Title Page
 List of Illustrations
 Memoir of DeFoe
 Robinson Crusoe

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073535/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Alternate Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: xxviii, 93 p., 3 leaves of plates : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Thwaites, William H ( Illustrator )
Miller, James, d. 1883 ( Publisher )
Annin, Phineas F ( Engraver )
Loomis, Pascal, 1826-1878 ( Engraver )
Avery ( Engraver )
Bogert, J. Augustus ( Engraver )
Edmonds, Charles, b. ca. 1823 ( Engraver )
Loomis & Annin ( Engraver )
Bobbett & Hooper ( Engraver )
Brown, Loomis & Co
Billin and Brother ( Printer )
Publisher: James Miller
Place of Publication: New York
Manufacturer: Billin and Brother
Publication Date: c1859
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements -- 1859   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' advertisements   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- New York -- New York
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956 Supplement. 1980-1981
Citation/Reference: LC children's books,
Citation/Reference: Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe,
General Note: Added engraved t.p.: Robinson Crusoe; spine title: RobinsonCrusoe; blind and gilt stamped cartouche cover illustration with title:Robinson Crusoe illustrated.
General Note: Illustrations engraved by Annin-Loomis, Avery, Bobbett and Hooper, Bogert, Brown-Loomis, and C. Edmonds. Frontispiece "printed in oil colors by Brown, Loomis & Co."
General Note: Decorative page borders throughout.
General Note: Part I of Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Publishers' advertisements (<3> p.) at end.
General Note: James Miller, publisher located at 436 Broadway, New York City, New York
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel De Foe ; including a memoir of the author, and an essay on his writings ; illustrated by Thwaites.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073535
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 03633234

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
        Title Page 3
    List of Illustrations
        List of Illustrations
    Memoir of DeFoe
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
        Page xxv
        Page xxvi
        Page xxvii
        Page xxviii
    Robinson Crusoe
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
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        Page 46
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        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 49a
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
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        Page 58
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        Page 60
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        Page 64
        Page 64a
        Page 65
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        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 73a
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        Page 79
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Full Text


!()\XN, LOOMIS A ('1

~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~a~~ I



32ulubing a Metmoir of tt Aut~bor, anb an izm on bii5 emritingis.

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1359,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States
for the Southern District of New York.




TITLE PAGE ......... .... ................................... ..
THE CREW LEAVING THE SHIP............................... 5
ROBINSON CAST ASHORE ON THE ISLAND .......................... 8
ROBINSON RAFTING STORES FROM THE SHIP. ........................ 13
ROBINSON'S HUT IS COMPLETED ............................... 20
ROBINSON CATCHES A TURTLE ............................... 25
ROBINSON IN HIS GOATSKIN CAP ............................... 44
ROBINSON AND HIS FAMILY ................................. 49
ROBINSON RESCUES FRIDAY .................................. 53
FRIDAY'S FIRST NOTION OF FOWLING ............................. 67
ROBINSON RELIEVING THE POOR SPANIARD ........................ 83
ROBINSON ESPIES AN ENGLISH SHIP .............................. 90
ROBINSON OLINGING TO THE WRECK .......................... 98



DANIEL FOE, or, as he subse-
quently styled himself (though
at what time and on what occa-
sion is not known), De Foe,
Swas born in the parish of St.
Giles's, Cripplegate, London,
i_ n in the year 1661. The earliest
.. of his ancestors of whom there
is any account, was Daniel Foe,
/ a yeoman, who farmed his own
estate at Elton, in Northamp-
tonshire. He maintained a pack of hounds; from whence it
may be reasonably inferred that his means were above com-
petency. A custom of the times in bestowing party names
on brutes is thus mentioned by our author. I remember,"
he says, my grandfather had a huntsman that used the
same familiarity with his dogs; and he had his Roundhead,
and his Cavalier, and his Goring, and his Waller, and all the
generals of both armies were hounds in hil pack; till the
times turning, the old gentleman was fain to scatter his pack,
and make them up of more dog-like surnames." It is from
his grandfather that De Foe is supposed to have inherited
landed property: for in his Review," a work we shall often



have occasion to consult, he says, I have both a native and
an acquired right of election." Our author's father, James
Foe, followed the trade of butcher, in St. Giles's, Cripplegate:
and these few barren facts are all that is to be gathered of
the ancestors of Daniel De Foe. He had," says Mr. Wil-
son, in his excellent work, "The Life and Times of Daniel
De Foe," a work abounding with the most curious and [4
minute information on the period of which it treats-" He i
had some collateral relatives, to whom he alludes occasion-
ally in his writings, but with too much brevity to ascertain
the degree of kindred."
At an early age, De Foe is said to have shown that vivac-
ity of humour, and that indomitable spirit of independence,
that remained with him through after life, "making a sun-
shine in the shady place" of a prison, and arming him as the
S champion of truth in humanity in the most perilous times.
An anecdote related by our author is illustrative of the dis-
cipline that governed the home of his boyhood.. During that
part of the reign of Charles II. when the nation feared the
ascendancy of Popery, and it was expected that printed
Bibles would become rare, many honest people employed
themselves in*copying the Bible into short-hand. To this
task young De Foe employed himself; and he tells us that
he worked like a horse till he had written out the whole of
the Pentateuch, when he grew so tired that he was willing
to risk the rest." The parents of De Foe were non-conform-
ii I

.., ~ ~ L _^^j7^ k




ists, and his education was consonant to the practice of that
faith. Family religion formed an essential part of its disci-
pline; and it was made matter of conscience to instruct the
children of a family and its dependents in their social,
moral, and religious duties.
Although the enemies of De Foe vainly endeavoured to
sink his reputation by representing him as having been bred
-a tradesman, there is ample evidence to prove that he was
Originally intended for one of the learned professions.* When
he had, therefore, sufficiently qualified under inferior tutors,
he was, at about fourteen years of age, placed in an academy
at Newington Green, under the direction of "that polite and
profound scholar," the Reverend Charles Morton, who was
subsequently defended by his pupil, some aspersions having
been cast upon the character of the master by an ungrateful
scholar who had deserted to the church. De Foe writes, "I
must do that learned gentleman's memory the justice to affirm,
that neither in his system of politics, government, and disci-
pline, nor in any other of the exercises of that school, was r
there any thing taught or encouraged that was anti-monarch-
ical or destructive to the constitution of England."
Of De Foe's progress under Mr. Morton, it is impossible

It is not often," says De Foe, in his Review, vi. 341, "that I trouble you,
with any of my divinity; the pulpit is none of my office. It was my disaster
first to be set apart for, and then to be set apart from, the honour of that sacred

I ^


now to speak with any certainty. He tells us in one of his
"Reviews" that he had been master of five languages, and
that he had studied the mathematics, natural philosophy,
logic, geography, and history: he was one of the few who,
in those days, studied politics as a science. He went through
a complete course of theology, and his knowledge of ecclesias-
tical history was also considerable. He was, however, at-
tacked by party malice as "an illiterate person without
education." To this he calmly makes answer:-" Those
gentlemen who reproach my learning to applaud their own,
Shall have it proved that I have more learning than either of
them-because I have more manners." He adds, I think
I owe this justice to my excellent father still living (1705),
and in whose behalf I fully testify, that if I am a blockhead,
it is nobody's fault but my own." He proceeds to challenge
his slanderer "to translate with me any Latin, French and
Italian author, and after that to retranslate them crossways,
for twenty pounds each book; and by this he shall have an
opportunity to show the world how much Dc Foe, the hosier,
is inferior in learning to Mr. Tutchin, the gentleman."
At one-and-twenty, De Foe commenced the perilous trade
-most perilous in his day-of author; at the which he la-
boured through good and through evil report, with lasting
honour to himself, and enduring benefit to mankind, for half a
century. It is now ascertained that De Foe's first publication
was a lampooning answer to "L'Estrange's Guide to the

\ '
-f iV^ f
---^r~~~j ^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^ S^ ^^


Inferior Clergy," and bore the following quaint title:-
SSpeculum Crape-Gownorum; or, a Looking-Glass for the
Young Academicks new Foyl'd; with Reflections on some
Sof the late High Flown Sermons: to which is added, an Essay
towards a Sermon of the Newest Fashion. By a Guide to
the Inferiour Clergie. Ridentem discere Verum Quis Vetat.
London : printed for E. Rydal. 1682." This title De Foe
borrowed from the crape gowns then usually worn by the
Inferior clergy; and, in the book, he fights the fight of the
Dissenters against what he terms the libels of the established
clergy. "The fertility of the subject," says Mr. Wilson, "soon
produced a second part of the 'Speculum;' in which the
Author deals more seriously with the government, and, by a
practical view of the effect of persecution, exposed its
S We have entered more at length into the nature and pur-
pose of De Foe's first book, than will be permitted to us by
our limits to do with each of the works that now followed, in
rapid profusion, from the pen of our author. All that we {
purpose to ourselves is, to give the strongest outlines of his
character-the principal events of his career: and, avoiding
on one hand a jejune brevity, that confines itself to mere
dates, attempt not, on the other side, a minute description of
events incompatible with our present object.
When the Duke of Monmouth landed at Lyme, De Foe
was among those who joined the standard of the hapless

"u ^' ^


nobleman. "A romantic kind of invasion," says Welwood,
"and scarcely paralleled in history." At the age of four-
and-twenty, we see De Foe, the author of "Robinson Crusoe,"
a soldier; as ready with his sword as prompt with his pen, in
the cause of rational liberty. Of Monmouth, De Foe seems
to have had some previous knowledge, having often seen him
i at Aylesbury races, where the duke rode his own horses, a
circumstance alluded to by our author in his Tour." De
SFoe had the good fortune to escape the vengeance visited upon
so many of the duke's supporters, and returned in safety to
London; where, leaving the stormy region of politics, he now
directed his attention to trade. The nature of his business
Shas been variously represented. In several publications of
the time, he is styled a hosierr;" but, if we may believe his
own account, he was a hose-factor, or, the middle-man between
the manufacturer and the retail-dealer. This agency concern
he carried on for some years, in Freeman's-court, Cornhill;
Mr. Chalmers says, from 1685 to 1695. On the 26th of
January, 1687-8, having claimed his freedom by birth, he
was admitted a liveryman of London. In the Chamberlain's
book, his name was written "Daniel Foe."
When the Revolution took place, De Foe was a resident
in Tooting, in Surrey, where he was the first person who at-
tempted to form the Dissenters in the neighbourhood into a
regular congregation. De Foe was for many years a resident
in this part of Surrey; it is likely that he had a country-

AD 1- ~ 2Y


house there during the time that he carried on his hose-agency
in Cornhill. De Foe was one of the most ardent worshippers
of the Revolution: he annually commemorated the 4th of
November as a day of deliverance. "A day," says he,
famous on various accounts, and every one of them dear to
Britons who love their country, value the Protestant interest,
Y or have an aversion to tyranny and oppression. On this day,
he (King William) was born; on this day, he married the
Daughter of England; and on this day, he rescued the nation
from a bondage worse than that of Egypt; a bondage of soul,
as well as bodily servitude; a slavery to the ambition and
raging lust of a generation set on fire by pride, avarice, cruelty
and blood." In order to do honour to the king, and add to
the splendour of the procession, on the royal visit to Guildhall,
many of the citizens volunteered to attend William as a
guard of honour on the occasion. Among these was Daniel
De Foe.
S The commercial speculations of our author, though at the
first prosperous, were ultimately unsuccessful. That they
were of a various character, is evident from the fact of his
having engaged with partners in the Spanish and Portuguese
trade. It is very clear, from a passage in his "Review," that
he had been a merchant-adventurer. In the number for
January 27, 1711, he alludes to an old Spanish proverb,
"which," says he, "I learnt when I was in that country."
It further appears, that while residing there, he made himself


a master of the language. De Foe's losses by shipwreck ap-
pear to have been very considerable. The occupations of
S trade, however, according to De Foe's own confession, assort
r ill with literary feelings. "A wit turned tradesman!" he
exclaims; no apron-strings will hold him: 'tis in vain to
f lock him in behind the counter; he's gone in a moment." '
Slie concludes:-" A statute of bankrupt is his Exeunt Omnes,
i and he generally speaks the epilogue in the Fleet Prison, or
I iIn allusion to the misfortunes of our author, Mr. Chalmers
observes:-" With the usual imprudence of genius, he was
carried into companies who were gratified by his wit. He
spent those hours with a small society for the cultivation of
polite learning, which he ought to have employed in the cal-
Sculations of the counting-house; and, being obliged to ab-
scond from his creditors in 1692, he naturally attributed those
Misfortunes to the war, which were probably owing to his
own misconduct. An angry creditor took out a commission
of bankruptcy, which was soon superseded, on the petition
of those to whom he was most indebted, who accepted a com-
position on his single bond. This he punctually paid, by the
efforts of unwearied-diligence; but some of these creditors,
who had been thus satisfied, falling afterwards into distress
themselves, De Foe voluntarily paid them their whole claim, 1
being then in rising circumstances, in consequence of King
William's favour." De Foe, being subsequently reproached


by Lord Haversham for mercenary conduct, he tells him, in
1705, that, with a numerous family, and no help but his
own industry, he had forced his way, with undiscouraged
diligence, through a set of misfortunes, and reduced his debts,
exclusive of composition, from seventeen thousand to less
than five thousand pounds."
It deserves to be remembered that, in the time of De Foe,
our laws against bankrupts were as inhuman as they were
p foolish. The cruelty of our laws against debtors," says De
Foe, without distinction of honest or dishonest, is the shame
of our nation. I am persuaded, the honestest man in Eng-
land, when by necessity he is compelled to break, will early
fly out of the kingdom rather than submit. To stay here,
this is the consequence: as soon as he breaks, he is proscribed
as a criminal, and has thirty to sixty days to surrender both
himself and all that he has to his creditors. If he fails to do
it, he has nothing before him but the gallows, without benefit
of clergy; if he surrenders, he is not sure but he shall be
thrown into gaol for life by the commissioners, only on pre-
tence that they doubt his oath! What must the man do ?"
We have reformed a great deal of this in our days, yet some-
thing remains undone, for the bankrupt is still too much left
at the mercy of the malevolent or ignorant creditor.
It is certain that De Foe, whilst under apprehension from
his creditors, resided some time at Bristol. A friend of
mine in that city," says Mr. Wilson, "informs me that one

