Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 The life of Daniel DeFoe
 Robinson Crusoe
 The farther adventures of Robinson...
 Back Cover

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073538/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Series Title: Wide, wide world library
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: vi, 7-448, 32 p., 1 leaf of plates : ill. ; 15 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Stephenson ( Illustrator , Engraver )
Royston ( Engraver )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Milner and Sowerby
Publisher: Milner and Sowerby
Place of Publication: London (Paternoster Row)
Manufacturer: Milner and Sowerby, Printers
Publication Date: 186-?
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1865   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
England -- Halifax
Statement of Responsibility: written by himself.
General Note: Added engraved t.p.: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe.
General Note: Spine title: Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: "Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe"--P. 281.
General Note: Front. and added t.p. signed: Stephenson, del.; Stephenson & Royston, sc.
General Note: Series from cover.
General Note: May be a reissue of the text described in Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 512, dated 1830. This text may have been printed after 1867 when Milner and Sowerby imprints were largely undated. Cf. Brit. literary pub. houses, 1820-1880.
General Note: "Life of Daniel De Foe," p. v-vi.
General Note: Includes publisher's catalog (32 p.) at end.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073538
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 28239070

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    The life of Daniel DeFoe
        Page v
        Page vi
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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    The farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text


40 4.VN



'I '-.:',x











THu original author of Robinson Crusoe was Daniel Foe,
which, from caprice, or some other motive, he lengthened
with a prefix, calling himself De Foe. He was a native
of London, born in the year 1660, of humbleparentage, his
father, James Foe, exercising the occupation of a butcher.
Daniel De Foe, in the commencement of his career, en-
gaged in trade: from the business of a hosier he passed
to that of a pantile maker, without any good fortune.
Either from want of prudence, or from dislike to his oc-
cupations, the only reward of his schemes was embarrass-
ment and distress.
In the speculations of the literary world he was more
fortunate. In 1701, when King William, during the vio-
lence of parties was censured for his attachment to, and
employment of foreigners, De Foe espoused the cause of
his monarch, and ridiculed his enemies in a satirical
poem, called The True-born Englishman." This produc-
tion was honoured with an enormous sale: and he was
encouraged to write another satire, entitled, "BeforSma-
tion of Manners," in which he attacked the vices of some
persons of eminent rank.
A pamphlet, called "The Shortest Way with the Dis.
centers," was so mistaken, or so misrepresented, that it
was declared by the House of Commons to be of a libel-
lous nature. De Foe, for his offence, was subjected to
fine, imprisonment, and even the pillory. He did not
give his enemies much reason to exult over his despond-
ence; for the subject which he took to amuse his prison
hours, was A Hymn to the Pillory." During his con-
finement he also undertook the "Review," a periodical
work of considerable importance in the republic of learn-
ing, if, as has been imagined, it suggested the idea of the
Tattler and Spectator, which have enriched our language
with essays of incomparable beauty.
De Foe was employed in promoting the union of Eng.
land and Scotland, of which event he also wrote the his-
tory. Whatever glory he gained from interfering in the
bitter differences of politics, he gained little solid satis-
faction. A second imprisonment, which he suffered,
taught him the fate which he was to expect from the
animosity of political opponents. He began to take a
more quiet and useful path of literature in 1715, and pub-
lished a religious work, called The Family Instructor."

Of the multitude of his other productions specific notice
is scarcely necessary. It is sufficient to mention The
History of the Plague in 1665 ;" a novel, entitled, The
history of Colonel Jack,"-" A new Voyage round the
World, by a Company of Merchants,"-" The History of
o.xana,'-" The Memoirs of a Cavalier,"-" The History
of Moll Flanders," and a book, entitled Beligious Court-
ship," which has passed through numerous editions.
But De Foe's reputation, in the present day, rests chiefly
upon his Robinson Crusoe," a work which almost every
one has read in his childhood, and the pleasing impres-
sions of which are scarcely obliterated from the memory
in old age. Its simple and perspicuous style is admirably
suited to the capacity of youth; it possesses enough of
the marvellous to seize and delight the imagination; and
the sentiments which it inspires are such as need not be
renounced or corrected in mature age. Respecting this
work there is a story which it is incumbent to relate,
although it has never been fairly authenticated. It has
been affirmed, (says the Encyclopedia Britannica,) that
when Captain Woodes Rogers touched at the island of
Juan Fernandez, in the South Sea, he brought away
Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch seaman, who, having been
left ashore there, had lived upon the island in desolate
solitude for the space of four years. When Selkirk re-
turned to England, it is said, that he wrote a narrative of
his adventures, and put the papers in the hands of De
Foe, to digest for publication; but that he ungenerously
converted the materials into the celebrated History of
Robinson Crusoe." Part of this story may be true, and
part false. That De Foe might have had the inspection
of Selkirk's journal is very possible; and by his powers of
description, and skill in composition, he might have ex-
panded into an entertaining narrative, what in its ori-
ginal form was a dull and awkward composition. But
that he was guilty of any fraud or injustice towards Sel-
kirk, is a suspicion which his character of general inte.
grity should induce us to reject. As there is no credible
proof against him, we are bound to give him an acquittal,
both because he is not able to vindicate himself, and one
who has so entertained the rising generation, has more
than an ordinary right not to be condemned upon doubt-
ful accusation.
Daniel De Foe died at Islington, in the year 1731. His
daughter was respectably settled in life, by marrying
Henry Baker, an eminent naturalist.



I was born in the year 1632, in the city of York,
of a good family, though not of that country, my
father being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at HulL He got a good estate by merchandise, and,
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York; from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinson
Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of words in
England, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves
and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers: one of whom was
lieutenant-colonel to an English regiment of foot in
Flanders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what became of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to
any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts. My father, who was very an-
cient, had given me a competent share of learning,
as far as house-education and a country free-school
generally goes, and designed me for the law; but I

would be satisfied with nothing but going to sea:
and my inclination to this led me so strongly against
the will, nay, the commands of my father, and
against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be
something fatal in that propension of nature, tending
directly to that life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what he foresaw was
my design. He called me one morning into his
chamber, where he was confined by the gout, and
expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject.
He asked me what reasons, more than a mere wan-
dering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house, and my native country; where I might be
well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune by application and industry, with a life of
ease and pleasure. He told me it was men of des-
perate fortunes on one hand, or of aspiring to superior
fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon adven-
tures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselve-
famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above
me, or too far below me; and that mine was the
middle state, or what might be called the upper sta-
tion of low life, which he had found, by long expe-
rience, was the best state in the world, the most
suited to human happiness, not exposed to the mise-
ries and hardships, the labour and sufferings, of the
mechanic part of mankind, and not embarrassed with
the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of the upper
part of mankind. He told me I might judge of the
happiness of this state by this one thing, viz. that
this was the state of life which all other people en-
vied; that kings have frequently lamented the miser-
able consequences of being born to great things, and
wished they had been placed in the middle of the
two extremes, between the mean and the great; that
the Wise Man gave his testimony to this, as the just

standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
neither poverty nor riches.
He bade me observe it, and I should always find
that the calamities of life were shared among the
upper and lower part of mankind ; but that the mid-
dle station had the fewest disasters ; and was not
exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind ; nay, they were not subjected
to so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of
body or mind, as those were, who, by vicious living,
luxury, and extravagances on one hand, or by hard
labour, want of necessaries, and mean or insufficient
diet, on the other hand, bringdistempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences of their way of
living ; that the middle station of life was calculated
for all kind of virtues, and all kind of enjoyments;
that peace and plenty were the handmaids of a
middle fortune ; that temperance, moderation, quiet-
ness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all
desirable pleasures, were the blessings attending the
middle station of life; that this way men went
silently and smoothly through the world, and com-
fortably out of it; not embarrassed with the labours
of the hands, or of the head; not sold to a life of
slavery for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed
circumstances, which rob the soul of peace, and the
body of rest ; nor enraged with the passion of envy,
or the secret burning lust of ambition for great things,
but in easy circumstances sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, with-
out the bitters; feeling that they are happy, and learn-
ing by every day's experience to know it more sensibly.
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate.manner, not to play the young man, nor
to precipitate myself into miseries, which nature, and
the station of life I was born in, seemed to have pro-
vided against; that I was under no necessity of
seeking my bread ; that he would do well for me,
and endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of

life which he had just been recommending to me ;
and that if I was not very easy and happy in the
world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it; and that he should have nothing whatever
to answer for, having thus discharged his duty in
warning me against measures which he knew would
be to my hurt. In a word, that as he would do very
kind things for me, if I would stay and settle at home
as he directed, so he would not have so much hand
in my misfortunes, as to give me any encouragement
to go away ; and to close all, he told me, I had an
elder brother for an example, to whom he had used
the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars, but could not prevail, his
young desires prompting him to run into the army,
where he was killed ; and though he said he would
not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to say
to me, that if I did take that foolish step God would
not bless me ; and I would have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there
might be none to assist in my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself, I say, 1 observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, especially
when he spoke of my brother who was killed ; and
that when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved that he broke
off the discourse, and told me his heart was so full
he could say no more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as
indeed who could be otherwise? And I resolved not
to think of going abroad any more, but to settle at
home according to my .father's desire. But alas! a
few days wore it all off ; and in short, to prevent
any of my father's farther importunities, in a few
weeks after I resolved to run quite away from him.
However, I did not act so hastily neither, as the first
heat of my resolution prompted; but I took my


mother at a time when I thought her a little plea-
santer than ordinary, and told her, that my thoughts
were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I
should never settle to any thing with resolution
enough to go through with it; and my father had
better give me his consent, than force me to go without
it ; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attor-
ney, that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve
out my time, but I should certainly run away from
my master before my time was out, and go to sea;
and if she would speak to my father to let me go one
voyage abroad, if I came home again and did not like
it, I would go no more, and I would promise by a
double diligence to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion. She
told me, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak
to my father upon such a subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest, to give his consent to any
thing so much for my hurt; and that she wondered
how I could think of any such thing, after the dis-
course I had had with my father, and such kind and
tender expressions, as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself.
there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it; that, for her
part, she would not have so much hand in my de-
struction, and I should never have it to say, that my
mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father,
yet I heard afterwards that she reported all the dis-
course to him ; and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her, with a sigh, "That
the boy might be happy, if he would stay at home;
but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though in the mean time I continued obsti-
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business,

and frequently expostulating with my father and
mother about their being so positively determined
against what they knew my inclination prompted me
to. But being one day at Hull, whither I went casu-
ally, and without any purpose of making an elope-
ment at that time; but, I say, being there, and one
of my companions being going by sea to London, in
his father's ship, and prompting me to go with them,
with the common allurement of a sea-faring man,
that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I con-
sulted neither father nor mother any more, nor so
much as sent them word of it, but leaving them to
hear of it as they might, without asking God's bless-
ing, or my father's, without any consideration of cir-
cumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour, God
knows, on the first of September, 1651, I went on
board a ship bound for London. Never any young
adventurer's misfortunes, Ibelieve,began sooner, or
continued longer, than mine. The ship was no sooner
got out of the Humber, but the wind began to blow,
and the sea to rise in a most frightful manner; and,
as I had never seen the sea before, I was most in-
expressibly sick in body and terrified in mind. I
began now seriously to reflect upon what I had done,
and how justly I was overtaken by the judgment of
heaven, for my wicked leaving my father's house, and
abandoning my duty. All the good counsel of my
parents, my father's tears, and my mother's entrea-
ties, came now fresh into my mind, and my conscience,
which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the con-
tempt of advice, and the breach of my duty to God
and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea
went very high, though nothing like what I have seen
many times since, no, nor what I saw a few days after.
But it was enough to affect me then, who was but a
young sailor, and had never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed

us up, and that every time the ship fell down, as I
thought it did, in the trough or hollow of the sea, we
should never rise more. In this agony of mind, I
made my vows and resolutions, that if it pleased God
to spare my life in this one voyage, if ever I once got
my foot upon dry land again, I would go directly
home to my father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived ; that I would take his advice, and never
run myself into such miseries as these any more.
Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations
about the middle station of life, how easy, how com-
fortable, he had lived all his days, and never had
been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on shore I
and, in short, I resolved that I would like a true re-
penting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all the
while the storm continued, and, indeed some time
after ; but the next day the wind was abated, and
the sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave for all that day, being
also a little sea-sick still; but towards night the
weather cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a
charming fine evening followed ; the sun went down
perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning, and
having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most
delightful that ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful; looking with wonder
upon the sea, that was so rough and terrible the day
before, and could be so calm and so pleasant in so
little a time after. And now, lest my good resolu-
tions should continue, my companion, who had, in-
deed, enticed me away, comes to me-"Well Bob,"
said he, clapping me upon the shoulder, how do you
do after it ? I warrant you were frightened, wan't
you, last night, when it blew but a capful of wind ?"
-" A capful d'you call it?" said I, 'twas a terrible
storm."-" A storm, you fool yon!" replies he, do

