatswain beg-
ged the master to let them cut away the fore-mast,
which he was unwilling to do; but the boatswain
saying that if he did not, the ship would founder, he
consented; and when they had cut away the fore-
mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and shook the
ship so much, they had to cut her away also, and make
a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But I
was in tenfold more horror on account of my former
convictions, and resolutions which I made when ap-
parently near death; and these, added to the terrors
of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can
by no words describe it. But the worst was not come
yet; the storm continued with such fury, that the
seamen acknowledged they had never seen a worse.
We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and so
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and
then cried out she would founder. It was my advan-
tage, that I did not know what they meant by founder,
till I inquired. The storm was so violent, that I saw
what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and
others, at their prayers, and expecting every moment
that the ship would go to the bottom. In the middle
of the night, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak, ano-
ther said there was four feet water in the hold. Then
all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I
fell backwards upon the side of the bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I was as well able to pump as another;
at which I went to the pump, and worked very
heartily. While this was doing, the master,. seeing


some light colliers, that were obliged to slip and run
away to sea, and would come nearer us, ordered a gun
to be fired as a signal of distress. I, who knew
nothing what that meant, was so surprised that I
thought the ship had broke or some dreadful thing
happened. I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when every body had his
own life to think of, nobody minded me, but another
man stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside
with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead;
and it was a great while before I came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder,
and though the storm abated a little, yet as she could
not swim till we might run into any port, so the mas-
ter kept firing guns, and a light ship, which had rid
it out just a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help
us. It was with the utmost hazard that the boat
came near us, but it was impossible for us to get on
board, or for the boat to lie near the ship-side, till at
last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing
their lives to save ours, our men cast them a rope over
the stern with a buoy to it, and then veered it out at
a great length, which they, after much labour and
hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close under
our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no
purpose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to their own ship, so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards the
shore as much as we could; and our master promised
them, that if the boal was staved upon shore, he
would make it good to their master. So partly row-
ing and partly driving, our boat went away to the
northward, sloping towards the shore, almost as far
as Winterton.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, before we saw her sink, and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a


ship foundering in the sea. I had hardly eyes to look
up, when the seamen told me she was sinking, for,
from that moment, they rather put me into the boat,
than that I might be said to go in; my heart was, as
it were, dead within me, partly with fright, and the
thought of what was yet before me.
While the men were yet labouring at the oar to
bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when our
boat mounted the waves, we were able to see the
shore) a great many people running along the strand
to assist us when we should come near. But we
made but slow way towards the shore; nor were we
able to reach the shore, till being past the light-house
at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward to-
wards Cromer, and so the land broke a little the vio-
lence of the wind. Here we got in; and with much
difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked on foot
to Yarmouth, where we were used with great hu-
manity by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, and by merchants and owners of
ships; and had money given us sufficient to carry us
to London, or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I had the sense to go back to Hull, and then
home, I had been happy, and then my father, an em-
blem of our Saviour's parable, had even killed the
fatted calf for me; for, hearing the ship was cast
away in Yarmouth roads, it was a great while before
he had any assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with a determined
obstinacy; and though I had several times loud calls
for my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I
had no power to do it. I know not what to call this;
nor will I uige, that it is a secret overruling decree,
that hurries us on to be the instruments of our own
destruction, and to push upon it with our eyes open.
Certainly, nothing but some such decreed unavoida-
ble misery attending, could have pushed me forward
against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my

mind, and against two such visible instructions as I
had met with in my first escape.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; his tone was altered; and, looking melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did: and tel-
ling his father who I was, and how I had come this
voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther abroad;
his father with a very grave tone, said "Young man,
you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought
to take this for a visible token, that you are not to be
a seafaring man."-" Why, sir," said I, "will you
go to sea no more?"-" That is another case," said
he; "it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but
as you made this voyage for a trial, you see what a
taste Heaven has given you of what you are to ex-
pect if you persist: perhaps all this has befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish.
Pray, what are you? and on what account did you
go to sea ?" Upon that I told him some of my story;
at the end of which he burst out with a strange pas-
sion, What had I done," says he, "that such an
unhappy wretch should come into my ship? I would
not set my foot in the same ship with thee again for
a thousand pounds!" This was, as I said, an excur-
sion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. But afterwards he talked very
gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father,
and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me that I
might see a visible hand of Heaven against me: and,
young man," said he, "if you do not go back, where-
ever you go, you will meet with nothing but disasters
till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,


and I saw him no more. As for me, having some
money in my pocket, I travelled to London by land,
and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles
with myself what course of life I should take, and
whether I should go home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
of my thoughts; and it occurred to me how I should
be laughed at, and should be ashamed to see my fa-
ther and mother, and every body else. I have since
learned how irrational the temper of mankind is, es-
pecially of youth, to that reason that ought to guide
them in such cases; viz. they are not ashamed of the
action for which they ought justly to be esteemed
fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which can
only make them esteemed as wise men.
In this state of life, however I remained some time.
An irresistible reluctance continued to my going home;
and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance of the dis-
tress I had been in wore off; and the little notion I
had in my desires to return wore off with it, till I
quite laid aside the thoughts of it, and looked out for
a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from
my father's house, which hurried me into the wild
notion of raising my fortune, and that impressed those
conceits so forcibly upon me as to make me deaf to
all good advice, and to the entreaties of my father;
the same influence, whatever it was, presented the
most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view. I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa,
or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my misfortune, that, in all my adventures,
I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby though I
might have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet
I might in time have qualified myself for a mate or
lieutenant, if not for a master. But it was always my
fate to choose for a worse; for having money in my
pucket, and good clothes on my back, I would always


go on board in the habit of a gentleman, and so I
neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to
do any.
It was my lot to fall into pretty good company in
London, which does not always happen to such un-
guided young fellows as I then was. I first became
acquainted with the master of a ship who had been
on the coast of Guinea, and who, having had great
success there, was resolved to go again. This cap-
tain, liking my conversation, and hearing me say I
had a mind to see the world, told me, if I would go
the voyage with him, I should be at no expense; I
should be his messmate, and his companion; and if
I could carry any thing with me, I should have all
the advantage of it that the trade would admit.
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest man,
went the voyage with him, and carried a small adven-
ture, which, by the disinterested honesty of the cap-
tain, I increased considerably; for I carried about
401. in such toys and trifles as the captain directed
me to buy. This 401. I had mustered by the assis-
tance of some of my relations whom I corresponded
with, and who, I believe, got my father, or my mo-
ther, to contribute to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which was successful in
all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity
of my friend the captain, who gave me a competent
knowledge of the mathematics, and the rules of navi-
gation; and how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and to understand some
things needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and this voyage made be both a sailor and a merchant;
fcr I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold
dust for my adventure, which yielded me in London
almost 3001., and this filled me with those aspiring
thoughts which have since so completed my ruin. Yet,

even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too. I
was continually sick, being thrown into a violent fe-
ver by the excessive heat of the climate, our princi-
pal trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of
15 deg. N. even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend dying soon after his arrival, I resolved to go
the same voyage, and had now got the command of the
ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever man
made; for though I did not carry off quite 1001. of
my newly-gained wealth, so that I had 2001. left,
and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who
was very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes
in this voyage; first, our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or between those Islands
and the African shore, was surprised in the grey of
the morning by a Moorish rover of Sallee, which
chased us with all her sails. We crowded as much
canvass as our yards could spread, or our masts carry,
to get clear; but, finding the pirate gained upon us,
and would come up with us in a few hours, we pre-
pared to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the
rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near two
hundred men on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but,
laying us on board the next time upon our-other quar-
ter, he entered ninety men upon our decks, who im-
mediately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and
rigging. We plied them with small shot, hand-
pikes, powder chests, and cleared our decks of them
twice. But our ship being disabled, and three of our


men killed and eight wounded, we were obliged to
yield, and were carried prisoners into Sallee, a port
belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended; nor was I carried up the coun-
try, to the emperor's court, as our men were, but was
kept by the captain of the rover as his prize, and made
his slave, being young and nimble, and fit for busi-
ness. At this change, from a merchant to a misera-
ble slave, I was overwhelmed; and now I recollected
my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should
be miserable, and have none to relieve me, which
was now so effectually brought to pass, that I could
not be worse; that now the hand of Heaven had
overtaken me, and I was undone without redemption.
But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery I was
yet to go through.
As my new master had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes that he would take me with him
when he went to sea again, believing that it would be
some time or other his fate to be taken by a Spanish
or Portugal man of war, and that then I should be set
at liberty. But this hope of mine was soon taken
away; for when he went to sea, he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common
drudgery of slaves about the house! and when he
came home again from his cruise, he ordered me to
lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it. Nothing pre-
sented to make the supposition of it rational, for I
had nobody to communicate it to that would embark
with me, no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman there, but myself; so that for two years,
I never had the least opportunity to put it in practice.
After about two years, my patron lying at home
longer than usual, without fitting out his ship, which


I heard was for want of money, he used constantly
once or twice in a week, oftener if the weather was
fair, to take the ship's pinnace, and go out into the
road a fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Maresco with him to row the boat, we made him
very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching
fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with
a Moor, one of his kinsmen, and Maresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one calm morning, going a fishing with
him, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half
a league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and,
rowing we knew not whither, we laboured all day and
the next night; and when the morning came, we
found we had pulled off to sea, instead of pulling in
for the shore, and were at least two leagues from the
land. But we got well in again, though with a great
deal of labour and danger, for the wind began to blow
pretty fresh in the morning. We were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future'; and having
the long boat of our English ship, he resolved not to
go a fishing without a compass, and some provision;
so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, an English
slave, to build a little state room or cabin in the mid-
dle of the long boat, like that of a barge, with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main
sheet; and room before for a hand or two to stand and
work the sails. She sailed with what we call a shoul-
der of mutton sail; and the boom jibbed over the top
of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had
in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a
table to eat on, with small lockers for bottles of such
liquor as he thought fit to drink, also, his bread, rice,
and coffee.
We were oft out with this boat fishing; and as I
was most dexterous to catch fish, he never went with-

out me. One day he had appointed to go out in this boat
with two or three Moors of some distinction, and for
whom he had provided extraordinarily, and had sent on
board over night a larger store of provisions than
usual; and had ordered me to get ready three fusils
with powder and shot, which were on board his ship,
for they designed fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready, and waited next morning
with the boat washed clean, her ancient and pendants
out, and every thing to accommodate his guests; my
patron soon came on board alone, and said his guests
had put off going, upon some business that fell out,
and ordered me with the man and boy to go out with
the boat and catch some fish, for his friends were to
sup at his house; and that as soon as I had got some
fish, to bring it home. All which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for I was likely to have a
little ship at my command; and my master being
gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fishing
business, but for a voyage; though I knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I would
steer, for any where to get out of that place was my
I first contrived to speak to this Moor to get some-
thing for our subsistence on board, for I told him we
must not eat our patron's bread. He said, that was
true; so he brought a large basket of biscuit, and
three jars of fresh water, into the boat. I knew where
my patron's case of bottles stood, which, by the make,
were taken out of some English prize, and I took them
into the boat, while the Moor was on shore, as if they
had been there before for our master; also, a lump of
beees wax, which weighed half a hundred weight,
with a parcel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and
a hammer, which were of great use to us afterwards:
especially the wax to make candles. Another trick
I tried upon him. His name was Ismael, whom they