F- 1 S h
*i j hg t^ ^^<'~>^


of his ancestors remembered De Foe, and sometimes saw him
walking in the streets of Bristol, accoutred in the fashion of
the times, with a fine flowing wig, lace ruffles, and a sword
by his side: also, that he there obtained the name of 'the
Sunday gentleman,' because, through fear of the bailiffs, he
did not dare to appear in public upon any other day." De '.
Foe was wont to visit The Red Lion," kept by one Mark [
Watkins, who, in after times, used to entertain his company
with an account of a singular personage, who made his ap-
pearance in Bristol, clothed in goatskins, in which dress he
Swas in the habit of walking the streets, and went by the name
of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe! It was during
This retreat from London that De Foe wrote his celebrated
Essay upon Projects," though he did not publish it until
nearly five years afterwards.
It appears that at this time De Foe was invited, by some
merchants of his acquaintance residing in Cadiz, to settle in
Spain, .with the offer of a good commission: "but," says our
author, Providence, which had other work for me to do, r
placed a secret aversion in my mind to quitting England
upon any account, and made me refuse the best offer of that
kind, to be concerned with some eminent persons at home, in
proposing ways and means to the government for raising
money to supply the occasion of the war, then newly begun." 1
De Foe suggested a general assessment of personal property,
the amount to be settled by composition, under the inspec-

-.., M.^ga.T
~ -" ^ A^2ic<^^-


tion of commissioners appointed by the king. It was, doubt-
less, owing to these services, that De Foe was appointed to
the office of accountant to the commissioners of the glass duty,
in 1695: the commission ceased in 1699. It was probably
about this time that De Foe became secretary to the tile-kiln
and brick-kiln works at Tilbury, in Essex. Pantiles had t
been hitherto a Dutch manufacture, and were brought in
large quantities to England. To supersede the necessity of
their importation, these works were erected. The specula-
Stion proved unsuccessful, De Foe himself losing by its failure
no less than three thousand pounds. He continued the
Works, it is believed, until the year 1703, when, being de-
prived of his liberty for a libel, the undertaking came to an
Towards the close of the war, in 1696-7, De Foe gave to
the world his Essay upon Projects;" a work alike admira-
ble for the novelty of the subject, and the clearness and in-
genuity with which it is treated. The projects of our author
may be classed under the heads of politics, commerce, and
benevolence; all having some reference to the public im-
provement. The first relates to banks in general, and to the
royal or national bank in particular, which he wishes to be
rendered subservient to the relief of the merchant, and the
interests of commerce, as well as to the purposes of the state:
his next project relates to highways; a third, to the improve-
ment of the bankrupt laws; a fourth, to the plan of friendly

^ ~ ~ ~ ~ 6 111i :^ ^ .l


societies, formed by mutual assurance, for the relief of the
S members in seasons of distress; a fifth, for the establishment
of an asylum for "fools," or, more properly, "naturals,"
whom he describes as "a particular rent-charge on the great
family of mankind:" he next suggests the formation of acade-
mies, to supply some neglected branches of education; one
Sof these was for the improvement of the English tongue, "to
polish and refine it;" and this project combined a reforma-
tion of that foolish vice," swearing: the next project of our
author was an academy for military studies; and, under the
head of Academies," he suggested an institution for the
education of females :--" We reproach the sex every day,"
Says he, with folly and impertinence, while, I am confident,
had they the advantages of education equal to us, they would
be guilty of less than ourselves."
S In January, 1700-1, appeared Do Foe's celebrated poem
of The Trueborn Englishman." It was composed in answer
to "a vile, abhorred pamphlet, in very ill verse, written by
one Mr. Tutchin, and called The Foreigners,' in which the
author-who he then was I knew not," says De Foe-" fell
personally upon the king and the Dutch nation." How many
thousands, familiar with the following now proverbial lines,
know not that with them opens The Trueborn Englishman !"

"Wherever God erects a house of prayer,
The devil always builds a chapel there;


And 'twill be found, upon examination,
The latter has the largest congregation!"

De Foe traces the rise of our ancient families to the Nor
man invader, who cantoned out the country to his followers,
and every soldier was a denizen." The folly of indulging
this pride of ancestry is finely painted in the following i
"These are the heroes who despise the Dutch,
And rail at new-come foreigners so much;
Forgetting that themselves are all derived
From the most scoundrel race that ever lived.
A horrid crowd of rambling thieves and drones,
Who ransacked kingdoms and dispeopled towns;
The Pict and painted Briton, treach'rous Scot,
By hunger, theft, and rapine hither brought;
Norwegian pirates, buccaneering Danes,
Whose red-haired offspring everywhere remains;
Who, joined with Norman-French, compound the breed-
From whence your True-Born Englishmen proceed.
And lest by length of time it be pretended
The climate may the modern race have mended,
Wise Providence, to keep us where we are,
Mixes us daily with exceeding care."

De Foe concludes with the following striking lines:-

"Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own,
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And then disown the vile, degenerate race;



For fame of families is all a cheat,

"When I see the town full of lampoons and invectives
against Dutchmen," says De Foe, in his "Explanatory Pre-
face," "only because they are foreigners, and the king re-
proached and insulted by insolent pedants and ballad-mak-
ing poets, for employing foreigners, and being a foreigner
himself, I confess myself moved by it to remind our nation
of their own original, thereby to let them see what a banter
they put upon themselves; since, speaking of Englishmen,
ab origine, we are really all foreigners ourselves."
It is to this poem that Do Foe was indebted for a personal
introduction to King William. He was sent for to the palace
by his Majesty, conversed with him, and had repeated inter-
views with him afterwards. The manners and sentiments of
De Foe appeared to have made such a favourable impression
Son the king, that he ever after regarded him with kindness;
and, conceiving that his talents might be turned to a beneficial
account, he employed him in many secret services, to which rt
he alludes occasionally in his writings.
S The effect produced upon the country by the satire was
most beneficial. De Foe himself, nearly thirty years after-
wards, writes, "National mistakes, vulgar errors, and even a
general practice, have been reformed by a just satire. None
of our countrymen have been known to boast of being True-
Born Englislaen, or so much as use the word as a title or ap-

-,~ ~ ~ C. ^^-^^^Sg"a


pellation, ever since a late satire upon that national folly was
published, though almost thirty years before."
In 1700-1, on the meeting of the fifth parliament of King
SWilliam, we find De Foe strenuously engaged advocating the
necessity of settling the succession in the Protestant line; an
important object with William, as the only means of perpetu- 'C
ating the benefits which the nation had reaped from the Rev- c
Solution. To this great end, De Foe devoted all his energies,
Slabouring with unwearied zeal in the cause. His conduct on
the imprisonment of the Kentish gentlemen, whose names
are historically associated with the presentation of the famous
Kentish petition, was marked with all the intrepidity of his
character.. The Commons had imprisoned the petitioners,
who prayed the House fbr the settlement of the Protestant
succession, for having presented a petition "scandalous, inso-
lent, and seditious." On this, De Foe drew up his celebrated
"Legion Paper." In what manner it was communicated to
the House does not appear upon the journals. It was reported
at the time that De Foe, disguised as a woman, presented it
to the Speaker as he entered the House of Commons. The
"Legion" petition rang like a tocsin throughout the king-
dom. As, however, the author remained concealed, the
Commons did not think fit to pass any particular censure
upon it. The Kentish petitioners were discharged by the
prorogation of parliament on the 24th of June: they were
subsequently feasted at Mercers' Hall, where De Foe attended.



"Next the Worthis," says a pamphlet of the time, "was
placed their secretary of state, the author of the 'Legion
Paper;' and one might have read the downfal of parliaments
in his very countenance."
By the death of King William, more mortally wounded,"
says De Foe, "with the pointed rage of parties, and an un-
i grateful people, than by the fall from his horse," our author
lost a kind friend and powerful protector. Toward the lat- '
Ster part of this reign, De Foe took up his abode at Hackney,
and resided there many years. Here some of his children
Were born and buried. In the parish register is the following
entry:-" Sophia, daughter to Daniel De Foe, by Mary his
wife, was baptised, December 24, 1701."
The next important work of De Foe-a work that ex-
ercised the greatest influence on his fortunes-was the
SShortest Way with the Dissenters; or, Proposals for the
Establishment of the Church; 1702." In this work, the
author, assuming the character of an Ultra High Churchman,
advocates the adoption of the severest measures against the
Dissenters. "'Tis vain," writes De Foe, "to trifle in this
matter. The light, foolish handling of them by fines is
their glory and advantage. If the gallows instead of the
computer, and the galleys instead of the fines, were the reward
of going to a conventicle, there would not be so many suf-
ferers." These arguments found high favour with both the
Universities. The High Church Party never suspected the

:.A- s4-
-< ^^^^f^^^-L^^


sincerity of their partizan, and, charmed and won by the
fierce doctrines of their champion, were unsuspicious of the
satire of their extravagance. It was, however, De Foe's hard
Sfate to be misunderstood by both parties. Whilst the High
Churchmen congratulated themselves on the addition of
another advocate, the Dissenters treated him as a real enemy.
The Church Party, however, fell into the trap laid for them
by De Foe; for, by expressing their delight at the fiery sen-
timents of the author, they avowed them as their own true
feelings on the question. De Foe subsequently taunts the
party thus:-" We have innumerable testimonies," he says,
S"with which that party embraced the proposal of sending all
the Dissenting ministers to the gallows and the galleys; of
having all their meeting-houses demolished; and being let
loose upon the people to plunder and destroy them." In
another place, De Foe characteristically portrays the common
fate of the subtlety of wit, when judged by the multitude.
He says-" All the fault I can find with myself as to these
people (the Dissenters) is, that when I had drawn the picture,
I did not, like the Dutchman with his man and bear, write
under them, This is the man,' and 'This is the bear,' lest the
people should mistake me; and having, in a compliment to
their judgment, shunned so sharp a reflection upon their
senses, I have left them at liberty to treat me like one that
put a value upon their penetration at the expense of my
own." The first detection of our author is said to have been
2 xvii



owing to the industry of the Earl of Nottingham, one of the
secretaries of state. When the author's name was known,
people were at no loss to decipher his object; and those who
had committed themselves by launching forth in his praises
were stung with madness at their own folly. It was at once
Y'x Iresolved by the party in power to crush l)e Foe by a state '
prosecution. In the height of the storm, our author sought [
Concealment; when a proclamation was issued by the Gov-
Sernminent, ..il: i, .5) or the discovery of his retreat, and
S71 advertised in 'The London Gazette,' for January 10, 1702-3. '
SIt was as follows:

9J)^ "Whereas, Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is charged with
writing, a scandalous and seditious pamphlet, entitled, The
S Shortest Way with the Dissenters.' lie is a miiddle-sized,
'spare mian, about forty years old ; of a brown complexion,
Sand dark brown coloured hair, but wears a wig; a hook nose,
a sharp chin, grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth:
was born in London, and for many years was a hose-factor c
in Freeman's Yard, Cornhill: and now is owner of the brick
and pantile works, near Tilbury Fort, in Essex: whoever
shall discover the said Daniel De Foe to one of her Majesty's
principal secretaries of state, or any of her Majesty's justices
of peace, so lie may be apprehended, shall have a reward of
501., which her Majesty has ordered immediately to be paid
upon such discovery."