you call that a storm P" Why it was nothing at all;
give us but a good ship and sea room, and we think
nothing of such a squall of wind as that; but
you're but a fresh water sailor, Bob. Come, let
us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that.
D'you see what charming weather 'tis now ?" To
make short this sad part of my story, we went the
way of all sailors; the punch was made, and I was
made half drunk with it, and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my re-
flections upon my past conduct, and all my resolu-
tions for the future. In a word, as the sea was re-
turned to its smoothness of surface, and settled calm-
ness, by the abatement of that storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions
of my being swallowed up by the sea being forgotten,
and the current of my former desires returned, I en-
tirely forgot the vows and promises that I made in
my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of re-
flection, and the serious thoughts did, as it were,
endeavour to return again sometimes; but I shook
them off, and roused myself from them, as it were
from a distemper; and applying myself to drinking
and company, soon mastered the return of those fits
(for so I called them): and I had in five or six days,
got as complete a victory over conscience, as any
young fellow that resolved not to be troubled with it
could desire. But I was to have another trial for it
still, and Providence, as in such cases it generally does,
resolved to leave me entirely without excuse, for, if
I would not take this for a deliverance, the next was
to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and
the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into the
Yarmouth Roads, the wind having been contrary,
and the weather calm, we had made but little way
since the storm. Here we were obliged to come to
an anchor, and here we lay, the wind continuing con-

trary, vis. at south-west, for seven or eight days ; dur-
ing which time a great many ships from Newcastle
came into the same roads, as the common harbour
where the ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we
should have tided it up the river, but that the wind
blew too fresh, and, after we had lain four or five
days, blew very hard. However, the roads being
reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good,
and our ground-tackle very strong, our men were
unconcerned, and not in the least apprehensive of
danger, but spent the time in rest and mirth, after
the manner at sea; but the eighth day in the morn-
ing the wind increased, and we had all hands at work
to strike our topmasts, and make every thing snug
and close, that the ship might ride as easy as possi-
ble. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and
our ship rid forecastle in, shipped several seas, and
we thought once or twice our anchor had come home,
upon which our master ordered out the sheet anchor,
so that we rode with two anchors a-head, and the ca-
bles veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed, and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet,
as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could
hear him, softly to himself, say several times, Lord
be merciful to us I We shall be all lost; we shall be
undone!" and the like. During these first hurries
I was stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in
the steerage, and cannot describe my temper. I
could ill resume the first penitence, which I had so
apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself
against. I thought the bitterness of death had been
past, and that this would be nothing, too, like the
first. But when the master himself came by me, as
I said just now, and said we should be all lost, I was
dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin, and

looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw;
the sea went mountains high, and broke upon us
every three or four minutes. When I could look
about, I could see nothing but distress around us.
Two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by the board, being deep loaden; and our men
cried out, that a ship, which rid about a mile a-head
of us, was foundered. Two more ships, being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
at all adventures, and not a mast standing. The
light ships fared the best, as not so much labouring
in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and came
close by us, running away, with only their sprit-sail
out before the wind.
Towards the evening the mate and boatswain beg-
ged the master of our ship to let them cut away the
fore-mast, which he was very unwilling to do; but
the boatswain protesting to him, that if he did not,
the ship would founder, he consented; and when they
had cut away the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so
loose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged
to cut her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But, if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of
mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had
wickedly taken at first, when I was at death itself;
and these, added to the terrors of the storm, put me
into such a condition, that I can by no words describe
it. But the worst was not come yet ; the storm con-
tinued with such fury, that the seamen themselves
acknowledged they had never seen a worse. We had
a good ship, but she was deep loaden, and so wallowed
in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
cut she would founder. It was my advantage, in one
respect, that I did not know what they meant by

kOiuNso.s caUsor, 17
founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so
violent, that I saw what is not often seen, the master,
the boatswain, and some others, more sensible than
the rest, at their prayers, and expecting every mo.
ment that the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our
distresses, one of the men that had been down on
purpose to see, cried out we had sprung a leak, ano-
ther said there was four feet water in the hold. Then
all hands were called to the pump. At that very
word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and I
fell backwards upon the side of the bed where I sat,
into the cabin. However, the men roused me, and
told me, that I that was able to do nothing before,
was as well able to pump as another ; at which I
stirred up, and went to the pump, and worked very
heartily, While this was doing, the master, seeing
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the
storm, were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and
would come near us, ordered a gun to be fired as a
signal of distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised that I thought the ship had
broke or some dreadful thing happened. In a word,
I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when every body had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of
me, but another man stepped up to the pump, and
thrusting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking
I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on, but the water increasing in the
hold, it was apparent that the ship would founder,
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as
it was not possible she could swim till we might run
into any port, so the master continued firing guns
for help, and alight ship,which had rid it out just
a-head of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It wap
with the utmost hazard that the boat came near un,
but it was impossible for us to get on board, or for
102 B

the boat to lie near the ship-side, till at last the men
rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to
save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern
with a buoy to it, and then veered it out at a great
length, which they, after much labour and hazard,
took hold of, and we hauled them close under our
stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no pur-
pose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to
think of reaching to theit own ship, so all agreed to
let her drive, and only to pull her in towards the
shore as much as we could ; and our master promised
them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master. So partly rowing and
partly driving, our boat went away to the northward,
sloping towards the shore, almost as far as Winter-
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour
out of our ship, before we saw her sink, and then I
understood, for the first time, what was meant by a
ship foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I
had hardly eyes to look up, when the seamen told me
she was sinking, for, from that moment, they rather
put me into the boat, than that 1 might be said to go
in ; my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with fright, partly with horror of mind, and the
thought of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet la-
bouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see (when our boat mounting the waves, we
were able to see the shore) a great many people run-
ning along the strand to assist us when we should
come near. But we made but slow way towards the
shore ; nor were we able to reach the shore, till
being past the light-house at Winterton, the shore
falls off to the westward towards Cromer, and so the
land broke a little the violence of the wind. Here we
got in ; and, though not without much difficulty, got
all safe on shore, and walked afterward on foot to
Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used

with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by parti-
cular merchants and owners of ships; and had money
given us sufficient to carry us either to London, or
back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to
Hull, and have gone home, I had been happy, and
my father, an emblem of our blessed Saviour's para-
ble, had even killed the fatted calf for me ; for, hear-
ing the ship I went away in was cast away in Yar-
mouth roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I had
several times loud calls for my reason and my more
composed judgment, to go home, yet 1 had no power
to do it. I know not what to call this; nor will I
urge, that it is a secret overruling decree, that hur-
ries us on to be the instruments of our own destruo-
tion, even though it be before us, and that we push
upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing but
some such decreed unavoidable misery attending,
and which it was impossible for me to escape, could
have pushed me forward against the calm reasoning
and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, and
against two such visible instructions as I had met
with in my first escape.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before,
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The firstlime he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quar-
ters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered; and, looking very melancholy,
and shaking his head, asked me how I did: and
telling his father who I was, and how I had come
this voyage only for a trial, in order to go farther
abroad; his father turning to me with a very grave
and concerned tone, "Young man," says he, "you

ought never to go to sea any more ; you ought to
take this for a plain and visible token, that you are
not .to be a seafaring man."-" Why, sir," said I,
"will you go to sea no more ?"-" That is another
case," said he; "it is my calling, and therefore my
duty; but as you made this voyage for a trial, you
see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist: perhaps all this has
befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship
of Tarshish. Pray," continued he, "what are you?
and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon that
I told him some of my story; at the end of which he
burst out with a strange kind of passion," What had
I done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship ? I would not set my foot
in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds!" This, indeed, was, as I said, an excursion
of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense
of his loss, and was farther than he could have
authority to go. However, he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my
father, and not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me
I might see a visible hand of Heaven against me: "and,
young man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not
go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing
but disasters and disappointments, till your father's
words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and I saw him no more: which way he went, I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land, and there, as well as
on the road, had many struggles with myself what
course of life I should take, and whether I should go
home, or go to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately oc-
curred to me how I should be laughed at among the
neighbours and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even every body else.

From whence I have since often observed how incon-
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of youth, to that reason that ought to
guide them in such cases; viz. that they are not
ashamed of the action for which they ought justly to
be esteemed fools, but are ashamed of the returning,
which can only make them esteemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time,
uncertain what measures to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home ; and, as I stayed awhile, the remembrance
of the distress I had been in wore off; and as that
abated, the little notion I had in my desires to return
wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the
thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from
my father's house, which hurried me into the wild and
indigested notion of raising my fortune, and that im-
pressed those conceits so forcibly upon me as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties and
even the commands of my father ; I say, the same in-
fluence, whatever it was, presented the most unfortu-
nate of all enterprises to my view, I went on board a
vessel bound to the coast of Africa, or, as our sailors
vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that, in all these ad
ventures, I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby
though 1 might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learned the
duty and office of a foremast man, and in time might
have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not
for a master. But as it was always my fate to choose
for a worse, so I did here ; for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes on my back, I would always
go on board in the habit of a gentleman, and so I
neither had any business in the ship, nor learned to
do any.
It was my lot first of all to fall into pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen

to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was ; the devil, generally, not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early ; but it was not so with
me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship
who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to
go again. This captain, taking a fancy to my con-
versation, which was not disagreeble at that time,
hearing me say I had a mind to see the world, told
me, if I would go the voyage with him, I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate, and his
companion ; and if I could carry any thing with me,
I should have all the advantage of it that tile trade
would admit ; and perhaps I might meet with some
I embraced the offer, and, entering into a strict
friendship with this captain, who was an honest
plain-dealing man, went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honesty of my friend the captain, I increased
very considerably ; for I carried about 401. in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This 401. I had mustered together by the assistance
of some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother,
to contribute so much as thatto my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain,
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics, and the rules of navigation; learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an
observation, and, in short, to understand some things
that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for,
as he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to
learn ; and, in a word, this voyage made me both a
sailor and a merchant; for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure,
which yielded me in London, at my return, almost


3001., and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have since so completed my ruin.
Yet, even in this voyage, I had my misfortunes too,
particularly that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
climate, our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of 15 deg. N. even to the line itself.
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage, and had
now got the command of the ship. This was the un-
happiest voyage that ever man made; for though I
did not carry off quite 1001. of my newly-gained
wealth, so that I had 2001. left, and which I lodged
with my friend's widow, who was very just to me,
yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage; and
the first was this, viz. our ship, making her course to-
wards the Canary Islands, or rather between those
Islands and the African shore, was su prised in the
gray of the morning by a Moorish roverofSallee,which
gave chase to us with all the sail she could make. We
crowded also as much canvass as our yards oould
spread, or our masts carry, to have got clear; but
finding the pirate gained upon us, and would cer.
tainly come up with us in a few hours, we prepared
to fight, our ship having twelve guns, and the rogue
eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us, and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart
our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as he in-
tended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on that
side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small shot from near two
hundred men, which he had on board. However, we
had not a man touched, all our men keeping close.
He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend
ourselves; but, laying as on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered ninety men upon
our decks, who immediately fell to cutting and

hacking the decks and rigging. We plied them with
small shot, half-pikes, powder chests, and such like,
and cleared our decks of them twice. However, to
cut short this melancholy part of our story, the ship
being disabled, and three of our men killed and eight
wounded, we were obliged to yield, and were carried
prisoners into Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
Tile usage I had there was not so dreadful as at
first I apprehended ; nor was I carried up the coun-
try, to the emperor's court, as the rest of our men
were, but was kept by the captain of the rover as his
proper prize, and made his slave, being young and
nimble, and fit for business. At this surprising
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a
miserable slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; aid
now I looked back upon my father's prophetic dis-
course to me, that I should be miserable, and have
none to relieve me, which I thought was now so effec-
tually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and
I was undone without redemption. But, alas! this
was but a taste of the misery I was to go through, ,as
will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron or master had taken me home
to his house, so I was in hopes that he would take
me with him when he went to sea again, believing
that it would be some time or other his fate to be
taken by a Spanish or Portugal man of war, and that
then 1 should be set at liberty. But this hope of
mine was soon taken away ; for when he went to
-ea, he left me on shore to look after his little garden,
and do the common drudgery of slaves about the house;
and when he came hone again from his cruise, he
ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Ilere I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I might take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it. Nothing pre-
;ented to make the supposition of it rational, for I
had nobody to communicate it to that would embark

with me, no fellow slave, no Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman there, but myself; so that for two
years, though I often pleased myself with the imagi-
nation, yet I never had the least encouraging prospect
of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance pre-
sented itself, which put the old thought of making
some attempt for my liberty again in my head. My
patron lying at home longer than usual, without fit-
ting out his ship, which as I heard was for want of
money, he used constantly once or twice a week, some-
times oftener if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a fishing ; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him to row
the boat, we made him very merry, and I proved very
dexterous in catching fish ; insomuch that sometimes
he would send me with a Moor, one of his kinsmen,
and the youth the Maresco, as they called him, to
catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing with him
in a calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though
we were not half a league from the shore, we lost sight
of it ; and, rowing we knew not whither, or which way,
we laboured all day, and all the next night; and when
the morning came, we found we had pulled off to sea,
instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were
at least two leagues from the land. However, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour and
some danger, for the Wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning ; but particularly we were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved
to take more care of himself for the future ; and
having lying by him the long boat of our English
ship which he had taken, he resolved he would not
go a fishing any more without a compass, and some
provision ; so he ordered the carpenter of his ship,
who was also an English slave, to build a little state
room or cabin in the middle of the long-boat, like

that of a barge, with a place to stand behind it to steer
and haul home the main sheet; and room before for
a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sail-
ed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and
the boom jibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay
very snug and low, and had in it room for him to lie,
with a slave or two, and a table to eat on, with some
small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as
he thought fit to drink, particularly his bread, rice,
and coffee.
We were frequently out with this boat a fishing;
and as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him,
he never went without me. It happened one day
that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or fish, with two or three Moors of some
distinction, and for whom he had provided extraor-
dinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat
over night a larger store of provisions than usual;
and had ordered me to get ready three fusils with
powder and shot, which .were on board his ship, for
that they designed some sport of fowling as well as
I got all things ready as he had directed, and wait-
ed next morning with the boat washed clean, her an-
cient and pendants out, and everything to accommo-
date his guests ; when, by and by, my patron came
on board alone, and told me his guests had put off
going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered
me wi h the man and boy, as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch them some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house. He commanded me, too,
that as soon as 1 had got some fish, I should bring it
home to his house. All which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command ; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for
fishing business, but for a voyage ; though I knew
not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I

