Documents No. 1-176 from the Tanzania...

Group Title: Mbiru : selected documents from the Tanzania National Archives on the resistance to graduated taxation in Upare.
Title: Mbiru
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073398/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mbiru selected documents from the Tanzania National Archives on the resistance to graduated taxation in Upare
Physical Description: 174 p. : ; 33 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Chuo Kikuu cha Dar es Salaam -- Dept. of History
National Archives of Tanzania
Publisher: The University
Place of Publication: Dar es Salaam
Publication Date: 197-?
Subject: Asu (African people) -- History   ( lcsh )
Asu (African people) -- Political activity -- History   ( lcsh )
Protest movements -- History -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
Taxation -- History -- Tanzania   ( lcsh )
History -- Tanzania -- To 1964   ( lcsh )
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Summary: Consisting generally of letters and commentary regarding the Mbiru tax protest in Tanzania, 1941-1948.
General Note: Primarily English.
General Note: This document is part of the Pangani Valley History Project selected for UF from the Tanzania National Archives.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073398
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 41881030

Table of Contents
    Documents No. 1-176 from the Tanzania national archives
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Full Text

Graduated local Rate in lieu of Tax Rebate in
e..ztrict (Tanga Pro vinee L

With reference to my lctt.r No. 155/45 of The 22nd. April,
-.,,1941, the CGhiefs of. the Pare district have now given considera-
tion to the proposals for the- introduction of a combined -tax-
and local rate in that district in 1942. The District Comfibs-
sipner has also diseussed the proposals with then and I have
myself been able to discuss then with the Chair:aan of the
Executive Committee. Incidentally it may be noted here as a
point.not without interest that the day of ny visit to Sane
was a Saturday and -that therefore the two Chiefs who are the
members of the Connittee were not able to be present as they
are Christians af the Seventh Day Adventist Church. I
enclose a copy of the proposals of the Chiefs as they have
been put up by themselves t..th..r with a translation. The
recommendations on the supplementary memorandum signed by the
Connittee have been approved by the other chiefs to' whom it was
circulated. I think it argues well for the success of the pro-
posals that the chiefs'have been able to compile such a good
memorandum embodying their views. These aroe not all entirely.
their own. I can see in the'nemorandum so61e of the views and".
suggestions of the District Commissioner and some of my own.
But I a~m entirely satisfied-that the Chiefs have given very .. "
full consideration to their suggestions and thoroughly under-
stand the implications of then. They have- spontaneously ex-
pressed to me their appreciation of the fact that they have
permitted or rather expected to consider the. whole question in
all i. s aspects and to state their opinions and wishes in the
confident expectation that effect will be given to then.

.When the.schene was first put to then they-secnod to have
some douhbtsin their minds. Those were born of curiosity as to
what was -behind it all. 'With this went some Lmeaure of fear
that it was.a.-device to extract more tax front their people. It
has been carefully explained to then that they need have no fear
'on that score. It is true that their Native' Tr.ry does re-
guire and must have more funds if they .are to proceed with their
present educational ambitions but under the ch ..- : they .v.ill be
given far more control over what, their peopleo.will be.required
to pay than;thoy. or any -' i~i r Africans in Tan>-.:. Lka, have ever
had before, and they now fully appreciate this and :realize that
their initial-fears were groundless.

2. I an sending their memorandum and its trn.nsslation-in order
S that it may be seen what interest they have taken in proposals
which vitally affect thensclves and their people, It is of course
not in places as clear as it might have been and I sumja rise and
amplify where necessary their proposals belowv.

(i) The Chiefs begin with a brief historical review showing
that the proposals are no novelty, but are an adptations to mnooer
conditions, including a cash economy, of their old mbiru. This
is a Pare word which will be revived in the meaning of a 'local
rate. '

(ii) In September of each year each Chief, will put his people
into one of 14 classes, and upon this classification will depend
the amount of nbiru'which he will have to pay. These classes will
be known in English as numbers 1 to 14. In Swahili and Pare they
will probably, more conraionly be known as so many vivale, -ivale
being a Pare word denoting a bundle of grain with special applica-
tion' to the bundles of mixed grain and produce of all kinds
paid for mbiru. It will be seen that the Chiefs' original propo-
sals comprise more elaborate names for the classes, and nanes
which -were not arithmetically correct. The -District Commissioner

1IIII5 l iIII 1lll l lilil 2
3 1262 07002 4640
ana-r-uiscurssed-thiS-for a long time with the Chairman of the
l Committee He assured us that all Pare would understand them
@co even if we did not, and in the end I told him that in that case
1A '78 I would be prepared to accept the names in the expectation that
Sj 35 in referring to the classes in English documents theyvould be
referred to by their numbers. It will be soon that after
further discussion with the me.ihers of the Coim.ittee a simplified
nomenclature has been adopted.

(iii) It will be the duty of each Chief to classify his
people, and from that assessment there will be appeal by the
ratepayer or the Native Treasury to the Council of Chiefs and
front the Council to the District Pommissioner whose decision will
be final. If a man is lac I.1 in classes no. 13 or 14 the Chief
will be required to put briefly ipto writing his reasons for
rating him so high. This will be some safeguard against possible
influence of prejudice to the det imont: of a nan and will give
persons rated in these two classes some definite grounds on
which to base an appeal if they wish to do so.

(iv) After classification is completed and it is known
how many men there are in each class it is a simple calculation
to determine how many units or vivalo are available for collect-
ion; a simple division sum then shows how much must be the value
of each unit to produce the sum which it is estimated is required
from abiru for the needs of the local treasury; the amount due
from each individual is then readily ascertained.

This method of assessment is far better than that which I
previously suggested of classification by classes with steps of
fixed cash amounts. It distributes the burden of nbiru more evenly
and when an increase or decrease in the total mbiru is decided
upon that increase or decrease is evenly spread throughout all
classes in proportion to their ability to pay it or their marit
to enjoy it. A five cent (say one halfpenny) increase in the
standard kivald means that amount of increase to the poorest man
and shs. 3/- ,to the richest. Under the example given by the Chiefs
of the kind of assessment which may result (it is of course not
to be taken as accurate though it is not entirely guess work) it
would produce about 300. There is thus great elasticity in the

(v) The Chiefs are insistent that the Govo: nmunt tax and
the local rate must be paid at the same time; they say that pay-
ment of the nbiru by installments will not be necessary and should
not be allowed even in the case of those who are highly assessed.
They feel that these will be no hardship in this for they argue
with confident logic that, if they have assessed a man properly
he will be able to pay without difficulty and if he has been
wrongly assessed he will have had the opportunity to appeal.They
are equally confident that the new tax and rate will be paid as
promptly and as willingly as tax is now paid in the Pare district.
By the end of January of this year 84% of the tax had been paid,
and at the end of June collection was completed and the estimate
had been reached. The chiefs expect that this happy state of
affairs will continue under their proposals.

(vi) All existing tax exemptions will be cancelled, and
in future in September of each year each Chief will submit to
the District Commissioner for approval a list of those whom it
is proposed to exept from payment of tax which will in nearly
all cases carry also exemption from payment of mbiru. In some
cases optiontion from (?) will not necessarily mean exception
from tax..

(vii) In the case of men who own more than one house they will
pay the,mbiru in respect of each house (or rather better to say
each establishment and right of user of land) for which they are
liable for Government tax. In many cases it will happen that there


will :be an occupier n one of the houses and in that case he,
as under section 6(2) of the Native Tax ordinance, 1934, will
be liable for the mbiru as for the tax..

(viii) A Pare living outside the Pare district will be
required to pay an mbiru of 3/- in addition to the Government
tax of 8/- for a period of two years after he leaves the district.
On his return to the district he will.be entitled to a refund
if his assessed !.'ir' was in fact less than 3/- or be liable to
pay the difference if the contrary is the case. Legislative effect
can be given to this by a reference in the annual tax fixing
notice that the tax in the. Pare district is shs. 8/- and on all
Pare living and paying tax elsewhere shs.ll/-. A precedent for
this is to be found in Governtment Notice No, 2 of 1940 whore
migratory Congo natives are taxed at a rate different from the
others tax payers of the Bukoba district of the Lake Province.

Persons who are not Pare living -within the Pare district
will be allowed in accordance with Government's settled policy
to pay their tax including their hone Native Treasury rebate at
their homo rate for two years if they can prove their identity,
After that.a period they will be required to pay the Pare tax
and mbiru.

(ix) There will be a Rate Adjustment fund into which a sun
will be paid in prose erous years and from which a sun can be drawn
in lean times to balance the local budget, thus if it is necessary
allowing assessment to be reduced all found and easing the burden
of the rate payers when.times are hard.

(x) In conclusion the chiefs state that before making a final
decision as to whether they wish the proposals to cone into force
next year, or to postpone them until 1943 owin, to the present
adverse season, they wish to make their assessments and see how
they pan out. Their fear is that it ray be found, though they do
not think that it will be so, that the mass of their people will
have to be assessed high to produce what they require for their
budget. If this is so, it might be inadvisable to introduce the
scheme in a year which will not be prosperous, as these,will be
no Rate Adjustment Fuid, pon which to draw. They are however
keen on not postponing the scheme if it can possibly be helped,
and rather than do this it seems probable that instead of budget-
ing for a total mbiru of about 2,000 they will air. at 1,500
only, the amount of the present tax rebate. This will mean that
they will not be able to pay their school teachers, for the sun
of 2,000 from nbiru is required for other purposes and for the
teachers salaries and to give a reasonable urcess of revenue over
expenditure. They would have to look to Goverinment for payment
of the teachers, for this year they have an unbalanced budget
even with Covcrnment paying some of the teachers.

3. Those are the chiefs' proposals in general, I agree with
them all and trust that approval will be given to them. This
will require an assessment of the law, for rules will be required
and as I have r..,:.:ted in paragraph 7 of my letter of the 22nd
April there is no legislative authority for the making of rules
for the imposition of a rate for general purposes.

4. I have not yet heard whether Government will be prepared to
give up the sum of 320 a year which is at present received from
the Pare District in respect of plural wives. I trust that this
will be approved. The chiefs regard it as an essential part of
their proposals and so do I. As has been stated above in parag-
raph 2(x) the Pare Native Treasury budget will no' balance with-
out an Lmbiru scheme or some other method of securing more funds.
If therefore the scheme is not brought into force next year,
Government will be faced with the necessity of paying the salaries


of teachers amounting to much the sane amount as the yield of
the lunlnal wives tax.

5. I draw attention again to the fact that t: Pare in
common with all other natives cf this province pay a higher rate
of tax to Govcrnmient than those of other provinces whose tax
rate is shs. 10/-. I repeat that I can see not the slightest
justification for this and consider that the rebate paid to
the Native Treasuries of the province should he raised to shs.
2/50 in all cases which is the figure for other N'.tive Treasuries.
If this is done the rate of the Pare tax under the new scheme
would be shs. 7/50 and the nbiru would be relieved of the corres-
ponding sun of 350 which Government would lose.

TheJ nw Tax to be introduced in 1942 (if possible)
.and to be known as 'the Mbiru Rate'.2

It appears to us, the Chiefs and our advisers that though
we pay tax each y.,ar this payment is not in accordance with native
custom so we thought we should bring the matter to the notice of
the Government in the hope that our suggestion will be considered.
Our suggestion that each Mpare should pay tax in accordance with
his ability to pay as they did for-trly without complaint from
rich or poor. Thus if we are permitted we should like to find
a way of levying a just (or graduated) tax as in the time of our
fathers: it would be good if each man agree to pay a rate like
that called mbiru ao.d paid to the chief each year in the old
days. It would be good because each man would pay according to
his ability to pay, the poor nan would pay a poor nan's r;-te
and the rich nan a rich man's rate. The Wapare from old times
have not been verb ric.- but they used to pay their mbiru to the
chief without favouritism and so if the Govcrn:mnt will agree to
our petition we would like to return ourselves to our old custom
and find justice for each person both rich and poor.

2. Formerly when the harvest was ready, the headman of
the area, that is the man chosen to look after the area and to
allocate the fields, used .to inspect the yield of coach field and
say to the owner 'so and so you will pay so nany measures on
account of your havcst.' A man might be ordered to pay from one
to twenty measures according to the harvest obtained, examples
of this will be found in the pages which follow. When this notice
and inspection were complete the headman collected the produce
and beer and goats but before taking these to the Chief he had to
go to hin with beer (inbuta) in order to inforrm hin and the L njama
that the nbiru of his area was ready and that on such a day his
people would bring it to him. He would then return hone and he
and the people would take the produce (which would include each
type of produce harvested that year) and much beer and go to
chief singing and rejoicing.