called Muley or Moley; so I called to him: Mo-
ley," said I, "our patron's guns are all on board the
boat; can you get a little powder and shot? we may
kill some alcomies (a fowl like our curlews) for our-
selves, for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the
ship," Yes," says he, "I'll bring some." Accor-
dingly he brought a great leather pouch, which held
about a pound and a half of powder, and another with
shot, five or six pounds, with some bullets. I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which I filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another, and thus furnished with every thing needful,
we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, at the
entrance of the port, knew us, and took no notice of
us; and we were not above a mile out of the port,
before we hauled in our sail, and sat us down to fish.
The wind blew from the N.N.E., contrary to my de-
sire; for had it blown southerly, I could have made
the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the bay of
Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow which way it
would, to escape that horrid place where I was, and
leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and caught nothing
(for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them,) I said to the
Moor, "This will not do; our master will not be
thus served. We must stand farther off." He
thinking no harm, agreed; and being in the head of
the boat, set the sails, and, as I had the helm, I ran
the boat out a league farther, and then brought her
to, as if I would fish; when, giving the boy the helm,
I stepped forward to where the Moor was, -and making
as if I stooped for something behind him, I took him
by surprise with my arm under his twist, and tossed
him overboard into the sea. He rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to
be taken in, told me he would go all over the world


with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind: upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching one of the fowling pieces, I presented it at
him, and told him I had done him no hurt, and, if
he would be quite, I would do him none. "But,"
said I, "you swim well enough to reach the shore,
and the sea is calm; make the best of your way to the
shore, I will do you no harm; but if you come near
the boat, I'll shoot you through the head, for I will
have my liberty." So he swam for the shore, and I
make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he was
an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but I could not
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy,
called Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you
will not stroke your face to be true to me," that is,
swear by Mahomet and his father's beard, I must
throw you into the sea too." The boy smiled and
spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him;
he swore to be faithful, and go all over the world with
While seeing the Moor swimming, I stood out di-
rectly to sea with the boat, to windward, that they
might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth, for
who would have thought we sailed to the southward,
to the truly Barbarian coast, where all nations of Ne-
groes were sure to surround us with their canoes, and
destroy us, where we could never go once on shore,
but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I chang-
ed my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course towards the east, that I might
keep in with the shore; and having a fair fresh gale
of wind, and a smooth sea, I made such sail, that by


the next day at three o'clock in the afternoon, when
I first made the land, I was 150 miles south of Sallee,
quite beyond the emperor of Morocco's dominions.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful fears of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop or go on shore, or come to an an-
chor, the wind continuing fair, till I had sailed in that
manner five days; and then the wind shifted to the
southward; I concluded, also, that if any of our ves-
sels were in chase of me, they would give over; so I
ventured to make to the coast, and come to an anchor
in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what or
where, nor what latitude, country, nation, or river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the prin-
cipal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was quite dark, but we heard such dread-
ful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of
wild creatures, that the boy was ready to die with
fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till day.
"Well, Xury," said I, "then I won't; but we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those
lions." Then we may give them the shoot gun,"
says Xury laughing, make them run away." Such
English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer
him up. After all Xury's advice was good, and I
took it. We dropped our little anchor, and lay still
all night; for we slept none. In two or three hours
we saw great creatures, we knew not what to call
them, of many sorts, come down to the sea shore, and
run into the water, wallowing and washing them-
selves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made most hideous howlings and yelling.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and so was I too;
but we were both worse frightened when we heard
one of the creatures swimming towards our boat; we


could not see him, but we heard him by his blowing
to be a monstrous huge and furious beast. Xury said
it was a lion, and it might be for aught I knew.
Poor Xury cried out to me to weigh anchor and row
away. "No," says I, "Xury, we can slip our cable
with a buoy to it, and go to sea; they cannot follow
us far." I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the
creature within two oars' length, which surprised me:
but I imme diately stepped to the cabin door, and taking
up my gun, fired at him, upon which he turned about,
and swam towards the shore again.
But I cannot describe the horrible noises, and hid-
eous howlings, that were raised, as well upon the edge
of the shore as higher within the country, upon the
report of a gun, which, perhaps, those creatures had
never heard before. This convinced me that there
was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast, and how te venture on shore in the day was
another question too; for, to have fallen into the hands
of savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers.
But we were obliged to go on shore for water, for
we had not a pint in the boat; when or where to get
it was the point. Xury said if I would let him go on
shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was
any water, and bring it. I asked him why he would
go, why I should not go, and he stay in the boat.
The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come,
they eat me up; you go away." Well, Xury," said
I, "we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us." So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram,
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore, as we
thought proper, and waded on shore, carrying oar
arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the ciingu of canoes with savages down the river;


but the boy seeing a low place, about a mile up the
country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pur-
sued by some savage, or frightened with some wild
beast, and I ran towards him to help him; but when
he came nearer, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot, like
a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs. How-
ever, we were glad of it, as it was very good meat;
but the great joy that Xury came with, was to tell
me he had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
we found the water fresh when the tide was out; so
we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had
killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen
no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands, lay not far off from the
coast. But as I had no instruments to take an ob-
servation to know what latitude we were in, and did
not exactly remember what latitude they were in, I
knew not where to look for them, or when to stand
off to sea towards them, otherwise I might easily have
found some of these islands. But my hope was, that
if I stood along this coast till I came to that part
where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would
relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was, must be that country which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes
lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors: and the Moor* not
.thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barren-


ness, because of the great numbers of tigers. lions,
leopards, and other furious creatures, so that the
Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go
two or three thousand men at a time; for near a hun-
dred miles upon this coast, we saw nothing but a
waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing
but howling of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day time, I thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to try
to reach it, but, having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for
my little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first de-
sign, and keep along the shore.
Several times we had to land for fresh water, and
once, early in the morning, we came to an anchor un-
der a little point of water, which was pretty high, and
the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go farther
in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him, it seems,
than mine, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore, "For," says he,
"look, yonder lies a dreadful monster on the side of
that hillock, fast asleep." I looked, and saw a dread-
ful monster, even a terrible great lion, that lay on the
side of the shore, under the shade of the hill, that
hung a little over him. "Xury," said I, "you shall
go on shore and kill him." Xury looked frightened,
and said, "Me kill! He eat me at one mouth!" one
mouthful, he meant. I said no more to the boy, but
bade him be still, and took our biggest gun, which
was almost musket-bore, and two slugs; then I loaded
another gun with two bullets, and the third I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could
with the first piece, to have shot him into the head;
but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his nose
that the slug hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up growling at first, but finding
his leg broke, fell down again, and then got upon

three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever
I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not hit
him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece, and, though he began to move off, fired again,
and shot him into the head, and had the pleasure to
see him drop, and making but little noise, he lay strug-
gling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would go
ashore. "Well go," said I. So the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam
to shore with the other hand, and coming close to the
creature, put the muzzle of the piece to his ear, and
shot him into the head again, which dispatched him
This was game to us, but no food, and I was sorry
to lose three charges of powder and shot, upon a
creature good for nothing to us. But Xury said he
would have some of him; so he comes on board, and
asked for the hatchet. "For what, Xury ?" said I.
"Me cut off his head," said he. But Xury could not
cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it,
a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
might be of some value to us, and I resolved to take
off his skin if I could. So Xury and I went to work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman
at it. It took us both the whole day, but at last we
got off the hide, and spreading it on the top of our
cabin, the sun effectually dried it in two days' time,
and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made to the southward for ten
or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provi-
sions, which began to abate very much, only going
to the shore when we wanted fresh water. My design
was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, or any
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course to take, but to seek for the
islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I knew


that all the ships from Europe, which sailed either to
the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the East In-
dies, made this cape or those islands, and I put the
whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship or perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, I began to see that the land was inhabited,
and in two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw
people stand upon the shore to look at us; they were
quite black, and naked. I was once inclined to go on
shore to them, but Xury was my better counsellor,
and said to me, "No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them, and
they ran along the shore by me a good way; they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, who had a
long slender stick, which Xury said was a lance, that
they would throw them a great way with good aim;
so I kept at a distance, but talked with them by signs
for something to eat. They beckoned to me to stop
my boat, and they would fetch me some meat. Upon
this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
of them ran up into the country, and in half an hour
came back, and brought two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, the produce of their country, but we nei-
ther knew what the one or the other was; however,
we were willing to accept it. But how to get it was
our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore
to them, and they were as much afraid of us, but they
took a safe way for us all, for they brought it to the
shore, and laid it down, and went, and stood a great
way off, till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs to thank them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered
that instant to oblige them wonderfully; for while
we were lying by the shore, there came two mighty
creatures, one pursuing the other with great fury,
from the mountains towards the sea; whether it was

the male pursuing the female, or whether they were in
sport or in rage, we could not tell, but I believe it was
the latter, because those ravenous creatures seldom
appear but in the night, and because we found the
people terribly frightened, especially the women. The
man that had the lance did not fly from them, but the
rest did. However, as the two creatures ran directly
into the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon
the Negroes, but plunged into the sea, and swam about
as if for diversion; and at last one of them came
nearer our boat than I at first expected; but I lay
ready for him, for I had loaded my gun with all pos-
sible expedition, and bade Xury load both the others.
As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired
and shot him through the head. Immediately he
sank down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if struggling for life, and so
indeed he was. He immediately made to the shore,
but from the wound, and the strangling of the water,
he died just before he reached it.
Great was the atonishment of these poor creatures
at the report of my gun; some of them were ready
even to die of fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror. But when they saw the creature dead, and
sunk into the water, and that I made signs for them
to come to the shore, they took heart and came, and
began to search for the creature. I found him'by his
blood staining the water, and I flung a rope round
him, and gave it the Negroes to haul, they dragged
him on shore, and found it was a most curious leopard,
very beautifully spotted; and the Negroes held up
their hands with admiration, to think-what it was
I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the noise of the
gun, swam to the shore, and ran to the mountains
from whence they came, nor could I at that distance
know what it was. I found the Negroes were for
eating the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to


have them take it as a favour from me, which, when
I made signs to them that they might take him, they
were very thankful for. Immediately they fell to
work with him, and though they had no knife, yet
with a sharpened piece of wood they took off his skin
much more readily than we could have done with a
knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which 1
declined, making as if I would give it them, but made
signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me more of their provision, which though
I did not understand, yet I accepted. Then I made
signs for some water, and held a jar to them, turning
its bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made out of earth,
and burnt, as I suppose, in the sun: this they set down,
as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and
filled them all three. The women were as naked as
the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me, and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point;
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward; then I concluded, it was most certain,
that this was the Cape de Verd, and those islands,
called from thence Cape de Verd islands. But they
were at a great distance, and I could not well tell
what to do; for if I should be taken with a fresh wind,
I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, I was very pensive, and went into
the cabin, and sat down, Xury having the helm,
when on a sudden the boy cried out, "Master, mas-