would steer, for any where to get out of that place
was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor to get something for our subsist-
ence on board, for I told him we must not presume
to eat our patron's bread. He said, that was true;
so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit, of
their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the
boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles
stood, which, it was evident by the make, were taken
out of some English prize, and I conveyed them into
the boat, while the Moor was on shore, as if they had
been there before for our master. I conveyed also a
great lump of bees wax into the boat, which weighed
about half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine
or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all of
which were of great use to us afterwards: especially
the wax to make candles. Another trick I tried
upon him, which he innocently came into also. His
name was Ismael, whom they called Muley, or Mo-
ley ; so I called to him: "Moley," said I, "our
patron's guns are all on board the boat; can you not
get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill
some alcomies (a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves,
for I know he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."
" Yes," says he, "I'll bring some." Accordingly he
brought a great leather pouch, which held about a
pound and a half of powder, or rather more; and
another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with
some bullets, and put all into the boat. At the same
time I had found some powder of my master's in the
great cabin, with which I filled one of the large
bottles in the case, which was almost empty, pouring
what was in it into another, and thus furnished with
every thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish.
The castle, which is at the entrance of the port, knew
who we were, and took no notice of us; and we were
not above a mile out of the port, before we hauled in
our sail, and sat us down to fish. The wind blew

from the N.N.E., which was contrary to my desire;
nor had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have
made the coast of Spain, and at least reached to the
bay of Cadiz ; but my resolutions were, blow which
way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time, and catched nothing
(for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them), I said to the
Moor, This will not do; our master will not be
thus served. We must stand farther off." He
thinking no harm, agreed ; and being in the head of
tie boat, set the sails, and, as I had the helm, I run
the boat out near a league farther, and then brought
her to, as if I would fish ; when, giving the boy the
helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor was, and
making as if I stooped for something behind him, I
took him by surprise with my arm under his twist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He
rose immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called
to me, begged to be taken in, told me he would go
all over the world with me. He swam so strong
after the boat, that he would have reached me very
quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fow-
ling-pieces, I presented it at him, and told him I had
done him no hurt, and, if he would be quite, I would
do him none. "But," said I, "you swim well enough
to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm;
but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty." So
he turned himself about, and swam for the shore, and
I make no doubt but he reached it with ease, for he
was an excellent swiu:mmr.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When lie was gone, I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said

to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me, I'll
make you a great man ; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Maho-
met and his father's beard, I must throw you into
the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not mistrust him, and swore
to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, 1 stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth (as indeed any one
who had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do); for who would have thought we were sailed
on to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast,
where all nations of Negroes were sure to surround
as with their canoes, and destroy us, where we could
never go once on shore, but we should be devoured
by savage beasts, or more merciless savages of human
kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening I chang-
ed my course, and steered directly south and by east,
bending my course a little towards the east, that I
might keep in with the shore ; and having a fair fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, Imade such
sail, that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in
the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could
not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee, quite be-
yond the emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not stop or go on shore, or
come to an anchor, the wind continuing fair, till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifted to the southward, I concluded, also,
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they
also would now give over; so I ventured to make to
the coast, and come to an anchor in the mouth of a
little river, I knew not what or where, neither what

latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw nor desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came
into this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on
shore as soon as it was quite dark, but we heard such
dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling
of wild creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the
poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of
me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said
I, then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions." ThPn
we may give them the shoot gun," says Xury laugh-
ing, make them run away." Such English Xury
spoke by conversing among us slaves. However, I was
glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him a dram
(out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him
up. After all Xury's advice was good, and I took
it. We dropped our tittle anchor, and lay still
all night; I say still, for we slept none ; for in two
or three hours we saw vast great creatures, we knew
not what to call them, of many sorts, come down to
the sea shore, and run into the water, wallowing and
washing themselves for the pleasure of cooling them-
selves; and they made such hideous howlings and
yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was
1 too ; but we were both worse frightened when we
heard one of the mighty creatures come swimming
towards our boat; we could not see him, but we
might hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous
huge and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and
it might be for aught I knew. Poor Xury cried out
to me to weigh anchor and row away. No,"
says I, Xury, we can slip our cable with a buoy to
it, and go to sea; they cannot follow us far." I had
no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (what-
ever it was) within two oars' length, which something
surprised me: however, I immediately stepped to
the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him,


upon which he immediately turned about, and swam
towards the shore again.
But it was not possible to describe the horrible
noises, and hideous cries and howlings, that were
raised, as well upon the edge of the shore as higher
within the country, upon the noise or report of a
gun, a thing I had some reason to believe .those
creatures had never heard before. This convinced
me that there was no going on shore for us in the
night upon that coast, and how to venture on shore
in the day was another question too; for, to have
fallen into the hands of any of the savages, had been
as bad as to have fallen into the paws of lions and
tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a pint
in the boat; when or where to get it was the point.
Xury said if I would let him go on shore with one of
the jars, he would find if there was any water, and
bring some to me. I asked him why he would go,
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection, that made me
love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans come,
they eat me up; you go away." "Well, Xury," said
I, "we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we
will kill them; they shall eat neither of us." So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk-bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned
before, and we hauled the boat in as near the shore, as
we thought was proper, and waded on shore, carrying
nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
1 did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river;
but the boy seeing a low place, about a mile up the
country, rambled to it, and by and by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pur-
sued by some savage, or frighted with some wild
beast, and I ran forward towards him to help him;

but when I came nearer to him, I saw something
hanging over his aloulders, which was a creature that
'he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and
longer legs. However, we were very glad of it, and
it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good
water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up; so we
filled our jars, and feasted on the bare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, and
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast. But as I had no instruments to take an
observation to know what latitude we were in, and
did not exactly know, or at least, not remember what
latitude they were in, I knew not where to look for
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them,
otherwise I might easily have found some of these
islands. But my hope was, that if I stood along this
coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon their
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was, must be that country which, lying between
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions and the Negroes
lies waste and uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone farther
south, for fear of the Moors: and the Moors not
thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its bar-
renness, and indeed both forsaking it because of the
prodigious numbers of tigers, lions, leopards, and
other furious creatures which harbour there so that


the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they
go like an army, two or three thousand men at a
time, and, indeed, for near a hundred miles together
upon this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, unin-
habited country by day, and heard nothing but how-
ling and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day time, I thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries, and had a great mind to
venture out in hopes of reaching thither; but, having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel ; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along
the shore.
Several times we were obliged to land for fresh
water, after we had left this place; and once in par-
ti cular, being early in the morning, we came to an
anchor under a little point of water, which was pretty
high, and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about
him, it seems, than mine were, calls softly to me, and
tells me that we had best go farther off the shore,
For," says he, look, yonder lies a dreadful mon-
ster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep." I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion, that lay on the side
of the shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill,
that hung as it were a little over him. "Xury," said
I, "you shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked
frightened, and said, "Me kill I He eat me at one
mouth !" one mouthful, he meant. However, I said
no more to the boy, but bade him be still, and took
our biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and
two slugs, and laid it down, then I loaded another
gun with two bullets, and the third (for we had three
pieces) I loaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece, to have
shot him into the head ; but he lay so with his leg
raised a little above his nose that the slug hit his leg
102 0

about the knee, and broke the bone. He started up
growling at first, but finding his leg broke, fell down
again, and then got upon three legs, and gave the
most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head ; how-
ever, I took up the second piece immediately, and,
though he began to move off, fired again, and shot
him into the head, and had the pleasure to see him
drop, and making but -little noise, he lay struggling
for life. Then Xury took heart, and would let me
have him go ashore. "Well go," said I. So the
boy jumped into the water, and taking a little gun in
one hand, swam to shore with the other hand, and
coming close to the creature, put the muzzle of the
piece to his ear, and shot him into the head again,
which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food,
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot, upon a creature that was good for nothing
to us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so he comes on board, and asked me to give him
the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I. Me cut
off his head," said he. However, Xury could not cut
off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought it with
him, and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself, however, that perhaps the skin
of him might one way or other be of some value to
us, and I resolved to take off his skin if I could. So
Xury and I went to work with him; but Xury was
much the better workman at it, for I knew very ill
how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the whole
day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days time, and it afterwards served me
to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually, for ten or twelve days, living very sparingly
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we wero


obliged to for fresh water. My design in this was to
make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say,
any where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in
hopes to meet with some European ship; and if I did
not, I knew not what course to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this cape or those islands, and in
a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this
single point, either that I must meet with some ship
or perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the land
was inhabited, and in two or three places, as we sail-
ed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look at
us; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone
on shore to them, but Xury was my better counsellor,
and said to me, No go, no go." However, I hauled
in nearer the shore, that I might talk to them, and
I found they ran along the shore by me a good way.
I observed they had no weapons in their hands, ex-
cept one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury
said was a lance, that they would throw them a great
way with good aim ; so I kept at a distance, but talk-
ed with them by signs for something to eat. They
beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would fetch
me some meat. Upon this I lowered the top of my
sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up into the
country, and in less than half an hour came back, and
brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and some
corn, such as is the produce of their country, but we
neither knew what the one or the other was ; how-
ever, we were willing to accept it. But how to come
at it was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing
on shore to them, and they were as much afraid of us,
but they took a safe way for us all, for they brought
it to the shore, and laid it down, and went, and stood

a great way off, till we fetched it on board, and then
came close to us again.
We made signs to thank them, for we had nothing
to make them amends; but an opportunity offered
that instant to oblige them wonderfully ; for while
we were lying by the shore, came two mighty crea-
tures, one pursuing the other (as we took it) with
great fury, from the mountains towards the sea;
whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not
tell any more than we could tell whether it was
usual or strange, but I believe it was the latter, be-
cause, in the first place, those ravenous creatures
seldom appear but in the night, and, in the second
place, we found the people terribly frighted, especial-
ly the women. The man that had the lance or dart
did not fly from them, but the rest did. However, as
the two creatures ran directly into the water, they
did not seem to offer to fall upon the Negroes, but
plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about as
if they had come for their diversion ; and at last one
of them began to come nearer our boat than I at first
expected ; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury
load both the others. As soon as he came fairly with-
in my reach, I fired and shot him directly through
the head. Immediately he sunk down into the water,
but he rose instantly, and plunged up and down as if
he was struggling for life, and so indeed he was. He
immediately made to the shore, but, between the
wound, which was his mortal hurt, and the strang-
ling of the water, he died just before he reached the
It is impossible to express the astonishment of
these poor creatures at the noise and fire of my gun;
some of them were ready even to die of fear, and fell
down as dead with the very terror. But when they
saw the creature dead, and sunk into the water, and
that I made signs for them to come to the shore, they

took heart and came to the shore, and began to search
for the creature. I found him by his blood staining
the water, and by the help of a rope, which I flung
round him, and gave the Negroes to haul, they drag-
ged him on shore, and found it was a most curious
leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable degree ; and
the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire,
and the noise of the gun, swam to the shore, and ran
up directly to the mountains from whence they came,
nor could I at that distance know what it was. I
found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh
of this creature, so I was willing to have them take
it as a favour from me, which, when I made signs to
them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with
him, and though they had no knife, yet with a sharp-
ened piece of wood they took off his skin as readily,
nay, much more readily, than we could have done
with a knife. They offered me some of the flesh,
which I declined, making as if 1 would give it them,
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me
very freely, and brought me a great deal more of
their provision, which though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. Then I made signs to them for some
water, and held out one qf my jars to them, turning
its bottom upward, to show that it was empty, and
that I wanted to have it filled. They called imme-
diately to some of their friends, and there came two
women, and brought a great vessel made out of earth,
andburnt, as I suppose, in the sun: this they set down
for me, as before, and I sent Xury on shore with my
jars, and filled them all three. The women were as
stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run

out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me, and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point;
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side
to seaward ; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
islands, called from thence Cape de Verd islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could
not well tell what I had best to do; for if I should
be taken with a fresh wind, I might neither reach one
nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped
into the cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the
helm, when on a sudden the boy cried out, Master,
master, a ship was a sail!" and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs be
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not
only the ship, but what she was, viz. that she was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to
the coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when I ob-
served the course she steered, I was soon convinced
they were bound some other way, and did not design
to go any nearer to the shore, upon which I stretched
out to sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with
them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but that they would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them ;
but after I had crowded to the utmost, and began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which they supposed must belong to some ship
that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me come
up. I was encouraged with this, and as I had my
patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to them
es a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both of which

they saw, for they told me they saw the smoke though
they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and in
about three hours time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French, but I understood none of
them; but at last Scotch sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I was
an Englishman, that I had made my escape out of
slavery from the Moors at Sallee. Then they bade me
come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one will
believe, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it,
from such a miserable and almost hopeless condition
as I was in. I immediately offered all I had to the
captain of the ship, as a return for my deliverance;
but he generously told me, he would take nothing
from me, but that all I had should be delivered safe
to me when I came to the Brazils. For," says he
" I have saved your life on no other terms than as I
would be glad to be saved myself; and it may one
time or other be my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides," sayshe, when I carry you to
the Brazils, so great a way from your own country, if
I should take from you what trifle you have, you will
be starved there, and then I only take away that life I
have given. No, no," says he, Signor Inglese (Mr.
En-ilishman), I will carry you thither in charity, and
these things will help you to buy your subsistence
there, andyour passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was
just in the performance to a tittle ; for he ordered
the seamen that none should offer to touch any thing
I had: then he took every thing into his own posses-
sion, and gave me back an inventory of them, that
I might have them again, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat it was a very good one, and that he