3. Because of this we i/pare pray the Government to allow us
to return to our old custom so that each man will pay according
to his ability to pay. 'e believe that our people will pay this
tax without any complaint. New it will be in the hands of our
advisers (' Uijama) as it was in the old days, to advise the
people, they will visit each area of each headnan's division exp-
laining this business to the people. The Mnjama will then report
to his chief who will then go round his chiefdom area by area
and explain to the people so that they may understand the Mbiru

4. After this a list will be prepared for each area dividing
the people into groups, those who are assessed to one measure by

- 5 -

themselves, those assessed .t two measures by themselves, those
at ten by themselves, and so oni. It will be the duty of each
chief to see that the tax of his area does not drop below what
he normally pays, it would be6 :ar better if it wont up. In
each area the headman and elders of the village will first
assess their people according to their ability to pay without
oppressing them or overloading thea with heavy burdens.

5. If it happens that the people, particularly the young nen
who never saw mbiru paid to the chief, think that this idea is
too nuch for then we must explain it to them by comparison saying
for'instance,' 'in our district the present tax is ten shillings
for each nan whether he be subject, rich man or chief, now you
subjects do you think this is'right or do you think -there is a
mistake?' We the' chiefs and our advisers think that the
Government has not distributed the burden correctly but that
their method brings hardship to the people and so we have
asked that if it is possible this method should be done.away
with and each nan should pay according to his ability to pay.

6. The Government also adopted a plural wives tax because it
thought that if a man had many wives he must be rich but we can
say that many V7apare do not marry because of their wealth but to
satisfy the needs of their bodies and other reasons. It is
true of course that some people marry many wives because thuy
are rich but those who do so for this reason ar': very few indeed
so we ask the Government to do away with the plural wives tax
as it is a burden to nany people even at the present time and
it is an oppression in other cases.

7. We want to make it clear that we do not propose reducing
the Government's share of the tax, that is the shs. 8/- taken
by the Government out of each chs. 10/- tax but it is our own
share that we wish to adjust so as to get each nan to pay accor-
ding to his ability to pay. In the month of Septem.ber, 1941,
each chief will bring in his lists of each area showing the
classification of each man. Ve think this new tax should be
graduated in the way we show below, the advance being by
multiples. TWe think it best to have 14 classes, the tax of each
class rising as we show below. During the three me July
to September of each year each chief will classify his people
in the way shown and each September he will bring this assessnont
before the Council (Baraza L.i1.i) and the Council will total up
for the whole of Upare and also state the mbiru which will be
paid by each class for the year concerned. The mbiru may be
raised or even lowered if any area is distressed, but the Council
must enquiro into the matter and be satisfied that the distress
is such that the mbiru really cannot be paid that year, so that
it will be the business of the Council to go into the matter and
know the state of the country, and to know whether the mriru in
a certain area should be reduced because cf distress or whether
the mbiru should beincreased because the chiefs a- their
advisors find that the country has prospered, haivests have
boen god and trade is flourishing. It will be our duty as
Chiefs to keep a watch on our countries and to know whether they
are proppeiaor in distress so that we can report to the Council.

The chief must assess his people

The chief will prepare a list of his tax-payers placing
them in 14 categories according to, the ability of each man to
pay as is shown in the list attached' which'will be sent to each
chief as an example.


If a man considers tlat he has been wrongly classified and

not put in the category to which he rightly belongs that man
may appeal to his Native Court, and if he is not sasisfied with
the judgment of that court he may appeal to the Council and if
he is not satisfied with their judgment he may appeal to the
District Commissioner, but h& will net be allowed to appeal
from the judgment of the District Commissioner.

Appeal by the Native Treasury

If the Native Treasury believes that any nan has not been
assessed in accordance with his ability to pay it nay call upon
the Court concerned to justify its assessment before the Council.
And. then it may happen that a Chief has f'v-.--r d his people
unduly and has not assessed them in accordance with their ability
to pay, if the Council believes this is so it nay appoint Chiefs
and elders to go to that chiefdom and there, together with the
elders of the area concerned, reassess the people to the satis-
faction of the Council Court. There is only one way to prevent
confusion that is for the Chiefs to assess the people of an
area in consultation with the elders of that area and so ascertain
at what rate any particular person can afford to pay .mbiru.

Government Tax and mbiru to be paid together

The people must pay their tax and their mbiru together and
they will not be allowed to pay by instalments.


We ask that all exemption certificates previously granted
should be cancelled and we pray that the District Commissioner
will only exempt people with the advi,'e of the elders of the area
concerned. Also each September when the Chief Lrings his lists
of assessments he will also bring a list of the people who should
be exempted and who have been approved by the elders of their areas.

Those who have and those who will travel,we pray the
Government to arrange that all ;:p re who are outside the district
shall be required to pay their tax and the Pare rate (nbiru) for
two years after leaving Upare. After that tine each i:-.r can
choose whether he will continue to pay his '.'. 'u cr whether he
will pay tax at the rate of the district in which he is living.

Road passes

The ':. re will be ordered to obtain a Road Pass before le-
aving a district, and the court clerk will Write on the pass the
amount of his tax and the amount of his nbiru. Also if we know
the addresses of the Fapare who are living outside the district
we will inform thc District Commissioners concerned of the amounts
due by these people of Upare. If a man or his District Commiss-
ioncr does not know the rate of his mbiru that man, who comes
from'Upare, should be charged 10/- if the tax of the district is
that amount or shs. 11/- where the tax of the district is shs.12/-
(for example loshi).


We would like the roccipt made li 3 this:-
T-'irl -iyika Territory
.. 1942
House and Poll Tax Ticket No. .........
Register No...........

Tanga Province
Pare District Nme .............. ..*



Tax ticket No.
Shs. 8/-

Issued by................

Ticket No..............
Register No. .............

Hazina ya Upare

unelipa mbiru Shs.....cts.....

Sahihi ......................

An example of the calculation of mbiru

When the Chiefs bring in their assessment lists':the Council
will add up those in each category so as to find out how ~aany
men of each category there are in the whole of Upare as.is saown
in the 'totals' column of the example attached. Then the Council
will evaluate. these totals to find out how uany of the smallest
rate of tax coach figure represents. The people of the Kivo. class
(Xivo) may pay twice as, iuch as the Kanrrer clan so that 300 .tax-
payer's of the Kivo class represent 600 taxes as the Karorer rate
and the pojo Kitangu class pays 19 tines the Kaurre r:tte so that
300 1Mpojo Kitangu represent 5,700 (i.e. 300 x 19) Ka.:crre taxes.
In the example given the figures are as follows:

V-vo 2
Vivale 2
Vivale 4
Vivale 9
Vivale 10
Mpojo Kitangu
Mpojo Kabialo
Mpojo Kisisi
Mbuta ya kugha:b;ia
MIbuji ya kutikia



3 -'

I t


to 100 Kanrere
" 600 "
"1200 "
"25800 "i
" 37'00 "
" 15000 "
" 13200 "
" 7500 "
" 5700 "
" 3750 "
" 1500 "
" 400 "

" 180

(300 x 2)
(400 x 3)
.00oo x 41)
(4300 x 6)
(4800. x 8)
(1500 x 10)
(1100 x 12)
( 500 x 15)
(300 x 19)
(150 x 25)
(50 x 30)
(10 x 40)

(3 x 60)


If the Native Treasury needs to raise shs. 40,000/- from its share
of the tax then we must divide 40, 000 by 115,580 to find out
what the Kanrere rate should be:
115,580) 40,000 (34.6 say 35 cents
7' ,)800
6 93_2480

So that it appears that the Kaurre rate will be 35 cents
and Kivo 70: cents (35 x 2); Vivo 2 shs. 1/05 (35 x 3); !Ibuta 1

__ ___ ___ _

.. .............. ..... 1942

shs.1/60 (35 x 41); Kivale 1 shs. 2/10 (35 x 6); Vivale 2 shs.2/80
(35 x8); Vivalo 4 shs. 3/50 (35 x 10); Vivale 9 shs. 4/20(35 x 12);
Vivale 10 she. 5/25(35 x 15); Mpojo Kitangu shs. 6/25 (35 x 19);
Kabialo shs. 8/75 (35 x 25); Kisisi shs. 10/50 (35 x 30); Mbuta
ya Kitala shs. 14/- (35 x 40); t uji shs. 21/- (55 x 60). We
think that the above example will be clear because the nbizr is
in multiples of 35 cents.

The rates of mbiru

1. Kamrore
2. Kivo The rate will be twice the Kanrere rate
3. Vivo 2 "f thrice "
4. I ut' I L "1 4- t I
5. Kivale 6 "' "
6. Vivale 2 8 "
7. Vivale 4 10 "
8. .Vivale 9 ," 12 I" "
9. Vival 10 15 "
10. Mpojo Kitangu "1 19 "
11. Mpojo6 Kabialo i" 25 "
S12, Mo4o 4 isii "
3: Iua ya kughaba Kitala "
14. Mbuji ya kutikia Mbiru 60 "

We think that it will be better to advance by multiples
rather than by stops with intervals of a certain number of
shillings between then because then if we raisc the rate the
increase will also be in proportion to the ability of each nan
to pay.

The Mbiru Fund

We want to have a fund for imbiru so that in good years we
can increase the rate ond put into the fund the amount in excess
of what we need for the Native Treasury so that in bad years we
may be able to reduce the rate (as we have explained above) below
the needs of our Treasury and draw from the reserve fund to nake
up the differences.

If a nan has many houses?

If under the law a man can be charged nore than one
tax then he can he charged more than one ibiru if he has a wife
and fields in the place where he lives and also is established with
a wife and fields else-here. And if in one of thuse places he has
a son who is taxable the son will be regarded as paying the tax
and mbiru in respect of that house wh-le the ;~,.rn hinsclf will' be
charged in respect of the other house.

If the rate (ubiru) exceeds shs. 20/- the chief will
write an explanation in the register as -to why the man concerned
has been put in the Mbuji class.

This year

The Wanjama will now go round their areas to explain to
the people this scheme of an abiru tax the benefits of it and
how we are trying to suit the rate to the ability of the person
to pay. The chiefs will.have their assessment licts ready by
the September meeting of the Council. But let it be understood,-
this is only preparedness, the Governnmnt hcs not yet sanctioned
the scheme. to agree to try this scheme for the 1942 tax but
we have just one fear, the rain has failed in certain areas
qnd we do not want! to start this schene with a deficit in the
Mbiru Fund. We hope to be able to carry on with it but we should

__ 8 -

- 9

like to see the actual figures which will be produced in
September, 1941.

We attach an example showing the mbiru rates together
with the tax.

1. ..Sd. Minja Kukome,
Chairman, U.T. Council.
2. Sd. Sabuni Naguvu,
Lfunwa of Usangi.

3. Sd. Kibacha Singeo
Hfunwa of Sane..
4. Sd. Joseph :"-.o..-bef
l : ..-, *of lbagga.
5. Sd. Kigono Chumia,
Mfurlwa of Gonja.
6. Sd. Daudi Sokiaanga,
lrfunwa of Manba.
7. Sd. S. Saidi Chauka,
MIfunwa of Hodaru.

8. Sd. Reuben Yh-li.,-
fiu,,,,, of Suji.

9. Sd. K.H. Makange,
I.fumwa of (home.

Proposed changes in the System of taxation in
the Pare district.

You will, of course, be "an fait" with the correspondence,
ending with Foster's letter Io. 1161/16/29 of the 12th July, on
the subject of proposed changes in the system of taxation in the
Pare district. I had a long talk with Poster on the subject when
he passed through on his way to Lindi and gathered from himr that,
while he had aaparently not discussed details -ith you, you were
in agreement with the general principles of the proposals. Before
any final discussion on them is reached, however, we should like
to have confirmation of this from you and also to know whether
you have any further corc:ents or recoio'ndations.