ter, a ship was a sail!" and the foolish boy was fright-
ed out of his wits, thinking it must be some of his
master's ships sent to pursue us, when I knew we
were gotten far enough out of their reach. I jumped
out of the cabin, and saw the ship, and what she was,
viz. a Portuguese ship, and as I thought, was bound
to the coast of Guinea for Negroes. When I observed
the course she steered, I was convinced they were
bound some other way, and did not design to go
nearer the shore, upon which I stretched out to sea
as much as I could, resolving to speak with them if
With all my sail, I found I should not to able to
come in their way, that they would be gone by before
I could make any signal to them; but after I had
crowded to the utmost, and began to despair, they saw
me by the help of their perspective glasses, and that
it was some European boat, which they supposed
must belong to some lost ship; so they shortened sail
to let me come up. I was encouraged with this, and
as I had my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft
of it to them as a signal of distress, and fired a gun,
both of which they saw, for they told me they saw the
smoke though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals they very kindly brought to, and lay by for
me. and in about three hours time I came up with
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but at last a Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I told him I was an Englishman,
that I had made my escape out of slavery from the
Moors at Sallee. Then they bade me come on board,
and very kindly took me in, and all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me that I was thus
delivered from such a miserable and almost hopeless
condition as I was in. I immediately offered all I had
to the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliv-

erance; but he generously told me, he would take
nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me when I came to the Brazils. For,"
says he, "I have saved your life on no other terms
than as I would be glad to be saved myself; and it
may one time or other be my lot to be taken up in
the same condition. Besides, when I carry you to
the Brazils, so great a way from your own country,
if I should take from you what trifle you have, you
will be starved there, and then I only take away that
life I have given. No, no, Signor Inglese, (Mr. English-
man,) I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help you to buy your subsistence there,
and your passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered
the seamen that none should touch any thing I had.
He took every thing into his own possession, and gave
me an inventory of them, that I might have them
again, even so much as my three earthen jars. As
my boat was a very good one, he said he would buy
it of me for the ship's use, and asked me what I would
have for it. I told him he had been so generous to
me in every thing, that I could not set any price on
the boat, but left it entirely to him; upon which he
told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me
80 pieces of eight for it in Brazil, and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would make
it up. He offered me also 60 pieces of eight for my
boy, Xury, which I was loath to take; not that I
was unwilling to let the captain have him, but I was
very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had as-
sisted me so faithfully in procuring my own. How-
ever, when I let him know my reason, he owned it
to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would
give the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years,
if he turned Christian. Upon this, Xury, saying he
was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.


We had a good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived
in the Bay de todos los Santos, or All Saints Bay, in
twenty-four days after. And now I was once more
delivered from the most miserable condition of life;
but what to do next with myself, I did not know.
The generous treatment of the captain I can never
forget; he would take nothing for my passage, gave
me 20 ducats for the leopard's skin, and 40 for the
lion's skin, and caused every thing I had in the ship
to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of bees wax, for I had
made candles of the rest. I made about 220 pieces of
eight of all my cargo, and with this stock I went on
shore on the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation
and a sugar-house, I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself with the manner of their planting
and making of sugar; and seeing how well the plan-
ters lived, and how they grew rich suddenly, I resolved,
if I could get licence to settle there, I would turn
plaster; resolving to find out a way to get my money
which I had left in London remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement, and such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, called Wells, and in such
circumstances as I was. I call him neighbour, because
his plantation lay next to mine, and we went on socia-
bly together; my stock like his was low, and we ra-
ther planted for food than any thing else for about
two years. However, we began to increase, and our


land got into order, so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come, but we
both wanted help; and now I found I had done wrong
in parting with my boy, Xury.
But, alas for me to do wrong thqt never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go on.
I began an employment remote to my genius, and
contrary to the life I liked, and for which I forsook
my father's house, and neglected his good advice; nay,*
I was coming into the very middle station, or upper de-
gree of low life, which my father advised, and which,
if I resolved to go on with, I might as well have stayed
at home, and not fatigued myself in the world as I
have done; and often I said to myself, I could have
done this as well in England among my friends, as
have gone five thousand miles off to do it among
strangers and savages in the wilderness.
Thus I used to look upon my state with the utmost
regret. I had nobody to converse with but this neigh-
bour; no work to be done but by the labour of my
hands; and I lived just like a man cast away on a
desolate island, with noboby there but himself. But
how just has it been, and how should all men reflect,
that when they compare their present condition with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
happiness, by experience! I say, how just has it
been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life I then led,
in which, had I continued, I had, probably, been very
prosperous and rich.
I was very nearly settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the cap-
tain of the ship that took me up at sea, went back,
for the ship remained there for loading, and preparing
for her voyage, near three months; when, telling him


what little stock I had left behind me in London, he
gave me this friendly advice: "Signor Inglese, if
you will give me letters, and a procuration here in
form to me, with orders to the person who has your
money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as
are proper in this country, I will bring you the pro-
duce, God willing, at my return; but, since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would
have you give orders for 1001. sterling, which you say
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first, so that if it come safe, you may order the rest
the same way, and if it miscarry, you may have the
other half for your supply.
This was such wholesome friendly advice, that I
was convinced it was the best course I could take; so
I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I had left my money, and a procuration
for the Portuguese captain as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
met with the Portugal captain at sea, his humanity,
and the condition I was in, with all other necessary
directions for my supply; and when this honest cap-
tain came to Lisbon, he found means, by some of the
English merchants there, to send over the order, and
a full account of my story, to a merchant in London,
who presented it to her; whereupon she not only de-
livered the money, but out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a handsome present for his humani-
ty to me.
The merchant in London vested his 1001. in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, and
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them safe to me to the Brazils; among 'Which, were
all sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary
for my plantation.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune


made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the 51. which
my friend had sent him for a present, to purchase,
and bring me over a servant, under a bond for six
years' service, and would not accept of any thing, ex-
cept a little tobacco, of my own produce.
Nor was this all; but my goods being all English
manufacture, as cloth, stuff. baize, and things par-
ticularly valuable and desirable in the country, I sold
them to very great advantage; so that I had more
than four times the value of my first cargo, and was
now infinitely beyond my poor neighbour, in the ad-
vancement of my plantation; for the first thing I did,
I bought me a negro slave and an European servant
also; besides that which the captain brought me from
But as abused prosperity is oft made the means of
our greatest adversity, so it was with me. I went on
the next year with great success in my plantation; I
raised fifty rolls of tobacco on my own ground, more
than I had disposed of for necessaries among my
neighbours, and these fifty rolls being each of above
100lb. weight, were well cured and laid by against
the return of the fleet from Lisbon. And now in-
creasing in business and wealth, my head was full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach, such as
are often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I continued in that station, I might have had
all the happy things, for which my father so earnestly
recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had
described the middle station of life to be full of; but
I was still to be the wilful agent of all my own mis-
eries; and to increase my fault, and double the re-
flections upon myself, which in my future sorrows I
should make; all these miscarriages were procured
by obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination of
wandering abroad, in contradiction to the clearest
views of doing myself good in a fair and plain pursuit

of those prospects, which nature and providence con-
curred to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from
my parents, so I could not be content now; but I
must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to
pursue a rash desire of rising faster than the nature
of the thing admitted; and thus I cast myself down
again into the deepest gulf of human misery that any
man fell into, or, perhaps, could be consistent with
lile, and a state of health in the world.
Beginning to thrive and prosper upon my planta-
tion, I had not only learned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of
St. Salvadore, which was our port, and that, in my
discourse among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the
manner of trading with the negroes there, and how
easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like, not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants' teeth, &c. but negroes for the service of the
Brazils in great numbers.
They listened very attentively to my discourses, es-
pecially to the buying of negroes, which was a trade
at that time not only not far entered into, but, as far as
it was, had been carried on by the permission of the
kings of Spain and Portugal, and engrossed in the
public stock, so that few negroes were bought, and
those very dear.
Being in company one day with some merchants,
and planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those
things very earnestly, three of them came ,to me the
next morning, and told me they had been musing
very much upon what I had stated last night, and
they came to make a secret appeal to me, and, after
enjoining secrecy, they said they wished to fit out a


ship to Guinea; that they had plantations as well as
I, but were straitened for servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could
not publicly sell the negroes when they came home,
so they desired to make but one voyage, to bring the
negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, the question was, whether
I would go, their supercargo in the ship, to manage
the trading part upon the coast of Guinea; and they
offered me an equal share of the negroes, without pro-
viding any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, had it been made to one
that had not had a settlement and plantation of his
own to look after, and in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But
for me thus established, and had nothing to do but
go on for three or four years more, and to have sent
for the other 1001. from England, and who, in that
time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth 3 or 40001. sterling, and
that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guily of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer, than I could refrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel was
lost upon me. I told them I would go with all my
heart, if they would look after my plantation in my
absence, and dispose of it to such as I should direct,
if I miscarried. This they all engaged to do; and I
made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and
effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship that had saved my life my universal heir, but
obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed
in my will; one half of the produce being to himself,
and the other to be shipped in England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half


as much prudence to have looked into my own in-
terest, I had never left so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards, to say nothing of the reasons
I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I obeyed the dictates of my fancy, rather than
my reason; accordingly, the ship being fitted out, and
the cargo furnished, as by agreement by my partners
in the voyage, I went on board in an evil hour again,
the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull,
to act the rebel to their authority and the fool to my
own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. Our cargo was toys as were fit for our
trade with the Negroes; such as beads, bits of glass,
shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses,
knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with
design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came into about ten or twelve degrees of nor-
thern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good wea-
ther, only excessive hot, till we came to the height of
Cape St. Augustino, from whence keeping farther off
at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were
bound for the Isle of Fernand de Norouba, holding
our course N. E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the line in about
twelve days' time, and were, by our last observation,
in 7 degrees, 22 minutes, northern latitude, when a
violent tornado or hurricane began from the south-
east, came about to the north-west, and then settled
into the north-east, from whence it blew in such a
terrible manner, that for twelve days we could do

nothing but drive; and scudding away before it, lbt
it carry us wherever the fury of the winds directed;
and during these twelve days, I expected every day
to be swallowed up, nor did any in the ship expect to
save their lives.
In this distress one of our men died of the calen-
ture, and one man and the boy were washed overboard.
About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation, and found that he
was in about 11 degrees of north latitude, but that he
was 22 degrees of longitude difference west from Cape
St. Augustino, so that he found he was got upon the
coast of Guinea, or the north part of Brazil, beyond
the river Amazones, towards that of the river Oroon-
oque, commonly called the Great River; and now he
began to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky, and very much disabled, and
he was for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the indraught of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days' sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa, without some assistance
both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W. in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which drove us so out of the very way
of all human commerce, that had our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being de-
voured by savages, than ever returning to our own
co untry.