^"^^^ S^


In the House of Commons, it was resolved that the book
"be burnt by the hands of the common hangman in Palace
Yard." The printer of the work and the bookseller being
taken into custody, De Foe issued forth from his retirement,
to brave the storm, resolving, as he expresses it, "to throw
himself upon the flvour of government, rather than that
ethers should be ruined by his mistake." De Foe was in-
dieted at the Old Bailey sessions, the 24th of February, 1703,
Sand proceeded to trial in the following July. It may be
gathered from his own account of the prosecution, that when
his enemies had hiii in their power, they were at a loss to
know what to do with him. HIe was therefore advised to
Throw himself on the mercy of the Queen, with a promise of
protection; which induced him to quit his defence, and
:acknowledge himself as the author of the offensive work.
On this, De Foe was sentenced to pay a fine of 200 marks to
Sthe Queen; to stand three times in the pillory; to be im-
prisoned during the Queen's pleasure, and to find sureties for
his good behaviour for seven years.
The people, however, were with De Foe. Hence, he was
guarded to the pillory by the populace; and descended from
it with the triumphant acclamations of the surrounding mul-
titude. De Foe has himself related, that the people, who
were expected to treat him very ill, on the contrary, pitied
him, and wished those who set him there were placed in his
room, and expressed their affections by loud shouts and ac-

~^^^ sW ^ ^
hSCIY^ ^ a '^


clamations when he was taken down." Tradition reports
that the pillory was adorned with garlands, it being in the
middle of summer. The odium intended for De Foe fell
Supon his persecutors, and the pillory became to him a place
of honour.
A triumphant evidence of the high spirit of De Foe-a
Spirit elevated and strengthened by its unconquerable love of
truth-is manifested by the fact, that on the very day of his
exhibition to the people, lie published A Hymn to the Pil-
lory !" This poem, which successively passed through several
editions, being eagerly bought up by the people, opens nobly
as follows:-
aIIil l hieroglyphick state machine,
Contrived to punish fancy in ;
1ien that ar, mn in th, cani fiel no pain,
And all thy inIignificants didain.
Contempt, that false new word for shame,
Is, without crime, an empty name;
A shadow to amnuse mankind,
But never frights the wise or well-fixed mind; r
Virtue de.pi.rs h human scorn,
And scandals innocence adorn."

De Foe is now presented to us, stripped of his fortunes,
and a prisoner. In consequence of his imprisonment, he could
no longer attend to his pantile works, which produced the
chief source of his revenue, and they were consequently
given up. By this affair lie lost, as he himself informs us,

U 9 3


3,500; and he had now a wife and six children dependent
upon him, with no other resource for their support than the
product of his pen. Hence the leisure of De Foe, whilst in
Newgate, was not that of idleness or dissipation. Some of
his subsequent writings leave no doubt that he now stored
his mind with those facts relative to the habits and pursuits ''
of the prisoners, which he has detailed with so much nature
as well as interest. A great part of his time was devoted to
the composition of political works which our limits will not
permit us to dwell upon. It was likewise whilst in Newgate
that he projected his "Review," a periodical work of four
quarto pages, which was published for nine successive years
without intermission; during the greater part of the time,
three times a week, and without having received any assist-
ance whatever in its production. Throughout this work, he
carried on an unsparing warfare against folly and vice in all
their disguises: it pointed the way to the Tattlers," Spec-
tators," and Guardians," and may be referred to as contain-
ing a vast body of matter on subjects of high interest, written
with all the author's characteristic spirit and vigour.
The Tories vainly endeavoured to buy up De Foe: but
Newgate had no terrors for him, and he continued at once
their prisoner and their assailant. Upon the accession of )
Mr. Harley to office, his own politics not being dissimilar to
those of De Foe, the minister made a private communication
to our author, with the view of obtaining his support. No

IMF1j1 P


immediate arrangement, however, took place between them,
Sas De Foe remained a prisoner some months afterwards.
Notwithstanding, it is most likely that the Queen became ac-
Squainted with De Foe's real merits through the medium of
the minister, and was made conscious of the injustice of our
author's sufferings, which she now appeared desirous to miti- '
Sgate. For this purpose, she sent money to his wife and
Family, at the same time transmitting to him a sufficient sum
for the payment of his fine, and the expenses attending his
Discharge from prison.
On his release from prison, De Foe retired to Bury St. Ed-
munds. Party clamour, and party malice, however, pursued
him there. On the miserable libels issued at this time against
him, he says, "I tried retirement, and banished myself from
the town. I thought, as the boys used to say, 'twas but fair
they should let me alone, while I did not meddle with them.
But neither a country recess, any more than a stone doublet,
can secure a man from the clamour of the pen." In his elegy
on the author of "The True-born Englishman," he alludes r
to the report that the Tories had exerted themselves in his
favour. He says, in answer:-

So I, by Whigs abandoned, bear
The Saytr's unjust lash;
Dye with the scandal of their help,
But never saw their cash."

r N J ^^^


It appears that in 1705 De Foe was employed by Harley
Sto execute some mission of a secret nature, which required
his presence upon the continent. The mission, whatever it
Swas, appears to have been attended with some danger, and
to have required his absence for about two months. Harley
seems to have been so well satisfied, that upon De Foe's re-
K turn, he was rewarded with an appointment at home. In
1706, De Foe wrote voluminously on the subject of the union
with Scotland, which measure he advocated with all the
strength of his powers. This advocacy obtained for him a
confidential mission to Scotland, where he was received with
great consideration. While in Edinburgh, he published his
"Caledonia," &c., a poem in honour of Scotland and the
Scots nation. Of the union, he says, in his "Review," I
Shave told Scotland of improvement in trade, wealth, and
shipping, that shall accrue to them on the happy conclusion
of this affair; and I am pleased doubly with this, that I am
likely to be one of the first men that shall give them the
pleasure of the experiment." In 1708, De Foe was rewarded
with an appointment and a fixed salary. When the union
was completed, he published The Union of Great Britain."
In 1710, De Foe resided at Stoke-Newington, and appears to
have been comfortable in his circumstances. In 1712 was
closed the last volume of the "Review." In a long preface
to this volume, De Foe has a most eloquent defence of this
work, and of the mode in which he had conducted it.

-U Ut7,~~~~~~


Nothing can be finer, more manly, or more conclusive. In
allusion to his sufferings during the progress of the work, he
says, I have gone through a life of wonders, and am the
i subject of a vast variety of providence; I have been fed
more by miracle than Elijah when the ravens were his pur-
veyors. I have some time ago summed up my life in this
S distich:-
No man has tasted differing fortunes more,
And thirteen times I have been rich and poor.

SIn the school of affliction, I have learnt more than at the
academy, and more divinity than from the pulpit; in prison,
I have learnt to know tlh', liberty does not consist in open doors,
and the free egress and regress of locomotion. I have seen
the rough side of the world as well as the smooth, and have,
in less than half a year, tasted the difference between the
closet of a king and the dungeon of Newgate." This preface
may be considered as a review-a summing up of the events
of De Foe's political life, and, as such, is of the highest value
for the noble spirit of conscious truth breathing in and ani-
mating every line of it. As a piece of English, it is exquisite
for its innate strength-the beauty of its simplicity. De Foe,
however, was again doomed to taste the dungeon sweets of
Newgate, being committed there upon the foolish charge of
writing libels in favour of the Pretender."
After the death of Queen Anne, De Foe, who had been a

-% ?^<.K1
~""-r^ t^ ^pS i


political writer for thirty years, retired from the thorny field
to the more pleasant paths of instructive fiction. Whilst
writing "An Appeal to Honour and Justice," he was struck
with apoplexy; he, however, recovered, and, in the early
part of 1715, committed to the press one of his most valuable
treatises, "The Family Instructor." In 1719 appeared the
immortal "Robinson Crusoe!" Nearly the whole circle of
booksellers had in vain been canvassed for a publisher. Wil-
liam Taylor, the fortunate speculator, is said to have cleared
a thousand pounds by the work, which rose into immediate
popularity, despite of the rancorous assaults of the petty,
vulgar minds abounding amongst De Foe's political enemies.
There can be no doubt that the idea of the work was first
suggested to De Foe by the story of Alexander Selkirk, which
had been given to the public seven years before. The ene-
imies of De Foe charged him with having obtained this man's
Journal, and, from its contents, producing "Robinson Crusoe."
S The truth is, De Foe was as much indebted to Selkirk for
the materials used in his immortal work, as was Vandyke for r
his portraits to the colourman who furnished him with pig-
ments. In a number of "The Englishman," Sir Richard
Steele gave the true and particular history of Selkirk. The
place in which Robinson Crusoe" was composed has been
variously contested. It seems most probable (says Mr. Wil- i
son) that De Foe wrote it in his retirement in Stoke-Newing-
ton, where he resided, during the principal part of Queen

sA .^^9^ ^^ftg^,r^rp;., ,


Anne's reign, in a large white house, rebuilt by himself, and
still standing in Church street. The work has been printed
in almost every written language-has been the delight of
men of all creeds and all distinctions-from the London ap-
prentice in his garret, to the Arab in his tent.
Robinson Crusoe" was speedily followed by the "Account "
of Dickory Crooke," the Life and Piracies of Captain Single- '
Stone the History of Duncan Campbell," the Fortunes and
SMisfortunes of Moll Flanders," the Life of Colonel Jacque,"
I .i the "Memoirs of a Cavalier," and that extraordinary work,
the "Account of the Plague." We might possibly have laid
before the reader a correct list of the multifarious productions
Sof our author, many of them, until of late, most difficult to
Sbe obtained, had not the spirit of the times called for complete
editions of De Foe's works, most welcome and valuable offer-
ings to the reading part of the nation.
The latter years of De Foe's life must have been those of
competence-a most honourable competence-insured to him
by his works, and the rapidity with which editions followed r
editions. There is, however, a too miserable proof of his
sufferings, inflicted upon him by the cruelty and undutiful-
ness of his son,-who, to quote a letter of De Foe, written in
his anguish, "has both ruined my family and broken my
heart." De Foe adds,--"I depended upon him, I trusted
him, I gave up my two dear unprovided children into his
hands; but he has no compassion, and suffers them and their

-v- u,5cs -



poor dying mother to beg their bread at his door, and to
crave, as if it were an alms, what he is bound, under hand
and seal, besides the most sacred promises, to supply them
With; himself, at the same time, living in a profusion of
plenty. It is too much for me."
"For some years before his death, De Foe was tormented
with those dreadful maladies, the gout and the stone, occa-
Ssioned, in part, most probably, by his close application to
study, whilst making posterity the heirs of undying wisdom.
i De Foe expired on the 24th of April, 1731, when he was
about seventy years of age, having been born in the year
S1661. The parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, in which he
drew his first breath, was also destined to receive his last. He
S was buried from thence, on the 26th of April, in Tindall's
burial-ground, now most known by the name of Bunhill
Fields. His wife died at the latter end of the following year.
SDe Foe left six children, two sons and four daughters, whose
descendants are living at the present time.
The character of De Foe was but the practical example of r
his noblest writings. As a citizen of the world, his love of
truth, and the patience, the cheerfulness, with which he en-
dured the obloquy and persecution of his enemies, endear him
to us as a great working benefactor to his race. His memory
is enshrined with the memories of those who make steadfast
our faith in the nobility and goodness of human nature. As
a writer, De Foe has bequeathed to us imperishable stores of



the highest and the most useful wisdom. If he paint vice, it
is to show its hideousness; whilst virtue itself receives a new
Attraction at his hands. His poetry is chiefly distinguished
for its fine common sense; it has no flights-it never wraps
us by its imagination, but convinces us by its terseness; by
the irresistible eloquence of its truth. De Foe's prose, though
occasionally careless, is remarkable for its simplicity and 1
strength. What he has to say, he says in the shortest man-
ner, and in the simplest style. He does not-the vice of our
day-hide his thoughts under a glittering mass of words, but
uses words as the pictures of things. It is owing to this
happy faculty, this unforced power, that De Foe occasionally
rises, as in many instances in the golden volume now offered
to the reader, almost to the sublime. In his picture of the
despair of Crusoc, we have, in words intelligible even to in-
fancy, a wondrous delineation of the soul of man in a most
S trying and most terrible hour. De Foe is, in the most em-
phatic sense of the word, an English writer. Cobbett has
been compared to him; and in many of the minor parts of
authorship there is, certainly, a similitude; but Cobbett was
singularly deficient of imagination, the power which gave a
colour and a beauty to all that De Foe touched, even though
of the homeliest and most unpromising materials.


I; 'Ii \

i V f %L

," .'