It is unfortunate that these proposals for a radical change
in the system of taxation should coincide with a year in which poor
crops are bound to have adverse effect on occnoi..Lc conditions in
the district and for this reason it was at first thought tiat it
might be desirable to postpone the introduction of the new system
for another year. It is so important that it should be popular,
receive the full support of the taxpayce.'s thenoelves and be
a success right from the start. Both Foster and Pringle, however,
with whom I also had a talk, were in favour of not postponing the
sphene if this could possibly he avoided as the Native Authorities
wgre keen and the people had, beu, prepared for it. This, of
-' course, was subject to the views of the chiefs after making their
assessment (see paragraph 2(x) of Foster's letter referred to
above) and, further, to. your agreement.

If you consider it possible and desirable to introduce the
new system in 1942, Governinnt will be prepared to give favourable
consideration to the proposals on the understanding that the plural
wives tax would be abolished and that. the basic tax rate, i.e. the

- 10 -

tax to be paid to Government, umains at shs. 8/-. It should
also be mentioned that Government is not at present prepared
to, approve the proposal contained in paragraph 2 (viii) of
Poster's letter that every Pare native living outside the
district should be compelled to pay at tax of shs.8/- and an
"mbiru" of shs. 3/-. It id considered that in this respect
Wapare should, at any rate for the present, receive the same
treatment as other natives living outside their own districts.

In view however, of the adverse economic conditions
prevailing this year it has been agreed that the Chiefs should
base their assoss.ent of "uilbiru" on a totl revenue of 1,500
from this source in 1942, and that, if the p-roposals are
approved, Govern:lint will, subject to the approval of the
Legislatu-'c and of t:ie Secretary of State, .ake available from
other sources the additional funds necessary to enable then to
balance their budget.

I should add that the matters of the drafting and passing
of the necessary legislation, approval of the accounting syston
(type of receipt, etc.) have still to be dealt with. These are
now being gone intc but in the Lieantino we should be glad to have
your recomJiendations as early as possible.

Proposals to assess 'Graduated rates' in the
Pare district for their subsequent introduction.

Please refer to your letter No. 30030/4 of 29th August
relating to Foster's proposals regarding the introduction of a
combined tax and local rate in the Pare District. I conftir
that I am in agreement with the general principles of the proposals.
I have not yet had the opportunity of discussing the matter with
the Chiefs or the Executive Coimnittoo of Pare; but I hope to be
able to do so in October when I may have further colm-rents or
recoulendations to make. By that time the assessiuont should be
ready and the views of the Chiefs as to the date of introduction
of the scheme should be known.


Obstacles hinderinr: the introduction of
Graduated rates in Pare district in 1942.

The Chiefs of the Pare District have conpl-etcd their assess-
ment of the proposed local rate, and fair copies of the draft
suim-aries are being made and will be transmitted to you in due
course. The final decision of the Chiefs is contained in the
enclosed copy (with translation) of neuorandum of the subject in
Swahili. It will he noted that they do not wish that the- proposals
should be brought into force in 1942 for the reason that the
-prevailing drought conditions have obliged the local inhabitants
to draw heavily on their cash and food reserves.

2. I discussed the mneorundun in question with the Chifcs
at Sane on the 25th October and pointed out to them that precisely
because-the present is a bad season that the majority of their
people would greatly appreciate the relief that would be afforded
them by the proposed graduated local rate involving, as its
introduction would, the abolition of the plural wives tx. The
Chairman of the Council and the Executive Co.: ittoe and two other
Chiefs-were converted into thinking that the introduction of the
scheme in 1942 might be given the benefit of their doubts, but

- 11

the other six Chiefs would not ...-.dify their opinion that since
it is nost important that the scheme should be a success from
the start the risk of introducing it next year should not be taken .....

3. I admit that it would be impossible to introduce the new
tax proposals in 1942 should the short rains, which are expected
next nonthh,. fail as they did last year and that even if they do
natorialize thure would not he enough tine mbi.cr the beginning
of the year to inform each class of ratepayer the tax thuy would
be required to pay. In the circumstances I an obliged, however
reluctantly, to recoxnzend that the introduction of the combined
tax and local rate schone should be -ostponed to 1943.

Estinates-of Graduated Rates in Pare District:

Sisi Wafunwa tuliokutanika hapa Same tunofikiria tukaona
kwarba kodi ya nbiru ambayo tureilusudia kuanza katika nchi yetu
ya Upare, ili kila mtu alipe kwa hali yake isianzwe katika rawaka
1942 bali ingojo ii,'k- 1943.

Sababu ya kuacha kodi hii iwe katika nwaka nwingine 1943
ni Ima sababu tumeona kwav :ba katika nchi yotu kuna njaa siku hizi,
anbayo tunaona kwaniba ikiwa tutaanza kodi hii kvwa nara hii ni kuwapa
..raina zigc mwvingino, hali wao wanayo shida hiyo ya njaa. Ingawa
punde zote hazijaslikwa ha njaa k'wa nguvu ara h.zijaingiliwa, lakini
vipande vingine vincingiliwa nay n na itakuwa ni shida ntu akiwa
na njaa kuwcza kufikiri janho lingine. Hivyo sisi wote tunakubali
kwauba kodi hii ingojo hatapo rwaka tuliosena 1943.

Kwa wakati huu tuweke nanbo yote tayari na kujua kwanba
kodi ya mbiru itaanza katika nchi yetu, na kila nahali kujulisha
rain kufahamikiwa kabisa na kodi ya hali ya atu, ili kusudi
katika mwaka huo tuliokusudia ukifika hakuna tena jamho kubwa
linguine bali kuingia katika kodi tu.

Tanathubutisha janibo hili kwa kutia sahihi zctu.

Chairman, Upare Tribal Council ......
Mlinja Kukome.

Babuni Naguvu Daudi Sekimanga
; iI.;.E.' wa Usangi wa Flamba
Kibacha Singo Saidi Chanka
M"umwa wa Samie Ufuiwila wa HEdaru
Joseph Maponm be
Mfunwa wva !Ubaga Mfuawa wa. Suji
Kigono Chuma
'" .... wa Gonja Mfur-wa wa Chone

LOCD.i N110.7
Tiootine conducted by the Usangi inhabitants
to discuss the Graduated .rates affecting them.

I. Mwanzo va kodi ya Hbiru. Kodi ya ubiru ilipoelezwa kwa
watu mwanzo haikuwa wazi kwa. raia wote, Ikwa hiyo wlipingana sana
katika nikutano ya :ni.t-ni, hata mbole. ya Baraza nla Wnyeji.
Wakati Mfunwa MTinja Kulcone alipokuwa nshika kiti walipofika katika
Baraza la Usangi waliulizwa m-asw&li nengi juu ye nbirulakini
majibu waliyotoa hayakuwaolea raia. Bandayo ilitibidi utu rmoja
kuandika barua Icka Bwana D.C. kucnyosha hashaka yake juu ya kodi
lf.:;.ijR.-. .*T' c-,;nirao raia wengi wolilipa kodi hii ya nbiru kwa kufuata
/kujaribi. i':_Ian labda wataiclewa Yvingine, lakini kumbe ni vile
vile .

- 12 -

Raia wale walioikuali kodi ya mbiru kama itawafaa, wa~Li-
kubaliswa katika akili zao na nono hili "Hakuna tena kodi ya
wake wengi." Kwa kuwa rain wengi wana wanawake -.i: walikubali
hivyo na kus na wazi nbele ya Baraza nanitanni kwamba wanaipenda
kwa ajili ya kupunguziwa kodi ;ya wanawake, aio kvwanba walikuwa
na nia ya kupinia va-tu haki. T il. ::, ya taratibu za baada'
ya kodi ya mbiry, yalifichwa masikioni mwa raia, kxrani kana
taratihu zake zingaliolezwa zote wazi wazi kana zinavyoclezwa
sasa, hakuna raia angalikubali majaribisho ya kodi ya mbiru,
kwa s:ababu rtu yulo aliyefikiri kana kodi ya nbiru itamlotca
nafuu kwa ajili ya wanawake wVngi, 5kwia macl].zo ya kisasa ataona
ya kana itampasa kulipa nbiry kubwa kwa ajili ya winci wa mashamba
ya wake sake na watoto wake wengi. Hata nali ya :iahari atakayo-
pata lkav ajili ya kuoza mabinti wengi itazidisha vivalo vyake.

II. Iajaribisho ya kodi ya lubiru ia matokco ya baadayu.

(1) Kama raia walivyotoa kodi ya mbiru r..uda wa miaka
miwili, ha.ukut-:cika uhaki wowoto, kwani vivale vya kila ntu vili-
bahatishwa tu. Hata ahead zilizotolewa na nWakuu wa Utawala wa
VJenyeji ya kana njaa au dhiki nyingine itokoapo. b,' ya vivale
itapunu-iwa, hazikutitnizwa, ila imoonokana- kanta wakati wa njaa
na dhiki, yaani mwak: huu, bei ya kivale inopandiswa zaidi sonti
kumi. Jc, uhaki wa kodi ya nbiru uko wapi?

(2) Chuki zinc tokca kati ya watu na watu wakati wa kupiniana
vivale kwa sababu baadhi ya wenyeji wa Africa /sic.7 hawajapata
aoyo wa kugawanya haki.

(3) Taratibu hii inayotaka kodi ya mbiru, ambayo inaturiwa
na Wakuu wr. nchi kuwa itaondoa manung'uniko, yaani kuhasabu mali
ya kila mt:tL aliyo nayo, inaelokoa kuzidisha manung'uniko na
chuki, kwa sababu hizi.

(a) Ni mwiko kwa Mpe ro safi kutaja idadi ya ngombe
wake alionao, tcna ni aibu kubwa kwa Mpare kajitangaza ufukara
wakeIwa ajili hiyo hesabu ya kweli ya mali haitapatikana,ila
wongo nwingi utatumika. Yatuiainiwa kama ai '7vapare tu wcnyc
dosturi ya kuficha siri za mali zao. Kama :,.rre yu ngonjwa aki-
iwita mtu na kuinwclolza siri ya nali yake na kuigawanya kwa warithi,
hii hi dalili ya kama haponi tena ila atakufa tu. Au sivyo?

(b) Manunguniko na chuki zitazidi iiongoni mwa raia,
kwa sababu uwongo utakactubiika katika kutaja hosabu za kweli za
mali ya kiln mtu utaanza uadui kati ya raia wao kwa wao, wata-
kaposhtakiana; Sisi raia tunalo tu~maini ya 1a:a ,'.1:'.u wa Utawala
wctu nao pia hawatalndcozwa kuingiza raaarifa yo yoto yanayovunja
mila ya wenyoni na umnoja wa raia.

(c) Hakuna utulivu; Innonekana kama kodi ya mbiru
ikikubalivra hutr ru, itapasa kupinwa kila rw-iaka, Livyo itokula
nnfasi nyingi za raia na watunda kazi pia, ama sivyo r-aia engine
va t aumi a.

(d) Kuzuian unemdolco;: Watu hawatajaribu kupanda niti,
kuwa na mashamba riakubwa, kuchonga nizinga ya asali na kujonga
nyumba nzuri lkwa ajili ya kuogopa kuvilipia mbiru kubwa.

(e) Kututoa katika hali ya uonyeji. Hali hii ya
kulip aali zutu na mashamrba kodi ya hali (mbiru) itatuton
kgtika haki za ucnyeji na kututia katika haki za wagoni,
kama liahindi na iwaarau, ii.i.i:-, nat1jiri tu ndio watakaozidi
kutajirika na fukara watazidi kuwa ..... ni haaa. Tena ikiwa
Mpare analipia mali na shanba- laku kodi atalakwa na tofauti
gani na Mhindi au Ivwarabu anayeulipia uwanja wake ....?

(f) Lawaona za baadaye; Watoto wetu watakapoona kuwa
tumewekwa /-i--*':7 Ckatika hali hiyo ngumu, hasa kukosa haki ya

uwonyoji, watatulauaiu vi'baya nano, kama sisi lco tunavyowalaunu
wazeo wetu waliotoa sehoiu nzuri na kubwa kwa Tanzunrgu wa
[i .I:on au, wa i:shanba.

Kwa ajili ya haya yote,sisi raia wa Usangi tunawaonta..
Utawala w\a Th'nycji wajaribu nao kufikiri hays t.-liyotaja, ili ...
kama tufahauiane na kutafuta njia nyinine ya kodi ya hazina
ya wenyoji iliyo bora kuliko kodi ya mbiru.