In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early one morning, cried out, Land!"
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out, to see whereabouts in the world we were, but the
ship struck upon a sand, and, in a moment, her motion
being stopped, the sea broke over her in such a manner
that we expected to perish immediately; and we were
even driven to close quarters, to shelter us from the
foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances. We knew not
where we were, or upon what land we were driven,
whether an island or the main, whether inhabited or
uninhabited; and as the rage of the wind was still
great, we could not so much as hope to have the ship
hold many minutes without breaking in pieces, unless
the wind, by a kind of miracle, should change soon.
In a word, we sat expecting death every moment, and
every man acted accordingly, as preparing for another
world, for there was little more for us to do in this;
that which was our present comfort, was, that con-
trary to our expectation the ship did not break yet,
and that the master said the wind began to abate.
Though the wind did a little abate, yet the ship
having thus struck upon the sand and sticking too
fast to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition, and had nothing to do but to think of saving
our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern before the storm, but she was staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and then she broke away,
and either sank or was driven off to sea, so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea, wag' a doubtful
thing. But there was no room for debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute;
some said she had broken already.
In this distress, the mate with the help of the rest


of the men, got the boat flung over the ship's side,
and getting all into her, let go, and committed our-
selves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and
the wild sea; for though the storm was abated con-
siderably, yet the sea went dreadfully high upon the
shore, and might well be called Den wild yee," as
the Dutch called the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we
saw plainly that the sea. went so high, that the boat
could not escape, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none; nor, if
we had, could we have done any thing with it: so we
rowed towards the land, with heavy hearts, like men
going to execution; for we knew, that when the boat
neared the shore, she would be dashed in pieces by
the breach of the sea. However, we committed our
souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our
destruction with our own hands, pulling, as well as
we could, towards land.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope was, to
get into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river,
where, by great chance, we might have run our boat
in, or go L under the lee of the land, and perhaps made
smooth water. But nothing of this appeared ; but as
we lm:!ile nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked
more fC'ightiul than the sea.
Aiter we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, moun-
tain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade
us expect the "coup de grace." In a word it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once,
and separating us as well from the boat, as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God !"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water, for though


I swam very well, yet I could not master the waves
so as to draw my breath, till that wave had driven
me a vast way towards the shore, and having spent
itself, went back, and left me upon the land almost
dry, but half dead with the water I took in. I had
so much presence of mind, as well as breath left, that
seeing myself nearer the main land than I expected,
I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make towards
the land, before another wave returned, to take me
up again. But I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it, for I saw the sea come after me as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no
means or strength to contend with; my business was
to hold my breath, and raise myself upon the water,
if I could, and so by swimming to preserve my breath-
ing, and pilot myself towards the shore; my greatest
concern now being that the wave, as it would carry
me a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it.
The wave again buried me at once twenty or thirty
feet deep in its own body, and I felt myself carried with
a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself
to swim forward with all my might. I was ready to
burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself
rising up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head
and hands shoot out above the surface of the water;
and though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it gave me breath and new courage.
I was covered again with water a good while, but I
held it out, and finding the water had spent itself, and
began to return, I struck forward against the return
of the waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I
stood still a few moments to recover blyeath, and till
the water went from me, and then I took to my heels,
and ran with what strength I had farther towards the
shore. But the sea came pouring in after me again,
and twice more was I lifted up by the waves, and


carried forward as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of
rock, with such force as left me senseless, and indeed
helpless, as to my own deliverance; for the blow taking
my side and breast, beat the breath, quite out of my
body, and had it returned again immediately, I must
have been strangled in the water; but I recovered a
little before the return of the waves, and seeing
I should be covered again with the water, I
resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock, and so to
hold my breath, if possible, till the wave went back.
Now, as the waves were not so high as at first, being
near land, I held fast till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the
shore, that the next wave, though it went over me,
yet it did not so swallow me up as to carry me away;
and the next run I got to the main land, where, to my
great comfort, I clambered up the cliffs of the shore,
and, sat down upon the grass, quite out of the reach
of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and thanked
God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
was some minutes before scarce any room to hope. I
believe it is impossible to express to the life what the
ecstasies and transports of the soul are when it is
so saved, out of the very grave: and I do not wonder
now at that custom, when a malefactor, with the hal-
ter about his neck, just going to be turned off, and
has a reprieve brought to him; I do not wonder that
they bring a surgeon with it, to let him blood that
very moment they tell him of it, that the surprise
may not drive the animal spirits from the heart, and
overwhelm him:-
"For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,


"rapt up in the contemplation of my deliverance,
making a thousand gestures and motions which I can-
not describe, reflecting upon all my drowned comrades,
ond that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards,
or any signs of them, except three of their hats, one
cap, and two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could hard-
ly see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord! how
was it possible I could get ashore!
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look around me, to
see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to
be done, and I soon found my comforts abate; for I
was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either
to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger,
or of being devoured by wild beasts: and that which
was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box: this was all my
provision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot, if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all night, and consider the next day what death
I should die; for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I
could find any fresh water to drink, which 1 did to my


great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco
in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that, if I should sleep, I might not fall; and having
cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
I took up my lodging; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as
I believe few could have done in my condition, and
found myself the most refreshed with it that I think
I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated; but that which surprised me
most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night,
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I first mentioned, whe.e I had been so bruised
by dashing me against it. This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the ship
seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again; and the first thing I found
was the boat, which lay as the wind and sea had
tossed her upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to get to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm; and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that
if we had kept on board we had been all safe, that
is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
ben let entirely dc.,itute of all comuirt and compa-

ny, n I now was. This forced tears from my eyes
again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if,
possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes,
for the weather was hot to extremity, and took the
water; but, when I came to the ship, my difficulty
was still greater to kuow how to get on board, for as
she lay aground and high out of the water, there was
nothing within my reach to lay hold of. I swam.
round her twice, and the second time I espied a small
piece of rope, which I wondered I did not see at first,
hang down by the fore chains, so low as that with
great difficulty I got hold of it, and, by the help of
that rope. got up into the forecastle of the ship. Here
I found that the ship was bulged, and had a great deal
of water in her hold, but that she lay so on the side
of a bank of hard sand, that her stern lay lifted up
upon the bank, and her head low almost to the water;
by this means all her quarter was free, and all that
was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my
first work was to search and to see what was spoiled,
and what was free: first I found that all the ship's
provisions were dry and untouched by the water: and
being very hungry, I went to the bread-room, and
filled my pockets with biscuit, and ate it as I went
about other things, for I had no time to lose. I also
found some rum in the great cabin, of which I took a
large dram, and of which I had need enough, to spirit
me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing
but a boat to furnish myself with many things which
I foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was
not to be had; and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope
that they might not drive away. When this was


done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them
to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends
as well as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found that I could walk upon them very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to work,
and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with
great labour; but the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me more than I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering
this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that
I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much upon,
and a little remainder of European corn, which had
been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found that the rats had eaten or
spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and about five or six gallons of
arrack; these I stowed by themselves, there being no
need to put them into the chest, nor any room for
them. While doing this, the tide began to flow,
though very calm, and I had the mortification to see
my coat, shirt, and. waistcoat, which I had left on
shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I swam ou

board in them and my stockings. But this put me
upon rummaging for clothes, of which I found enough,
but took no more than I wanted for present use, for
I had other things which my eye was more upon: as
tools to work with on shore, and it was after long
searching that I found the carpenter's chest, which
was a very useful prize to me, and much more valua-
ble than a ship-load of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew what it
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them, but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water;
those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now
I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I could get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least capful of
wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements; first, a smooth and
calm sea; secondly, the tide rising and setting in to
the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two
or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-
sides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I
put to sea. For about a mile my raft went very well,
only it sailed a little distant from the place where I
had landed before, by which I perceived there was
some indraught of the water, and consequently I
hoped to find some creek or river there, which I might
make as a port to land with my cargo.
And so it was; there appeared before me a little


opening of the land. I found a strong c-irrent of the
tide set into it, so I guided my raft as well as I could,
in the middle of the stream. But here I had like to
have suffered a second shipwreck, which, if I had, I
think verily would have broken my heart; for, know-
ing nothing of the coast, my raft ran aground, at
one end of it, upon a shoal, not being aground at the
other, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so
fallen into the water. I did my utmost by setting
my back against the chests, to keep them in their
places, but could not thrust off the raft with all my
strength; neither durst I stir from the posture I was
in, but, holding up the chests with all my might.
stood so near half an hour, in which time the rising
of the water brought me a little upon a level, and, a
little after, the water still rising, my raft floated
again, and I thrust her off with the oar I had into
the channel, and then driving up higher, I found
myself in the mouth of a little river, with land on
both sides, and a strong current of tide running up.
I looked on both sides for a proper place to get to
shore, for I was not willing to be driven too high up
the river, hoping in time to see some ship at sea, and
therefore resolved to place myself near the shore.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which with great difficulty I guided my
raft, and at last got so near, as that, reaching ground
with my oar, I could thrust her directly in; but here
I had nearly dipped my cargo into the sea again, for
the shore sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of the float, if it ran on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower as before, that
it would endanger my cargo again. All that I could
do was to wait till the tide was at the highest,
keeping the raft with my oar, like an anchor, to
hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would

flow over, and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough (for my raft drew about a foot of water,) I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken
oars into the ground, one on one side near one end,
and one on the other side near the other end: and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft
and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might hap-
pen. Where I was I yet knew not, whether on the
continent or on an island; whether inhabited, or not
inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, very steep
and high, and which seemed to overtop some other
hills, which lay as in a ridge from it northward. I
took out one of the fowling pieces, and one of the pis-
tols, and a horn of powder, and thus armed, I travel-
led for discovery up to the top of that hill, where,
after I had with great labour and difficulty got up, I
immediately saw my fate, to my great affliction; viz.
that I was on an island, environed with the sea, no
land to be seen, except some rocks, a great way off,
and two islands less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was on was barren,
and, as I saw good reasons to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a
tree, on the side of a large wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an extraordi-
nary number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-

fused screaming and crying, every one according to
his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that
I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common:
its flesh was carrion. and fit for nothing.
'Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
Taft, and fell to work to bring the rest of my cargo
on shore, which took me up the rest of the day.
What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed whereito,rest; for I was afraid to lie down on
the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
i aur me, though I afterwards found there was really
mo.ipeed for those fears.
As well as I could, I barricaded myself round with
the .chests and boards i had brought on shore, and
made a kind of hut for that night's lodging: as for
Sfood, I yet saw not how to supply myself, except that
I had seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out
,pf the wood where I shot the fowl.
:I began to consider that I might yet get a many
things out of the ship which would be useful to me,
particularly some of the rigging and sails, and such
,other things as might come to hand, and I resolved
t. o, make another voyage to the vessel; and as I knew
That the first storil that blew must necessarily break
her- in pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart
i~it got every thing out of the ship that I could,
thiui I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
~gpipracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when the
-tide'was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
.checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of
-ppmps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
Second raft; and having had experience of the first,
j neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so

hard; but I brought away several things veiy use-
ful to me; as first, in the carpenter's store 1 found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above
all, that most useful thing called a grindstone: all
these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with a small quantity of pow-
der more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great
roll of sheet lead, but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock,
and some bedding, and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them also safe on shore.
I was afraid that, during my absence, all my pro-
visions might be devoured on shore; but when I came
back, I found no sign of any visitor, only there sat a
creature like a wild cat upon one of the chests, which,
when I came towards it, ran away to a little distance,
and then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had
a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented my
gun at her, but as she did not understand it, she was
perfectly unconcerned, nor did she offer to stir away;
upon which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though I was
not very free of it, for my store was not great. How-
ever, I gave her a bit; she smelled at it, ate it, and
looked for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks,) I went to work to make a little tent with the
sail and some poles which I cut for that purpose;
and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all