saw, and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it. I told
him he had been so generous to me in every thing,
that I could not offer to make any price of the boat,
but left it entirely to him ; upon which he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay me 80 pieces of
eight for it in Brazil, and when it came there, if any
one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also 60 pieces of eight for my boy, Xury,
which I was loath to take ; not that I was not wil-
ling to let the captain have him, but I was very loath
to sell the poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me so
faithfully in procuring my own. However, when I let
him know my reason, he owned it tobe just, and of-
fered me this medium, that he would give the boy an
obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian. Upon this, Xury, saying he was willing
to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and ar-
rived in the Bay de todos los Santos, or All Saints
Bay, in about twenty-four days after. And now I was
once more delivered from the most miserable of all
conditions of life, and what to do next with myself, I
was to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me I can
never enough remember ; he would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me 20 ducats for theleopard's
skin, and 40 for the lion's skin, which I had in the
boat, and caused every thing I had in the ship to be
punctually delivered to me; and what I was willing
to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles, two of
my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees wax, for I
had made candles of the rest; in a word, I made
about 220 pieces of eight of all my cargo, and with
this stock I went on shore on the Brazils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingenio, as they call it, that is, a plantation
and a sugar-house, I lived with him some time, and


acquainted myself by that means with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get licence to settle there,
I would turn planter among them ; resolving, in the
mean time, to find out some way to get my money
which I had left in London remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of letter of naturalization, 1
purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement, and such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
in much such circumstances as I was. I call him
neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine,
and we went on sociably together; my stock was but
low as well as his, and we rather planted for food
than any thing else for about two years. However,
we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order, so that the third year we planted some
tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of ground
ready for planting canes in the year to come, but we
both wanted help; and now I 'found, more than
before, I had done wrong in parting with my boy,
But, alas! for me to do wrong that never did right,
was no great wonder. I had no remedy but to go
on. I was gotten into an employment quite remote
to my genius, and directly contrary to the life I de-
lighted in, and for which I forsook my father's house,
and broke through all his good advice; nay, I was
coming into the very middle station, or upper degree
of low life, which my father advised me to before,
and which, if I resolved to go on with, I might as
well have staid at home, and never fatigued myself
in the world, as I have done; and I used often to say
to myself, I could have done this as well in England

among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles
off to do it among strangers and savages in the wil-
derness, and at such a distance as never to hear from
any part of the world who had any knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with but now and then this neighbour; no work to
be done but by the labour of my hands ; and 1 used
to say, I lived just like a man cast away on a deso-
late island, that had nobody there but himself. But
how just has it been, and how should all men reflect,
that when they compare their present condition with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to
make the exchange, and be convinced of their former
felicity, by their experience! I say, how just has it
been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in an
island of mere desolation should be my lot, who had
so often unjustly compared it with the life I then
led, in which, had I continued, I had, in all proba-
bility, been exceedingly prosperous and rich.
I was in some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend,
the captain of the ship that took me up at sea, went
back, for the ship remained there in providing her
loading, and preparing for her voyage, near three
months ; when, telling him what little stock I had
left behind me in London, he gave me this friendly
and sincere advice: "Signor Inglese," says he (for
so he always called me), "if you will give me letters,
and a procuration here in form to me, with orders to
the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall
direct, and in such goods as are proper in this country,
I will bring you the produce, God willing, at my
return; but, since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
for 1001. sterling, which you say is half your stock,
and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it
come safe, you may order the rest the same way, and


if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have
recourse to for your supply.
This was such wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my
money, and a procuration for the Portuguese captain
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the hu-
manity of his behaviour, and what condition I was
now in, with all other necessary directions for my
supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon,
he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over not the order only, but a full ac-
count of my story, to a merchant at London, who
presented it effectually to her; whereupon she not
only delivered the money, but out of her own pocket
sent the Portugal captain a very handsome present
for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London vested his 1001. in Eng-
lish goods, such as the captain had written for, and
sent them directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought
them safe to me to the Brazils; among which,
without my direction (for I was too young in mybusi-
ness to think of them), he had taken care to have all
sorts of tools, iron-work, and utensils necessary foi
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived I thought my fortune
made, for I was surprised with the joy of it; and my
good steward, the captain, had laid out the 51. which
my friend had sent him for a present for himself, to
purchase, and bring me over a servant, under a bond
for six years' service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would
have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all Eng-
lish manufactures, such as cloth, stuff, baize, aid

things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great
advantage; so that I may say, I had more than four
times the value of my first cargo, and was now in-
finitely beyond my poor neighbour, I mean in the ad-
vancement of my plantation ; for the first thing I did,
I bought me a negro slave and an European servant
also; I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco
on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours, and these fifty rolls
being each of above 1001b. weight, were well cured
and la.d by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon.
And now increasing in business and wealth, my head
began to be full of projects and undertakings beyond
my reach, such as are indeed often the ruin of the best
heads in business.
Had I continued in the station I was now in, I had
room for all the happy things to have yet befallen
me, for which my father so earnestly recommended
a quiet retired life, and which he had so sensibly
described the middle station of life to be full of ; but
other things attended me, P.nd I was still to be the
wilful agent of all my own miseries; and particularly
to increase my fault, and double the reflections upon
myself, which in my future sorrows I should have
leisure to make, all these miscarriages were procured
by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish incli-
nation of wandering abroad, and pursuing that incli-
nation in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those pros-
pects, and those measures of life, which nature and
providence concurred to present me with, and to make
my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from


miy parents, so I could not be content now; but 1
must go and leave the happy view I had of being a
rich and thriving man in my new plantation, only to
pursue a rash and immoderate desire of raising faster
than the nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I
cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of hu-
man misery that any man fell into, or, perhaps, could
be consistent with life, and a state of health in the
To come, then, by just degrees to the particulars of
this part of my story ; you may suppose that having
now lived almost four years in the Brazils, and begin-
ning to thrive and prosper very well upon my planta-
tion, I had not only learned the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants of St.
Salvadore, which was our port, and that, in my dis-
course among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the negroes there, and how
easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for trifles, such
as beads, toys, knives, scissors, hatchets, bits of glass,
and the like, not only gold-dust, Guinea grains, ele-
phants' teeth, &c. but negroes for the service of the
Brazils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying of negroes, which was a
trade at that time not only not far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the assientos,
or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public stock, so that few negroes
were bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company one day with some
merchants, and planters of my acquaintance, and
talking of those things very earnestly, three of them
came to me the next morning, and told me they had
been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
of with them the last night, and they came to make

a secret appeal to me, and, after enjoining my secresy,
they told me they had a mind to fit out a ship to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I,
and were straitened for nothing so much as servants;
that as it was a trade that could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but one
voyage, to bring the negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and, in a
word, the question was, whether I would go their
supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading part
upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that
I should have an equal share of the negroes, without
providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had
it been made to any one that had not had a settle-
ment and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,
and with a good stock upon it. But for me that was
thus established, and had nothing to do but go on as
I had begun for three or four years more, and to have
sent for the other 1001. from England, and who, in
that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth 3 or 40001. sterling, and
that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in
such circumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could
no more resist the offer, than I could refrain my first
rambling designs, when my father's good counsel
was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I would
go with all my heart, if they would undertake to
look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscar-
ried. This they all engaged to do; and I made a
formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death, making the captain of the ship
that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir,
but obliging him to dispose of my effects as I had


directed in my will; one half of the produce being
to himself, and the other to be shipped to Eng-
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation. Had I used half
as much prudence to have looked into my own in-
terest, and have made a judgment of what I ought to
have done, I had certainly never gone away from so
prosperous an undertaking, leaving all the probable
views of a thriving circumstance, and gone upon a
voyage to sea, attended with all its common hazards,
to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect particu-
lar misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dic-
tates of my fancy, rather than my reason ; and, ac-
cordingly, the ship being fitted out, and the cargo fur-
nished, and all things done as by agreement by my
partners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil
hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being the
same day eight years that I went from my father and
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their au-
thority and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about 120 tons burden, carried six
guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself. We had on board no large cargo of
goods except such toys as were fit for our trade with
the Negroes ; such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and
odd trifles, especially little looking-glasses, knives,
scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, stand-
ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with
design to stretch over for the African coast, when
they came into about ten or twelve degrees of nor-
thern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of
their course in those days. We had very good wea-
ther, only excessive hot all the way upon our own
coast, till we came to the height of Cape St. Augus-
tino, from whence keeping farther off at sea, we lost
sight of land, and steered as if we were bound for

the Isle of Fernand de Norouba, holding our course
N. E. by N. and leaving those isles on the east. In
this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees,
22 minutes, northern latitude, when a violent tornado
or hurricane took us quite out of our knowledge ; it
began from the south-east, came about to the north-
west, and then settled into the north-east, from
whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that for
twelve days together we could do nothing but drive ;
and scudding away before it, let it carry us wherever
fate and the fury of the winds directed ; and during
these twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up, nor did any in the
ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men died of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard. About the
twelfth day, the weather abating a little, the master
made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about 11 degrees of north latitude,
but that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference
west from Cape St. Augustino, so that he found he
was got upon the coast of Guinea, or the north part
of Brazil, beyond the river Amazones, towards that
of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the Great
River ; and now he began to consult with me what
course he should take, for the ship was leaky, and
very much disabled, and he was for going directly
back to the coast of Brazil.,
I was positively against that; and, looking over
the charts of the sea-coast of America with him, we
concluded there was no inhabited country for us to
have recourse to, till we came within the circle of
the Caribbee Islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes, which, by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the indraught of the Bay or Gulf of Mexico,
we might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days sail; whereas we could not possibly make our

voyage to the coastof Africa, without some assistance
both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and
steered away N.W. by W, in order to reach some of
our English islands, where I hoped for relief; but
our voyage was otherwise determined ; for, being in
the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a second storm
came upon us, which carried us away with the same
impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the
very way of all human commerce, that had our lives
been saved, as to the sea, we were rather in danger of
being devoured by savages, than ever returning to our
own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men, early one morning, cried out, "Land!"
and we had'no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out, in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we
were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and, in a mo-
ment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke
over her in such a manner that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were
even driven to close quarters, to shelter us from the
very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances. We knew nothing
where we were. or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether in-
habited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless the wind,
by a kind of miracle, should turn immediately again.
In a word, we sat looking upon one another, and ex-
pecting death every moment, and every man acting
accordingly, as preparing for another world, for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort
we had, was, that contrary to our expectation the
102 D

ship did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand
and sticking too fast to expect her getting off, we
were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had nothing
to do but to think of saving our lives as well as we
could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against
the ship's rudder, and in the next place she broke
away, and either sunk or was driven off to sea, so
there was no hope from her. We had another boat
on board, but how to get her off into the sea, was
a doubtful thing. However there was no room for
debate, for we fancied the ship would break in pieces
every minute; and some said she had'broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat, and with the help of the rest of the men,
they got her flung over the ship's side, and getting
all into her, let go, and committed ourselves, being
eleven in number, to God's mercy, and the wild sea;
for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and
might well be called Den wild sea," as the Dutch
call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed, for we
all saw plainly that the sea went so high, that the
boat could not escape, and that we should be inevi-
tably drowned. As to making sail, we had none;
nor, if we had, could we have done any thing with
it: so we worked at the oar towards the land, though
with heavy hearts, like men going to execution; lor
we all knew, that when the boat came near the shore,
she would be dashed in a thousand pieces by the
breach'of the sea. However, we committed our souls
to God in the most earnest manner, and the wind
driving us towards the shore, we hastened our de-
struction with our own hands, pulling, as well as we
could, towards land.