WAS born at York, in the year 1632, of
a reputable family. My father was a na-
S-\- tive of Bremen, who, by merchandising at
Y Hull for some time, gained a very plentiful
J' fortune. He married my mother at York,
and as her maiden name was Robinson, I was called Robin-
son Kreutznaer: which not being easily pronounced in


the English tongue, we are commonly known by the name
of Crusoe.
( c
I was the youngest of three brothers. No charge or
pains were wanting in my education. My father designed
me for the law, yet nothing would serve me but I must go i
to sea, both against the will of my father, the tears of my l
mother, and the entreaties of friends. One morning myv
father expostulated very warmly with me: "What reason,"
says he, have you to leave your native country, and enter
into a wandering condition of uneasiness and uncertainty ?"
Hie recommended to me Agar's wish, "Neither to desire
poverty nor riches;" told me that a middle state of life
Swas the most happy, and that high, towering thoughts of
raising our condition by wandering abroad, often ended in
confusion and disappointment. "I entreat you, nay, I com-
mand you," says lie, to desist from these intentions. If
you will go," added he, my prayers shall be offered for
your preservation; but a time may come, when desolate, r
oppressed, or forsaken, you may wish you had taken your
poor father's counsel." He pronounced these words with
such a moving and paternal eloquence, while floods of
tears ran down his aged cheeks, that it seemed to shake my
resolutions. But this soon wore off, and a little after I
informed my mother, that I could not settle to any business;
and begged she would gain my father's consent only to go
4% --a-- ----9- -4----
.ofso an dsapolL^ et. etleg yuna, S cm
mandB<^ yo, 4sle,"t eit io hs itnin.


one voyage; which if it did not prove prosperous, I would
never attempt a second. My mother warmly expressed her
dislike of this proposal.
I was then, I think, nineteen years old, when one time
being at Hull, I met a school-fellow going with his father,
Swho was master of a ship, to London; and acquainting him
with my wandering desires, he assured me of a free passage,
and a plentiful share of what was necessary. "Thus, without
S- imploring a blessing, or taking farewell of my parents, I
Took shipping on the 1st of September, 1651.
After various adventures we made the Brazils, where
having dispatched some necessary business, we sailed north-
"< ward upon the coast, in order to gain Africa, till we made
Cape Augustine; from whence going further into the ocean,
out of sight of land, we steered as though we were bound
for the Isle Fernand de Norenha. leaving the islands on the
east; and then it was that we met with a terrible tempest,
which continued twelve days, the winds carrying us wher-
ever they pleased. In this perplexity one of our men died,
and another and a boy were washed overboard. When the
weather cleared up a little, we found ourselves in eleven
degrees north latitude, upon the coast of Guinea. Upon
this the captain gave reasons for returning, which I opposed,
counselling him to stand away for Barbadoes, which, as I
supposed, might be attained in fifteen days. So, altering



i i/l
Sour course, we sailed northwest and by west, in order to
reach the Leeward Islands; but a second storm succeeding, '
2 drove us to the westward ; so that we were afraid of falling i
I, into the hands of cruel savages, or the paws of devouring -j
S beasts of prey.
S In this great distress one of our men, early in the morn-
Sing, cried out "Land land !" which he had no sooner
Said, but our ship struck upon a sand-bank, and in a nio-
m ient the sea )brike over her in such a manner, that we
expected we should all have perished immediately. We
S knew not where we were, or upon what lapd we were
driven; and we could not so much as hope that the ship
S would hold out many minutes, without breaking in pieces,
S except the wind, by a miracle, should change immediately.
S While we stood looking at one another, expecting death
every moment, the mate laid hold of the boat, and with the
help of the rest flung her over the ship's side, and getting
S all into her, being eleven of us, committed ourselves to
\ God's mercy and the wild sea. When we had rowed, or
rather were driven, about a league and a half, a raging
wave, like a lofty mountain, came rolling astern of us, and
took us with such fury, that at once it overset the boat.
Men are generally counted insensible when struggling in
the pangs of death; but while I was overwhelmed with
water, I had the most dreadful apprehensions imaginable.


c s-,~


For the joys of heaven and the torments of hell seemed to
present themselves before me in these dying agonies. I
was going, I thought, I knew not whither, into a dismal
gulf unknown, never to behold my friends, nor the light of
this world any more I strove, however, to the last ex-

tremity, while all my companions were overpowered and
entombed in the deep; and it was with great difficulty I
kept my breath till the wave spent itself, and, retiring
back, left me on the shore half dead. As soon as I got on
back, left me on the shore half dead. as soon as I got on



I my feet, I ran as fast as I could, lest another wave should
j pursue me, and carry me back again. The sea came after
me like a high mountain, or furious enemy. The next
dreadful wave buried me at once twenty or thirty feet deep,
but at the same time carried me with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore ; when raising myself, I held
; out till the water, having spent itself, began to return, at
which I struck forward, and feeling ground with my feet, I i
Took to my heels again. I was at length dashed against a
Piece of rock, in such a manner as left me senseless; but
S recovering a little before the return of the wave, which, no
Doubt, would have overwhelined me, I pushed hastily for-
S ward and reached the main land; when clambering up the
Cliffs of the shore, tired and almost spent, I sat down on the
S grass, free from the dangers of the foaming ocean.
No tongue can express the ecstacies and transports that
Smy soul felt at the happy deliverance. I was wrapt in
contemplation, and often lifted up my hands, with the pro-
foundest humility, to the Divine power, for saving my life,
when all the rest of my companions were drowned. I
cast my eyes around, to behold what place I was in, and
what I had next to do. I could see no house nor people;
I was wet, yet had no clothes ; hungry and thirsty, yet had
nothing to eat or drink; no weapon to destroy any creature
for my sustenance, nor defend myself against devouring

cc~_ n^ ^f ?^||


beasts; in short, I had nothing but a knife, a tobacco pipe,
and a box half filled with tobacco. The darksome night
coming upon me, increased my fears of being devoured by i
wild creatures; my mind was plunged in despair, and
having no prospect, as I thought, of life before me, I pre-
pared for another kind of death than what I had lately
escaped. I walked about a furlong to see if I could find
any fresh water, which I did to my great joy; and taking j
a quid of tobacco to prevent hunger, I got up into a thick
bushy tree, and seating myself so that I could not fall, a
Deep sleep overtook me, and for that night buried my sor-
rows in quiet repose.
It was broad day the next morning before I awaked;
When I not only perceived the tempest had ceased, but saw
the ship driven almost as far as the rock which the waves
had dashed me against, and which was about a mile from
the place where I was. When I came down from my
apartment in the tree, I perceived the ship's boat two miles
distant on my right hand, lying on shore as the waves had
cast her. I thought to have got to her, but there being an
inlet of water of about half a mile's breadth between it and
me, I returned again towards the ship, as hoping to find
something for my immediate subsistence. About noon,
when the sea was calm, resolving to get to the ship, I 1
stripped and leaped into the water; it was my good fortune



to espy a small piece of rope hanging so low, that by the
help of it, though with great difficulty, I got into the ship.
The provisions I found in good order, with which I crammed


my pockets, and, losing no time, ate while I was doing
other things. I also found some rum, of which I took a
hearty dram; and now I wanted for nothing except a boat
to carry away what was needful for me.

' r;
~b -- :-


Necessity quickens invention. We had several spare
yards, a spare topmast or two, and two or three large spars
of wood. With these I fell to work, and flung as many of
them overboard as I could manage, tying every one of
them with a rope, that they might not drive away. This
done, I went down to the ship's side, and tied four of them
fast together at both ends, in form of a raft, and laying two
or three short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found (
Sit would bear me, but not any considerable weight. Upon
which I went to work again, cutting a spare topmast into
Three lengths, adding them to my raft with a great deal of
labor and pains. I then considered what I should load it
with, it being not able to bear a ponderous burden. And
this I soon thought of, first laying upon it all the planks
and boards I could get; next I lowered down three of the
S seamen's chests, after I had filled them with bread, rice,
j three Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goat's flesh, and
some European corn; and for liquors I found several cases r
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters, and four or five gallons of rack, which I
stowed by themselves. By this time the tide beginning to
flow, I perceived my coat, waistcoat, and shirt swim away,
which I left on the shore; as for my linen breeches and
stockings, I swam with them to the ship, but I soon found
clothes enough, though I took no more than I wanted for
B 9

9g:3 A LI,
1j U ^ ^-^^


the present. My eyes were chiefly on tools to work with;
and, after a long search, I found out the carpenter's chest,
which I got safe down on my raft. I then looked for arms
Sand ammunition, and in the great cabin found two good
fowling-pieces, two pistols, several powder-horns filled, a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I likewise J
found three barrels of powder, two of which were good;
also two or three broken oars, two saws, an axe and a ham-
mer. I then put to sea, and in getting to shore had three
encouragements. 1. A smooth, calm sea. 2. The tide
rising and setting in to shore. 3. The little wind there was
blew towards the land. After I had sailed about a mile,
I found the raft drive a little distance from the place where
I first landed; and then I perceived a little opening of the
land, with a strong current of the tide running into it: upon
which I kept the middle of the stream. But great was my
concern, when on a sudden the fore part of my raft ran
aground, so that had I not, with great difficulty, for near
\ half an hour, kept my back straining against the chests to
keep my effects in their places, all I had would have gone
in the sea. But after some time, the rising of the water
caused the raft to float again, and coming up a little river
with land on both sides, I landed in a cave, as near the
mouth as possible, the better to discover a sail, if any prov-
identially passed that way.

-rL)^^ l ^ 3*g ^


Not far off I espied a hill of stupendous height, sur-
rounded with lesser hills, and thither I was resolved to go
and view the country, that I might see what part was best
to fix my habitation. Accordingly, arming myself with a
pistol, a fowling-piece, powder and ball, I ascended the
mountain. There I perceived I was in an island, encom-
passed by the sea, no distant lands to be seen, but scattering
rocks that lay to the west: it seemed to be a barren place,
inhabited only by wild beasts. I perceived abundance of
fowls, but ignorant of what kind, or whether good for nour- i
ishment; I shot one of them at my return, which occasioned
a confused screaming among the other birds, and.I found
it, by its color and beak, to be a kind of hawk, but its flesh
was perfect carrion.
When I came to my raft, I brought my effects on shore,
and fearing that some cruel beasts might devour me in the
night-time, I made a kind of hut or barricade with the
chests and boards. I slept very comfortably, and the next r
morning got on board as before, and prepared a second
raft, far nicer than the first, upon which I brought away
the carpenter's stores, two or three bags full of nails, a great
jack-screw, a dozen or two of hatchets, and a grindstone,
two or three iron crows, two barrels of musket-bullets,
another fowling-piece, a small quantity of powder, and a
large bag full of small shot. Besides these, I took all the

^ _^^^~l^^7 r- .


men's clothes I could find, a spare foretop-sail, a hammock,
and some bedding; and thus completing my second cargo,
I made all the haste to shore I could, fearing some wild
beast might destroy what I had there already. But I only
found a little wild-cat, sitting on one of the chests, which, ,
seeming not to fear me, or the gun that I presented at her, l
I threw her a piece of biscuit, which she instantly ate and .
When I had got these effects on shore, I went to work,
' in order to make me a little tent with the sail and some
poles which I had cut for that purpose; an(d having finished
Sit, what things might be damaged by the weather I brought
in, piling all the empty chests and casks in a circle, the
Better to fortify it against any sudden attempt of man or
beast. After this I blocked up the doors with some boards,
Charged my gun and pistol, and laying my bed on the
ground, slept comfortably till next morning.
Now, though I had enough to subsist me a long time, r
yet despairing of a sudden deliverance, I coveted as much
as I could; and so long as the ship remained in that condi-
tion, I daily brought away one necessary or other, particu-
larly the rigging, sails, and cordage, some twine, a barrel of
wet powder, some sugar, a barrel of meal, three casks of
rum, and, what indeed was most welcome to me, a whole
hogshead of bread.

la .N
~-'" --' ^^^..^^^g.-^,-^'^^


Thirteen days I had now been in the island, and eleven
times on board, bringing away all that was possible. As I
was going the twelfth time, the wind began to rise; how-

'--: --: --------- -: :-'- J I--^


ever, I ventured at low water, and rummaging the cabin,
in a locker I found several razors, scissors, and some dozens
of knives and forks; and in another, thirty-six pounds of
pieces of eight, silver and gold.
o 13


That night I slept very contentedly in my little tent, sur-
rounded with all my effects; but when I looked out in the
morning no more ship was to be seen. 1My next thoughts
were, how I should secure myself from savages and wild
beasts, if any such were in the island. At one time I
thought of digging a cave; at another, I was for erecting a
tent; and, at length, I resolved to do both. i
I found a little plain near a rising hill, the front towards
which being as steep as a house-side, nothing could descend
on me from the top. On the side of this rock was a little
Shallow place, resembling the entrance or door of a cave.
Just before this place, on the circle of the green, I resolved
my tent should stand. This plain did not much exceed a
hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, like a de- ij,
lightful green before my door, with a pleasing, though an
irregular descent every way to the low grounds by the sea-
side, lying on the northwest side of the hill, so that it was
sheltered from the excessive heat of the sun. After this I
drew a semicircle, containing ten yards in a semidiameter
and twenty yards in the whole, driving down two rows of
strong stakes, not six inches from each other; then, with a
piece of cable which I had cut on board, I regularly laid
them in a circle between the piles up to their tops, which
were more than five feet out of the earth, and after drove
another row of piles, looking within-side against them, be-

UU-c ~V-7 Nt -.


tween two and three feet high, which made me conclude it
a little impregnable castle against men and beasts. And
for my better security I would have no door, but entered in i
S and came out by the help of a ladder which I also made.
Here was my fence and fortress, into which I carried
all my riches, ammunition, and stores. After which,
working on the rock, with what dirt and stones I dug
out, I not only raised my ground two feet, but "made a
little cellar to my mansion-house; and this cost me many
days' labor and pains. One day in particular, a shower of
rain falling, thunder and lightning ensued, which put me
in terror lest my powder should take fire. To prevent
S which, I fell to making boxes and bags, in order to separ-
ate it, having by me near 150 lbs. weight. And thus being
established as king of the island, every day I went out with
my gun to see what I could kill that was fit to eat. I soon
perceived numbers of goats, and shot one suckling, a young
kid; which, not thinking its dam slain, stood by her uncon-
S cerned; and when I took the dead creature up, the young
one followed me even to the inclosure. I lifted the kid
over the pales, and would willingly have kept it alive; but
finding it would not eat, I killed that also.
It was, by the account I kept, the 30th of September,
when I first landed on this island. About twelve days
after, fearing lest I should lose my reckoning of time, nay,

.,.^'^^ '^.y~ |


even forget the Sabbath days, for want of pen, ink, and
paper, I carved with a knife upon a large post, in great let-
ters, these words, came on shore, Sept. 30, 1659."
S Every day I cut a notch with my knife on the sides of this
square post, and that on the Sabbath was as long again as
Sthe rest; and every first day of the month as long again as
that long one. Ihad I made a more strict search I need
not have set up this mark; for, among my parcels, I found
the very things I wanted, particularly pens, ink, and paper;
also two or three compasses, some mathematical instru-
nments, dials, perspective-glasses, books of navigation, three
English Bibles, and several other good books, which I care-
fully put up. A dog and two cats on board, I made inhabit-
ants with nme in my castle. Though one might think I had
all the necessaries that were desirable, yet still I found sev-
eral things wanting. My ink was daily wasting; I wanted
needles, pins, and thread, to mend my clothes, and particu-
larly a spade, pickaxe, or shovel, to remove the earth. It r
was a year before I finished my little bulwark.
Having raised a turf wall against the outside of my hab-
itation, I thatched it so close as might keep it from the in-
clemency of the weather. I also improved it within, en-
larged my cave, and made a passage and door in the rock,
which came out beyond the pale of my fortification. I next
proceeded to make a chair and a table. When I wanted a



plank or board, I hewed down a tree with my hatchet,
making it as thin with my axe as possible, and then smooth
enough with an adze to answer my designs; thus in time I
got boards enough to shelter all my stores.