the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any attempt from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest
set up on an end without, and spreading one of the
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at
my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed
for the first time, and slept little, and had laboured
hard all day, as well to fetch those things from the
ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the largest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still, for while the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to mend the
sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could, for they were no more
useful to me for sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that
after I had made five or six such voyages, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth meddling with, I found a great hogshead of
bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surpris-
ing to me, because I had given over expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the wa-
ter. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapt it up parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails
which I cut out; and I got this safe on shore also at
several times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now


having plundered the ship of what was portable, I
began with the cables; and cutting the great cable
into pieces such as I could move, I got two cables and
a hawser on shore, with all the iron-work I could
get; and having cut down the spritsail yard, and the
mizen-yard, and every thing I could to make a large
raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods and came
away. But my good luck began to leave me, for this
raft was so unwieldy and so overloaded, that after I
entered the little cove where I landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so well as I did the
other, it overset, and threw me and my cargo into the
water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore; but part of my cargo was lost,
especially the iron, which I expected to be of great
use to me. However, when the tide was out, I got
most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of the iron,
though with infinite labour, for I had to dip for it into
the water, a work which fatigued me very much. Af-
ter this, I went every day, and brought away what I
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship, in which times
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away all the whole ship piece by piece. But
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise; but, at low water, I went on
board; and though I thought I had rummaged the
cabin so that nothing more could be found, yet I dis-
covered a locker with drawers in it, in one of which
I found two or three razors, and one pair of large
scissors, with ten or a dozen good knives and forks;
in another I found about thirty-six pounds value in
money, some European coin, some Brazil, some pieces
of eight, some gold and silver.
I smiled at the sight of this money, and said aloud,


"0 drug, what art thou good for? Thou art not
worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground. One
of those knives is worth all this heap. I have no use
for thee, even remain where thou art, and go to the
bottom, as a creature whose life is not worth saving !"
But upon second thoughts I took it away, and wrap-
ping all in a piece of canvass, I began to think of
making another raft; but while I was preparing this,
I saw the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise,
and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the
shore; it appeared to be in vain to make a raft with
the wind off shore, and that it was my business to go
before the tide began, or I might not be able to reach
the shore at all: accordingly, I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay be-
tween the ship and the sand, and even that with diffi-
culty enough, partly with the weight of the things I
had about me, and partly the roughness of the water,
for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I was at home in my little tent, where I lay
with all my wealth about me very secure; it blew
very hard all that night, and in the morning, when
I looked out, behold no more of the ship was to be
seen, I was surprised, but recovered with the satis-
factory reflection, that I had lost no time, nor abated
any diligence, to get every thing out of her that
could be useful to me: and that there was little left
in her that I could bring away. I now gave over any
more thought of the ship, or of any thing out of her,
except what might drive on shore from the wreck, as
divers pieces afterwards did; but they were of little
use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about se-
curing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should


make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth,
and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and
description of which I will give an account of.
I soon found this place was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was low moorish ground near
the sea, which I thought would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no fresh
water near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me; first, health, and
fresh water; secondly, shelter from the heat of the
sun; thirdly, security from man or wild beast; fourth-
ly, a view of the sea, that if God sent any ship in
sight, I might not lose any advantage for my deliv-
erance, for which I was not willing to banish all hopes.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was as steep as a house-side, so that
nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of this rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave, but there was no cave or way into the rock.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and'about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and at the
end it descended irregularly every way down into the
low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the N. N.
W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the
heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which in those countries is near setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
semi-diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes. driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the


ground about five feet and a half, and sharpen l; on
the top; the two rows stood about six inches apart.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows upun one another,
within the circle between the two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them. about two feet and a half high, like a
spur to a post. and this fence was so strong that nei-
ther man nor beast could get into it. This cost me a
great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles, bring them, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance to this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a ladder over the top; which ladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, from all the world,
and consequently slept secure in the night, which,
otherwise I could not have done, though, as it ap-
peared afterwards, there was no need of all this caution.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, and I made a large tent also, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the
year are very violent here, I made double, viz. one
smaller tent within, and one large tent above it, and
covered the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which
I had brought on shore from among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed that
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
a very good one, and belonging to the mate.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every
thing that would spoil by the wet; and having thus
enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
tiil now was left open, and so passed by a ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
out through my tent, I laid them up within the tent
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half, and thus I made me a.

cave just behind my tent, which served for a cellar.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection. At the same
time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for
setting up my tent and making the cave, that a storm
of rain falling from a dark thick cloud, a sudden flash
of lightning happened, and after that a clap of thun-
der, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as with the thought
which darted into my mind:-O my powder! My
heart sunk within me, to think that at one blast all
my powder might be destroyed; on which, not my
defence only, but the providing my food, as I thought,
entirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious
about my own danger, though had the powder took
fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes, that what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once,
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
to make one part fire the other. I finished this work
in about a fortnight, and my powder, which in all
was about 1401b. weight, was divided into no less than
a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been
wet, I did not fear any danger from that, so I placed
it in my new cave, which I called my kitchen, and
the rest I hid in the rocks, that no wet might get to
it, carefully marking where I laid it.
While this was doing, I went out once every day
with my gun, to divert myself, and to see if I could
kill any thing fit for food, and to acquaint myself
with what the island produced. The first time 1
went out, I discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that


it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them, but I was not discouraged at this, nut doubting
but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened, for after I had found their haunts a little, I
thus laid wait for them: having observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the
rocks, they would run away in a terrible fright; but
if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; hence I con-
cluded, that by the position of their optics, their
sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects above them; so I always climbed
the rocks to get above them, and then had a fair mark.
The first shot I made among them, I killed a she-
goat which had a little kid by her, she gave suck to,
which grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell,
the kid stood stock still by her till I came and took
her up, and when I carried the old one upon my
shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my enclosure;
upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid in
my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat, so I was forced
to kill it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me
with flesh a great while; for I ate sparingly, and
saved my provisions (my bread especially) as much as
I possibly could.
Having fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and
fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also how I
enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of it in its place; but I must
first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts of living, which were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz.
some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course


of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to con-
sider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face, when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, without help,
abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life ?
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive about my present
condition, when reason put in, expostulating with me
thus:-Well, you are in a desperate condition, it is
true, but pray remember, where are the rest of you ?
Did not you come eleven of you into the boat ? where
are the ten ? why were they not saved, and you lost?
why were you singled out ? is it better to be here or
there ? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are
to be considered with the (rood that is in them, and
with what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me, how well I was furnished
for my subsistence, and what would have been my
case, if it had not happened, which was a hundred
thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place
where she first struck, and was driven so near the
shore, that I had time to get all things out of her?
What would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the state in which I at first came on shore,
without the necessaries of life, or any means to pro-
cure them ? Particularly, what would I have done
without a gun, ammunition, or tools to make any
thing, or to work with ? without clothes, bedding, a
tent, or any coverings ? And now that I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to pro-
vide myself, so as to live without my gun when my


ammunition was spent, so that I had a tolerable view
of subsisting without any want as long as I lived, for
I considered from the beginning how I would provide
for the accidents that might happen, and for the time
to come, not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health or strength should
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it
lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner above-said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island, when the sun being to us, in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reck-
oned myself by observation, to be in the latitude of 9
degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been here about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts, that I should lose my reck-
oning of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath days from the work-
ing days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters, and, making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I
first landed; viz. I came on shore here the 30th of
Sept. 1659. Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh
notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month as long again as the long one, and
thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among
many things which I brought off the ship in the


severall voyages, which I made to it, I got several
things of less value, but not at all less useful to me,
which I omitted setting down before, as pens, ink,
and paper, several parcels from the captain's, mate's,
gunner s, and carpenter's keeping, three or four com-
passes, some mathematical instruments, dials, per-
spectives, charts, and books of navigation, all of which
I huddled together, whether I might want them or
no; also I found three good Bibles, which came to me
in my cargo from England, and which I had packed
up among my things, some Portuguese books also,
and among them two or three Popish prayer-books,
and several other books, which I carefully secured.
And I must not forget that we had in the ship a dog
and two cats, of whose eminent history I may have
occasion to say something in its place, for I carried
both the cats with me, and as for the dog, he jumped
out of the ship, and swam on shore to me the day
after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me many years. I wanted nothing
that he could fetch me, nor any company that he
could make up to me, I only wanted to have him talk
to me, but that he could not do. As I observed be-
fore, I afterwards found pens, ink, and paper, which I
husbanded to the utmost: and while my ink lasted,
I kept things very exact; but after that was gone, I
could not; for I could not make any ink by any means
that I could devise.
I wanted many things; ink was one, also a spade,
pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made my work go on heavily,
and it was nearly a year before I had finished my
little pale, or surrounded habitation; the piles, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more in
bringing home, so that I spent sometimes two days

otBiNsoq CRUSOuH.

in cutting and bringing home one of these posts, and
a third day in driving it into the ground; for which
I got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last one of
the iron crows, which, however, though I found it,
yet made driving those posts very laborious and
tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedi-
ousness of any thing I had to do, having time enough
to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, that I
could foresee, except seeking for food.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and circumstances, and I drew up the state of my af-
fairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any
that were to come after me, for I was like to have but
few heirs, as.to deliver my thoughts from daily poring
upon them, and afflicting my mind; and as my rea-
son began now to master my despondency, I com-
forted myself as well as I could, and set the good
against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tin ruish my case from worse; and I stated it very
imn;-ritially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I
enjoyed, against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible
desolate island, void of all
hope of recovery.
I am singled out, and se-
parated, as it were, from all
the world, to be miserable.

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitary one, banish-
ed from human society.
I have no clothes to cover
I am without any defence

But I am alive, and not
drowned, as all my ship's
company was.
But I am singled out, too,
from all the ship's crew, to
be spared from death; and
he that miraculously saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
But I am cast on an island


or means to resist any vio- where I see no wild beasts,
lence of man or beast. to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what
if I had been shipwrecked
I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship near enough to the
shore, that I have gotten
out so many necessary
things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to
supply myself, even as long
as I live.