What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whether
steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that could
rationally give us the least shadow of expectation,
was, if we might get into some bay or gulf, or the
mouth of some river, where, by great chance, we
might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared ; but as we made
nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mouu-
tain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bade
us expect the coup de grace." In a word, it took
us with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once,
and separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, "0 God 1"
for we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought
which I felt when I sunk into the water, for though
I swam very well, yet I could not deliver myself
from the waves so as to draw my breath, till that
wave had driven me or rather carried me, a vast way
on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half
dead with the water I took in. I had so much pre-
sence of mind, as well as breath left, that seeing my-
self nearer the main land than I expected, I got upon
my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards the
land, as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again. But I soon found it
was impossible to avoid it, for I saw the sea come
after me as high as a great hill, and as furious as an
enemy, which I had no means or strength to contend
with; my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could, and so by swimming
to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards
the shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being
that the wave, as it would carry me a great way to-

wards the shore when it came on, might not carry me
back again with it, when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at
once twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body, and
I could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but
I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still
forward with all my might. 1 was ready to burst
with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and
hands shoot out above the surface of the water ; and
though it was not two seconds of time that I could
keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me
breath and new courage. I was covered again with
water a good while, but not so long but I held it out,
and finding the water had spent itself, and began to
return, I struck forward against the return of the
waves, and felt ground again with my feet. I stood
still a few moments to recover breath, and till the
water went from me, and then I took to my heels,
and ran with what strength I had farther towards
the shore. But neither would this deliver me from
the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again, and twice more was I lifted up by the waves,
and carried forward as before, the shore being very
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or rather dashed me, against a piece of
rock, and that with such force as it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath,
as it were quite out of my body, and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in
the water ; but I recovered a little before the return
of the waves, and seeing I should be covered again
with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of
the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible, till
the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not


so high as at first, being near land, I held my hold till
the wave abated, and then fetched another run, which
brought me so near the shore, that the next wave,
though it went over me, yet it did not so swallow me
up as to carry me away; and the next run I took I
got to the main land, where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down
upon the grass, free from danger, and quite out of
the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that my life was saved, in a
case wherein there was some minutes before scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press to the life what the ecstasies and transports of
the soul are when it is so saved, as I may say, out of
the very grave: and I do not wonder now at that
custom, viz. when a malefactor, who has the halter
about his neck, is tiedup, and just going to be turned
off, and has a reprieve brought to him; I say, I do
not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to let
him blood that very moment they tell him of it, that
the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him:-
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first."
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands,
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe, reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
signs of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the seabeing so big, I could hardly
see it, it lay so far off; and considered, Lord how
was it possible I could get ashore!
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable
part of my condition, I began to look round me, to

see what kind of place I was in, and what was next to
be done, and I soon found my comforts abate, and that,
in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance; for I was
wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing either
to eat or drink to comfort me, neither did I see any
prospect before me but that of perishing with hunger,
or of being devoured by wild beasts: and that which
was particularly afflicting to me was, that I had no
weapon either to hunt and kill any creature for my
sustenance, or to defend myself against any other
creature that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a
word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a tobacco-
pipe, and a little tobacco in a box: this was all my
provision, and this threw me into terrible agonies of
mind, that for a while I ran about like a madman.
Night coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot, if there were any
ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night they
always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
time was, to get up into a thick bushy tree, like a fir,
but thorny, which grew near me, and where I resolved
to sit all night, and consider the next day what death
I should die; for as yet I saw no prospect of life. I
walked about a furlong from the shore, to see if I
could find any fresh water to drink, which I did to my
great joy ; and having drank, and put a little tobacco
in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree,
and getting up into it, endeavoured to place myself so
as that, if 1 should sleep, I might not fall; and having
cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for my defence,
I took up my lodging; and having been excessively
fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as comfortably as
I believe few could have done in my condition, and
found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I
ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage
and swell as before ; but that which surprised me

most was, that the ship was lifted off in the night,
from the sand where she lay, by the swelling of the
tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock
which I first mentioned, where I had been so bruised
by dashing me against it. This being within about a
mile from the shore where I was, and the ship
seeming to stand upright still, I wished myself on
board, that at least I might save some necessary
things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree,
I looked about me again ; and the first thing I found
was the boat, which lay as the wind and sea had
tossed her. upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I walked as far as I could upon the
shore to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of
water between me and the boat, which was about
half a mile broad; so I came back for the present,
being more intent upon getting at the ship, where I
hoped to find something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm ; and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter of a mile of the ship; and here I found a
fresh renewing of my grief; for I saw evidently that
if we had kept on board we had been all safe, that
is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not
been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of
all comfort and company, as I now was. This forced
tears from my eyes again ; but as there was little
relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the
ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was
hot to extremity, and took the water; but, when I
came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to
know how to get on board, for as she lay aground
and high out of the water, there was nothing within
my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice,
and the second time I espied a small piece of rope,
which I wondered I did not see at first, hang down
by the fore chains, so low as that with great difficulty
I got hold of it, and, by the help of that rope, got

up into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that
the ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water
in her hold, but that she lay so on the side of a bank
of hard sand, or rather earth, that her stern lay
lifted up upon the bank, and her head low almost to
the water ; by this means all her quarter was free,
and all that was in that part was dry ; for you may
be sure my first work was to search and to see what
was spoiled, and what was free: and first I found
that all the ship's provisions were dry and untouched
by the water: and being very well disposed to eat,
I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets with
biscuit, and eat it as I went about other things, for I
had no time to lose. I also found some rum in the
great cabin, of which I took a large dram, and which
I had indeed need enough of, to spirit me for what
was before me. Now I wanted nothing but a boat
to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still, and wish for what was
not to be had ; and this extremity roused my appli-
cation. We had several spare yards, and two or
three large spars of wood, and a spare top-mast or
two in the ship ; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many of them overboard as I could
manage for their weight, tying every one with a rope
that they might not drive away. When this was
done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling them
to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends
as well as I could, in the form of a raft; and laying
two or three short pieces of plank upon them cross-
ways, I found that I could walk upon them very
well, but that it was not able to bear any great
weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to work,
and with a carpenter's saw I cut a spare top-mast
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with
great labour; but the hope of furnishing myself with
necessaries encouraged me more than I should have
been able to have done upon another occasion.

My raft was now strong enough to bear any rea-
sonable weight. My next care was what to load it
with, and how to preserve what I laid upon it from
the surf of the sea: but I was not long considering
this; I first laid all the planks or boards upon it that
I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I first got three of the seamen's chests,
which I had broken open and emptied, and lowered
them down upon my raft. The first of these I filled
with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses,
pieces of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much upon,
and a little remainder of European corn, which had
been laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea
with us, but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together, but, to my great
disappointment, I found afterwards that the rats had
eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which
were some cordial waters, and in all about five or six
gallons of arrack; these I stowed by themselves,
there being no need to put them into the chest, nor
any room for them. While I was doing this, I found
the tide began to flow, though very calm, and 1 had
the mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat,
which I had left on shore upon the sand, swim
away; as for my breeches, which were only linen,
and open-knee'd, I swam on board in them and my
stockings. However, this put me upon rummaging for
clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things
which my eye was more upon: as first, tools to work
with on shore, and it was after long searching that
I found out the carpenter's chest, which was indeed
a very useful prize to me, and much more valuable
than a ship-loading of gold would have been at that
time. I got it down to my raft, even wholeras it was,
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in
general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition' and arms

There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and two pistols; these I secured first, with
some powder-horns, a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swords. I knew there were three barrels of
powder in the ship, but knew not where our gunner
had stowed them, but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water;
those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now
I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, oar, or rudder, and the least capful of
wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements; first, a smooth and
calm sea ; secondly, the tide rising and setting in to
the shore; thirdly, what little wind there was blew
me towards the land. And thus, having found two
or three broken oars belonging to the boat, and be-
sides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer, and with this cargo I
put to sea. For a mile or thereabouts my raft went
very well, only that I found it drive a little distant
from the place where I had landed before, by which
I perceived there was some indraught of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river
there, which I might make use of as a port to get to
land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was; there appeared before
me a little opening of the land. I found a strong
current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as
well as I could, to keep in the middle of the stream.
But here I had like to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast,
my raft run aground, at one end of it, upon a shoal,
not being aground at the other, it wanted but a little
that all my cargo had slipped off towards that end
that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I did
my utmost by setting my back against the chests, to
keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the

raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in, but, holding up the chests with
all my might, stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought me a
little upon a level, and, a little after, the water still
rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of
a little river, with land on both sides, and a strong
current of tide running up. I looked on both sides
for a proper place to get to shore, for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the shore as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of
the creek, to which with great pain and difficulty I
guided: my raft, and at last got so near, as that,
reaching ground with my oar, I could thrust her
directly in ; but here I had liked to have dipped all
my cargo into the sea again, for the shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to
land, but where one end of the float, if it ran on
shore, would lie so high, and the other sink lower as
before, that it would endanger my cargo again. All
that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar, likean anchor,
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat
piece of ground, which I expected the water would
flow over, and so it did. As soon as I found water
enough (for my raft drew about a foot of water), I
thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there
fastened or moored her, by sticking my two broken
oars into the ground, one on one side near one end,
and one on the other side Inear the other end: and
thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left my raft
and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek
a proper place for my habitation, and where to-stow
my goods to secure them from whatever might hap-


pen. Where I was I yet knew not, whether on the
continent or on an island ; whether inhabited, or not
inhabited ; whether in danger of wild beasts or not.
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills, which lay as in a ridge from
it northward. I took out one of the fowling pieces,
and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder, and
thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top
of that hill, where, after I had with great labour and
difficulty got up, I immediately saw my fate, to my
great affliction ; viz. that I was in an island, environ-
ed every way with the sea, no land to be seen, except
some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two
smaller islands less than this, which lay about three
leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and, as I saw good reasons to believe, uninhabited,
except by wild beasts, of which, however, I saw
none; yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not
their kinds, neither when I killed them could I tell
what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a
tree, on the side of a large wood. I believe it was
the first gun that had been fired there since the
creation of the world. I had no sooner fired, but
from all parts of the wood there arose an extraordi-
nary number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming and crying, every one according to
his usual note; but not one of them of any kind that
I knew. As for that creature I killed, I took it to
be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak resembling
it, but it had no talons or claws more than common:
its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring the rest of my cargo
on shore, which took me up the rest of the day.
What to do with myself at night I knew not, nor
indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on


the ground, not knowing but some wild beast might
devour me, though I afterwards found there was really
no need for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricaded myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of hut for that night's
lodging: as for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three
creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I
shot the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a
great many things out of the ship which would be
useful to me, and particularly some of the rigging
and sails, and such other things as might come to
hand, and 1 resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel if possible; and as I knew that the
first storm that blew must necessarily break her in
pieces, I resolved to set all other things apart till I
got every thing out of the ship that I could get:
then I called a council, that is to say, in my thoughts,
whether I should take back the raft, but this appeared
impracticable, so I resolved to go as before, when the
tide was down, and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut, having nothing on but a
checkered shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of
pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first,
I neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so
hard; but yet I brought away several things very
useful to me ; as first, in the carpenter's store I found
two or three bags full of nails and spikes, a great
screw jack, a dozen or two of hatchets, and, above
all, that most useful thing called a grindstone: all
these I secured, together with several things belong-
ing to the gunner, particularly three iron crows, and
two barrels of musket bullets, seven muskets, and
another fowling-piece, with a small quantity of pow-
der more ; a large bag full of small shot, and a great

roll of sheet lead, but this last was so heavy, I could
not hoist it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock,
and some bedding, and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them also safe on shore.
I was under some apprehensions, during my absence
from the land, that at least my provisions might -be
devoured on shore; but when I came back, I found
no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came
towards it, ran away to a little distance, and then
stood still. She sat very composed and unconcerned,
and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be
acquainted with me. I presented my gun at her, but
as she did not understand it, she was perfectly un-
concerned, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which
I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though I was not very
free of it, for my store was not great. However, I
gave her a bit; she smelled at it, eat it, and looked
for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more, so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore (though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder, and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks), I went to work to make a little tent with the
sail and some poles which I cut for that purpose;
and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled all
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortifyit from any attempt from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest
set up on an end without, and spreading one of the
beds upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at
my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed
for the first time, and slept little, and had laboured
hard all day, as well to fetch those things from the
ship, as to get them on shore.

I had the largest magazine of all kinds now that
ever was laid up, I believe, for one man ; but I was
not satisfied still, for while' the ship sat upright in
that posture, I thought I ought to get every thing
out of her that I could; so every day, at low water,
I went on board, and brought away something or
other. But particularly the third time I went, I
brought away as much of the rigging as I could, as
also all the small ropes and rope-twine I could get,
with a piece of spare canvass, which was to mend the
sailsupon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last,
only that I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring
as much at a time as I could, for they were no more
useful to me for sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voy-
ages as these, and thought 1 had nothing more to ex-
pect from the ship that was worth my meddling
with, I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead
of bread, three large runlets of rum or spirits, a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flour: this was surpris-
ing to me, because I had given over expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the wa-
ter. I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapt it up parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sails
which I cut out; and, in a word, I got this safe on
shore also, though at several times.
The next day I made another voyage; and now
having plundered the ship of what was portable, and
fit to hand out, I began with the cables ; and cutting
the great cable into pieces such as I could move, I
got two cables and a haulser on shore, with all the
iron work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail yard, and the mizen-yard, and every thing
I could to make a large raft, I loaded it with all
those heavy goods and came away. But my good
luck began to leave me, for this raft was so unwieldy
and so overloaded, that after I was entered the little

cove where I had landed the rest of my goods, not
being able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it
overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the
water. As for myself, it was no great harm, for I
was near the shore ; but as to my cargo, it was great
part of it lost, especially the iron, which I expected
would have been of great use to me. However, when
the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable
ashore, and some of the iron, though with infinite la-
bour, for I was fain to dip for it into the water, a
work which fatigued me very much. After this I
went every day, and brought away what I could.
I had now been thirteen days on shore, and had
been eleven times on board the ship, in which times
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship piece by piece. But
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found
the wind began to rise ; however, at low water, I
went on board ; and though I thought I had rum-
maged the cabin so effectually as that nothing more
could be found, yet I discovered a locker with draw-
ers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors,
and one pair of large scissors, with ten or a dozen
good knives and forks; in another I found about
thirty-six pounds value in money, some European
coin, some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold,
some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money, "O
drug," said I aloud, what art thou good for? Thou
art not worth to me, no, not the taking off the ground.
One of those knives is worth all this heap, I have no
manner of use for thee, even remain where thou art,
and go to the bottom as a creature whose life is
not worth saving !" However upon second thoughts
a took it away, and wrapping all this in a piece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft;
but while I was preparing this, I found the sky over-

east, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter of
an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore ; it pre-
sently occurred that it was in vain to pretend to make
a raft with the wind off shore, and that it was my
business to be gone before the tide of flood began,
otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at
all: accordingly, I let myself down into the water,
and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sand, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of the things I had
about me, and partly the roughness of the water, for
the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite
high water it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I
lay with all my wealth about me very secure; it
blew very hard all that night, and in the morning,
when I looked out, behold no more of the ship was
to be seen. I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I
had lost no time, nor abated any diligence, to get
every thing out of her that could be useful to me ;
and that, indeed, there was little left in her that I
was able to bring away, if I had had more time. I
now gave over any more thought of the ship, or of
any thing out of her, except what might drive on
shore from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her
afterwards did; but those things were little use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about se-
curing myself against either savages, if any should
appear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island ; and
I had many thoughts of the method how to do this,
and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I should
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth,
and, in short, I resolved upon both ; the manner and
description of which I will give an account of.
I soon found this place was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was low moorish ground near
the sea, which I thought would not be wholesome,
and more particularly because there was no fresh
102 a

water near it: so I resolved to find a more healthy
and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation, which
I found would be proper for me ; first, health, and
fresh water, as I just now mentioned; secondly,
shelter from the heat of the sun; thirdly, security
from ravenous creatures, either man or beast; fourthly,
a view of the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight,
I might not lose any advantage for my deliverance,
for which I was not willing to banish all hopes.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side of a rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was as steep as a house side, so that
nothing could come down upon me from the top.
On the side of this rock there was a hollow place,
worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a
cave, but there was no cave or way into the rock.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow
place, I resolved to pitch my tent. The plain was
not above a hundred yards broad, and about twice as
long, and lay like a green before my door, and at the
end it descended irregularly every way down into the
low grounds by the sea-side. It was on the N. N.
W. side of the hill, so that it was sheltered from the
heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or
thereabouts, which in those countries is near setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in
semi-diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five feet and a half, and sharpened on
the top ; the two rows stood about six inches apart.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut
in the ship, and laid them in rows upon one another,
within the circle between the two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two feet and a half high, like a

spur to a post, and this fence was so strong that nei-
ther man nor beast could get into it. This cost me a
great deal of time and labour, especially to cut the
piles, bring them, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance to this place I made to be, not by a
door, but by a ladder over the top ; whichladder, when
I was in, I lifted over after me, and so I was com-
pletely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought, from all
the world, and consequently slept secure in the night,
which otherwise I could not have done, though, as it
appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, and I made a large tent also, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year
are very violent here, I made double, via one smaller
tent within, and one large tent above it, and covered
the uppermost with a large tarpaulin, which I had
brought on shore from among the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed that
I had brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was
a very good one, and belonged to the mate.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every
thing that would spoil by the wet ; and having thus
enclosed all my goods, I made up the entrance, which
till now was left open, and so passed by a ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way
into the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones
out through my tent, I laid them up within the tent
in the nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground
within about a foot and a half, and thus I made me a
cave just behind my tent, which served for a cellar.
It cost me much labour, and many days, before all
these things were brought to perfection ; and, there-
fore, I must go back to some other things which took
up some of my thoughts. At the same time it hap-
pened, after I had laid my scheme for setting up my
tent and making the cave, that a storm of rain fal-

ling from a dark thick cloud, a sudden flash of light-
ning happened, and after that a clap of thunder, as
is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much sur-
prised with the lightning, as with the thought which
darted into my mind:-O my powder! My heart
sunk within me, to think that at one blast all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence
only, but the providing my food, as 1 thought, entirely
depended; I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger ; though had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate my powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hopes, that what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once,
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
to make one part fire the other. I finished this work
in about a fortnight, and my powder, which in all
was about 1401b. weight, was divided into no less than
a hundred parcels. As to the barrel that had been
wet, I did not apprehend any danger from that, so I
placed it in my new cave, which in my fancy I called
my kitchen, and the rest I hid in the rocks, that no
wet might get to it, carefully marking where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out once every day with my gun, as well to divert
myself, as to see if I could kill any thing fit for
food, and, as near as I could, to acquaint myself
with what the island produced. The first time I
went out, I discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune, viz. that
they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the difficultest thing in the world to come at
them, but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting
but I might now and then shoot one, as it soon hap-
pened, for after I had found their haunts a little, I

laid wait in this manner for them: having observed,
if they saw me in the valleys, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away in a terrible fright ;
but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that
they did not readily see objects that were above them;
so I always climbed the rocks first to get above them,
and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot
I made among these creatures, I killed a she-goat
which had a little kid by her, she gave suck to, which
grieved me heartily; but when the old one fell, the
kid stood stock still by her till I came and took her
up, and not only so, but when I carried the old one
upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
enclosure; upon which I laid down thedam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame ; but it would not eat,
so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while ; for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as I possibly could.
Having fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely
necessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and
fuel to burn ; and what I did for that as also how I
enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I made, I
shall give a full account of in its place ; but I must
first give some little account of myself, and of my
thoughts of living, which were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition ; for as
I was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the
course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz.
some hundreds of leagues, out of the ordinary course
of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to con-
sider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this
desolate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down

70 ROBiSOa CtrUlE.
my face, when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself, why provid-
dence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, without help,
abandoned, and so entirely depressed, that it could
hardly be rational to be thankful for such a life ?
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me ; and parti-
cularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand
by the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject
of my present condition, when reason, as it were, put
in, expostulating with me the other way, thus:-
Well, you are in a desperate condition, it is true, but
pray remember, where are the rest of you ? Did not
you come eleven of you into the boat ? where are the
ten? why were not they saved, and you lost ? why
were you singled out ? is it better to be here or there?
And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be
considered with the good that is in them, and with
what worse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was fur-
nished for my subsistence, and what would have been
my case, if it had not happened, which was a hundred
thousand to one, that the ship floated from the place
where she first struck, and was driven so near to the
shore, that I had time to get all things out of her ?
What would have been my case, if I had been to have
lived in the condition in which I at first came on
shore, without the necessaries of life, or any means to
supply and procure them ? Particularly, what would
I have done without a gun, without ammunition,
without any tools to make any thing, or to work
with? without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any man-
ner of coverings ? And that now I had all these to
a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide
myself in such a manner, as to live without my gun
when my ammunition was spent, so that I had a
tolerable view of subsisting without any want as long
Ps I i"ed, for I considered from the beginning how I


would provide for the accidents that might happen,
:nd for the time that was to come, even not only
after my ammunition should be spent, but even after
my health or strength should decay.
I confess I had not then entertained any notion of
my ammunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean
my powder being blown up by lightning ; and this
made the thoughts of it so surprising to me, when it
lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being to enter into a melancholy relation
of a scene of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never
heard of in the world before, I shall take it from its
beginning, and continue it in its order. It was, by
my account, the 30th of September, when, in the
manner above-said, I first set foot upon this horrid
island, when the sun being to us, in its autumnal
equinox, was almost just over my head; for I reck-
oned myself by observation, to be in the latitude of 9
degrees 22 minutes north of the Line.
After I had been here about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts, that I should lose my reck-
oning of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the Sabbath days from the work-
ing days; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife
upon a large post, in capital letters, and, making it
iuto a great cross, I set it up on the shore where 1
first landed; viz. I came on shore here the 30th of
Sept. 1659. Upon the sides of this square post I cut
every day a notch with my knife, and every seventh
notch was as long again as the rest, and every first
day of the month as long again as the long one, and
thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In the next place we are to observe that among
many things which I brought off the ship in the
several voyages, which, as above-mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not at all
less useful to me, which I omitted setting down be-
fore, as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several

parcels from the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and car-
penter's keeping, three or four compasses, some mathe-
matical instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and
books of navigation, all of which I huddled together,
whether I might want them or no; also I found three
very good Bibles, which came tome in my cargo from
England, and which I had packed up among my
things, some Portuguese books also, and among them
two or three Popish prayer-books, and several other
books, all of which I carefully secured. And I must
not forget that we had in the ship a dog and two cats,
of whose eminent history I may have occasion to say
something in its place, for I carried both the cats with
me, and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I
went on shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty
servant to me many years. I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make
up to me, I only wanted to have him talk to me, but
that he could not do. As I observed before, I found
pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded to the utmost:
and I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact ; but after that was gone, I could
not ; for I could not make any ink by any means that
I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things;
and of these, this of ink was one, as also a spade,
pick-axe, and shovel, to dig or remove the earth;
needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon learned
to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily, and it was near a whole year before I had
entirely finished my little pale, or surrounded habi-
tation ; the piles, or stakes, which were as heavy as
I could well lift, were a long time cutting and pre-
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home, so that 1 spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of these posts, and a thild
day in driving it into the ground; for whlic I got a


heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows, which, however,
though I found it, yet made driving those posts or
pales very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedi-
ousness of any thing I had to do, having time enough
to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment, that I
could foresee, except seeking for food.
I now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstances I was reduced to, and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me, for I
was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind ; and as my reason began now to master
my despondency, I began to comfort myself as well
as I could, and to set the good against the evil, that
I might have something to distinguish my case from
worse; and I stated it very impartially, like debtor
and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed, against the mise-
ries I suffered, thus:-
I am cast upon a horrible But 1 am alive, and not
desolate island, void of all drowned, as all my ship's
hope of recovery. company was.
I am singled out, and se- But I am singled out, too,
parated, as it were, from all from all the ship's crew, to
the world, to be miserable, be spared from death; and

I am divided from man-
kind, a solitary one, banish-
ed from human society.
I have no clothes to cover
I am without any defence
or means to resist any vio-
lence of man or beast.

he that miraculously saved
me from death, can deliver
me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and
perishing on a barren place,
affording no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate,
where, if I had clothes, I
could hardly wear them.
But lam cast on an island,
where I see no wild beasts,
to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked there ?

I have no soul to speak to, But God wonderfully sent
or relieve me. the ship near enough to the
shore, that I have gotten out
so many necessary things as
will either supply my wants,
or enable me to supply my-
self, even as long as I live.
Upon the whole, there was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce a condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative, or
something positive, to be thankful for in it; and let
this stand as a direction from the experience of the
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil,
on the credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and giving over looking out to sea, to see
if I could spy a ship ; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way of
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables, but I might rather
call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against
it of turfs, about two feet thick on the outside, and
after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to therock, and thatch-
ed or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
as I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at
some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my
goods into this pale, and into the cave which I had
made behind me; but I must observe too, that, at
first, this was a confused heap of goods, which, as they
lay in no order, so they took up all my place ; I had
no room to turn myself ; so 1 set myself to enlarge
my cave, and worked farther into the earth, for it
vzs a loose sandy rock, which yielded easily to the


labour I bestowed upon it; and so, whenI found I was
pretty safe as to the beasts of pretty, I worked sideways
to the right hand into the rock, and then turning to
the right again, worked quite out, and made me a door
to come out on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave not only egress and regress, as it was a
back way to my tent, and to my storehouse, but gave
me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table, for without these I was not
able to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; I
could not write or eat, or several things, with so much
pleasure without a table.
So I went to work; and here I must needs ob-
serve, that as reason is the substance and original of
the mathematics, so by stating and squaring every
thing by reason, and by making the most rational
judgment of things, every man may be, in time,
master of every mechanic art. I had never handled
a tool in my life, and yet, in time, by labour, appli-
cation, and contrivance, I found, at last, that I could
have made any thing, especially if I had had tools;
however, I made abundance of things, even without
tools, and some with no more tools than an adze and
a hatchet, which, perhaps, were never made that way
before, and that with infinite labour. For example,
if I wanted a board, I had no other way but to cut
down a tree, set it on an edge before me, and hew it
flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth
with my adze. It is true, that by this method 1
could make but one board out of the whole tree ; but
ti ;, I had no remedy for but patience, any more than
I had for the prodigious deal of time and labour
which it took me up to make a plank or board ; but
my time or labour was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob

served above, in the first place, and this I did out of
the short pieces of board that I brought on my raft
from the ship; but when I had wrought out some
boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth
of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work, and, in a word, to separate every thing at large
in their places, that I might easily come at them;
also, I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock to
hang my guns, and all things that would hang up.
So that had my cave been to be seen, it looked like
a general magazine of all necessary things; and I had
every thing so ready to my hand, that it was a great
pleasure to me to see all my goods in such order, and
especially to find my stock of all necessaries so
And now it was when I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment: for, indeed, at first I was
in too much hurry, and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my jour-
nal would have heen full of many dull things. For
example, I must have said thus:-September the 30th,
After I got on shore, and had escaped drowning, in-
stead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited !'iom the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and recover-
ing myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and crying out, I was undone undone!
till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down on the
ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of being
Some days after this, and after having being on
board the ship, and got all I could out of her, yet I
could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea, in hopes of seeing
a ship, then fancy, at a vast distance, I spied a sail,
please myself with the hopes of it, and then, after
looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite

and kit down and weep like a child, and thus increase
my misery by my folly.
But having got over these things, in some measure,
and having settled my household stuff and habitation,
made me a table and a chair, and all as handsome
about me as I could, I began, I say, to keep my jour-
nal, of which I shall here give you the copy (though
in it will be told all these particulars over again,) as
long as it lasted, for at last having no more ink, I was
forced to leave it off.
September 30, 1659.-1, poor miserable Robinson
Crusoe, being shipwrecked during a dreadful storm
in the offing, came on shore on this dismal unfortunate
island, which I called the Island of Despair, all the
rest of the ship's company being drowned, and myself
almost dead.
All the rest of the day I spent in afflicting myself at
the dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had
neither house, food, clothes, weapon, or place to fly to,
and nothing but death before me, either that I should
be devoured by savages, or starved to death for want
of food. At the approach of night, I slept in a tree,
for fear of wild creatures.
Oct. 1.-In the morning I saw, to my surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven
on shore again much nearer the island, which, as it
was some comfort on one hand, so, on the other hand,
it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who,
I imagined, if we had all stayed on board, might have
saved the ship, or, at least they would not all have
being drowned, as they were; and that, had the men
been saved, we might, perhaps, have built us a boat
out of the ruins of the ship, to have carried us to some
other part of the world. Seeing the ship almost dry,
I went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board. This day continued rainy, though
with no wind at all.
From the l1t of Oct. to the 24th.- All these days

entirely spent in making several voyages to get all I
could out of the ship, which I brought on shore. Much
rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather; but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
Oct. 24.-I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got upon it, but being in shoal water, and the things
being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them when
the tide was out.
Oct. 25.-It rained all night, and all day, with
some wind, during which time the ship broke in
pieces, and was no more to be seen, except the wreck
of her, and that only at low water. I spent this day
in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26.-I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myself from any attack in the night,
either from beasts or men. Towards night I fixed
upon a proper place under a rock, and marked out a
semicircle for my encampment, which I resolved to
strengthen with a wall or fortification, made of double
piles, lined within with cable, and without with turf.
From the 20th to the 30th, I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st in the morning, I went out into the island
with my gun to see for some food, when I killed a she-
goat. and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed, because it would not eat.
Nov. 1.-I set up my tent under a rock, and lay
there for the first night, making it as large as I could,
with stakes driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2.-I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence around me a little within the place I
had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3.-I went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon, went to work to make me a table.