But now a very strange event happened: for one day
finding a bag, which used to hold corn for the fowls, I re-
solved to put gunpowder in it, and shook all the husks and
dirt upon one side of the rock, little expecting what the
consequence would be. The rain had fallen plentifully a


few days before, and about a month after, to my great
amazement, something began to look very green and flour-
ishing; and when I came to view it more nicely every day
as it grew, I found about ten or twelve ears of green barley
appearing in the very same shape and make as that in
I can scarce express the agitations of my mind at this
sight. Hitherto I had looked upon the actions of this life (
only as the events of blind chance. But now the appear-
4 ance of this barley, flourishing in a barren soil, and my ig-
norance in not conceiving how it should come there, made
me conclude that miracles were not yet ceased; nay, I even
thought that God had appointed it to grow there without
any seed, purely for my sustenance in this miserable and
desolate island. And, indeed, such great effect this had
upon me, that it often made me melt into tears, through a
Grateful sense of God's mercies; and the greater still was
my thankfulness, when I perceived about this little field of
barley some rice-stalks, also, wonderfully flourishing.
While thus pleased in mind, I concluded there must be
more corn in the island, and therefore made a diligent
search among the rocks; but not being able to find any, on
a sudden it came into my mind how I had shaken the
husks of corn out of the bag, and then my admiration
ceased, with my gratitude to the Divine Being, as thinking

--"*' ^-^^.^^^ ^ '-RQ


it was but natural, and not to be conceived a miracle;
though even the manner of its preservation might have
made me own it was a wonderful event of God's kind
It was about the latter end of June when the ears of this
corn ripened, which I laid up very carefully, together with
twenty or thirty stalks of rice, expecting one day I should
Sreap the fruit of my labor; yet four years were expired
before I could allow myself to eat any barley-bread, and
much longer time before I had any rice. After this, with
Indefatigable pains and industry, for three or four months,
at last I finished my wall on the 14th of April, having no
way to go into it, but by a ladder against the wall. April
17th I finished my ladder and ascended it; afterwards
pulled it up, then let it down on the other side, and de-
scended into my new habitation, where I lad space enough,
and so fortified that nothing could attack me without scaling
S the walls.
It was not long after that, when a horrible tempest arose,
at the same time attended with a hurricane of wind. It
continued raining all that night, and some time the next
day. As soon as the weather cleared up I resolved to
build me a little hut in some open place, walled round to
defend me from wild creatures and savages.
When I began to put my resolutions in practice, I was

-f ^^?Tg'3^^*'^^^e,^ ^-J^ Aft^


stopped for want of tools and instruments to work with.
Most of my axes and hatchets were useless, occasioned by
cutting the hard timber that grew on the island. It took
me full a week to make my grindstone of use.


As I walked along the sea-shore, I found a barrel of gun-
powder, and several pieces of the wreck, the sea had flung
up. Having secured these, I made to the ship, whose stern


was torn off, and washed a great distance ashore; but the
rest lay in the sands.
At this time I was afflicted with an ague; thirsty, yet
S could not help myself to water; prayed to God in these
words: "Lord, in pity look upon me: Lord, have mercy
upon me; have mercy upon me!" After this I fell asleep
and dreamed. When I got up, my spirits were lively and
cheerful; I was very hungry; and, in short, no fit returned
the next day, but I found myself much altered for the
I had now been about ten months in the island, and, as I
never had seen any of the human kind, I accounted myself
as sole monarch, and, as I grew better, having secured my
habitation to my mind, I resolved to make a tour round my
kingdom, in order to make new discoveries.
The 15th of July I began my journey; I first went to the
creek, where I had brought my rafts on shore, and travel-
ling further, found that the tide went no higher than two r
miles up, where there was a little brook of running water,
on the banks of which were many pleasant savannahs, or
meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with grass. On the
rising parts, where I supposed the water did not reach, I
perceived a great deal of tobacco growing to a very strong
stalk. Several other plants I likewise found, the virtues of
which I did not understand. I searched a long time for
D 21

U XyV,

' i '; '

the cassava-root, which I knew the Indians of that climate
inade their bread of, but all in vain. There were several
plants of aloes, though at that time I knew not what they
were ; I saw also several sugar-canes, but imperfect for
want of cultivation. With these few discoveries, I came '
S I iback that night, and slept contentedly in my little castle.
.; i Tihe next day, going the same way, but further than the ,
I' day before, I ftund the country more adorned with woods
,- and trees. Here I perceived different fruits in great abun-
dance. Melons in plenty lay on the ground, and clusters of
Grapes, ripe and very rich, spread over the trees. You
may imagine I was glad of the discovery, yet ate very
sparingly. The grapes I fund of excellent use, for when I
had dried them in the sun, which preserved tiem as dried
S raisins are kept, they proved very wholesome and nourish-
ing, and served me in those seasons when no grapes were
S to be had. The night drawing on apace, I ascended a tree,
and slept very comfitrtably, though it was the first time 1 r
had lain out of my habitation. And when the morning
came, I proceeded with great pleasure on my way, travel-
ling about four miles, as I imagined, by the length of the
valley, directing my course northward. At the end of the
valley, I came to an opening, where the country seemed to
descend to tile west; there I found a little spring of fresh
water pro .eo'ding -ut of tlhe side of the hill, with its crystal
2o 2


streams running directly east. And, indeed, here my senses
were charmed with the most beautiful landscape nature
could afford; for the country appeared flourishing, green,
and delightful. I then descended on the side of that
delicious vale, when I found abundance of cocoa, orange,
lemon, and citron trees, but very wild and barren at that
time. The limes were delightful and wholesome, and the
juice, mixed in water, was very cooling and refreshing. I d
Resolved to carry home a store of grapes, limes, and lemons,
against the approaching wet season; and returned to my
Little castle, after having spent three days in this journey.
And now, contemplating the fruitfulness of this valley, its
security from storms, and the delightfulness of the adjacent
woods, I resolved to make a little kind of bower, surround-
ing it with a double hedge, as high as I could reach, well
staked and filled with bulrushes, and having spent a great
part of the month of July, I think it was the first of August
before I began to enjoy my labor.
On the 30th September, casting up the notches on my
post, which amounted to 365, I concluded this to be the
anniversary of my landing; and, therefore, humbly pros-
trating myself on the ground, confessing my sins, acknow-
ledging God's righteous judgments upon me, and praying to
Jesus Christ to have mercy upon me, I fasted for twelve
hours till the going down of the sun, and then, eating a

21 .^ V^


biscuit and a bunch of grapes laid me on the bed, and with
great comfort took my night's repose.
I now resumed my intention of exploring the island;
taking my dog, gun, hatchet, two biscuit-cakes, a great
bunch of raisins, with a larger quantity of powder and shot
than usual, I began my journey. Having passed the vale i
where my bower stood, I came within view of the sea, lying
to the west; when, it being a clear day, I described land,
, extending from the WV. to the S. W. about ten or fifteen
leagues, but could not say whether it was an island or con-
As I proceeded forward, I found this side of the island
much more pleasant than mine; the fields fragrant, adorned
with sweet flowers and verdant grass, together with several
very fine woods. There were parrots in plenty, which
made me long for one to be my companion, but it was with
great difficulty I could knock one down; and I kept him
some years before I could get him to call me by my name. i
I continued my journey, travelling about twelve miles
further towards the east, where I set a great pile on the
shore for a mark. In this journey my dog surprised a kid,
and would have killed it, had I not prevented him. As I
had often been thinking of getting a kid or two, and so
raising a breed of tame goats to supply me after my ammu-
nition was spent, I took this opportunity of beginning, and

.~ r.rr
^" ^-^c^^^^^'^^


having made a collar for this little creature, with a string
of rope-yarn, I brought it to my bower, and there inclosed
and left him; and having spent a month in this journey, at
length I returned to my own habitation, and rested myself


a week, which time I employed in making a cage for my
pretty Poll. I now recollected my poor kid I had left in
the bower, and immediately went to fetch it home. When
I came there, I found it almost starved: I gave it some
food, and it followed me like a dog; and as I constantly


fed it, it became so loving, gentle, and fond, that it would
never leave me.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox being now
come, I kept the 30th of September in the most solemn
manner, as usual, it being the third year of my abode in the
Island. I spent the whole day in acknowledging God's t
mercies, in giving him thanks for making this solitary life
as agreeable and less sinful than that of human society,
P and for the communications of his grace to my soul, in sup-
I porting, comforting, and encouraging me to depend upon
his providence, and hope for his eternal presence in the
world to come.
My corn having ripened apace, the latter end of Decem-
ber, which was my second harvest, I reaped it with a scythe
made of one of my broadswords. I had no fatigue in cut-
ting down my first crop, it was so slender. The ears I car-
ried home in a basket, rubbing it with my hands, instead of
threshing it; and when the harvest was over, found my
half peck of seed produced near two bushels of rice, and
two bushels and a half of barley. I knew not how to grind
my corn, neither how to bake the bread.
The want of a plough to turn uip the earth, or shovel to
dig it, I conquered by making a wooden spade. The want
of a harrow I supplied by dragging over the corn a great
bough of a tree. When it was growing I was forced to



fence it; when ripe, to mow it, carry it home, thresh it, and
part it from the chaff. And after all I wanted a mill to
grind it, sieve to dress it, yeast and salt to make it into
bread, and an oven to bake it. This set my brains to work
to find some expedient for every one of these necessaries
against the next harvest.
And now having more seed, my first care was to prepare
more land. I pitched upon two large flat pieces of ground,
near my castle, for that purpose, in which I sowed my seed,
and fenced it with a good hedge. This took me up three
months; by which time the wet season coming on, and the
rain keeping me within doors, I found several occasions to
employ myself, and, while at work, used to divert myself in
talking to my parrot, learning him to know and speak his
own name, Poll, the first welcome word I ever heard
spoken in the island. I had been a long time contriving
how to make earthen vessels, which I wanted extremely,
when it happened, that as I was putting out my fire, I found
therein a broken piece of one of my vessels burnt as hard as
a rock, and red as a tile. This made me think of burning
some pots, and having no notion of a kiln, or of glazing
them with lead, I fixed three large pipkins, and two or three
pots in a pile one upon another. The fire I piled round the I
outside, and dry wood upon the top, till I saw the pots in
the inside red-hot, and found that they were not cracked at

^.^^^ ^^^ ^^..)


all; and when I perceived them perfectly red, I let one of
them stand in the fire about five or six hours, till the clay
melted by the extremity of the heat, and would have run
to glass had I suffered it, upon which I slackened my fire
by degrees, till the redness abated, and watching them till
Morning, I found I had three very good pipkins, and two
earthen pots, as well burnt as I could desire.
No joy could be greater than mine at this discovery. I
filled one of my pipkins with water to boil me some meat.
The next concern I had, was to get me a stone mortar to
heat some corn in, instead of a mill to grind it. But all the
stones of the island being of a mouldering nature, I resolved
to look out for a great block of hard wood, which having
found, I formed it with my axe and hammer, and then, with
infinite labor, made a hollow in it, just as the Indians of
SBrazil make their canoes. When I had finished this, I
made a great pestle of iron-wood, and then laid them up
against my succeeding harvest. r
My next business was to make a sieve to sift my meal,
and part it from the bran and husk. Having no fine, thin
canvas, I could not tell what to do. What linen I had was
reduced to rags. At length I remembered I had some
neckcloths of calico or muslin, of the sailors, which I had
brought out of the ship, and with these I made three small
sieves, proper enough for the work.

no B'^I.