Upon the whole, there was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce a condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative, or
something positive, to be thankful for in it; and let
this stand as a direction from the experience of the
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit' "tle of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see
if I could spy a ship; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables, but I might rather
call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside, and
after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatch-
ed or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at
some times of the year very violent.
I have observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and.into the cave behind me; but which,


at first, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my
place; I had no room to turn myself; so I set myself
to enlarge my cave, and worked farther into the earth,
for it was a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to
the labour I bestowed upon it; and so, when I found
I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked
sideways to the right hand into the rock, and then
turning to the right again, worked quite out, and
made me a door to come out on the outside of my pale
or fortification.
This gave not only egress and regress, as it was a
back way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
things as I most wanted, particularly a chair and a ta-
ble, for without these I was not able to enjoy the
few comforts I had in the world; I could not write or
eat, with much pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the
most rational judgment of things, every man may be,
in time, master of every mechanic art. I had never
handled a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labour,
application, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I
could have made any thing, if I had had tools; how-
ever, I made abundance of things, even without tools,
and some with only an adze and a hatchet, which,
perhaps, were never made that way before, and that
with infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it as thin as a plank,
and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is true,
that by this method I could make but one board out
of the whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious deal
of time and labour which it took me to make a plank

or board; but my time or labour was little worth, and
so it was as well employed one way as another.
I made me a table and a chair, in the first place,
and this I did out of the short pieces of board that I
brought from the ship; but when I had wrought out
some boards, I made large shelves of a foot and a half
broad, one over another, all along one side of my cave,
to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work, and to sep-
arate every thing at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them; also, I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock to hang my guns, and all things that
would hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
every thing so ready to my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment: for at first I was in too much hurry,.
and in too much discomposure of mind, and my jour-
nal would have been full of many dull things. For
example, I must have said thus:-September the 30th,
After I got on shore, and had escaped drowning, in-
stead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited from the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recov-
ering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, I was undone! undone!
till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
Some days after having been on board the ship, and
got all I could out of her, I could not forbear getting
to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea,
in hope of seeing a ship, then fancied, at a vast distance,
I spied a sail, pleased myself with the hopes of it, and
then, after looking steadily till almost blind, lost it,


and sat down and wept like a child, and increased my
misery by my folly.
But having got over these things, and having set-
tled my household stuff and habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I
could, I began to keep my jouiral, of which I shall
give you the copy (though in it will be told all these
particulars over again,) as long as it lasted. for at last
having no more ink, I was forced to leave it off.
September 30, 1659.-I, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm
in the offing, came on shoe on this dismal unfortunate
island, which I called the Island of Despair, all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself
at my dismal circumstances, viz. I had neither house,
food, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to, and nothing
but death before me, that I should be devoured by
savages, or starved to death for want of food. At
night, I slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures.
Oct. 1.-In the morning I saw the ship had floated
with the high tide, and was driven on shore again
much nearer the island, which, as it was some con-
fort on one hand, so, on the other hand, it renewed
my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I imagined,
if we had all stayed on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least they would not all have been drown-
ed; and that, had the men been saved, we might,
perhaps, have built us a boat out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the
world. Seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the
sand as near as I could, and then swam on board.
This day continued rainy, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of Oct. to the 24th.-All these days
entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I


could out of the ship, which I brought on shore.
Much rain also in these days, though with some in-
tervals of fair weather; but, it seems, this was the
rainy season.
Oct 24th.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I
had got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the
things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night, and all day, with
some wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck
of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from beasts or men. Towards night I fixed
upon a proper place under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved to
strengthen with a wall or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun to see for some food, when I killed a
she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I af-
terwards killed, because it would not eat.
Nov. 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence around me a little within the place I
had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon, went to work to make me a table.


Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep and
time of diversion; viz. every morning I walked out
with my gun, for two or three hours, if it did not
rain; then worked till about eleven o'clock; then ate
what I had to live on; and from twelve to two, I lay
down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot, and
then in the evening to work again. The working
part of this day and. the next were wholly employed
in making my table, which I did not finish.
Nov. 5.-This day I went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed,
I took off the skins and preserved them. Coming
back, by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-
fowls which I did not understand; but was surprised
to see two or three seals, which, while I was gazing
at, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking; and I soon learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Settled fair weather. The 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday,
according to my reckoning,) I spent in making a
chair, and, with much ado, brought it to a tolerable
shape, but never to please me; and in the making I
pulled it to pieces several times. Note.-I soon neg-
lected keeping my Sundays, for omitting my mark
for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
made me fearful of my powder. When it was over,
I resolved to separate my powder into as many little
parcels as possible, to prevent danger.
Nov. 14, 15. 16.-These three days I spentinmaking
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about
a pound, or two, of powder; and so putting the pow-


der in. I stowed it away in places as secure and re-
mote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat,
but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-I began to dig behind my tent into the
rock, to make room for my farther conveniency.
Three things I much wanted for this work, viz. a
pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-barrow, or basket.
As for the pick-axe, I made use of the iron crows,
which were proper enough, though heavy; but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so abso-
lutely necessary, that I could do nothing effectually
without it, but what kind of one I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, which, in the Brazils, they
call the iron-tree, for its great hardness; of this I
cut a piece, and brought it home with difficulty, for
it was very heavy. The excessive hardness of the
wood made me a long while upon this machine, but
I worked it effectually by little and little, into the
form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly shaped
liked ours in England, only that the broad part having
no iron shod upon it at bottom, would not last me so
long; however, it served well enough for the uses
which I put it to. I still wanted a basket, or wheel-
barrow; a basket I could not make by any means,
having no twigs that would bend to make wicker-
ware; and, as to the wheel-barrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel: but that I had no notion of,
nor did I know how to go about it, so I gave it over:
and so, for carrying away the earth which I dug out
of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
labourers carry mortar in to serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult as making the shovel; and
yet this, and the shovel, and the vain attempt to make
a wheel-barrow, took me up no less than four days:
always excepting my morning walk with my gun,
which I seldom failed, and nearly always brought
something home fit to eat.


Nov. 23.-My other work having stood still because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I
went on, working every day as my time and strength
allowed. I spent eighteen days in widening and
deepening my cave, that it might hold my goods com-
modiously. During all this time, I worked to make
this room so spacious as to accommodate me as a ware-
house, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar; as for
a lodging, I kept to the tent, except in the wet sea-
son it rained so hard, that I could not keep myself
dry; which caused me to cover the place with long
poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags, and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when, on a sudden, a great quantity of earth
fell down from the top and one side, so much that, in
short, it frighted me, and not without reason too; for
if I had been under it, I should not have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again; for I had the loose earth
to carry out, and the ceiling to prop up, so that I
might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11.-This day I got two shores, or posts,
pitched upright to the top, with two pieces of boards
across over each post. This I finished the next day;
and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing
in rows, served me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 16.-From this day to the 20th I placed shelves,
and knocked nails into the posts, to hang every thing
up that could be hung up.
Dec. 23.-Now I carried every thing into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and to set up some
pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me.
Made another table.
Dec. 21, 25.-Much rain, and no stirring out,


Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth rather cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
caught it, and led it home in a string, and bound and
splintered its broken leg. N.B.-I took such care of
it that it lived, and the leg grew well, and as strong
as ever. By nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed
upon the little green at my door, and would not go
away. This was the first time that I thought of
breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have
food when my powder and shot were spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30.-Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evenings
for food. This time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
Jan. 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the val-
leys, which lay to the centre of the island, I found
there were plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and
hard to come at: however, I resolved to try if I could
not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan 2.-Accordingly the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats, but they all faced
about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.
Jan 3.-I began my fence or wall, which, to pre-
vent attack, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
[N.B.-This wall being described before, it is suf-
ficient to observe, that I was no less than from the
3rd of Jan. to the 14th of April, working, finishing,
and perfecting this wall, though it was only 24 yards
long, being a half circle, from one place in the rock to
another place eight yards from it, the door of the cave
being in the centre behind it.]
All this time I worked so hard, the rains hindering
me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but
I thought I should never be secure till this wall was


finished. It is scarcely credible what great labour
every thing was done with, especially bringing piles
out of the woods, and driving them into the ground,
for I made them much bigger than was needed.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself, that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a
habitation: and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a remarkable occasion.
I made my rounds in the woods for game every day,
when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries in these walks of something or other to my
advantage. I found a kind of wild pigeons, which
built not as wood-pigeons in a tree, but rather as
house-pigeons, in the holes of the rocks; and taking
some young ones, I endeavoured to bring them up
tame, and did so; but when they grew older, they all
flew away, which perhaps was at first for want of feed-
ing them, for I had nothing to give them; however,
I frequently found their nests, and got their young
ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in managing my household affairs, I
wanted many things which I thought at first impos-
sible for me to make, as indeed as to some of them it
was: for instance, I could never make a cask, to be
hooped. I had a small runlet or two, but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither
put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to one
another, as to make them hold water, so I gave that
Then I was at a great loss for candles, so that when
it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, I
was obliged to go to bed. I remembered the lump of
bees wax with which I made candles in my African
adventure, but I had none of that now: the only
remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I

saved the tallow, and with a little dish made of clay,
which I baked in the sun, and a wick of some oakum,
I made a lamp; and this gave me light, though not
a clear steady light like a candle. In the middle of
all my labours in rummaging my things, I found a
little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn, for feeding poultry, not for this voyage,
but before, when the ship came from Lisbon; what
little remainder of corn had been in the bag was all *
devoured by the rats, and nothing in it but husks and
dust; and being wishful to have the bag for some
other use (I think to put powder in, when I divided
it for fear of the lightning,) I shook the husks of corn
out of it, on one side of my fortification under the
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of any thing, and not so much remembering that I
had thrown any there; when, about a month after, or
thereabouts I saw some stalks of something green
shooting up on the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant, I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time,
I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfect green barley, the same as English barley.
It is impossible to express my astonishment on this
occasion; I had hitherto had very few notions of re-
ligion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of
any thing that had befallen me, but as a chance, or,
as we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much
as inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world; but,
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which was
not proper for corn, and especially that I knew not
how it came there, it startled me, and I began to sug-
gest that God had miraculously caused this grain to
grow, without any help of seed sown, purely for my
sustenance in that wild miserable place.


This touched my heart a little, and brought tears
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such
a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the nore strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in
Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting but
that there was more in the place, I went all over that
part of the island where I had been before, peering
in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more
of it, but I could not find any; at last it occurred to
me that I had shaken the bag of chicken's meat out
in that place, and then the wonder began to cease;
and I must confess my thankfulness to Providence
began to abate, upon my discovering that all this was
nothing but what was common, though I ought to
have been as thankful for so strange and unforeseen
Providence as if it had been miraculous; for it was
really the work of Providence as to me, that should
appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should re-
main unspoiled (when the rats had destroyed all the
rest,) as if it had been dropped from heaven; and that
I should throw it out in that particular place, where,
in the shade of a high rock, it sprang up immediately;
whereas, if I had thrown it any where else, it had
been burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, about the end of June, as I re-
solved to sow them again, hoping in time to have suf-
ficient to supply me with bread: but it was not till
the fourth year that I would eat the least grain of this
corn, and then but sparingly, for I lost all I sowed
the first season by not observing the proper time, for
I sowed just before the dry season, so that it never
came up as it would have done.