Nov. 4.-This morning I began to order my times
of work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep and
time of diversion ; viz. every morning I walked out
with my gun, for two or three hours, if it did not
rain ;.then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock ; then eat what I had to live on ; and from
twelve to two, I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot, and then in the evening to work again.
The working part of this day and the next were
wholly employed in making my table, which I did
not finish.
Nov.' 5.-This day I went abroad with my gun and
dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft, but
her flesh good for nothing. Every creature I killed,
I took off the.skins and preserved them. Coming
back, by the sea-shore, I saw many sorts of sea-
fowls which I did not understand; but was surprised
to see two or three seals, which, while I was gazing
at, got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6.-After my morning walk, I went fo work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to
my liking; and I soon learned to mend it.
Nov. 7.-Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the
11th was Sunday, according to my reckoning,) I took
wholly up to make a chair, and, with much ado,
brought; it to a tolerable shape, but never to please
me ; and even in the making I pulled it to pieces
several times. Note.-I soon neglected keeping my
Sunday, for omitting my mark for them on my post,
I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13.-This day it rained, which refreshed me
exceedingly, and cooled the earth ; but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
made me fearful of my powder. When it was over,
I resolved to separate my powder into as many little
parcels as possible, to prevent danger.
Nov. 14, 15. lt.-These three days I spentin making
little square chests or boxes, which might hold about

a pound, or two, of powder; and so putting the pow-
der in, I stowed it away in places as secure and re-
mote from one another as possible. On one of these
three days I killed a large bird that was good to eat,
but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17.-This day I began to dig behind my tent
into the rock, to make room for my farther conveni-
ency. Note.--Three things I wanted exceedingly
for this work, viz. a pick-axe, a shovel, and a wheel-
barrow, or basket. As for the pick-axe, I made use
of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade;
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it, but whatkind of one
to make I knew not.
Nov. 18.-The next day, in searching the woods, I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the
Brazils, they call the iron-tree, for its exceeding
hardness ; of this I cut a piece, and brought it home
with difficulty, for it was exceeding heavy. The ex-
cessive hardness of the wood made me a long while
upon this machine, but I worked it effectually by
little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade,
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only
that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at
bottom, would not last me so long; however, it
served well enough for the uses which I had occasion
to put it to. I was still deficient, for I wanted a
basket, or a wheelbarrow; a basket I could not
make by any means, having no such thing as twigs
that would bend to make wicker-ware; and, as to
the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could make all but the
wheel; but that I had no notion of, neither did I
know how to go about it, so I gave it over: and so,
for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the
cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the labour-
ers carry mortar in to serve the bricklayers. This
was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel;
and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt which

I made in vain to make a wheelbarrow, took me up
no less than four days: I mean, always excepting
my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed, and nearly always brought something home
fit to eat.
Nov. 23.-My other work having stood still because
of my making these tools, when they were finished I
went on; and, working every day as my time and
strength allowed, I spent eighteen days entirely in
widening and deeping my cave, that it might hold
my goods commodiously. Note.-During all this
time, I worked to make this room, or cave, spacious
enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or maga-
zine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar; as for a
lodging, I kept to the tent, except that sometimes
in the wet season of the year it rained so hard, that
I could not keep myself dry; which caused me after-
wards to cover all my place within my pale with long
poles, in the form of rafters, leaning against the rock,
and load them with flags, and large leaves of trees,
like a thatch.
Dec. 10.-I began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when, on a sudden, a great quantity of earth
fell down from the top and one side, so much that, in
short, it frighted me, and not without reason too ; for
if I had been under it, I should not have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal
of work to do over again ; for I had the loose earth
to carry out, and, which was of more importance, I
had the ceiling to prop up, so that I might be sure no
more would come down.
Dec. 11,-This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores, or posts, pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of boards across over each
post. This I finished the next day ; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured ; and the posts, standing in rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 16.-From this day to the 20th 1 placed shelves,
102 p

and knocked nails into the posts, to hang every thing
up that could be hung up.
Dec. 23.-Now I carried every thing into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and to set up some
pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon; but boards began to be very scarce with me.
Made another table.
Dec. 24, 25.-Much rain both these days, and no
stirring out.
Dec. 26.-No rain, and the earth rather cooler than
before, and pleasanter.
Dec. 27.-Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I catched it, and led it home in a string, and
bound and splintered its leg, which was broke. N.B.
-I took such care of it that it lived, and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever; but by nursing it so long
it grew tame, and fed upon the little green at my door,
and would not go away. This was the first time that
I entertained a thought of breeding up some tame
creatures, that I might have food when my powder
and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28,29,30.-Great heats and no breeze, so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening
for food. This time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
Jan. 1.-Very hot still; but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the valleys,
which lay to the centre of the island, I found there
were plenty of goats, though exceeding shy, and hard
to come at: however, I resolved to try if I could not
bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2.-Accordingly the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats, but they all faced
about upon the dog, and he knew his danger too well,
for he would not come near them.
Jan. 3.-I begun my fence or wall, which, to pre-
vent attack, I resolved to make very thick and strong.
[N. B.-This wall being described before, 1 pur-

posely omit what was said in the journal: it is suffi-
cient to observe, that I was no less than from the 3rd
of Jan. to the 14th of April, working, finishing, and
perfecting this wall, though it was no more than
about 24 yards in length, being a half circle, from one
place in the rock to another place about eight yards
from it, the door of the cave being in the centre
behind it.]
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hin-
dering me many days, nay, sometimes weeks toge-
ther : but I thought I should never be perfectly secure
till this wall was finished: and it is scarce credible
what inexpressible labour everything was done with,
especially bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double
fenced, with a turf wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself, that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a
habitation: and it was very well I did so, as may be
observed hereafter, upon a remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain permitted me,
and made frequent discoveries in these walks of some-
thing or other to my advantage ; particularly I found
a kind of wild pigeons, which built not as wood-
pigeons in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the
holes of the rocks; and taking some young ones, I
endeavoured to bring them up tame, and did so; but
when they grew older, they all flew away, which
perhaps was at first for want of feeding them, for I
had nothing to give them; however, I frequently
found their nests, and got their young ones, which
were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting many things which I thought
at first impossible for me to make, as indeed as to
some of them it was: for instance, I could never make

a cask, to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two,
as I observed before, but I could never arrive to the
capacity of making one by them, though I spent many
weeks about it; I could neither put in the heads, or
join the staves so true to one another, as to make them
hold water, so I gave them also over.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for can-
dles, so that when it was dark, which was generally
by seven o'clock, 1 was obliged to go to bed. I re-
membered the lump of bees wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure, but I had none of
that now: the only remedy I had was, that when I
had killed a goat, I saved the tallow, and with a little
dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which
I added a wick of some oakum, I made me a lamp;
and this gave me light, though not a clear steady
light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours
it happened, that, rummaging my things, I found a
little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been filled
with corn, for the feeding of poultry, not for this voy-
age, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon ; what little remainder of corn had been
in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing to have the bag for some other use (I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such purpose), I shook the
husks of corn out of it, on one side of my fortification
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now men-
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of any thing, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown any there; when, about a month after, or
thereabouts, I saw some stalks of something green
shooting up on the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant, I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time,
I saw about ten or twelve ears come out, which were
perfectly green barley, the same as English barley.

It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion; I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all;
indeed, I had very few notions of religion in my head,
nor had entertained any sense of any thing that had
befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as we
lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world ; but,
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I
knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow, without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directly purely for my sus-
tenance in that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself that such
a prodigy of nature should happen upon my account;
and this was the more strange to me, because I saw
near it still, all along by the side of the rock, some
other straggling stalks which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in
Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but, not doubting but
that there was more in the place, I went all over that
part of the island where 1 had been before, peering
in every corner, and under every rock, to see for more
of it, but I could not find any ; at last it occurred to
my thoughts that I had shaken the bag of chicken's
meat out in that place, and then the wonder began to
cease; and I must confess my religious thankfulness
to God's providence began to abate too, upon my dis-
covering that all this was nothing but what was com-
mon, though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen providence as if it had been
miraculous; for it was really the work of providence
as tome, that should appoint that ten or twelve grain

of corn should remain unspoiled (when the rats had
destroyed all the rest), as if it had been dropped from
heaven ; as also that I should throw it out in that par-
ticular place, where, it being in the shade of a high
rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it any where else at that time, it had been
burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be
sure, in their season, which was about the end of
June; and laying up every corn, I resolved to sow
them all again, hoping in time to have some quantity
sufficient to supply me with bread: but it was not
till the fourth year that I would allow myself the
least grain of this corn to eat, and even then but spa-
ringly, for I lost all I sowed the first season by not
observing the proper time, for I sowed just before the
dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty
or thirty stalks of rice, which I preserved with the
same care, and whose use was of the same kind, or
to the same purpose : viz. to make me bread, or rather
food: for I found ways to cook it up without baking,
though I did that also, after some time. But to re-
turn to my journal.
I worked excessive hard three or four months to
get my wall done: and the ]4th of April I closed it
up, contriving to get into it, not by a door, but over
a wall by a Iadder, that there might be no sign on the
outside of my habitation.
April 16.-I.fin shed the ladder, so I went up with
it to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let
it down on the inside. This was a complete enclosure
to me: for within I had room enough, and nothing
could come at me from without, unless it could first
mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I
had almost had all my labour overthrown at once, and
myself killed. The case was this: as I was busy in

the inside of it, behind my tent, just at the entrance
into my cave, I was terribly frighted with a most
dreadful surprising thing indeed, for all on a sudden,
I found the earth came tumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my
head, and two of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful manner. I was heartily scared,
but thought nothing of what really was the cause,
and, for fear I should be buried in it, I ran forwards
to my ladder; and, not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of
the hill, which I expected might roll down upon me.
I was no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground,
but I plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for
the ground I stood on shook three times, at about
eight minutes distance, with three such shocks as
would have overturned the strongest building that
could be supposed to have stood upon the earth; and
a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about
half a mile from me next the sea, fell down with such
a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life. I per-
ceived also the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it, and I believe the shocks were stronger under
the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing itself, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had,
that I was like one dead or mangled; and the motion
of the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was
tossed at sea; but the noise of the falling of the rock
awakened me, as it were, and, rousing me from the
stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing then but the hill falling upon
my tent, and all my household goods, and burying all
at once; and this sunk my soul within me again.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more
for some time, I began to take courage, and yet I had
not heart enough to get over my wall again, for fear
of being buried alive; but still sat upon the ground,
greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not knowing what

to do. All this while I had not the least serious reli-
gious thought, nothing but the common "Lord, have
mercy upon me 1" and when it was over, that went
away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and it
grew cloudy, as if it would rain; and, in less than an
hour, it blew a most dreadful hurricane of wind. The
sea was all on a sudden covered with foam and froth,
the shore was covered with the breach of the water,
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible
storm it was ; this held about three hours, and then
began to abate ; and then in two hours more it was
calm, and began to rain very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came
into my thoughts that these winds and rain, being
the consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into
my cave again. With this thought my spirits began
to revive, and the rain helping also to persuade me,
I went in, and sat me down in my tent, but the rain
was so violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten
down by it, I was forced to go into my cave, though
very much afraid, for fear it should fall on my head.
This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut
a hole through my new fortification like a sink, to let
the water go out, which would else have filled my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and
found still no more shocks of the earthquake follow, I
began to be more composed; and now, to support my
spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small sup of rum, which I
did very sparingly, knowing I could have no more.
It continued raining all that night, and great part
of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; but,
my mind being more composed, I began to think
what I had best do; concluding that if the island
was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no
living forme in a cave, but Imust consider of building