The want of an oven I supplied by making some earthen
pans, very broad but not deep. When I had a mind to
bake, I made a great fire upon the hearth, the tiles of which
SI had made myself; and when the wood was burnt into
live coals, I spread them over it, till it became very hot;
then sweeping them away, I set down my loaves, and turn-
Sing down the earthen pots upon them, drew the ashes and
coals all round the outsides of the pots, to continue the
heat, and in this manner I baked my barley loaves as well
as if I had been a complete pastry-cook, and also made of
the rice several cakes and puddings.
These things took me up the best part of a year, and what
intermediate time I had was bestowed in managing my new
harvest and husbandry, for in the proper season I reaped
my corn, carried it home and laid it up in the ear in my
large baskets, till I had time to rub, instead of threshing it.
All this while, the prospect of land, which I had seen
from the other side of the island, ran in my mind. I still r
meditated a deliverance from this place, and I began to
think whether it was not possible for me to make a canoe,
such as the Indians make of the trunk of a tree. But here
I lay under particular inconveniences; want of tools to
make it, and want of hands to move it in the water when it '
was made. However, to work I went,-I first cut down a
cedar-tree, which was five feet ten inches diameter at the

^ ,^^^-^^i(g^ ^^..Wi
.r ^^^^^^^^<<^^^~-~5~


lower part next the stump, and four feet eleven inches
diameter at the end of twenty-two feet, after which it lessened
for a space, and then parted into branches. Twenty days (
was I a hacking and hewing this tree at the bottom, four-
teen more in cutting off the branches and limbs, and a
Whole month in shaping it like the bottom of a boat. As "i
for the inside, I was three weeks with a mallet and chisel
Clearing it, till it was big enough to carry twenty-six men,
Such bigger than any canoe I ever saw in my life, and con-
'1 sequently sufficient to transport me and all my effects to
That wished-for shore.
Nothing remained now, but to get it into the water, it *,
..fj lying about one hundred yards from it. I proceeded to
measure the distance of ground, resolving to make a canal
in order to bring the water to the canoe, since I could not P-'
bring the canoe to the water. But as this seemed to be im-
practicable, under the space of eleven or twelve years, I 4'
concluded the attempt altogether vain. I now saw what
stupidity it is to begin work before we reckon on its cost, or '
judge rightly our own abilities to go through with its per- ,"
formance. f
In the height of this work my fourth year expired, from
the time I was cast on this island. At this time I did not
forget my anniversary, but kept it with rather greater devo-
tion than before. For now my hopes being frustrated, I
tIr '- L -~ *'f~
-.sovp~;~ I-y


looked upon this world as a thing I had nothing to do with,
and well might I say, as father Abraham said unto Dives,
" Between thee and me there is a gulf fixed." I was sepa-
rated from its wickedness too, having neither the lust of
the flesh, the lust of the eye, nor the pride of life; I had
nothing to covet, being lord, king, and emperor over the
whole country, without dispute and without control. Corn,
plenty of turtles, timber in abundance, and grapes above
measure. What was all the rest to me? The money I had,
lay by me as despicable dross, which I would freely have
given for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or a hand-mill to grind
my corn; in a word, the nature and experience of these
things dictated to me this just reflection: That the good
things of this world are no further good to us, than they are
for our use; and that whatsoever we may heap up to give
to others, we can but enjoy as much as we use.
These thoughts rendered my mind more easy than usual.
Every time I sat down to meat, I did it with.thankfulness,
admiring the providential hand of God, who, in this wilder-
ness, had spread a table for me.
As long as my ink continued, which, with water, I made
last as long as I could, I used to minute down the days of
the month on which any remarkable event happened.
The next thing that wasted after my ink, was the biscuits
which I had brought out of the ship, and though I allowed

~vV3-~~.~~~~Te ~~ 4~S~/


myself but one cake a day for above a twelvemonth, yet I
was quite out of bread for- near a year, before I got any
corn of my own.


In the next place, my clothes began to decay, and my
linen had been gone long before. However, I had preserved
about three dozen of the sailors' checkered shirts, which
proved a great refreshment to me, when the violent beams
..~~~ ~ i,>^ ^ ^i^ ?^


of the sun would not suffer me to bear any of the seamen's
Heavy watch-coats, which made me turn tailor, and after a
miserable botching manner, converted them into jackets.
To preserve my head, I made a cap of goat's skin, with the
hair outwards, to keep out the rain, and afterwards, a waist-
coat and open-kneed breeches of the same. I contrived a
sort of umbrella, covering it with skins, which not only
kept out the heat of the sun, but rain also. Thus being
easy and settled in my mind, my chief happiness was to
converse with God, in prayer.
For five years after this nothing extraordinary occurred
to me. Though I was disappointed in my first canoe, 1
made, at intermediate times, a second, of much inferior
size, and it was two years before I had finished it. But as
I perceived it would no wise answer my design of sailing
to the other shore, my thoughts were confined to take a tour
round the island, to see what further discoveries I could
make. To this intent, after having moved her to the water,
S and tried how she would sail, I fitted up a little mast to my
boat, and made a sail of the ship's sail, that lay by me. I
then made lockers or boxes at the end of it, to put in neces-
saries, provision, and ammunition, which would preserve
them dry, either from rain or the spray of the sea, and in
the inside of the boat, I cut a long, hollow place to lay my
gun in, and to keep it dry, made a flag to hang over it.

vr Q Q Tl L'4 W
9YYy L d<5 r J


Sny umbrella I fixed in a step in the stern, like a mast, to \
keep the heat of the sun off me. And now resolving to see
the circmnnference of my little kingdom, I victualled my
Ship for the voyage, putting in two dozen of my barley-
bread loaves, an earthen pot full of parched rice, a little
T bottle of rum, halt a goat, powder and shot, and two watch-
';' coats. It was the 6th of November, in the 6th year of my
t ' i longer than I expected, being obliged to put farther out on
accoult of the rocks. After a while, however, I brought
S my boat safe to a little cove, and laid down to take a wel-
'" cme repose. When I awoke, I considered how I ifiight
get m1 bIoiat homel, and casting along the shore, I came to
Sa good bay which ran up to i rivulet or brook, where,
finding a good harbor, I stowed her as safe as if she hlad
been in a dry dock made on purpose for her.
S One time I inade a journey through the island, and
S in the evening coming to my bower, I laid me down to rest. r
I had not slept long before I was awakened in great sur-
prise, by a strange voice that called me several times,
Ilbin, lobin, Robinson Crusoe, poor Robin Where
are you, Robinson Crusoe ? Where are you Where
have you been ?"
So fast was I asleep at first, that I did not awake
thoroughly ; but half asleep and half awake, I thought I

-- oij- 2, '2 4'

-,-, -3' --'J


dreamed that somebody spoke to me. But as the voice
repeated Robinson Crusoe several times, being terribly
affrighted, I started up; and no sooner were my eyes fully
open, but I beheld my pretty Poll sitting on the top of the
hedge, and soon knew that it was he that called me, for
Just in such bewailing language I used to talk and teach
Shim, which he so exactly learned, that he would sit upon '
my finger, and lay his bill close to my face, and cry, Poor i r
Robinson Crusoe, where are you? where have you been ?
Show came you here ?" and such like prattle, I had constantly
A taught him. But even though I knew it to be the parrot, it
was a great while before I could adjust myself, being
amazed how the creature got thither. But now being
Assured it could be no other than my honest Poll, my won-
S der ceased, and reaching out my hand, and calling famil-
S iarly, Poll, the creature came to me, and perched upon my
thumb as he was wont, constantly prating to me with
"Poor Robinson Crusoe! and how did I come here, and r
\ where had I been?" as if the bird was overjoyed to see me,
so I took him home with me.
I now began to lead a very retired life, living near a
twelvemonth in a very contented manner, wanting for
nothing except conversation.
My powder beginning to fail, I contrived many ways to
ensnare the goats, and see if I could catch them alive, par-

I g5-
OK, i)
-v ,.^
x.u^ ^ ^ ^


S ticularly a she-goat with young. At last I had my desire;
Sfor making pitfalls and traps, baited with barley and rice,
I found one morning, in one of them, an old he-goat, and in
the other, three kids, one male, the other two females. It
was some time before they would feed ; but throwing them
S sweet corn, it so much tempted them that they began to be
Steamer. I concluded, that if I designed to furnish myself
Switch goat's flesh when my ammunition was spent, the tamely
breeding them up like a flock of sheep, about my settlement,
Swas the only method I could take. I resolved to separate
the wild from the tame; and the best way for this was to
have some inclosed piece of ground well fenced, that those
within might not break out, or those without break in.
SSuch an undertaking was very great for one pair of hands;
but as there was an absolute necessity for it, my first care
was to find a convenient piece of ground where there was
likely to be herbage for them to eat, water to drink, and
shelter to keep them from the sun. I resolved to inclose a r
piece of ground about one hundred and fifty yards in length,
and one hundred in breadth, sufficient for as many as would
maintain me till my flock increased, and then I could add
more ground. I now vigorously prosecuted my work, and
it took me about three months to hedge in the first piece.
I tethered the three kids in the best part of it, feeding them
as near me as possible, to make them familiar; and indeed


I very often carried some ears of barley, or a handful of
rice, and fed them out of my hand; by which they grew so
tame, that when" my inclosure was finished, and I let them
loose, they would run after me for a handful of corn. In a
year and a half's time I had a flock of about twelve goats,

;4S -


-'- I


kids and all; and in two years after they amounted to
forty-three, besides what I had taken and killed for my sus-
tenance. After which I inclosed five pieces of ground to
feed them in, with pens to drive them into, that I might
take them as I had occasion.

j i! 1


In this project I likewise found additional blessings; for \
S I not only had plenty of goat's flesh, but milk too, which at
S first I did not think of. And, indeed, though I had never ;
Smiled, or seen butter or cheese made, yet, after some !~.
Sesays and miscarriages, I made both, and never afterwards
t. wanted.
How merciful can the omnipotent Power comfort his
creatures, even in the midst of their greatest calamities!
SIe can sweeten the bitterest providence, and give us
reason to magnify him in dungeons and prisons! What a'
:. bounteous table was here spread in a wilderness for me, .
where I expected nothing at first but to perish with hunger! h '
When I dined, I seemed a king, eating aR'n.e, none daring
to presume to do so till I had done. Poll, as if he had
been my principal court favorite, was the only person per-
mitted to talk with me. Mhi old, but faithful dog, contin-
nally sat on my right hand; while my two cats sat on each
side of the table, expecting a bit from my hand, as a mark r
of my royal favor. In this manner did I live, wanting for
nothing but conversation. One thing indeed concerned
me, the want of my boat: I knew not which way to get her
round the island. One time I resolved to go along the
shore by land to her; but had any one in England met
with such a figure, it would either have affrighted them, or
made them burst into laughter.

_. '
's -L^^*i ^
^ ^L-~~V ^'.

\* -.flV --31 -.^


The cap I wore on my head was great, high, and shape-
less, made of a goat's skin, with a flap or pent-house hang-
ing down behind, not only to keep the sun from me, but to
shoot the rain off, nothing being more pernicious than the
rain falling upon the flesh in these climates. I had a short
jacket of goat's skin, whose hair hung down such a length
on each side that it reached to the calves of my legs. As
for my shoes and stockings, they were made like buskins,
and laced on the sides like spatterdashes, barbarously
shaped like the rest of my habit. I had a broad belt of
Sgoat's skin dried, girt round me with a couple of thongs in-
stead of buckles; on each of which, to supply the de-
ficiency of sword and dagger, hung my hatchet and saw.
Another belt, not so broad, yet fastened in the same man-
ner, hung over my shoulder, and at the end of it, under my
left arm, two pouches, made of goat's skin, to hold my
powder and shot. My basket I carried on my back, and
my gun on my shoulder, and over my head a great, clumsy,
ugly goat's-skin umbrella, which, however, next to my gun,
was the most necessary thing about me. As for my face,
the color was not quite so swarthy as the Mulattoes, as
might have been expected from one who took so little care
of it, in a climate within nine or ten degrees of the equator.
At one time my beard grew so long that it hung down
about a quarter of a yard; but as I had both razors and

U '
^" ^ aS^ ^^^


scissors in store, I cut it all off, and suffered none to grow,
except a large pair of Mohammedan whiskers, like what I
S had seen worn by some Turks at Salee, not long enough,
Indeed, to hang a hat upon, but of such a monstrous size as
would have amazed any Englishman.
I had now two plantations in the island; the first, my
little fortification, with many large and spacious improve-
ments. The piles with which I made my wall were grown
so lofty and great, as secured my habitation. And near
this commodious and pleasant settlement, lay my well-culti-
vated and improved corn-fields, which yielded me their
fruit in proper season. My second plantation was that near
my country-seat or little bower, where my grapes flourished,
and where, having planted many stakes, I made inclosures
for my goats, so strongly fortified by labor and time, that it
S was much stronger than a wall, and consequently impossi-
S ble for them to break through. As for my bower itself, I
kept it constantly in repair, and cut the trees in such a man- r
ner, as made them grow thick and wild, and form a most
delightful shade. In the centre of this stood my tent. I
had driven four piles in the ground, spreading over it a
piece of the ship's sail; beneath which I made a sort of a
couch with the skins of the creatures I had slain, and other
things; and having laid thereon one of the sailor's blank-
ets, which I had saved from the wreck of the ship, and cov-

~ ~'


ering myself with a great watch-coat, I took up this place
for my country retreat. Very frequently from this settle-
ment did I visit my boat, and keep her in good order.
You may easily suppose, that after having been here so
long, nothing could be more amazing than to see a human
creature. One day it happened, that, going to my boat, I
saw the print of a man's naked foot on the shore, very evi-
dent on the sand, as the toes, heel, and every part of it.
Had I seen an apparition of the most frightful shape, I
could not have been more confounded. My willing ears
Save the strictest attention. I cast my eyes around, but
v could satisfy neither the one nor the other. I proceeded
S alternately to every part of the shore, but with equal effect,
neither could I see any other mark, though the sand about
it was as susceptible to take impression as that which was
so plainly stamped. Thus, struck with confusion and
horror, I returned to my habitation frightened at every
bush and tree, taking every thing for men, and possessed r
with the wildest ideas. That night my eyes never closed;
I formed nothing but the most dismal imaginations; all my
religious hopes vanished, as though I thought God would
not now protect me by his power, who had wonderfully
preserved me so long.
In the morning I ventured out of my castle and milked
my goats, one of which was almost spoiled for want of it.