The twenty or thirty stalks of rice, I preserved with
the same care, and whose use was of the same kind,
viz. to make me bread, or rather food: for I found
ways to cook it without baking, though I did that
also, after some time. But to return to my journal.
I worked excessive hard three or four months to
get my wall done: and the 14th of April I closed it
up, contriving to get into it, not by a door, but over
a wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I finished the ladder, so I went up with
it to the top and then pulled it up after me, and let
it down on the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me: for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I
had almost had all my labour overthrown at once,
and myself killed. As I was busy in the inside of it,
behind my tent, just at the entrance into my cave, I was
terribly frightened; for all on a sudden, the earth came
tumbling down from the roof of my cave, and from the
edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts in
the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily
scared, but thought nothing of what really was the
cause, and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran to
my ladder; and, not thinking myself safe there, got
over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill, which I
expected might roll down upon me. I was no sooner
on the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was a terri-
ble earthquake; for the ground I stood on shook three
times, at about eight minutes distance, with three such
shocks as would have overturned the strongest build-
ing upon the earth; and a great piece of rock, which
stood about half a mile from me next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in
all my life. Also the sea was put into a violent mo-


tion by it, and I believe the shocks were stronger
under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had,
that I was like one dead or mangled; and the motion
of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was
tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock
awakened me, as it were, and rousing me from the
stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon
my tent, and all my household goods, and burying all
at once; and this sunk my soul within me again.
After the third shock was over. I began to take
courage, but had not heart enough to get over my
wall again, for fear of being buried alive; but still sat
upon the ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate,
not knowing what to do. All this while I had not
the least serious religious thought, nothing but the
common Lord, have mercy upon me!" and when it
was over, that went away too.
While I sat thus, it grew cloudy, as if it would
rain; and, in less than an hour, it blew a most dread-
ful hurricane. The sea was suddenly covered with
foam and froth, the shore was covered with the breach
of the water, the trees were torn up by the roots, and
a terrible storm it was; this held about three hours,
and then began to abate; and in two hours more it
was calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came
into my thoughts that these winds and rain, being
the effects of the earthquake, the earthquake itself
was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again. With this thought my spirits began to revive,
and I went in, and sat down in my tent, but the rain
was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down by it, I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid, for icar it should fall on my head.

This violent rain forced me to cut a hole through my
new fortification like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have filled my cave. After I had
been in my cave some time, and found no more shocks
of the earthquake follow, I began to be more com-
posed; and to support my spirits, I went to my little
store, and took a small sup of rum, which I did very
sparingly, knowing I could have no more.
It rained all that night, and most of the next day,
so that I could not stir abroad; but, my mind being
more composed, I began to think what I had best do;
for if the island was subject to earthquakes, there
would be no living in a cave, but I must try to build
a little hut, in an open place, which I might surround
with a wall, and so make myself secure from wild
beasts or men, but concluded, if I stayed where I was,
I should be buried again.
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent,
from the place where it stood, just under the hanging
precipice of the hill, and, which, if it should be shaken
again, would fall upon my tent. And I spent the
two next days, the 19th and 20th of April, in con-
triving where and how to remove my habitation. The
fear of being swallowed up alive made me that I never
slept in quiet; but still, when I looked about and saw
how every thing was put in order, how pleasantly
concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove.
It occurred to me, that it would require a vast deal
of time to do this, and that I must be content where
I was, till I had formed a camp for myself, and had
secured it so as to remove to it. So, with this reso-
lution, I composed myself for a time, and resolved to
go to work, with all speed, to build a wall with piles
and cables, &c. in a circle as before, and set my tent
up in it; but that I would stay where it was till it
was finished, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22.-I bege a to consider of means to put this

resolve in execution; but I was at a great loss about
my tools. I had three large axes, and many hatchets,
but with much chopping and cutting knotty wood,
they were all full of notches, and dull; and though I
had a grindstone, I could not turn it, and grind my
tools too. At length, I contrived a wheel, with a
string to turn it with my foot, that I might have both
my hands at liberty. Note.-I had not seen any such
thing in England, or at least not to take notice now
it was done, though since I have observed, it is very
common there. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding tools; my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
April 30.-Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, I reduced myself to one biscuit
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
sea-shore, looking like a cask: when I came to it, I
found a small barrel, and several pieces of the wreck
of the ship, driven on shore by the hurricane, and
looking towards the wreck, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I ex-
amined the barrel, and found it was a barrel of gun-
powder, but it had taken water, and the powder was
caked as hard as a stone. I rolled it farther on shore
for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near
as I could to the wreck, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed: the forecastle, which lay before buried in
the sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the
stern, which was broken to pieces, and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging her, was tossed up, and cast on one side;
and the sand was thrown so high on that side next
the stern, that I could walk up to her when the tide


was out. I was surprised with this at first, but con-
cluded it must have been done by the earthquake,
and by it the ship was more broken open than former-
ly, so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design
of removing my habitation; I busied myself mightily
that day especially, in searching whether I could get
into the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, I resolved to pull every
thing to pieces that I could of the ship, colluding
that every thing I could get from her would be useful.
May 3.-I began with my saw, and cut a piece of
a beam through, which I thought held some of the
upper part, or quarter-deck, together; and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well
as I could from the side which lay highest, but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over.
May 4.-I went a fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of the sport, when
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I
had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I had
no hooks; yet I frequently caught as much fish as
I cared to eat; which I dried in the sun, and ate dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck, cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from
the decks, which I tied together, and made swim to
shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck, got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron work.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but with an in-
tent not to work; but found the weight of the wreck
had broken itself down, the beams being cut, that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the
inside of the hold lay so open, that I could see into
it; but almost full of water and sand,
May 8.--Went to the wreck, and carried an iron

crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear
of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks,
aud brought them on shore also with the tide. I left
the iron crow on the wreck for the next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow; but could
not break them up. I felt also the roll of English
lead, but it was too heavy to move.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.-Went every day to the
wreck and got many pieces of timber and boards, or
planks, and two or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if I could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge
of one hatchet, and driving it with the other; but as
it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not
make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It blew hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I
stayed so long in the woods to get pigeons for food, that
the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17,-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, two miles off me; but re-
solved to see what they were, and found it was a piece
of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day to this, I worked on the wreck,
and loosened some things so much with the crow,
that the first flowing tide several casks floated out, and
two seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of
timber, and a hogshead of Brazil pork; but the salt
water and sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food; and, by this
time, I had gotten timber and plank, and iron work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how;
and also I got at several times, and in separate pieces,
near one hundred weight of the sheet lead.

June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any de-
fect of the place, or scarcity; for, had I happened to
be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for them.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle, I found
in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at
that time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life, having had no flesh but of goats and
fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I stayed within. The
rain at this time felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with
the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and
no help. Prayed to God for the first time since the
storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or why;
my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent head-ache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after
June 26.-Better; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak; however,
I killed a she-goat, and with much difficulty, got it
home, and broiled some, and ate it.
June 27.-The ague again so violent, that I lay a-
bed all day, and neither ate nor drank. I was ready

to perish with thirst, but so weak, I had not strength
to stand up, or get myself any water to drink; prayed
to God again, but was light-headed; and when I was
not, I was so ignorant, that I knew not what to say:
only I lay, and cried, "Lord, look upon me! Lord
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose
I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I waked, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak, and exceedingly thirsty; how-
ever, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I
was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep I had this terrible
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire,
and light upon the ground. He was all over as bright
as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look to-
wards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful; impossible for words to describe; when he
stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the
earth trembled, just as it had done before the earth-
quake, and all the air looked to my apprehension, as
if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,
or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is impossible to
express the terror of it; all that I can say I under-
stood was this:-" Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die." At
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that
was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will ex-
pect that I should be able to describe the horrors of

my soul at this terrible vision; nor is it possible to
describe the impression that remained upon my mind
when I awoke, and found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no Divine knowledge; what I had re-
ceived by the good instruction of my father, was worn
out by eight years of seafaring wickedness, and con-
stant conversation with persons like myself, wicked
to the last degree. I do not remember that I had, in
all that time, one thought to look to God, or to pro-
duce a reflection upon my own ways; but a certain
stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or conscience
of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and I was jusl
like the most hardened, unthinking, wicked creatures
among our common sailors, not having the least
sense either of the fear of God in dangers, or of thank-
fulness in deliverance.
In relating what is already past in my story, this
will be more easily believed, when I shall add, that,
through all the variety of miseries that had befallen
me, I never had so much as one thought of its being
the hand of God, or that it was a just punishment for
my past sins, my rebellious conduct to my father, or
my present sins which were great. When I was on the
desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I
never thought what would become of me, or prayed
God to direct me whither I should go, and keep me
from the danger, which apparently surrounded me,
from voracious creatures and cruel savages. I acted
like a mere brute, from the principles of nature, and
by the dictates of common sense only, and indeed
hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, vell used, and dealt justly and hon-
ourably with, as well as charitably, I had not the least
thankfulness in my thoughts; when, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on
this island, I was as far from remorse on looking on
it as a judgment, I only said to myself often, that I


was an unfortunate dog, and born to be miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found
all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I
was surprised with some transports of soul, which,
had the grace of God assisted, might have led to true
thankfulness; but it ended where it began, in a mere
common flight of joy, being glad I was alive, without
the least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness
of the hand which had singled me out to be preserved,
when the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me: even just
the same joy which seamen generally have, after hav-
ing got safe ashore from a shipwreck, which they
drown in the next bowl of punch, and forget almost
as soon as it is over.
Even when I was afterward, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on
this dreadful place out of the reach of human kind,
out of all hopes of relief, or prospect of redemption,
as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preserva-
tion and supply, and was far from being afflicted at
my state, as a judgment from God against me,-these
thoughts very seldom entered my head.
The growing up of the corn had at first some in-
fluence upon me, and began to affect me with serious-
ness, as long as I thought it had something miracu-
lous in it; but as soon as that thought was removed,
all the impression wore off also. Even the earthquake,
though nothing could be -more terrible in its nature,
or more immediately directing to the invisible power
which alone directs such things, yet no sooner was
the first fright over, but the impression it made went
off also.
But now when I began to be sick, and a view of the
miseries of death came before me; when my spirits

began to sink under a strong distemper, and nature
was exhausted by the violence of the fever; conscience,
that had slept so long, began to awake, and I reproach-
ed myself with my past life.
These reflections oppressed me from the second or
third day of my distemper, and the violence of the
fever, and the reproaches of my conscience, extorted
some words from me, like praying to God, though I
cannot say they were either a prayer attended with
desires, or with hopes; it was rather the voice of fear
and distress; my thoughts were confused, my convic-
tions great, and the horror of dying in such a misera-
ble condition, raised vapours in my head; and in this
confusion of soul, I knew not what my tongue expres-
sed; but it was rather exclamations, such as Lord,
what a miserable creature am I! if I should be sick,
I shall die for want of help; and what will become
of me !" Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I
could say no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction; viz. That,
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I hereafter should reflect upon having neg-
lected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery. "Now," said I, aloud, "my dear
father's words are come to pass; God's justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or to hear me.
I rejected the voice of Providence, which had put me
in a station wherein I might have been happy and
easy, but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to
know the blessing of it from my parents; I left them
to mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn
the effects of it. I refused their help, who would have
lifted me into the world, and made every thing easy
to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle with,
too great for nature to support, and no help, no com-
ort, no advice." Then I cried out, "Lord, be my
elp, for I am in great. distress!"