me a httle hut, in an open place, which I might sur-
round with a wall, as I had done here, and so make
myself secure from wild beasts or men, but concluded,
if I staid where 1 was, I should be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to move my tent,
from the place where it stood, which was just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my
tent. And I spent the two next days, being the 19th
and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive made me that
I never slept in quiet ; but still, when I looked about
and saw how everything was put in order, how plea-
santly concealed I was, and how safe from danger, it
made me very loath to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me, that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So, with this resolution, I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I would
go to work, with all speed, to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c. in a circle as before, and set my
tent up in it when it was finished; but that I would
venture to stay where I was till it was finished, and
fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22.-The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution; but I was at
a great loss about my tools. I had three large axes,
and abundance of hatchets, but with much chopping
and cutting knotty wood, they were all full of notches,
and dull; and though I had a grindstone, I could not
turn it, and grind my tools too. At length, I con
trived a wheel, with a string to turn it with my foot,
that I might have both my hands at liberty. Note.-
I had not seen any such thing in England, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, though since I
live observed, it is very common there. This

machine cost me a full week's work to bring it to
April 28, 29.-These two whole days I took up in
grinding tools; my machine for turning my grind
stone performing very well.
April. 30.-Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, I reduced myself to one biscuit
cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May l.-In the morning, looking towards the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
sea-shore, bigger than ordinary, and it looked like a
cask: when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and
two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, that
were driven on shore by the hurricane, and looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I ex
amined the barrel which was driven on shore, and
soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a
stone; however, I rolled it farther on shore for the
present, and went on upon the sands, as near as I
could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed: the forecastle, which lay before buried in
the sand, was heaved up at least six feet; and the
stern, which wa% broken to pieces, and parted from
the rest by the force of the sea, soon after I had left
rummaging of her, was tossed, as it were up, and cast
on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next the stern, that I could now walk quite up
to her when the tide was out. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by
the earthquake, and as by this violence the ship was
more broken open than formerly, so many things
came daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and
which the winds and water rolled by degrees to land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design
of removing my habitation; I busied myself mightily
that day especially, in searching whether I could get

into the ship ; but I found nothing was to be expected
of that kind, for all the inside of the ship was choked
up with sand. However, I resolved to pull every
thing to pieces that I could of the ship, concluding
that every thing I could get from her would be useful.
May 3.-1 began with my saw, and cut a piece of
a beam through, which I thought held some of the
upper part, or quarter-deck, together ; and when I
had cut it through, I cleared away the sand as well
as I could from the side which lay highest, but the
tide coming in, I was obliged to give over.
May 4.-I went a fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport, when
just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I
had made me a long line of some rope yarn, but I had
no hooks; yet I frequently caught as much fish as
I cared to eat ; which I dried in the sun, and eat dry.
May 5.-Worked on the wreck, cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from
the decks, which I tied together, and made swim to
shore when the tide of flood came on.
May 6.-Worked on the wreck, got several iron
bolts out of her, and other pieces of iron work.
May 7.-Went to the wreck again, but with an in-
tent not to work; but found the weight of the wreck
had broken itself down, the beams being cut, that
several pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the
inside of the hold lay so open, that I could see into
it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8.-Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear
of the water or sand. I wrenched open two planks,
and brought them on shore also with the tide. I left
the iron crow in the wreck for the next day.
May 9.-Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow; but could
not break them up. I felt also the roll of English
lead, but it was too heavy to move.


May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14.-Went every day to the
wreck and got many pieces of timber and boards, or
planks, and two or three hundred weight of iron;
May 15.-I carried two hatchets, to try if 1 could
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placingsthe edge
of one hatchet, and driving it with the other ; but as
it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I could not
make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16.-It blew hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but
I stayed so long in the woods to get pigeons for food,
that the tide prevented me going to the wreck that day.
May 17.-I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, two miles off me; but resol-
ved to see what they were, and found it was a piece of
the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24.-Every day, to this day, I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some things
so much with the crow, that the first flowing tide
several casks floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but the wind blowing from the shore, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead that had some Brazil pork in it, but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th of June,
except the time necessary to get food ; and, by this
time, I had gotten timber and plank, and iron work
enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how;
and also I got at several times, and in several pieces,
near one hundred weight of the sheet lead.
June 16.-Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle; this was the first I had seen,
which, it seems, was only my misfortune, not any de-
fect of the place, or scarcity ; for, had I happened to
be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but, perhaps, had paid dear enough for them.
June 17.-I spent in cooking the turtle. I found
in her threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at

that time the most savoury and pleasant that ever I
tasted in my life, having had no flesh but of goats and
fowls, since I landed in this horrible place.
June 18.-Rained all day, and I staid within. The
rain at this time felt cold, and I was something chilly,
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19.-Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20.-No rest all night; violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21.-Very ill; frighted almost to death with
the apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick,
and no help. Prayed to God for the first time since
the storm off Hull; but scarce knew what I said, or
why; my thoughts being all confused.
June 22.-A little better ; but under dreadful ap-
prehensions of sickness.
June 23.-Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent head-ache.
June 24.-Much better.
June 25.-An ague very violent ; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26.-Better ; and having no victuals to eat,
took my gun, but found myself very weak ; however,
I killed a she-goat, and, with much difficulty, got it
home, and broiled some, and eat it.
June 27.-The ague again so violent, that I lay a-
bed all day, and neither eat nor drank. I was ready
to perish with thirst, but so weak, I had not strength
to stand up, or get myself any water to drink ; prayed
to God again, but was light-headed ; and when I was
not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to say:
only I lay, and cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord
pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" I suppose
I did nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit
wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in
the night. When I waked, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak, and exceedingly thirsty; how-
ever, as I had no water in my whole habitation, I

was forced to lie till morning, and went to sleep again.
In this second sleep 1 had this terrible dream:-
I thought that I was sitting on the ground, on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright flame of fire,
and light upon the ground. He was all over as bright
as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look to-
%vards him ; his countenance was most inexpressibly
dreadful; impossible for words to describe; when he
stepped upon the ground with his feet, I thought the
earth trembled, just as it had done before the earth-
quake, and all the air looked to my apprehension, as
of it had been filled with flashes of fire.
He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forwards towards me, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand, to kill me; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me,
or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is impossible to
express the terror of it; all that I can say I under-
stood was this:-" Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die." At
which words, I thought he lifted up the spear that
was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will ex-
pect that I should be able to describe the horrors of
my soul at this terrible vision; I mean, that even
while it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors;
nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no Divine knowledge; what I had re-
ceived by the good instruction of my father, was then
worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years,
of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation
with none but such as were like myself, wicked and
profane to the last degree. I do not remember that
I had, in all that time, one thought so much as tended
either to looking upwards towards God, or inwards

towards a reflection upon my own ways; but a cer-
tain stupidity of soul, without desire of good, or con-
science of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me, and
I was all that the most hardened, unthinking, wicked
creature among our common sailors can be supposed
to be, not having the least sense either of the fear of
God in dangers, or of thankfulness in deliverance.
In relating what is already past in my story, this
will be more easily believed, when I shall add, that,
through all the variety of miseries that had to this
day befallen me, I never had so much as one thought
of its being the hand of God, or that it was a just
punishment for my past sins, my rebellious behaviour
to my father, or my present sins, whichwere great; or
so much as a punishment for the general course of my
wicked life. When I was on the desperate expedi-
tion on the desert shores of Africa, I never had so
much as one thought of what would become of me, or
one wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or
to keep me from the danger which apparently sur-
rounded me, as well from voracious creatures as cruel
savages; but I was merely thoughtless of God, or a
providence; I acted like a mere brute, from the prin.
ciples of nature, and by the dictates of common sense
only, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered and taken up at sea by the
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and hon-
ourably with, as well as charitably, I had not theleast
thankfulness in my thoughts; when, again, I was
shipwrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning on
this island, I was as far from remorse on looking on
it as a judgment, I only said to myself often, that I
was an unfortunate dog, and born to be miserable.
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found
all my ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I
was surprised with a kind of ecstasy and some trans-
sports of soul, which, had the grace of God assisted,
might have come up to true thankfulness; but it
ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy,

or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguishing goodness of
the hand which had preserved me, and had singled
me out to be preserved, when the rest were destroyed,
or an inquiry why Providence had been thus merciful
to me: even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after having got safe ashore
from a shipwreck, which they drown in the next bowl
of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over.
Even when I was afterward, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on
this dreadful place out of the reach of human kind,
out of all hopes of relief, or prospect of redemption,
as soon as I saw a probability of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense
of my affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy,
applied myself to the works proper for my preserva-
tion and supply, and was far enough from being afflict-
ed at my condition ; as 'a judgment from Heaven or
as the hand of God against me, these thoughts very
seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, hinted in my journal,
had at first some little influence upon me, and began
to affect me with seriousness, as long as I thought it
had something miraculous in it; but as soon as ever
that part of the thought was removed, all the impres-
sion which was raised from it, wore off also.
Even the earthquake, though nothing could be more
terrible in its nature, or more immediately directing
to the invisible power which alone directs such things,
yet no sooner was the first fright over, but the impres-
sion it had made went off also.
But now when I began to be sick, and a leisurely
view of the miseries of death came to place itself
before me ; when my spirits began to sink under the
burden of a strong distemper, and nature was ex-
hausted by the violence of the fever; conscience, that
had slept so long, began to awake, and I began to re-
proach myself with my past life.

olfiNs2ON c1iusoE. 97
These reflections oppressed me from the second or
third day of my distemper, and, in the violence as
well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my
conscience, extorted some words from me, like pray-
ing to God, though I cannot say they were either a
prayer attended with desires, or with hope ; it was
rather the voice of mere fright and distress; my
Thoughts were confused, the convictions great upon
my mind, and the horror of dying in such a miserable
condition, raised vapours in my head, with the mere
apprehensions; and in these hurries of my soul, I
knew not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamations, such as Lord what a miserable
creature am I if I should be sick, I shall certainly
die for want of help ; and what will become of me!"
Then the tears burst out of my eyes, and I could say
no more for a good while.
In this interval, the good advice of my father came
to my mind, and presently his prediction, which I
mentioned at the beginning of this story; viz. That,
if I did take this foolish step, God would not bless
me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist me in my recovery. "Now," said I,
aloud, "my dear father's words are come to pass,
God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none to
help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence,
which had mercifully put me in a posture or station
of life wherein I might have been happy and easy,
but I would neither see it myself, nor learn to know
the blessing of it from my parents; I left them to
mourn over my folly, and now I am left to mourn the
consequences of it. I refused their help and assist-
ance, who would have lifted me into the world, and
would have made every thing easy to me ; and now I
have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even
nature itself to support, and no assistance, no help,
no comfort, no advice." Then I cried out, Lord, be
my help, for I am in treat distress!"
1"2 G

This was the first prayer, if I might call it so, that
I had made for many years. But to return to my
June 28.-Having been somewhat refreshed with
the sleep I had had, and the fit being entirely off, I
got up, and the fright and terror of my disease was
very great, yet I considered that the fit of the ague
would return the next day ; and now was my time to
get something to refresh and support myself when I
should be ill ; and the first thing I did I filled a large
square case bottle with water, and set it upon a table
near my bed, and to take off the chill or agueish dis-
position of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together ; then I got
me a piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the
coals, but could eat very little ; I walked about, but
was very weak, and withal, very sad and heavy-
hearted in the sense of my miserable condition, and
dreading the return of my distemper the next day ;
at night I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs,
which I roasted m the ashes, and eat, as we call it,
in the shell; and this was the first bit of meat I ever
asked God's blessing to.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk, but found my-
self so weak, that I could hardly carry the gun (for I
never went out without that), so I went but a little
way, and sat down upon the ground, looking out upon
the sea, which was just before me, and very calm and
smooth. As I sat, these thoughts occurred to me.
What is this earth and sea, of which I have seen so
much ? When is it produced ? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and
brutal ; whence are we ?
Sure we are made by some secret power, who formed
the earth and sea, the air and sky; and who is that?
Then it followed most naturally-it is God that has
made it all. Well, but then, it came on strongly-if
God has made these things, he guides and governs
them all, and all things that concern them; for the


being that could make all things, must have power to
guide and direct them.
If so, nothing can happen in the circuit of his works
without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he
knows that I am here, and am in this dreadful con-
dition; and if nothing happens without his appoint-
ment, he has appointed this to befall me.
Nothing occurred to my thoughts to contradict any
of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me
with the greater force, that it must needs be, that
God has appointed all this to befall me ; that I was
brought to this miserable circumstance by his direc-
tion; he having the sole power, not of me only, but
of every thing that happened in the world. Imme-
diately it followed-Why has God done this to me ?
What have I done to be thus used ?
My conscience presently checked me in that in-
quiry, as if I had blasphemed; and, methought it
spoke to me like a voice,-Wretch! dost thou ask
what thou hast done? Look back upon thy dreadful
mis-spent life, and ask thyself what thou hast done ?
Ask why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?
Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads?
killed in the fight, when the ship was taken by the
Sallee man of war P devoured by wild beasts on the
coast of Africa ? or, drowned here, when all the crew
perished but thyself ? Dost thou ask,-What have I
1 was struck dumb with these reflections, as one
astonished, and had not a word to say in answer to
myself, but rose up, pensive and sad, walked back to
my retreat, and went up over my wall, as if I had
been going to bed ; but my thoughts were sadly dis-
turbed, and I had no inclination to sleep, so I sat in
my chair, and lighted my lamp, for it began to be
dark. Now, as the apprehensions of the return of my
distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my
thoughts that the Brazilians take no physic but their


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