I next (though in great fear) visited my bower, and milked
my flocks there also; when, growing bolder, I went down
to the shore again, and measuring the print of the foot to
mine, to see perhaps whether I myself had not occasioned
that mark, I found it much superior in largeness; and so
returned home, now absolutely convinced, that either some
Smen had been ashore, or that the island must be inhabited, i
and therefore that I might be surprised before I was aware.
S I began to think of providing for my security, and re-
Yi solved in my mind many different schemes for that purpose.
I first proposed to cut down my inclosures, and turn my
Same cattle wild into the woods, that the enemy might not
find them, and frequent the island in hopes of killing the
Same. Secondly, I was for digging up my corn-fields for
the very same reason. And lastly, I concluded to demolish
c, my bower, lest, seeing a place of human contrivance, they
Might come farther, and find out and attack me in my little
castle. i
Such notions did the fear of danger suggest to me; and
I looked, I thought, like the unfortunate king Saul, when
not only oppressed by the Philistines, but also forsaken by
God. And it is strange, that, a little before, having entirely
resigned myself to the will of God, I should now have little
confidence in him, fearing those more who could kill this
fading body, than Him who could destroy my immortal soul.

N--- */ '- X-^y-& C
c---^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^


Wandering one day more to the west of the island than
ever I had yet done, and casting my eyes towards the sea,
methought I perceived a boat at a great distance, but could
not possibly tell what it was for want of my perspective-
glass. I considered then it was no strange thing to see the
print of a man's foot, and, concluding them cannibals,
blessed God for being cast on the other side of the island,
where none of the savages, as I thought, ever came. But
when I came down the hill to the shore, which was the
S S. W. point of the island, I was confirmed in my opinion;
nor can any one describe my horror and amazement, when
I saw the ground spread with skulls, hands, feet, and bones
of human bodies, and, particularly, I perceived a space like
a circle, in the midst of which had been a fire, about which
I conjectured these wretches sat, and unnaturally sacrificed
and devoured their fellow-creatures.
The horror and loathsomeness of this dreadful spectacle
confounded my senses; I returned towards my habitation, E
and, in my way thither, shedding floods of tears, and falling
down on my knees, gave God thanks for making my nature
contrary to these wretches, and delivering me so long out of
their hands.
Though reason and my long residence here had assured
me that these savages never came up to the thick woody
part of the country, and that I had no reason to be appre-

I .
U ~`~ ~t -

Shensive of a discovery, yet such an abhorrence did I still
1 retain, that, for two years after I confined myself only to
my plantations. In progress of time my dreadful appre-
hIlelnsions began to wear away, yet I was more vigilant for
Sfear of being surprised, and very cautious of firing my gun,
lest being heard by those creatures, they should proceed to ,4
Attack me. I resolved, however, mantuilly to lose my life .

i i;

t i
if they did, and went armed t with three pistols, stuck to my /
girdle, which gave me a very formidable appearance. .IQ
My circumstances for some time remained very calmhn and '
un(listurbed. and when I compared my condition with
others, I found it far from being miserable. Would all per-
sons compare their circumstances, not with those above
A. ^xK ( F1


them, but with those innumerable unhappy objects beneath
them, I am sure we should not hear those daily murmurings
and complaining that are in the world. The terror which
the savages had put me in, spoiled some inventions for my
own convenience. For now my inventions were how I
Sight destroy some of these cannibals, when proceeding to
their bloody entertainments, and so saving a victim from
being sacrificed, that he might after become my servant.
I think I now was in the twenty-third year of my reign,
and my thoughts much easier than formerly, having con-
trived several pretty amusements and diversions agreeably
to pass away the time. By this time my pretty Poll had
learned to speak English, and pronounce his words very
articulately and plain, so that for many hours we used to
chat together in a familiar manner, and he lived with me
no less than twenty-six years. My dog, which was nineteen
years old, sixteen of which lie lived with me, died some
time ago of mere old age. As for my cats they multiplied '
so fast, that I was forced to kill or drive them into the
woods, except two or three which became my particular
favorites. Besides these, I continually kept two or three
household kids about me, which I learned to feed out of my
hand, and two more parrots which could talk indifferently, j
and call Robinson Crusoe. I had also several sea-fowls,
which I had wounded and cut their wings, and growing
H 45

tame, they used to breed among the low trees about my
ca-tle walls, all of which made my abode very agreeable.
But what unforeseen events suddenly destroy the enjoy- I '
Sent of this uncertain life It was now the month of De-
cember, in the southern solstice, and time of my harvest,
which required my attendance in the fields, when going out
pretty early one morning, before it was light, there appear-
ed from the sea-shore a flaming light, about two miles from
me, at the east end of the island, where I had observed
some savages had been before, not on the other side, but to
my great affliction, it was on my side the island.
Struck with a terrible surprise, and my usual apprehen-
sions, that the savages would perceive my improvements, I
Returned directly to my castle, pulled the ladder after me,
making all things look as wild and natural as I possibly
- could. In the next place I put myself in a posture of
Sdefence, loaded my muskets and pistols, and committing
myself to God's protection, resolved to defend myself till
my last breath. Two hours after, impatient for intelligence,
I ascended to the top of a hill, where, laying myself down, /
with my perspective-glass, I perceived no less than nine
naked savages, sitting round a small fire, eating, as I sup-
posed, human flesh, with their two canoes hauled on shore,
waiting for the flood to carry them off again. I cannot
easily express the consternation I was in at this sight, but -

^ ,^^^-S^S^ -fc .l^^'-A-^^^ ^


when I perceived their coming must be always with the
current of the ebb, I became more easy, being fully con-
vinced that I might go abroad with security all the time of
flood, if they were not before landed. Before they went
off, they danced, making ridiculous postures and gestures,
for above an hour, all stark-naked. When I saw them
gone, I took two guns upon my shoulders, and placing a
couple of pistols in my belt, with my great sword hanging
by my side, I went to the hill, where at first I made the
discovery of these cannibals, and then saw there had been
three canoes more of the savages on shore at that place,
which with the rest were making over to the main land.
But nothing could be more horrid to me, when, going to
Sthe place of sacrifice, the blood, the bones, and other man-
gled parts of human bodies appeared in my sight, and so
fired was I with indignation, that I was fully resolved to be
revenged on the first that came there, though I lost my life
in the execution. It then appeared to me, that the visits r
which they make to this island are not very frequent, it
being fifteen months before they came again, but still I was
very uneasy lest they should surprise me unawares.
That night I reposed myself in my canoe, covered with
my watch-coat, instead of a blanket, the heavens being my
tester. I set out with the first of the tide full north, till I
felt the benefit of the current, which carried me at a great

-c^^ ^^^gte-^



rate eastward, yet not with such impetuosity as before, as to
take from me all government of my canoe, so that in two
hours' time I came up to a wreck. It seemed to be a I
Spanish'vessel, stuck fast between two rocks, her stern and
quarter beaten to pieces by the sea, her mainmast and fore-
mast were broken off short. As I approached near, I per-
::~ ceived a dog on board, who, seeing me coming, yelped and
Cried, and no sooner did I call him, but the poor crea- -
ture jumped into the sea, out of which I took him up,
almost famished with hunger and thirst, so that when I
gave him a cake of bread, no ravenous wolf could
devour it more greedily; and he drank to that degree of
fresh water, that he would have burst himself, had I suffer-
ed him.
K The first sight I met with in the ship, were two men
Drowned in the cook-room or forecastle, inclosed in one
S another's arms; hence I very probably supposed, that when
Sthe vessel struck in the storm, so high and incessantly did r
the waters break in and over her, that the men, not being
able to bear it, were strangled by the constant rushing in of
the waves. There were several casks of liquor, whether
wine or brandy I could not be positive, which lay in the
lower hold, as were plainly perceptible by the ebbing out
of the water, yet were too large for me to pretend to med-
die with; likewise I perceived several chests, which I sup-
_J ~~2


6 111. ',
. .. .. I.



posed to belong to the seamen, two of which I got into my
boat, without examining what was in them.
Searching further, I found a cask, containing about j
Twenty gallons of liquor, which, with some labor, I got into
my boat; in her cabin were several muskets, which I let
remain there, but took away with me a great powder-horn, i
with about four pounds of powder. I took also a fire-shovel
and tongs, two brass kettles, a copper pot to make choco-
S late, and a gridiron, all which were extremely useful to me,
( especially the fire-shovel and tongs. And so with this
cargo, accompanied by my dog, I came away, the tide
serving for that purpose, and the same evening I attained
the island, after the greatest toil and fatigue imaginable.
S That night I reposed my weary limbs in the boat, resolv-
ing the next morning to harbor what I had gotten, in my
new-found subterraneous grotto, and not to carry my cargo
home to my ancient castle. Having refreshed myself, and
got all my effects on shore, I next proceeded to examine r
\ them, and tapping the cask, I found the liquor to be rum.
In the chest I found a very fine case of bottles, containing
the finest and best sorts of cordial waters; each bottle held
about three pints, curiously tipt with silver. Also, two pots
full of the choicest sweetmeats, and two more which the
water had utterly spoiled. There were likewise several
good shirts, exceedingly welcome to me, and about one


dozen and a half white linen handkerchiefs and colored
neckcloths, the former of which were absolutely necessary
for wiping my face in a hot day ; and in the till I found three
bags of pieces of eight, about eleven hundred in all, in one
of which, decently wrapped up in a piece of paper, were
Ssix doubloons of gold, and some small bars and wedges of .
,C the same metal, which I believe might weigh near a pound.
In the other chest, which I guessed to belong to the gun-
ner's mate, I found only some clothes of very little value,
Except about two pounds of fine glazed powder, in three
flasks, kept, as I believe, for charging the fowling-pieces,
S so that, in the whole, I had no great advantage by this
voyage. The money was, indeed, as mere dirt to me, use-
less.and unprofitable, all which I would have freely parted
with for two or three pair of English shoes and stockings;
S things that for many years I had not worn, except those
S which I had taken off the feet of the unfortunate men I
S found drowned in the wreck. When I arrived at my castle, r
every thing seemed safe and quiet.
Having retired to my castle after my late voyage to the
ship, my frigate laid up and secured, as usual, and my con-
dition the same as before, except being richer, though I
had as little occasion for riches as the Indians of Peru had
for gold, before the cruel Spaniards came among them,
one night in March, being the rainy season, in the four-and-

i r--(us5LS .z. -
-" lj ^'<'l;-2^P^^ ^ 0* S,'- ~^


twentieth year of my solitude, I lay down to sleep, very
well in health, without distemper, pain, or uncommon unea-
siness either of body or mind ; yet, notwithstanding, I could
not compose myself to sleep. All this tedious time, it is

impossible to express what innumerable thoughts came into
my head. I traced the whole history of my life in minia-
ture, from my earliest remembrance of things till I came to
this island, and then proceeded to examine every thing that

' '/ I s ^o

S had occurred since I had taken possession of my kingdom. i
In my reflections upon the latter, I was comparing the
happy posture of my affairs in the beginning of my reign, i
to this life of anxiety, fear, and concern, since I had discov-
ered a print of a foot in the sand. While my thoughts were
agitated, my resignation to the will of Heaven was entirely
S-suspended, so that I had no power to fix my mind to any CI
S: thing, but to the project of a voyage to the main land, till
S nature, being, as it were, fatigued and exhausted with the .
Thoughts of it, made me submit myself to a silent repose. '
Still bent on my deliverance from the island, I reflected
r that one sure way of escaping was to get a savage ; that after
I had ventured my life to deliver him from the bloody jaws
S of his devourers, the natural sense he might have of such a
preservation, might inspire him with a lasting gratitude and '
most sincere affection. I at length resolved, right or wrong, .'
to get one of these savages into my hands, even though I -
should lose my life in the attempt. Inspired with this reso-
lution, I set my wits at work to find out what methods I
should take to accomplish my design. This, indeed, was
so difficult a task, that I could not pitch upon any probable
means to execute; I therefore resolved continually to be in
a vigilant posture, to perceive when the savages came on
shore, and to leave the rest to that event.
Such were my fixed resolutions, and accordingly I set