This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that
I had made for many years.
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I
got up, and the terror of my disease was very great,
yet I considered that the fit of the ague would return
the next day; and now was my time to get something
to refresh and support myself when I should be ill;
and the first thing I did I filled a large square case
bottle with water, and set it upon a table near my bed,
and to take off the chill or agueish disposition of the
water, I put a quarter of a pint of rum into it; then
I got a piece of goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals,
but could eat very little; I walked about, but was
very weak, and heavy-hearted in the sense of my mis-
erable condition, and dreading the return of my dis-
temper next day; at night I made my supper of three
turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, in
the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I ever
asked God's blessing to.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found my-
self so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I
never went out without that,) so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat, I thought, What is this earth and
sea, of which I have seen so much ? Whence is it pro-
duced ? And what am I, and all the other creatures,
wild and tame, human and brutal ? whence are we?
Sure we are made by some secret power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is that ?
Then it followed most naturally-it is God that has
made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly-if
God has made these things, he guides and governs
them all; for the being that could make all things
must have power to guide and direct them. If so,
nothing can happen in the circuit of his works with-
out his knowledge or appointment.


And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful con-
dition; and if nothing happen without his appoint-
ment, he has appointed this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any
of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me
with the greater force, that God has appointed all this
to befall me; that I was brought to this miserable
state by his direction; he having the sole power, not
of me only, but of every thing that happened in the
world.-Then I said, Why has God done this to me V
What have I done to be thus used ?
My conscience presently checked me in that in-
quiry, as if I had blasphemed; and, methought it
said to me,-Wretch! dost thou ask what thou hast
done? Look back upon thy dreadful mis-spent life,
and ask thyself what thou hast done Ask why is
it that thou wert not long ago destroyed ? Why
wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads ? killed
in the fight, when the ship was taken by the Sallee
man of war ? devoured by wild beasts on the coast of
Africa ? or, drowned here, when all the crew perished
but thyself ? Dost thou ask,-What have I done ?
I was struck dumb with these reflections, and had
not a word to say in answer to myself, but rose up,
pensive and sad, walked back to my retreat, and went
up over my wall, as if I had been going to bed; but
my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I could not
sleep, so I sat in my chair, and lighted my lamp, for
it was dark. Now, as the fears of the return of my
distemper terrified me, I recollected that the Brazilians
take no physic but their tobacco, for almost all distem-
pers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests, which was cured, and some that was green,
and not cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt, for in this
chest I found a cure for soul and body. I opened the
chest, and found the tobacco: and I took out one of

the Bibles, mentioned before, and which I had not
yet found leisure, or inclination, to look into.
What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, but
I tried several experiments with it, to make it hit
one way or other. I first took a piece of leaf, and
chewed it in my mouth, which, at first, stupified my
brains; the tobacco being green and strong, and I had
not been used to it; then I steeped some an hour or
two in rum, and resolved to take a dose of it when I
lay down; and lastly, I burnt some upon a pan of
coals, and held my nose over the smoke of it, as long
as I could bear it, as well for the heat as for the virtue
of it, and I held it almost to suffocation.
During this operation, I took up a Bible, to read;
but my head was too much disturbed with the tobac-
co, to bear reading, at least at that time; only, hav-
ing opened it casually, the first words I read were
these, "Call on me in the day of trouble, and I will
deliver thee, and thou shalt glorify me."
The words were very apt to my case, and they made
some impression on me, though not so much as they
did afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word
had no sound, the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that I said as the chil-
dren of Israel did, when they were promised flesh to
eat, Can God spread a table in the wilderness ?" So
I said, Can God deliver me from this place ? How-
ever, the words made a great impression upon me, and
I mused upon them very often. It grew now late, and
the tobacco had dozed my head so much, that I in-
clined to sleep; so I left my lamp burning in my
cave, lest I should want any thing in the night, and
went to bed : but before I lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life, I kneeled down, and prayed
to God to fulfil the promise to me, that, if I called
upon him in the day of trouble, he would deliver me.
After my broken and imperfect prayer was over, I
drank the rum in which I had steeped the tobacco,


which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that I
could scarcely get it down. I then went to bed, and
it presently flew up into my head violently; but I fell
into a sound sleep, and waked no more, till by the sun,
it must have been near three o'clock in the afternoon,
the next day : nay, I am partly of opinion that I slept
all the next day and night, and till almost three the
day after, otherwise I knew not how I should lose a
day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as
it app eared. some years after, I had done; for if I had
lost it crossing and recrossing the line, I should have
lost more than one day; but certainly, I lost a day in
my account, and I never knew how.
Be that as it may, when I waked I found myself
much refreshed, and my spirits lively and cheerful.
When I got up I was stronger than I was the day
before, and my stomach better, for I was hungry, and
I had no fit the next day, but continued much altered
for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, and I went abroad with
my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and
brought them home, but did not eat them, but preferred
the turtle's eggs, which were very good. This even-
ing I renewed the medicine, which I had supposed
did me good the day before, viz. the tobacco steeped
in rum, only I did not take so much as before, nor did
I chew any of the leaf, or hold my head over the
smoke. However, I was not so well the next day,
which was the 1st of July.
July 2.-I renewed the medicine all the three ways
and dozed myself with it as at first, and doubled the
quantity which I drank.
July 3.-I missed the fit, though I did not recover
y full strength for some weeks. While I was thus
gathering strength, my thoughts ran exceedingly
pon this passage in Scripture, "I will deliver thee,"
nd the impossibility of my deliverance lay upon my


mind, in bar of my ever expecting it. But as I in-
dulged such thoughts it occurred to my mind, that I
pored so much upon my deliverance from the main
affliction, that I forgot the deliverance I had received;
and I asked myself such questions as these, viz. Have
I not been delivered, and wonderfully too, from sick-
ness; from the most distressed condition that could
be, so frightful to me ? And what notice had I taken
of it ? Had I done my part ? God had delivered me:
but I had not glorified him! that is to say, I had not
owned and been thankful for that as a deliverance;
and how could I expect greater deliverance ? This
touched my heart very much, and immediately I
kneeled down and gave God thanks aloud, for my re-
covery from sickness.
July 4.-In the morning I took the Bible; and
beginning at the New Testament, I began seriously
to read it, and imposed upon myself to read a while
every morning and night, not tying myself to a num-
ber of chapters, but as long as my thoughts should
engage me. It was not long before I found my heart
more deeply affected with the sins of my past life.
The impression of my dream revived, and the words
"All these things have not brought thee to repent-
ance," ran seriously in my thoughts. I was earnestly
begging of God to give me repentance, when Provi-
dentially, the very day, that, reading the Scriptures,
I came to the words, "He is exalted a Prince and a
Saviour, to give repentance, and to give remission."
I put down the book, and, with my heart and hands
lifted up to Heaven, in a kind of ecstacy of joy, I cried
aloud, Jesus, thou Son of David, Jesus, thou exalted
Prince and Saviour, give me repentance !"
This was the first time that I prayed in all my life,
for now I prayed with a sense of my condition, and
with a true Scripture view of hope, founded on God's
promises; and from this time I began to have hopt
that God would hear me


Now I began to construe the words mentioned
above, "Call on me, and I will deliver thee," in a
different sense from what I had ever done before:
for then I had no notion of any thing being called
deliverance, but my being delivered from the captivity
I was in; for though I was at large in the place, yet
the island was a prison to me, in the fullest sense of
the word; but now I learned to take it in another
sense. Now, I looked back on my past life with such
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my
soul sought nothing of God but deliverance from the
load of guilt that bore down all my comfort. As for
my solitary life it was nothing; I did not pray to be
delivered from it, or think of it; it was all of no con-
sideration in comparison of this; and I add this part
here, to hint to whomsoever shall read it, that should.
they come to a true sense of things, they will find de-
liverance from sin a much greater blessing than de-
liverance from affliction.
But, leaving this part, I return to my journal.
My condition began to be much easier to my mind,
and my thoughts being directed, by a constant read-
ing of the Scriptures, and praying to God, to things of
a higher nature, I had a great deal of comfort within,
which till now I knew nothing of. Also, as my health
and strength returned, I began to furnish myself with
every thing that I wanted, and make my way of liv-
ing as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was employed
with walking about with my gun, a little at a time,
as a man gathering his strength after a fit of sickness,
for it is hardly to be imagined how low and weak I
was. The application I made use of was perfectly
new, and perhaps what had never cured an ague be-
fore, neither can I recommend the experiment, for it
left me very weak, with frequent convulsions in my
nerves and limbs.
I had now been in this unhappy island above ten

98 R001 INSON Cil USOE.
months; all possibility of deliverance from it seemed
to be taken away from me; and I firmly believe that
no human shape had ever set foot upon the place. Hav-
ing secured my habitation, as I thought, fully to my
mind, I had a desire to make a more perfect discovery
of the island, and see what other productions I might
find, which I yet knew not of.
On the 15th of July I began to take a particular
survey of the island. I went up the creek first, where
I had brought my rafts on shore. I found, after
going about two miles up, that the tide did not flow
any higher, and that it was only a little brook of run-
n_- g water, very fresh and good; but this being the
dry season, there was little water in it.
On the banks of this brook I found many pleasant
savannahs or meadows, smooth, and covered with
grass, and on the rising parts, next to the higher
grounds, where the water never overflowed, I found
plenty of tobacco, green, and growing to a strong
stalk. There were divers other plants, which I did
not understand, and might have virtues of their own,
which I could not find out.
I searched for the cassava root, which the Indians
make their bread of, but I could find none. I saw
large plants of aloes, but did not understand them. I
saw several sugar canes, but wild, and, for want of
cultivation, imperfect. I contented myself with these
discoveries for this time, and came back, musing what
course I might take to know the virtues and goodness
of any of the fruits or plants which I should discover,
but could bring it to no conclusion, for I made so little
observation in the Brazils, that I knew little of the
plants of the field.
The next day, the 16th, I went up the same way
again; and, after going farther than I had the day
before, I found the brook and the savannahs began to
cease, and the country became more woody. In this
part I found different fruits, particularly mcloun upon


the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the
trees; the vines had spread over the trees, and the
grapes were now in their prime, very ripe and rich.
This was a surprising discovery, and I was very glad
of them; but I was warned, by my experience, to eat
sparingly of them, remembering that when I was
ashore in Barbary, the eating of grapes killed several
of our Englishmen, who were slaves there, by throw-
ing them into fluxes and fevers: but I found an ex-
cellent use for these grapes; and that was to dry them
in the sun, and keep them as dried grapes or raisins
are kept, which I thought would be as wholesome,
and as agreeable to eat, when no grapes might be
I spent all that evening there, and went not back
to my habitation, which was the first night I had lain
from home. In the night I got up into a tree, where
I slept well, and the next morning proceeded upon
discovery near four miles, keeping due north, with a
ridge of hills on the south and north side of me.
At the end of this march, I came to an opening,
where the country seemed to descend to the west, and
a little spring of fresh water, which issued out of the
side of the hill by me, ran the other way, that is, due
east; and the country appeared so fresh, so green,
and so flourishing, that it looked like a garden.
I descended a little on the side of that delicious
valley, surveying it with much pleasure, (though
mixed with afflicting thoughts,) to think that this
was all my own; and if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance, as completely as any lord of
the manors in England. I saw abundance of cocoa-
trees, orange, lemon, and citron trees, but all wild,
and few bearing fruit. The green limes that I gath-
ered were pleasant to eat, and very wholesome; and
I mixed their juice with water, which made it very
wholesome, cool, and refreshing. I now resolved to
carry home and lay up a store of grapes, limes, an

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