Sisi. raia wa Usangi tulipoisolni.wa baru. .liyotoka kwa Ishika-
kiti vwc Utawala wa :.nyoji ya kana turchague njuribo ia: noja wa kuenda
Baraza Kuu. Saie tumrofurahi, lakini tIu;niona ya -kana rajtu.bo ruloja
tu hatafaa kusirana, bacdala ya raia wote vwa us.rn i., ila wanne.
Kwa hiyo tunrowhahngua vwatu vwanc nao ni hawa:

(1) bvwana Sc fu Mhwanxa,
(2) Bwana Gurson Liarisa
(3) Bwana SOth Kidisa
(4) Bwana Henry Katuni.
NTasi tunaomba Wlakuu was. Utawal wa wa Wenyeji ya kca.ua -.aturuhusu kuwa
tuma wajunbe hao,touna w/av'ape ghararia za safari yao.

Th" The -nti-M.biru Senti-cilt anrd thco lessons
underlaying it.8

Tunayo h-shina kukule'tea awvazco yotu 1na-achc; nawe kwa
uradhi twaomba uya:oko r ,kuyapioa.

KODI YA i- '. Kodi iaeleta nashaka racngi soana kwetu ndiyo
sababu kuyaleta, kwako, pia twa zani wewe si uieCni wetu kwa nashaka
haya. lianka mviwili iJepita tok: 1943-44, tu e-itoa Kodi ya Ibiru
lakini kwa kuony.sha kutii wakubwa tu si kwa ku,.lcaa janbo lenyewe,
kwani tangu lini si warz latu sisi, wala hatukuelezwa lolotse lina-
loelea. Kwani yangtuelea mnogoro huu usingotctkca leo. Kwa kuwa
Kodi ya Hbiru tangu kuanzwa tuioiona yafuatana na kujuliWa hali
yetu hivyo t-waonyesha .mawazo yetu kwa kiifupi

(1) HALI YITU. Tangu ligi hali yotu haijulikani wala
haikadiriki na ni hwiikc kwa "_. .rie kujulikana hali za uali.
Na kwa njili hiyo manbo yetu httuaondea ver-a k;,a ,ababu ya kuto-
juana hali toka naiskini mpiak, tajiri kutokuikubali kwake tvraiona
yapatana sana na kodi ya Vazuhnu, V/a arabu n Walahindi.
(2) HALI YA !MIRU: Toka zanani iru ilikuwa vyakula
tu vinavyoch:ang a navy vyakula hivyo vikatuniwva na watu wa kitala,
haikuwa abiru ya kujuliana hali ya mali mtu diyo nayo.

(a) :..-'i:: wa 1942 walitangaza 1: .. kivalo kirmoja ni senti
(b) iwaka wa 1942 SepteLmber 29 wvalitanagaziwxa kw auba,
kivalo ni s ,nti 40.
(c) L.iwcaka wa 1943 :.Tbiru ilitunika kivale kiroja scnti 40.
(d) iMwak wa 1943 August 10 wali.tnangaziwa thaiani ya
kivale ki.,oja itakluwa sonti 50 katika 1944.

(e) *:1:. wa 1944 tu? ioipa iLi u :kwa haiamani ya senti 50
k'a kivalo.
(f) Tarche 241 .8.1944, 3wana D.C. a.ofika pauoja na
waftu:wa wa usharika kutakla nbuzi, kondoo na cnashanhba ili ati rlbiru
ya 1945 iandikwe kwa haki.

Toka nwaka 1943 sisi raia ha.tukuitaka kodi hii tulijawa na
mantun'uniko na tulikuwa tukifikiria njia za kufanya ili iondolowe.
Bwana 0.DC. alipofika tulijru ulij ujit,.t.a ikiwezekana tulndo-
lewo mzigc huu, ingawa tulijaribu kunweleza mung;i tuliona
kuwa n.oyo wa Bwan a TD.. un lazima Ibhiru itiunike, tona lazi.ma
kilt mtu aandikwe mali yake., Ndipo tan- u hapo tukahakikisha
kwamba si vizuri kw>ani kln muda wa-. ;miaka 3 i.- jibdirihoh
mara tatu.

(4) KODI YA KIZDITGU. Kodi hii Bwana D.C. annyotaka
kuingiza katika' nchi yetu yafananna kabisa na iKodi ya Z.i-Ulaya
nasi lhatu-pendi kabisa kwa hnatua hii tuliyo nayo sasa. Heri
k,;di yetu tuiitoe isan;-:o na 1;.i:o huu u-talipwa sawa saov kila
mtu hakuna tofu .ti, t::napenda i-. u .:o huu v u'tu tupiniwe na
viongoEzi wot -tu. t i to eI'sango wakutosha k azi zetu hasa kutosha
kw'a ada za watotoe wetu katika rashule, toka ada na kulipia
wa'tot katika shulu za vijijini 1npaka kwenye shule kubwa.
Upii:wc utoshe kila kitu kwa lhaiki na tutaulipa kwa bila nanung'uniko.


Kodi z iaka iiyopi il ipi.r:v: toka Dar es Salaam
na Ewana Governor haikulita 'lach :i'.i-: n: rsukosuko kam:a huu,
Spia mi-aka iliyopita kodi. za kila jiubo 'il:i.tangazsa /Jic./ kwa
i.4hini,ya BDwana Governor lakini tangu kuianzisha kodi hii ya
TMbiru, libiru yotu haikutangazwa, na Bwana Governor toka
DSM Bali innanzia Pare indipo ipolclnvo DS'. Je,
katika Afrika nzima watu wvlio ibule na kui.nzisoha /_ic.7 misingi
ya utawala wa Kiulaya ni Wapare walio schenu ndogo tu ya
Jiubo 1.:. Tanga? Kvwa h.y/o yote twona kuw:a :. -1.. kicnugozi
wetu ai-ctupiiia miai.mbo am:bayo ai ya kadiri yetu. Na haya
yanaclta kulichokoza kabila .la Kipare lililokuwa kimya.

;DOE:.-'- NO.9
Lnr -local rate 'mbiru' i ta assssnent.

The Local Rate was assessed and revised in accordance
with t.he NIative Authority (Local Rkateo) ',-i:'.dent Ordinance 1942
and in accordance vwith the scheio as submitted which has now
been incorporated in .ules 1ade under the auth ri\ty of Uthe

2. In each chiefdom thhe anjania or Chief's a adviser trav-lled
from area to area presiding over the local elders who formed
the village assessment cowmitt.es. The o.s esi'.nt was carried
out by the wvhcle body of oldcrs who irc. their local knowvleldge
of the standing of each man were able .t classify th.ir people,
and the influence of t;he mnj:aia and elders fr:m other arnas
who travelled with himn. as efficient to produce uniformity
within a chieldon.. This first assessment w as carried out entirely
by the people thCeuslves, and officials and 1.i..s J.scnaies who
travelled through the distirct at the assozns.,.m,,nt season June
to jqgust described to me how they cane upon these village
assessment meetings and their independent reports sho;.wed
that the elders as a whole were taking their part in teo asssss-
ment thus climina ting the danger of bribery and cor.rutin.
3. The original assessment was difficult in that no money
value could be attached to the unit of the rate until the rate-
able value of the district was known; but that the classification
was tolerably sound as shown by the fact that when the evalua-
tion was worked out the largest single class was the class
which paid in tax and rate the nearest amount to the standard
rate. In addition when the moo ey value of the assessment was
published there were no appeals against the assessment. I did
find, however, that in one chiefdom, Hedaru, there was a general
lack of understanding of the principles and reasons for the
introduction of the rates. This was due to the death of the chief,

-- 1 -

and Barazas by the Executive Cormmittee and myself corrected this.

4. In December, 1943, well after the assessment.for the first
year (1943) of the local rate had been made and t money
value published, it was decided to increase the rebate of the
standard tax from she. 2/- to shse 2/50. It was too late to
absorb this extra 50 cents into the graduated rate; so
each taxpayer paid the Government tax a flat rrte at 50 cents
and theu graduated rate for which he had been assessed. :u.Th total
paywtent being what he had been told he would have tc pay. This
me;nt that in the second year of the rate the 50 c-nts had to
be absorbed into the graduated rate and the people-had a
practical demonstration of what happened when the value of the
unit was altered. The annual assessment was carried out but in
no chiefd::m were these more than minor changes. rather le;s
interest was shown in ihe assessment with the r:,ul.t tha t some
few hmad a shock when they found that their tax had gonc up.
This in spite of the fact that the reason for the increase in
the value of the unit had been explained at nun ;urus council
meetings and by the Chiefs at their own Barazas. In order to
make certain that there was no hardship the period of appeal
was extended, but thoer were no appeals. Toevertheless, a feeling
persisted aiiongst some that the tax had beo-.. cresed by the
Government, a feeling which showed that not yet was there complete
uhdorstanding of the principles underlying the application of the
local rate. There was no suggestion that there had been favouri-
tisn in the asuses oint, or hardship; but it was 'my tax has
been increased and I want to know why'. The fact that.there had
been a corresponding decrease :...-i; t the poorer mnabers of the
community was overlooked. The need for touring by an Administra-
tive Officer was obvious and the opportunity was taken as
soon as the pressure of cultivation eased and the locust
campaign was over to visit each chiefdom and discuss the working
of the scheme with the people in co-mpany with the Chief of
the area and the Executive CoT. littee of th, C-...ncil. Those
tours corresponded with the opening of the assessment season
and I was able to seO an example of an assessrmnt imeting in
each chiefdomo In addition the possibility of usin' a formula
to obtain uniformity between chief dons wao investigated.

5. Throughout the first .' -''s collection, the working of the
local rate had been discussed at theo meetings cf the council,
and towards the end of the year the campaign began to be voi -ed
that though asscss-imnt within a chi.idcm was uniform it was not
so between chiefdoms. Yjays and muans of overcoming tf s dif-
ficulty were discussed. It was felt that the discrepancy had
arisen when the first assessment had been made because it had
been impossible to give oven an approximate money value to the
unit and that when this could be done uniformity would come
naturally; in addition the Wanjama of the various areas mut
and discussed difficult cases between themselves describing to
each other how such cases had been dealt with in their areas.
Finally it was decided to record each man's income from what-
ever source, cattle9cultivation, salary or trade, expressing
income from other sources in terms of cattle in accordance with
an agreed schedule and then assessing the rate in accordance
with a cattle rate scale, Allowance was also m'.d for the redu-
ction of a man's rateable value on account of unusual hardship
and allowance was also .made for the earning capacity of a man.
The scale and schedule here: drawn up but it was obvious that
they could not be relieved upon until there w-.s mcre information
at our disposal. It was decided, therefore, that in 1944 for
1945 the assessment should be. arrived out r.s hore -to-fore, that
is,by the instinctive _othod, but at the same time property
would be recorded and results compared so that the scale and
schedule could be altered if necessary.

- 16 -

6. Surmarising the assessment position it appears that the
original assessment was carried out well by the people under
the leadership of the alijo.T.r'., administrative action being
limited to making sure that the assessment had been carried
out by the people and that individuals understood the right
of appeal, In no case, however, was this r.i hi. exercised,
the majority apparently preferring to wait and see how the
scheme worked. The assessment of the second year had to be
carried out while the first year's tax was still being paid,
and so, before the elders had really gained o!xprience, less
interest was taken in the assessment bec:.usoe most people were
content with their assessmnt but some thought of this in terms
of money rather than relative position and a certain number were
surprised at the increase in payment; but again there were
no appeals, chiefly because the increase .n the majority of cases
amounted to 60 cents to 80 cents but it focused more attention
on the Local Rate and all that it .implied and the need for
further exposition both by the chiefs and Administration was
7. During the tours made for this purpose which included
visits to each chiefdom care was taken to see that the princ-
iples underlying the -.!lication of the rules were understood,
particularly the method of assessment by the elders of as a
whole as distinct from any individual office bearer and the
right' of appeal. Each rule was explained. C mplaints and
suggestions were invited. There were no complaints against
the system this was always described as fair and certainly
the majority in each'court realized that mbiru was their tax
and went to thrir Treasury and nowhere else, but they wanted to
know how the money was spent and it was generally felt that not
enough had been done with mbiru to provide social services. It
was pointed out that though there had been a slight increase
in the yield of Lbiru as c:ri, _, ld with the old rebate, this was
for the specific purpose of building up the Reserve Fund and
until hat fund was established there could be no increase in
social services from Native Treasury unless they themselves de-
rived some service so much that they, and Ugweno were prepared
with a suggestion that the rate should be increased for the
specific purpose of paying school fees where Pare children were
in schools where fees had to be paid. This suggestion is to
be brought up at the next council meeting by the people of Usangi
and UTgweno so see whether the rest of the tribe are prepared
to support them. In addition the interest shown in Native
Treasury Expenditure was so great that the chiefs agreed to supply
each court with a copy of the estimates and the Final Financial
statement each year. The Usangi and Ugwono people put forward
another suggestion which was that each court should discuss in
advance the expenditure for the following year and send represen-
tatives to state the views of the court at the Budget session
of the council. The chiefs have agreed to this.