V -



Myself upon the watch. I waited for above a year and a
half. This was a very great discouragement; yet the edge
of my design was as keen as ever, and the longer it seemed
S to be delayed, the more eager was I for it.
I was one day seriously musing how I should attain my
Send, when I was very much surprised by seeing no less
Than five canoes all on shore together, on my side of the
island, and the savages that belonged to them all landed,
and out of my sight. Such a number of them disconcerted
my measures; for, seeing so many boats, each of which
Should contain six, and sometimes more, I could not tell
how to order my measures; and much dispirited and per-
plexed, I lay still in my castle, which, however, I put in a
proper posture for an attack; and having formerly provided
all that was necessary, was soon ready to enter upon an en-
gagement. Having waited for some time, my impatient
temper would let me bear it no longer; I set my guns at
the foot of the ladder, and, as usual, ascended to the top
of the hill; and here, by the assistance of my perspective-
glass, I observed no less than thirty in number around a
fire, feasting upon what meat they had dressed. How they
cooked it, or what it was, I could not then perfectly tell;
but they were all dancing and capering about the flames,
using many frightful and barbarous gestures.
But while, with a curious eye, I was beholding these




Stretches, my spirits sunk within me, when I perceived \ \
them drag two miserable creatures from the boats, to act
afresh the dreadful tragedy, as I supposed they had done
before. It was not long before one of them fell upon the
ground, knocked down, as I suppose, with a club or wooden
sword; while two or three others went immediately to work
cutting him open for their cookery, while the last unhappy
captive was left by himself till they were ready for him.
The poor creature looked round him with a wishful eye,
Trembling at the thoughts of death; yet seeing himself a
Little at liberty, nature, that very moment, as it were, in-
,v spired him with hopes of life, he started away from them,
and ran, with incredible swiftness, along the sands, directly
to that part of the coast where my ancient and venerable
castle stood.
You may well imagine I was dreadfully affrighted upon
this occasion. However, my spirits beginning to recover, I
still kept upon my guard, and I now plainly perceived there
were but three men out of the number that pursued him.
I was infinitely pleased to see with what swiftness the poor
creature ran from his pursuers, gaining so much ground
upon them, that I plainly perceived, could he thus hold out
for half an hour, there was not the least doubt but he would
save his life from the power of his enemies. P
Between them and my castle there was a creek, where I
54 -t


much feared the poor victim would be taken, if he could
not swim for his escape. But soon was I out of pain for
him, when I perceived he made nothing of it, though at I
full tide, but with an intrepid courage, spurred on by the
sense of danger, he plunged into the flood, swimming over

in about thirty strokes, and then, landing, ran with the r
same incredible strength and swiftness as before. When
the three pursuers came to the creek, one of them, who I
perceived could not swim, returned to his company, while
the others, with equal courage, but much less swiftness, at-
tained the other side, as though they were resolved never to
give over the pursuit. And now or never, I thought, was
the time for me to procure me a servant, companion, or


assistant. I immediately descended my two ladders with
the greatest expedition; I took up my guns, which, as I
said before, were at the bottom of them, and taking a short
cut down the hill, I interposed between the pursuers and
pursued; hallooing aloud to the latter, who, venturing to
look back, was, no doubt, as much terrified at me as I at
them. I beckoned to him with my hand to return back;
in the mean time advancing towards the pursuers, and
Rushing on the foremost, I knocked him down with the
stock of my piece, and laid him flat upon the ground. 1
was very unwilling to fire, lest the rest should hear. The
other savage seeing his fellow fall, stopped as if he had
been amazed; when, advancing towards him, I could per-
ceive him take his bow from his back, and fixing his arrow
to it, was preparing to shoot at me. In this case of self-
Spreservation, I immediately fired at him and shot him dead,
just as his hand was going to draw the fatal string. All
this while the savage, who had fled before, stood still, and r
had the satisfaction to see his enemies killed. So affrighted
was he with the fire and noise of my piece, that he stood
fixed and immovable, without either sense or motion. This
obliged me to halloo to him again, making the plainest
signs I could to him to draw nearer. I perceived he un-
derstood those tokens by his approaching to me a little
way, when, as if afraid I should kill him too, he stopped

56 ^y

-K^^X^^^^5 o-''^^


again. Several times did he advance, and as often stop in
this manner, till coming more to my view, I perceived him
trembling, as if he was to undergo the same fate; upon
which I looked upon him with a smiling countenance, and
still beckoning to him, at length he came close to me, and
kneeled down, kissing the ground, laid his head upon it,
and taking me by the foot, set it upon his head; and this,
as I understood afterwards, was a token of swearing to be
S my slave forever. I took him up, and, making much of
him, encouraged him in the best manner I could.
The great astonishment that my new servant conceived,
was the manner of killing the savage at such a distance,
without a bow and arrow. First he turned him on one side,
then on another, wondering he could perceive no quantity
of blood; and after sufficiently admiring the wound the
bullets had made in his breast, he took up his bow and
arrows and came back again; upon which I turned to go
away, making signs to him to follow, lest the rest, missing
their companions, might come in pursuit of them; and this
I found he conceived very well, by his making me under-
stand that his design was to bury them, that they might not
be seen if it happened, and which I made him sensible I
very much approved of. Immediately he fell to work, and
never was a grave-digger more dexterous than he was; for
in an instant he scraped a large hole in the sand with his

U / ^


hands, sufficient to bury the first in; there he dragged
him, and, without any ceremony, he covered him over; in
like manner he served the other. All this was done in less
than a quarter of an hour. I then called him away, and
instead of carrying him directly to my castle, I conveyed
him to my cave on the farther part of the island.
i Here I gave him bread and a bunch of raisins to eat, and
water to drink; on which he fed very cheerfully, to his ex-
S ceeding refreshment. I then made him a bed with a parcel
of rice straw, and a blanket upon it, and pointing to it,
m ade signs for him to lie down to sleep; upon which the
poor creature went to take a welcome repose.
Indeed, he was a very handsome young fellow, extremely
well made, with straight long limbs, not too large, but tall
and well-shaped, and, as near as I could reckon, about
twenty-six years of age. His countenance had nothing in
it fierce or surly, but rather a sort of majesty, and, espe-
cially when he smiled, he had all the sweetness and soft- r
\ ness of a European. His hair was not curled like wool, as
many of the blacks are, but long and black, with the most
beautiful yet careless tresses spreading over his shoulders.
He had a very high and large forehead, with a great vi-
vacity and sparkling sharpness in his eyes. His skin was
not so tawny as the Virginian Brazilians, or other Ameri-
cans, but rather of a bright dun olive-color, that had some-

6 '7.


thing agreeable in it, though not very easy to describe.
His face was round and plump, with a small nose, very
different from the flatness of the negroes, a pretty small
mouth, thin lips, fine teeth, very well set, and white as the
driven snow. In a word, such handsome features, and ex-
act symmetry in every part, made me consider that I had
saved the life of an Indian prince.
As I understood him in many things, I made him sensi-
ble I was very well pleased with him; and in a little time
I began to speak to him, and taught him to talk to me
again. In the first place, I made him understand his name
was to be Friday, because it was upon that day I saved his
life; then I taught him to say Master, which I made him
sensible was to be my name. I likewise taught him to say
Yes and No, and to know what they meant. I gave him
some milk in an earthen pot, making him view me while I
drank it before him, and soaked my bread in it. I gave
him a cake of bread, and caused him to soak it likewise, to r
which he readily consented, making signs of the greatest
All that night I kept him there; but in the morning I
ordered him to arise and come along with me, with certain
tokens that I would give him some clothes like mine, at
which he seemed very glad, being stark naked.
I carried him with me to my castle, and gave him a pair

V/ yy--z
T ^j^^^^ S^-^


of linen drawers, which I had taken out of the poor gun-
ner's chest, and which, with a little alteration, fitted him
very well. In the next place I made him a jerkin of goat's
skin, such as my skill was able to manage; and indeed I
thought myself then a tolerable good tailor. I gave him

-- -L-i~~ r


also a cap which I had made of a hare's skin, very conve-
nient and fashionable. Thus being clothed tolerably well,
my man was no less proud of his habit than I was of seeing
him in it. Indeed he went very awkwardly at first, the
drawers being heavy on his thighs, not used to bear any


weight, and the sleeves of the waistcoat galled his shoul-
ders and the inside of his arms; but by a little easing wherb
he complained they hurt him, and by using himself to
S them, at length he took to them very well.
My next concern was, where I should lodge him; and
that I might do well by him, and yet be perfectly easy my-
self, I erected a tent for him in the vacant place between L
my two fortifications, in the inside of the last and the out-
j side of the first; and as there was an entrance or door into
my cave, I made a formal framed door-case, and a door to
Open on the inside; I barred it up in the night-time, taking
in my ladders too, so that, was my man to prove treacher-
ous, there could be no way to come at me in the inside of
my innermost wall, without making so much noise in get-
ting over that it must waken me.
But there was no occasion for this precaution; for surely
a master never had a more sincere, faithful, and loving ser-
vant than Friday proved to me. Without passion, sullen- r
ness, or design, perfectly obliging and engaging, his affec-
tions were as much tied to me as those of a child to its
parents; and I might venture to say, he would have sacri-
ficed his life for the saving of mine, upon any occasion
One morning I took him out with me, with an intention
to kill a kid out of the flock, and bring it home and dress



it. As I was going, I perceived a she-goat lying down in
the shade, and two young kids sitting by her. Immediately
I watched hold of my man Friday, and bidding him stand
still and not stir, I presented my piece, and shot one of the
kids. My poor servant, who, at a distance, perceived me
kill his adversary, and yet did not know by what means, or
how it was done, stood trembling and surprised, and looked .
so amazed, that I thought he would have sunk into the
^t I brought home the kid, and the same evening took off
the skin and divided the carcase as well as I could. Part
of the flesh I stewed, and then, spreading my table, I sat
j down, giving my man some of it to eat, who was wonder-
C fully pleased.
It was now high time I should set my servant to work,
so next day I set him to beat out some corn, and sift it in
the same manner I had done before. And really the fellow
was very quick and handy in the execution of any thing I r
ordered him to go about. I made him understand that it
was to make bread for us to eat, and afterwards let him see
me make it. In short, he did every thing I ordered him in
a little time, as well as I could perform it myself.
I must own, that this was the most pleasant year I ever
had in the island, for after some time Friday began to talk
pretty well, and understood the names of those things which

_.^'^^ i~s~~s~g

iI i s o '

I was wont to call for, and the places where I used to send
him. So that my long silent tongue, which had been use-
less so many years, except in an exclamatory manner,
either for deliverance or blessings, now began to be occu-
pied in teaching and talking to my man Friday, for so inno-
cent did his simple and unfeigned honesty appear to me,
that I began entirely to love him, and I spared no pains or
diligence to instruct him, according to my poor share of
knowledge, in the principles of religion, and the adoration
that he ought to pay to the true God.
You may well suppose, that by the frequent discourse we
had together, my man and I became most intimately
acquainted, and that there was but very little that I could
say but what Friday understood; indeed he spoke very
fluently, though it was but broken English.
It was from this time I had strong inclinations to venture
over, and use my utmost efforts to join the white bearded
S men, described to me by Friday as occupying the distant
coast, and who undoubtedly were Spaniards or Portuguese.
To which intent my man and I went to search for a proper
tree to fell, whereof we might make a large canoe, to
undertake the voyage, and indeed we were not long in find-
ing one fit for our purpose, there being enough wood in the
island to have built a fleet of large vessels; but the thing
we principally wanted, was to get one so near the water

U -w

S' I h o
that we might launch it after it was finished, and not com-
minit such a mistake as I had done once before.
After a great search for what was best and most conve-
nient, Friday, at last, whose judgment in such affairs was
much superior to mine, pitched upon a kind of wood most
lit for it. But though my man exceeded me in his knowl-
edge of the most proper tree, yet I showed him a much
> better and clearer way to make a canoe than lie knew
t before ; for lie was for burning the hollow or cavity of the
tree, in order to make this boat, but I then told him how he
-. might do it with tools, instructing him at the same time
how to use then, which lie did very dexterously, so that in
a month's time we finished it, making it very handsome, by
cutting the outside in the true shape of a boat. After this ?(
) it took us a full fortnight before we could get her into the
water, which we did, as it were, inch by inch, upon great
rollers; but when she was in, she would have carried
twenty men, with all the ease imaginable. r
As I was very well pleased, you may be sure, at the i
launching of this man-of-war of mine, I was no less amazed /
to behold with what dexterity my man would manage her,
turn her, and paddle her along. Well, Friday, said I,
what do you think of it now ? Do you think this will carry L
us over ? Yes, master," said he, me venture over well, < j
though great blow wind." But my design was yet farther,

V- _'

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