8. As to the method of assessment the proposal to record property
was welcomed in all chiefdors except Usangi ahd Ugweno. In
the latter opinion was divided and in Usangi it was definitely
against recording cattle on the grounds that no good Pare will
disclose how many cattle he owns and they maintained that
though others had agreed, it was a definite breach of custom which
they did not want to make yet. The discussions showed that the
preliminary grounldwork which had been carried out before the
introduction of the scheme had been sound and so the explanations
given by the chiefs and myself removed any lingering doubts
and difficulties. I was left with the impression that thelb; was
a very real understanding amongst the people themselves of the
tax and its principles and the .,afeguards provided for the just
working of the assessment. The point that the elders themselves
had a very real responsibility in this respect was very well
appreciated and was demonstrated in the assessment I watched,
some 2,000 in all.

- 17

9. At these assessments each can's case was discussed nd bodides
his property his hardships were considered, for instance locust
damage, Psick wives, uunber of childreon,school f1ies, and in
.the case of village.headman jle interference; with his own
oToney making capacity, which his public service caused,
without adequate renunation. Finally, on the completion of
the day's assessment the people were grouped in th. classes
to which they had been assigned and any discre ,ancies corrected.
In this way each man was able to cmpareu his position with those
he considered his equals and this visual test does :much to
explain the absence of appeals. In the assessment I saw not
a single man unsatisfied, though in a numLer of cases asssessment
was raised.

10. .*lftcr each day's assessment the Tlnjalma signs and dates
the list of as-sessmrnt, and forwards them to his chief. If
la personn is nrt present when he is assessed a n-te to that
effect is made so that special consideration 1cbe given to
his case should he appeal out of time owing to his absence.

11. Property is being recorded in full in asvoe chiefdons,
in Ugw~en in cases where no objection is raised, anid is not
being recorded at all in Usangi. I Crm nt vL- hopeful that a
workable formula will emerge from this information because in
the cases I saw it vas quite obvious that it was the exception
rather than the rule to state property accurately; for instance
in ost cases.oly thesha~bas -in existence at the time of the
asscssuunt were nontioned the short rain season shambas and
the irrigated crops were passed over. The result was that as
coipa rcd with the instinctive method the for ula reducedd
irregular results son io tines agreeing, in the r.a; rity of case
producing a result two classes, too low and in sono cases
hearing no relation at all to the 'Jinstinctive' classification.
It seems to me therefore tuat this year's records will not produce
accurate enough information to correct the forai:ulOa but I do
not regard this of par;-a.unt importance, forh thouh I believe
that eventually we will have to cnome to somec such system, it is
not an i:miedidate requirencnt. The question cross because of
the lack of nifformity between chief !o.as but tOhi year the
eld,;rc have been w. rklin on the assuniptio-n Vth:.- the c nit ill be
approximately 50 ceots and, judging from the resu]_t I a -w, the
grading will be uch -cre uniforan. I think, th-refcro, tnat we
can rely on the institnctive noethod for tw. or thre more years
at least; but we should continue to record property ai.Iing at
more accuracy -.ch y.;ar so that by the ti:.e tJi poc-pil thoserlves
fel the need for,and deonand, a for ula baroi olf :ascernlt, we
t. .ill/in a position to prrovido a workable and tolerably ,ccurate

12. At the asseass!int I attended I did n:t of course att-ept
to assess the people myself, but I did ask for explanations and
reasons for some of the results and these were invariably reason-
able a'nd sound. In one case at Usangi at th_.: grouping st.'+ge there
was sone discussion about young trader and it was suggested that
his wealth compared, with that of an oldish njin viio, had bo:en placed
in the class above and somo argued that the trader should be
moved up-; but this party was convinced by the others, who ar-gued
that th..i h the trader's wealth was apparently equal to that of
the older man, he was entitled to some relief because he had.
several young children to educate and because he was risking.his
wealth in trade whereas the older man's was comparatively safely
locked up in cattle. This is one- example of the thought given
to assessment of the elders and was shown consistently in all

13. The results of the first year's working of the local rate
were as follows:

- 18 -

(1) 2:Ir yearss who .-id graduated local rate
(2) Tax ,ayors who paid standard rate of 10i/-
either because they were ou of the district
and paid Alien Tax or were not assessed
(3) Rebate from (2) above Shs
(4) L:cal rate from (1) shs

Total to Native Treasury

(5) Yield to Native Treasury under Rebate
system would have been shs

Difference shs,
Amount set aside for :iiru Fund shs



2 2,940
. 49,050/72


. 36,035/00

. 15,955/70
. 15,000/00

There was a reduction of 400 in the number of taxpayers but
this was due to movements caused by the failure of the 1942 short
rains followed by abad long rain season and to war work and is not
related to thu introduction of the now rate.

DOCI r oI, N0.10
TheI Native Authority (Local Rates, Pare
District) Rules., 1944 'Mbiru''1

1. These rules may be cited as the Native Authority (Local Rates,
Pare District) Rules, 1944, and shall apply within the Pare

2. Any native ordinarily resident within the P- ro district who
is liable for house tax or poltax under the INative Tax Ordinance,
1934, shall pay an annual rate known as mbiru.

3. The Mnjama with the headman and elders of each area within
the Pare district shall in the period June to t 1.. ust of each year
on behalf of the Chief classify the people of the area putting
each person in one of the 14 categories given below according
to his ability to pay. The Chief shall then prepare a list of his
ratepayers so classified and present it to the Pare Council each
September. At the same time a list of those who s would be exempted
and who have been recommended for exemption by the elders of their
area will be prepared and presented to the Council by the Chief.

4. The unit of the rate shall be a 'Kivale' and the rate for
each class shall be a multiple of a Kivale as shown in this table:


Kivale 1
Vivalc 2
/ 4
S 8
f" 25
i" 30




rate will be

I! !T II
It II 11
n T Tn

It i Ii
1I 1 1I
t1 11 I!

11 11 ii
I II !

!i II Ii


i i


i i



11 ,

n t







- 19 -

5. The Pare Council on receiving: the Chiefs' assessmnts will
determine the value of the Kivalo. which will produce the money
required for the requirements of the Native Treasury.

(Note: The valuc thus fixed .ill require the comniont of the

6. There will be an h..iru Fund, so that in bad years that
,biru may be reduced in either an area or general ly and the
deficit made up from the Fun1, and in good years the rate
may be increased so as tc build the fund up te strength.

7. (i) The rate shall be paid at the same title as the native
tax and the amount paid shown on the portion of the reccipt
relating to ,_biru.

(ii) If a .nan considers that he has been wrongly o -ssified
by the i ljaa a and elders and not put in the category to which
he righiy belongs he may within 30 days state his objection to
the Native Authority of his area, and if still not satisfied
may appeal within 50 days of the decision of the Native Au-
ghority to the Upare Tribal Council, and if stillnot satis-
fied may appeal within 30 days of the decisi,-n of the Council
to the Listrict Commissioner whose decision thereon shall be

(iii) If the-Pare Council or the Chief of the areawhere he
lives is of the opinion that any lan has not been correctly
assessed they may call upon the assessing authority concerned
to justify its assessment before the Council and to adjust the
assessment if so directed by the Council.

(iv) If the Council is of the opinion that a Chiufdom
has not been properly -assessed it may appoint chiefs and elders
to go to that chicfdoin and theru with the elders of the area
concerned reassess the people to the satisfaction of the


Certified to be a correct translation of the vernacular
text of the rules made by the Native Authority of UPAPE attached
T.E. Pringle,
r ':'..,-.,i i.tor.

28th June, 1944


G.R. Sandford,
'Governor' s Deputy.

Dar es Salaam,
13th July,1944.
q*. .

- 20-

.auaR ntrativys frCry w UT o o b the D)istrict
Council aot S;e

Tumew:achagua imbwana hao hapo chini na ikuwtuim katil.
Baraza nKuu, Sa .n ili watusaidie kuyonysha mia:haka maaubwa
yaliyoko r;i,,iongoni miwa raia vja Ugwin; --

1. Suana olnb_
2. Bwana i-:,na e ikodomo
B, B"ana L"isi SiUuru.

-,-. .s washli-t viti vy ara B za Kuu "avpl;oec kwi haki
vwtaiafaailyizio a, .ari'. katika m2atraiko yac, a:n, a v.'liVi ..3.ofa..ya U"an j
,kaika :.b;ru. Tun21 twa.o-ba wapuv w posho lkwa u:pa ya '.irul
ya 1943-44. H ivi mnivyo ilivyokuwa i .L/ ya zsmanaii a.juavyo.

Sd. E,. .lifasi;. ;il-vi

BJADALA, YA L I;-J..TI A ..-,:
Copy kwa 1. w ana D.C. Same
2. The Native Court, Ugv'un,';.

T~1s ca-uses of the anti-M 'iru sentiments
iL_ Pf2r_ district.1

I. Wajunmbe wote wanakubaliana kama jina la "Ylbiru" haliolci
raia wa Upare, likituniwa katika kodi ya Ebiira, hivyo litumiwe
kwva watu wale wanaoliolo.wa na kuhusikana nalo, yaani wonye
Mizimu yao, lisitiwe katika kodi za Kisurikali- au Kodi ya
Kihazin a za \cnycji, manna likiingizvwa kwa rain wakati wa
kupimiana hiyu MbTiru huleta mambo yafuatayo:.-

1. Chuki na manaunguniko kwa raia wao lrwa woao.
2. Usiunbufu kil.a mwaka kwa kul:adilishiana vivale, tena
kula wakati ^iwingi wa raia na wa watendakazi pia.
3. Kurudisha nchi nyuna, kwani watu harwatajnribu 1:1.i *'nda
miti, kuwa na mashalmba ilakubwa, kujentna nyumbna nzuri, kuchonga
mizinga ya asali, au uchumi wootc, ka ajili ya kuo;opa kulipia
mbiru kubwa.

4. Kuttiukuabush'a utumrwa wa -,. i; :.u-, hapo rtu anapclinga-
nishva nguvu yako kwa dhamani ya n,;ombe asiyc nao.
5. 'iong o mwingi utatuniika kwa wakati w.;- hosabu za
kila namna.
6. Kututca katika haki za 7'.. ,-,~ji wotu na kututia katika
haki za Wa.,:gni Iwa minajili ya kulipia mashamba na vyoto kodi
ya Mbiru (Kudi ya hali).
7. Kuvunja 1ila y-tu nzuri ya kuficha siri ya mali.
8. Kulaumiwa na. watoto w;etu, vwtakapoona kama hawana
haki za Kicnyeji, ila vwamukuwa kama wagoini.

II, Wajumbo wanaona kama jina letu kwa ajili ya fodha zetu za
kutulea liwo "-.. !. YA J.i'JI", kama llivyo katika cheti cha
kodi, na raia walipo kudi ya namna moja tu kwa kila itu, bila
kuhesabu wanawake vwngi. Pedha iwe nyingi :ivwzayo kulipia waotot
wa mashulo yote, madogo mpaka :takubwa' n kulisha watendakazi
kwa mshahara wa kuwalon, hasa -.anjamnaa, Wachili, Uialao na wecnrine
waIna GU'l.,l
lajina ya Vlajumnbc ni haya:

S21 -

1, UT"weno : Eoki Charua, Hamisi Shunhulu, i-n...e
Nikode o.

2. Usanpgi Henry K.atani. SJofu : .-., Seth Kidis.,
Kivmndiko, Gerson Harisa.

'3. .1 Il- Hatibu Mshanga, Abdllah KijangwaiiRanadhani

5. 5 L
-. 1i',.;a :* Jum.c Kasira, Tuvako Scupeobl.c.

5. G-onja Ali Kalace, Koshuua Irioko.

r6. Hmba: Samweli Kirbuto, .ancotc. :londo.

7. Hcldaru: Kiordo e to

8. Sji: N ia.cs Swangena

9. Choae: Kiure Hgoya

DMCFUilI- NO. 13
Chifp. as true r:,, 1.-...,tat vs of the People.

Salamrna baada ya slam nawaacrifu kwamba barua yonu ycnyi .tarehe
2nd September, 1944, nintaarifu ya Llbiru, inonivwazilia.

Nataka kuanza kusmra wazi ya kuwa nyinyi mneoza kutarnka
mawazo yonu wenyewe tu walakini huimna Lmanlaka h-ta kidogo ya
kujiwekwa mithali ya imawakili wa wcvnyji wa U1Tc.sgi wala Ugvwno.
Walio kubaliwa sv.akili wa raia wao ni watawala (ndio Wafcmwea)
pamoja na wazej wao, sio nyingi raia watatu, la.

Mbiru mliotaja nyyiyi imewlkwa na Sheria ya Serkali haswa,
na watu wote lazimra kutii sheria. Kila rai4 ikiwea Ubiru yake
iz.epinvwa vibaya, ana haki ya kupata rufaani kvia Upare Trib.al
Council na tcka Uparc Tribal Council hata. kwa Bwvana District
Commissioner ndipp penye kukona ruf.aani ya Mbi.ru k!,a sheria
iliowokela no Serkali.

Tliepcwa n yaasi ya iuhakikisha shida yoycto mtakayoona wakati
wa kutumia Sheria ya Serkali, walakini ni a.'.rufuku kabisa kudharau

Ha-mjajaliwa bado kuonyosha ubaya wva Libixi. Takatazc yonu
hayana sababu ya mirana kwa ajili ya kusimanirshv:a juu ya ho.fu bure.

Katazc lenu la kwanza ni k7ra sababu ya shauri langu la
kutaka kuandika mali ya watu makusudi kupata njin ya kupima. vizuri
ibiru ya kila mtu; kwva kuwa Wapare hawapendi c-.ari hili, basi
nimekubali kuache kuandika mali ya watu ili hali ya watu ipimwe
na Wazoo kwa maarifa yao wvnycwe kama zairani.,; :. .. -ir'. kuari-
fiwa na. Bwana District Commissioner wenu paml%.oja na watawala wa
Pare ya kuwa kuandika mali ya watu kunmcachawa ka sababu hakufai
zaidi kuliko kipimo kilichopimwa na wazce.

ITazani katazo la pili ni kwa sababu ya kupgopa labda Serkali
ina nia, ya kuwaongezoa kodi ingino, kama kodi ya ngomlnb au kodi
ya ardhi. Fikira hii ni uoga usio na maana iatta kidogo. Tena
atakae fikiri hivyo anadharau ,cIk:ali kwa kudhani Scrikali ina
ujanja. Haswa wasiolipa mbiru vamo ndani y. hatari ya kulipa kodi ya
.ngormbo na makusuki ya kLepuk na nanakusudi ya kuepuka kodi yao
wanaombwa kulipa I) I r. ya nanna ya kickaoo..

Haya achilieni mbali wasiwasi wowaote. ,. .,;..:.i..i sisi sote
wakubwa wenu no iaminini Serikali ya kuwa hamwezi kucnewa hata

- 22 -

kidogo kwa kuchanga kodi ya ustaarabu. Mtaona makabila mcngine
karibu kufuata uongozi wa Wiapare kwa furaha.

The anti-7Jiiru protagonists as abiding to law.

Bwana IMkubwa, tunayo heshina kukutolca shukran.i kwa barua
yako, Ref. No. 1161/16/154 ya tareoh 8th Septmobor,'1944. Bwana
Mklubwa, ma-jihu yetu ni haya:

1. Twakujulisha wazi kuwa kaua ulivyotulaumiu'katika
barua yako p-,ra -- ya pili, sisi -tu mawakili w., '_Lia kwa idhini
ya Baraza Kuu. Rof. No. 7/1i/33 ya 27th Jmun- 1944, arnbayo nakili
yakCe twakupul. pho na kwa idhini ya Ilabaraza yetu, Usan.T i Rof.
No. 4/384 ya 30/6/44, Ugweno Ref. No. 10/1/124 ya .8/7/44,
ambazo twazifungasha hapa pia. Taz. Ujumbe wa Usangi wa 30/6/44
na Ugweno wa 7/7/44 ambao tulikupelekea.

Bwana Shauri macenyowe ni shthidi kw amba tunahojiana naye
tangu 17v18/7/44, tukisiairnma kara mawakili wa raia, pia tulipo-
rnandika Bwana Shauri na B. Kuu barua ya kuomba kibali cha rufaa
kwako tulijibiwa kama mawakili wa raia kwamba hatuna ruhusa
kufika kwakco.

2. Bwana L-kubwa, tuniosikitishwa sana na para ya nne ya
barua yako kwanba tumoidharau sheria ya Surikali. Sisi wonyewe
hatukuidharau, bali tulilota hoja zetu mnbole yako kalma mlivyo-
tukaribisha, tui;:-l i kuwa Serikali yetu tukufu ya Kiing.rcza,
yonyc uhuru kvwa kila mtu haiwezi kutuwJokea sheria inayokomea
kwa Bwana Shauri wa Wilaya ya Upare tu.

3. Bwana rikubwa, para ya 6 na ya 7 ya )barua yako. Jambo
la kuandikwa mali kwa ajili ya ibiru silo tu ila ni mojawapo
katika hoja zutu 8 ulizo nazo, tena tunasadiki kwamba shauri la
kuandik;a rmali litakuja tu sababu hakuna kii-i.: cha haki cha
kuijua hali ya mtu kilicho mbeol yetu, bila kulhsabu mali
ambayo ni uislho kia TWapare. Kipimo wazoo xwalichotunia kwa
kuwedika Nibiri kinaiuata mali kwa kubuni t-u, ndio sababu raia
wanaikataa Mbiru.

3Bwana isaubTwa, iwa kuwa Serikali yetu tuk.ifu ya Kiin yroza
inekuanini kutulia na kutu;.ia haki~, tunaunrojea uamuzi wako wa
mwisho. Uijituridhisha tatatii na kuunyenyekea.

', E 2 1-' NO.15

The reasons vhy Ibiru was introduced and its
admini srati on.
S alamu sans na.baada ya salamu nakuarifuni/': -.. barua yonu
ya tarche 15 Soptembur, na nyin:ine ya 30.9.44, juu ya habari ya
Mbiru, zcmcniwasilia slc.7. Nami nakujibuni yafuatayo.

2. Kodi hii ya nbiru baada ya kufikiriwa sans na VWo.i.'. .
na Wanjana ,cnu walipatana kuiomba Scrikali ii:.nzishe katika nchi
ya Upare. Sorikali ilikubali onbi hilo ndipo ib)iru ilipoanzishwa
mwaka jana na shoria zake zilipofanywa.

3. Ubora wa iLbiru ni kana walivyoona wakuu wonu na mtu yeyote
anaweza kuona mara moja, ni kuwa inatozwa kwa kadiri ya uwozo wa
mlipaji si kana kodi ya zamani ai:bayo matajiri, wasio matajiri na
masikini wote hutczwa saaw saws. Tena kodi hii ya mbiru inapimwa
kila.-::. .,':i'.L-;i ikiwa 'rmwaka ni wa dhiki au nj:a na mbiru ina-
punguzwa kiasi cha uwezo wa mlipaji kwa iwaka ulo, ao ikiwa
ni rwaka wa noona lab-iru huongezoka vile vile kwa kadiri ya uwezo
wa mlipaji. Na zaidi ya hayo kodi ya wake imefutwa.

- 23 -

4. Juu ya hoja zenu nane mlizotoa mini majibu yangu
ni hay-a.
(i)"Chuki na manung'tuniko i c .7 kwa ra.ia wao kvwa wao."
Kodi ya abiru inapimiwnana vazee a rtaa na wanjama.
Eaxa Ltu okiona kuwa mbiru aliyopimiwa a a nnjaEa na wazoo wa
ntaa wake si haki, anaweza kwenda kutoa shida yake abcle ya
baraza yakc katika. ruda wa siku 30 toka siku hiyo alipojulichwa
kiasi cha ibiru yake, na asiporidhika na -aoni ya bnraza, anaw'oza
kuomba rufaa kufika ambcle ya Earaza Xuu kwma muda a siku 30
tokta siku alipcjulishwa na baraza lake kiasi cha :bhiru yake,
ina pia asiporidhika na hukuinu ya Barazg Kuu anmvoza kuomba
rufaa kwma D.C. katika muda wa siku 30 foka sikui ya Baraza Kuu
ilipcmjulisha kiasi cha. imiru yake, na mna uzi ya Bwana D0C.
ndiyo ya waisho. Basi sioni njia ya kutokoa nianun-' uniko na
chuki kati ya raia.
(ii)"Usumbufu kila mwaka kubadilishana vivale."
liHpanr m masumbufu yatakayotokea: Kadzi ya kupina mibiru
ita..-..i-r hna hao waliohusika kama watendavyo kazi zao
ziniine katika Utawala wa Wcnyeji.

(iii)"Kurudisha nchi nyuma ....,"
E.biru ni kodi ya nchi yenu ya asili tena ni sawa sawa
na kodi za kisasa, kwa hiyo nidhahiri kuiwa itaipcleke /sio.7
mbele nchi yenu sio kuirudisha nyyur a. Sikubali mancno yenu
kuwa watu hawatajaribu kupanda i-iti, kuwa n naashamba nakubwa,
kujenga nyuimba nzuri, na kutenda nambo mEn.rino ya maana kwa
ajili ya kuoropa kulipia mbiru.

(iv)"Kuktunbusha utunw-a wa Wmaarabu.."
Manenb haya hayana rmaamna sababu haiwezckani kulinganisha
mambo mnawili yaliyo mbali r-bali.

(v) "Wongo mwinri utaturaika wakati wa hosabu......
Hapana sababu yo yote ya kutumika wongo sababu wazee
wa autaa na wanjama ndio watnkaopima uwvezo wva mlipaji e yeote,
kwva maoni yao wenyowo.

(vi)"Kututoa katika haki ya uwenycji na kututia katika
haki ya wagoni."
Kama nilivyokwisha kusema hii mbiru ni sawa n. kodi
za kisasa zinazotozwva katika nchi zilizoendolea katika hali ya
ustaarabu. Ubiru haitakufanyeni kuwa vwmgcni kma si'aba.u ni kodi
ya tangu asili katika nchi yenu. Je imskuli na nahcspitali yenu
mbona hayakutioni nyinyi katika haki za wageni?
(vii)"Kuvunja nila yetu nzuri ya kuficha siri ya mila....
Nirnakwisha kukuahbieni katika barua yan;gu ya 8.9.44 ya
kuwa jambo hili la kuandika mali ya watu halitafanywFa na ya kuwa
hali ya watu itapiniwa na iwaze kwa maarifa yao kana zanani.

Kunbo na hivi pia hamtaki basi ivfi vipi?
(viii)"Kulauliiwa na watoto vetu...."
Mbiru inatozwva na wakuu wenu kvwa sheria za kienyeji na
inaingia yote katika Hazina ya Wenyoji kwia ajili ya nmandcloo ya
nchi yenu, yamni clinu, utabibu, kilino na rmna,:ineyo, basi rnaenoo
yenu kuwa ntalaunivia na watoto wvenu wakakapoona kamni hawana haki
za kienyeji ila wahekuwa kana wageni hayanicloi.

5. Sasa nawapeni habari ya kuwa majimbo yote ya Tainganyika
pamoja na Serikali yote to T-,t ir,-,-ika paraoja na Serikeli yetu Wa
Secretary of State for the Colonies--Bwana ::ul w anayeangalia
mashauri ya nakoloni wanakumngalieni na kukustaaajabieni kwa kuwa

- 24 -

.ninyi ni kvwanza katika nchi t-ti ya Tangtanyika kuanza kuchanga
kodi k,,a- kadiri yahali ya raia sababu karibu n. m:.-kabila rmengine
yataanza kutoza kodi ya namuna hii ya kisasa. Kodi ile ya kiza-
-ani haitaendelea nialel0.

6. 11T ...-a,. yancu ya wish ni haya. Kama inayo rmashauri
yo yote ya kutua i.li kuinamisha kodi hii ya nbiru nitafurchi
kuinasikiia lakini uashauri ya kukataa kodi hii na kutaka kurudia
kodi ya zamani sitaynsikiliza.

Di'-'i- i_ 2 1' ]0o_16

in the- Pare Distict.

BvJana Mhoeshiniwa, tunayo hcshii a kufilka i': le yako loo
kwa ajili ya shida yetu tuliyonayo, tukiamicni na kutu;;aini sana
kama tutaupata .isaada wako.

(1) Tanga m.wozi wva Juni ia nwraka huu wa 1944 mpaka loo
hii, turnekuwa na uchojiano krubwa sana na Wiatawla wenyeji' i:.:m...
District Cor :issionor na Bwana Provincial (Co :issioner votu, kwa
ajili ya kodi hii yenye imadaraka, anbayo imoins-izvwa katikr. Pare
Disit~ict tanr^ rwaka 1943..

Kwa kuv,,a ua,,.uzi wa Bwana Provincial Co:-:miissionor ni kwvamba:-
(a) Wiaf.. na Wanjanra (Native chiefs and their Iiisitors) ndio
walic ull-tea kodi hii ya "nbiri", hapo yaonckona .kaia sisi raia
hatukui taka tangu amwVanzI .

(b) ..-. '.>u yako aliyotea katika hoja zetu nane (8), hayaturidhishi,
sababuhata yoye ui.enyewe amreuny-;sha nashaka marngi aliyonayo
juu ya kodi hii.

(c) Bwana 1PC., katika kifungu cha v cha buarua yake Rof.Ho.
1161/16/168, anaso:.na ya kasa, Wanjaria na VWazsco i', nmitaa ndio
.atakaopinia uw!oz w.a rilipaji ye yote, k:a naoni ynac wcnyOw7;.
Lakini ni dhahiri ya kala watu hao ha'watawoCz ku]ai.piia watu kI7a
njia ya haki, kvani hachao ndio wailikuwa vzkipinia vatu kodi hii
tangu inmanza tpaka loo, na manung' uniko ya. i';olca.o

(d) Tena Bw:ana P.C., ikatika kifungu cha vi ch:a baru ,yale hiyo
tuliyoitaja hapo juu asona kana "rabiru" ni kodi ya tangu asili
katika nchi yetu, lakini si sawa kwa sababu .uhiru ya sasa haina
asili roja na i-biru ya zanani ya Wapare. Sisi raia, haturidhiki
na uaaLuzi huo.

(2) Panoja na barua hii, tunakuletoa nakili za barua tulizo-
andikiana na Bwana P.C. kva ajili ya nbiru, tena tunakuletea na-
kili ya zilo hoja zetu nano (8) alizozitaja katika barua yake
Rof. No. 1161/16/168.
Barua nyinsine zote ziko kwa Bwana P.C., yaani (a)Barua
za Upare Tribal Council No. 7/1A/33 ya 26.6.44 No. 17/1B/2A/158
ya 21.7.44, na No. 17/1B/2A/180 ya 28.8.44. (b) Barua ya
Ewana D.C. No. 5/11/151 ya 29.7.44, ,
(c) Barua Xa raia za tareho 13.8.44, 13.8.44,28.8.44, 2.9.44.
(d( Barua za Native Courts Usangi and Urwono : I:To. 4/364 ya
30.6.44 na No. 10/1/174 ya tarehe 8.7.44.

Bwana ~-: :i.i- 'li't. twakucmba kwrTa o : ;-':.kevu utui ie na. saburi
uzisone hoja zetu zot- juu ya kodi hii isiyo ya uhuru, bali
iliyo risiba wa Uparc ili iwezekane kuondol.wa.

(3) Sisi raia wa Nolrth Pare (Us.,ang na UTwcnn ) tunautazania
nsanada na uamuzi wako .va haki juu ya kodi hii ya nbiru.

- 25 -

.1 a ... thef ~rcl chiefs who intro-
duced -.u and a {onerl list of the causes

uku an "j. _. .. hcsh rina
Bw-u..ci ..a ric'tu mm c und a, sc.:1 ..y k,--,v -; iyo h...shi
tukit d i y. u 5; r a e ufa-" _u. .. kul.tian l:odi ya ilbiru

S Tuii.wan likia K 3Ewana Distric t Co:mis. on.r .m a ya 15th
,. 1 yua ku b, rufar. na ya 13th tce 1ta 3 v
a .a u ya... ..,,, twuitcuii hi s hv-a.
Kodi ya M/biru thiniiwa no Untawala w-bt z-r a,
kwa hila .:il. hiari vy Raia na ,7aeen. In -,. w:tuu ;vQii pn
Kcoi ia i',Liru vwaka 1943 na 44 h tukupnrda tuliin iza k a
laziot.awala aiipoona mianur.: 'uniko ya R na, w; kanja a
namn laka wakaitan a.jur.L), wa kutUt.c Reaia .a. Iar-. Ku- laj
wenyeji Sale siku 10 Julai 1944, nan a .l.- .n : ala ra i ai
S-: ssa -atawala wanafanva ikta .,ra j e ku.shawshi
Raia o ai tunlazidi ku.-a iaa. Hii y.dhubuti e.:.a.. i.i. ^
tulilipa joui ya .i.biru rniaka hiyo hatuklupoe:,. .

Sababu za kiikat:" a Kodi yea b'iru ni hii:

Twaona Koa dya TIiru (Ki- ya H.al ) itatul-tc a .... hi- i

1. Chuki ria manunr uniko ,kwa Raia wao p7a v\ac.
2. Usunitbufu kila ni aa kwa kubadili,/ viv1al; tcn hul, v,--ati
rwingi wa Rain na wa vwatnda kazi pia. a
3. Hurudisha. i hi nyia, kwani watu hnawtajaribt kupanda :iti,
kuwa naiushaiba nrakubw: kujena nyuiba nzu,,i cuccna izin
ya asali au uchumPi vwo;vcte, kwa ajili ya kuc.i -o ni r- kuIu2a
4. nutuk.dki ibusha uttuxiw, va VfaaraiLu, hcyp .t. .nn.p linjmihvia
inguvu zaei kua tha iini a n p t n lin n a-nis nahwa
5. Vonro iv:insi uat .a waat-i.ti wa Hiesnabu, za kila nanna.
6. Hututoa katilk haki za uunycji wetu na kutu- a k-fctika h,-i
wi:Heni kwn d.;injili ya kulipia rnashran -tc kodi ya iru
(7,di ya )
7. Huvuinja mila yetu nzuri ya kuficha airi ya r:,.i.
3. Kula nuiwa in wab-to wctu, wa-.akapco-na ka-n -!nva.na hlki za
Kionyeji, ina wani:kuwa kana wacCni.

fanla haina haki kulin-anisha Kodi va biru naIu Yaili .
sababu hizi:-
1. -ITi u ya sa anai ilikuwa hailipwi na r;San, hii yalipw.
2. 'zco -ak-isha uez wanac h.alipi tena; hii ulipwa na incte.
3. ,_tbiru ya asili haikuiwa na nadaraja; hii hulini nEuvu za ntu.

a nliru ya asili bailipwi kila rawaka; ilikuve skrni ya iraka
ya nenrna.
5. L biru ya asili haikuonbwa na t 7 ,-I: i. rn-ia walipa-tm a kutoa
kvwa hiari Yo .1.0 : hii -YnrZ4 iShVwn.
6. biru ya asili -h--.,eown -:.,.- twwaula cllhia il a-. :,1
iizimau, hii yadaiwa n.a ILtwanla.
7. T' iru ya asili hailipwi na tu a-li:,..- na., hii yli
c kili chetu o oloo shida hii yikipay-.
Kva haya yote tw.al ta kilio chetu kwnko utonroio- shida hii itakay-
otuondola. uwicnyeji.

- 26 -

Twakusaliau lkwa yo. SNi sici Iaia wako :tiifu wa vitala

Sd. Kiure I-Noya, Cho.ee
Enoki I[waiibi, Gonja
Sa:- .eli Kirbute, I.iaba
Ancai Shengena, Suji.

.-. ., C._.ZEs in rcyard cJ
...., '- .. .... :, ... t. t ,- 1

Sisi raia wa .Pare nzima itnayc heshitma i.ClQ yako kuluarifu
ya kama: /

(a) Kwa kiwa hatukuridhika tna uaIuzi wV.ako juu y Kodi. ya i:.biru
wala hatukt.ridhika na uanuzi wa Pr.oincial Coc.mi'ssion;r juu ya
Ilbiru, tiuneyapeleka aniung'uniko na kilio chetu ,wa 'Th Chief
Secretary f'or the native Affairs.

(b) Sisi ;tuko tayari kulipa kodi lp]ya yoto ye nmama raoja isiyo
na naldaraja, i.takayofikiriwa na' `,atavwala pa i..-a na Raia.

(c) Kwa kuwa hatujui kama mashauri yataka.twa kaba ye January 1945
tena hatuuendi kuch6lewe.sha Kodi ya Scrikali Kuu, sisi tutalipa
Kodi ya Soriali kuu tu, yaani shs. 7/50. XKodi ye Hazina itanTgoja
nppaka mkatohowa wat ;liashauri ya ~FIiru.

Si si rea ako v watiifu wa e Paro nZirt,

Sd. E[asudi Kivandiko, lUsan i
S' tdalo.h Athiu.ani Ugvjrno
Kiure j ya, Ch.>ne
William Sol.ajino' Cnja
ioosi Shengena, ou ji
Jui;la Kasira )
Salono :..i-,) Lbbagi
Si..iion Lushino, Hedar -

i. ,C.,2 NO. 19
General discontent against ibiru (Graduated rates)19

1. Sisi raia wa South Fare tunayo heshima ,i'bole yako na r bele
ya Enzi yctu tukufu. 'i.;"::i.J sta barua yetu hii yenye kilio juu ya
Kodi ya dhulurma yaani Kodi ya i.biru, tukiaini n, kutrunnni sana
.msaada wako. Sisi hatustahili ukukuardi.kia ba.rua kama hii, lakini
hatuna njia nyingino ya kufanya kwani ::;''lana Dis.trict Commission r
'na Provincial Cor inissionor turiwowaandikia lakini ,:ajibu yao haya-
kutuxidhiSha, kwani wanafu. at a yale ya Watawala wetu (Wafumiwa)
aubayo ndiyc wanayotudhulurau kwayo. Tarehe ye 14.11.44 Bwana P.C.
alifanya ._]:c.1 :,.-, Same lakini hakusikiliza kili" cha Raia alisimama
na Watawala. Ikava laziia kilio chetu tulete mbole yako na
twaamini kuwia utatusaidia na kutupa haki juu yea Kodi hii tunayoikataa.

2. Kodi yea ,.: .iu iliingizwa na Viatae.ala wetu '1afumwa na ,.' ;!n ama
kwahila, bila hiari ya Raia na Wazee. Ingav:a tuliipa Kodi vya
Mb'iru ,imvaka 1943-44 ho.tukuponda tuliingizva kwa lazira. Walitunga
sheria zao: wenyewo bila Raia kufahanishra, na kuandike mabarua
marefu katika Sorikali kuwa sisi Raia tunaomba lkuwa tulipo Kodi
yetu ya kizamani ya "Ibiru." Nasi hatukuwanbia shauri hili.

- 27 -

Kustukia.. twaamibiwa iko Kodi ya ::.,iru (ya hali yaani vivale),
nasi ikatula.imu kutii tu. .M.uda wi -toe huu ukawa wa nanung'u-
niko rengi.

3. wakia 1943 k va ki.c.j kilihusabi.wa kuwa no. thanmni
ya senti 40 na 1944 iina thaiani ya senti 50. it-.etu ha:..una
kivale kinachouzwa hivyo. Raia waliproona nab.iliko hay yasiyo
na haki waliji.a niashaka.

4. SababL. pa kukat kFodi ya .,'u (ya hali ya vivale) tazuaa
Rufan kwa P.C. Mapo nyvruia.

5. .ku..utu.Lia nakili ya Barua tu.liyovwcandikia ; atcala wctu
kw.a.ba h,- tu tali pa kodi ya [tbiru i:-abla shauri lotu halijakatika .
Tutalip. Kodi ya Serikali tu L..i shs. 7/50 kwa 0 iwaka ujao

6. 'Twapenda ufalhaau karm. Kodi hii yapcndwa na 'atv..ala tu
wala hatufahanu -vana siri gani. Sisi tuko tayari kulipa Kodi
'"'-: yo yote ya nauna n:oja isiy( na cadaraja it 1akaycfikiri-wa
na Uiatawala pamja no Raia.

Tuvnoaut=za:ia uamuzi wako kwa uchu na .;i:.aini nakuu,
kwani nasi tu w;nna vwa Dola ya haki na uhuru c-ni-.i ya Ecn.or'. ya
Union Jack.

salaama. ITi sisi Raia wako watiifu wi South Pare:

Sd. Kiure Ngoya, Chone
Enok' : '. i, Gonja
Juna Kasira, i'thiea
Sar:weli Kimbutor .- ...:.
inosi "".2 --ra. Suji
Simioni Lushino, Hedaru.

DOCUTI-T i0. 20
S" Pctition front MIr. I. Gerson MIarisa and two
others regarding. the Fare G-raduated Lrca:l
a 20

All concerned dwere duly informed that I would hold a public
meeting at Samre in the corning of the 14th ':ve;ber in ordor
to hear any complaints there nay be against the introduction in
the Pare District of the graduated l.-cal rate.. ir. 1 GUerson
.-l ri -, Mr. Hanisi Shu'huru and Mir. Enok Charua, although
specially notified, did not attend the meeting, but came to Same
the following norninr, as I was in my car on the point of leaving
for Tanga after having spent seven days in the Pare District,
sleeping at Saoe every night. In the circ -stances I naturally
did not stop to hear what they had to say, especially as I had
replied to their points fully in writing.

2. I should add that an unsigned letter of .. 1st NIovu:.;i.er
received in thi;; office on the following day ar. obviously inspired
by -r. Gerson ;-1:.I :., purports to ;nanate frcon

Kiure oya of Chone Chief don
Enoki Lvia-ubi of Gonja Chiefdon
Sawe!li ;.Limnbute of Mamba Chief do
Amosi Shngena of Suji'. Chiefdorn
I did not answer this let er, in view 'f the arrangenmnts that
were iade to hold the iweating mentioned in the preceding par graph.
Although each one of the alleged writers of this letter had been
notified of it by his Nativo Authority not one f theu attended

- .28 -

the meeting in person. It is significant that those persons,
hhese persons like those mentioned in para 1 above, arc
Lutheraran ;issi.on toa e.,'ors no"w paid from Govcr- ment funds.

3. The meeting I. hold at Same on the 14th jov'mber was attended
by the District Commiscioner. all the Pare District chiefs,
with sole exception of Joseph of '-'- v;, who '.-.as recovering .from
Pneumronia, and their advisors and some 500 natives o,-.,, all.
over the Pare district all of whom had been asseecxed at over
shs. 10/- per head, :I. eldin both tax an0 local .tt.I wi-sh
to emphasize th Lao not one of those t .:-.--. rs who had benefiti;e
from the system of graduation, notwithstanding that some of
then were included in the higher categoriesfa attended the hmeting
and that the _obal ".i'mor of taxpayers of the categorioc (5 to 8)
of those who diiJ ttoe. amoun t to no fewr. tholn 10,135. It
was stated by the Cli.c.e-: that agitators had been threatening
to burn the ho uce of those who did not :-.,*-'. ''. the protest
against the graiunat: local rate by :a.:iling to be present at
my meeti.ng.iha ia n r., was the spirit in which the meeting
waa held.

4. I opened the meo'.:g by. explaining it". objects and reasons
and i;hen called for :h'o persons named in paragraphs 1 and 2 above
an.d, as I -have alrneady tated, not one of tholr. was: Dresent. Other
Lutheran and one S. vr.th Advcntist missionn teachers got up to
speak on behalf of ith people. I at once explained that it is
only' the ITatbive A-.uthori-;ies that I recognized as the representatives
of the people and tht the teachers and others like them who
had something to sa-y Iad better speak on behalf of themselves
and themselves alone. To that they replied that in that case
the mI'eeting would be a very long one and i re-ported uo the
effect that I was in n. hurry. After some murmuring, the
procedure I in isted upon was followed. The :;-::. :s were-
practising and former teachers.

5. Some of the points .wh.ic-h t-he spokesmen triedto make were:-

(1) Assessment by. ones neighbours (i.e. the elders ) is
(2) It is contr:r 0t tribal custom to have one's property cou-
nted and recorded.

(3) Cl :o 'Cs of acoss ront on revision wae not understood.

(4) oear of conse, ,uent higher as-sessmeornt will prevent increased

I first answerel thse que stins, and then road and explained
the two letters I had written on i;h 8thi Scpttember and 15th October-
of which I see th; :. r..., ,orson Marisa and the two others have
furnished you with copies. I reiterat ed that in view of the
objections raised the i;tempt to register property had been
abandoned and the ""incinctive," method 'ad be on resumed. All
that resulted fror: .i.scs sions at the meeting which lasted four
hours, was that the tac:chors and their followers definitely
preferred to pa3y a f.la, rather than graduated rate. This is
partly the influence of the neighboring. Chaga who, apparently
on the accepted prir.ciple that there are r.no poor Cha.. have
introduced the flat ra'te.

Education *... shs. 2/- per taxpa ..
Forest ..... .. /50 "
Post-war plann... 3/- "I

It appeared to me, and I said so at the meeting, that the speakers

- 29 -

posed as being ke ..L- i l hted and blind, at the sane tine.-kemn-
sighted because they pretended to see something that did not
exist, i.e. Governm-nt's hidden motive in the introducing the
graduated rate, and blind cause they refused to see the adva-
ntages of the graduated rate in spite of all explanations and

6. When speaking to the Chiofs after the neuting, they expressed
the opinion that the teachers probably consider the abolition
of the plaral wives tax at the sane tiue as the introduction of
the graduated local rate was a neans cf giving relief to non--
Christians at the expense of the Christians and therefore the
graduated rate was an anti-Christian iiovenent to be fanatically
opposed at All costs. The use% of the word rIbiru' lends colour
to the view naintain.d by the teo..chers that an attempt was
beinn~ nade to revert to pagan customs.

7. Th, District Com0iissioner I fear that there is growir'
in the Pare District a teachers party in deliberate opposi.on
to the Native Authorities, The teachers are in a,strong -position,
for apart frou their being better able to express thusclves
and to influence the young generation, they c.r, in the eyes
of the Pare, including the chiefs theuselves, indispensible, so
keen are the local natives on education. It is obviously better
that there should be no education al all than teaching of the
wtong kind. In this natter the active assistance of the Director
of Education and Information Officer is urgently requested with
the object of winning the teachers to our side. As I point out
in my letter No. 1161/16/136 of the 1st August in reply to your
saving No. 30030/66 of the 14th July the Provincial Administration
cannot be nore while there is only one administrative officer
stationed at Saie.

'U7.0. 0onavia
Provincial Commissioner


S Enquiry on the Cr: rl;i....ted local rates imposed
in the Pare District.

"I an directed to acknowledge the rec-ipt of your letter
of the 'l8th October, and your further enquiry of 22nd N'ovei-ber,
regarding the graduated local rate inpcsed in the Pare District,
and to inform you that the matter is receiving attention. A
further communication will be addressed to you in due course.

b. ; iL'. i N0.22

,JEauiry by Gerson larisa to chief secretary on
the anti-mbiru letters sent to hin.22

Barua zetu za 18/10 na 22/11/1944 za .Mbiru zimletufikia
twaomba jibu.

/sttanped in Secretariat Dec. 8, 194,47

DOCUMETRNT ITO. 23 : Chief :Rn1prtar' s.answr to arson Marisa(Pare)
on the anti-mbiru letters sent by hi,.23

I am directed to refer to your letter of the 18th October
regarding -the graduated local rate collected by the Native Autho-

- 30 -

rities of the 1are district and to inforn you that it now
appears that the matters which you raise have ;:cn fully dis-
cussed and explained to you and others by thl Provincial
Commissioner, Tanga. It also -appers that v':on the Provincial
Commissioner held a meeting in public on the 1-th of oilovonebr,
of which you rucsived special notice, in order to discuss your
ropresontations and explain the difficulties ncetii'nod, you
did not appear until the next day when he was oni tlh point
of departure.

2. I an now to inform you that Governhent has nothing to add
to the explanations which have already been givn both publicly
and privately by the Provincial C-n:i'ssionr in regard to this
inatter, and that the Native Authorities will receive every
support in the proper collection of the gradua-ted r.te.

" .. ,* ..[-..< '. ~.. ,.
''-" DOCUBET 1TO. 24
.:.-i- -'" tritius assured of the Gvornmont's
.s.Upcrt in coll.ectim; the Graduated r-.tes.

I am directed to acknowledge the recceipt of a letter datod
the 21st of November .and signed by your ulf and five o-ther
persons on the subject of the graduated rate now inposd by
the ..tive Authorities of Pare District, and to inform you that
Government has nothing to add to the full explanations of this
matter which h.:vo been Liven by the District Co-amissioner, SaOe,
and the Provincial Cu- iissioner, Tansa.

2. I ii to add that the Native Authorities will receive very
support from the Govc..inn.,nt in the proper c.llction of the
graduated rate.

i 8Te Tachers Paorty' .in Pir District and its
opposition to the OGraduacto ras.2

I have addressed you separately about the "Toach-.rs Party,"
which has beon foi-.ed in the Par, District with the object of
opposing the iativc Authoriti.es in their orts to rake a
success of the graduatedd local rate oxporima t. The ob; action
of the teachers and their :isguided folloiiwer is to graduation,
probably influenced by the flat local rates preferred by their
neighbours the Chagea.

Request addressed to chief S cretary asking
him to Come to. Pare to exp)l in the Pare aitizun,
:about the Graduated rates.

Earua yako no, 10849/1026/10 ya 9 Deco:b-or sisi raia wote
wa P.are twaouba ufike tuikucleze shidan ztu kwxa mi:domo Lwana
province tanga clivyonlez ..a na kukuoleza si lrioli tmna
uchungu sana kwanba tutapata Ytiat so yasiyo stahili.

: The 'Teachers Party' in Pare District and its
opposition to .Lbiru.27

- 31 -

I an directed to refer to your letter Io. 1161/16/;76
of the 27th NoTverbor, 1944, on thi subject of the part played
by certaionission -.teachers in thu or :.tion of r tista nce
to the payrv nt.of the graduatl.- local rate in : Par District, and
to inform you that ,when thes, papr w-re broug ht t the notice
of thu Governor in connection with your requoti't for assistance
of the Education DoDartm.nt His Excellency observed -hat this
nwas not a natter for the .ducati n do art ent' intervention.

2. He further reaorked that the question was :no fr direct
action by the Adminstratiin in collection of the nate, and that
the people of Pare shacl n:t bu allowed to think that because ; a
yan is a teacher ho can evado his ju.t dues as a tax-payor or
that he will be treated with any special teiderness if he, resists
payment. Tie. rate should be coio-_ctCe in the rdinary way.

Thr ._cvcrniont Ea plea for sport to the activee
a .thorities in the collection of the Graduated
atc.ts. 28
I. ,am directed to acknowledge receipt of your telegram
of .the 22nd DCo-eabcr, re-..vlin the collecti-: of the g-raduated
local rate in Pare District, and to inform you that the Govern:.:ent
has nothing to to to what has already beun conveyed to you in
regard to this matter in my letter i l:. 10849/102,6/ ;of
the 9th Dccurabor.

2. I an also to nephasize again that the rate must be paidand
that th. Government will givo the Native,Ac d.inistration evory
support in its collepticn. .,.

DC T:::,- O0. 29
...: :i .i_ is Te.a.chers' oppcsiticn to the
.I.1adatut __ates..29

On the 22nd Doceinber I went to Sainl at the. District Conmis-
sionor's request to interview soLe mission teachers who had beon
stirring up opposition among the people to the graduated poll tax,
"b'iru". The teachers were

B.276 Gerson :; i'isa of Usanmi Schcol (L1theren)
B.1854 Henry Katani of Kilomeni School (mIC.)
L.1385 Enoki Kyarua of Kifula Schc,! (Lutheran)
B.666 Aza :.':-..-': of Bonbo Scaicol (Lutheran)
B.1231. Oboni l.bonea of Borabo School (Lutheran)
B.2174 Ejneza M.iuiba of rIanka School ( "
B.1093 Guheni Shaidi of Vudoe School ( "

Allv re present save Enoloki harua.

2. The District Comnissionor, Chiefs Kib:cha of Sane and
Kigono of Gonja, and I devoted the greater part of the day to
hearing how the teachers c:aie to be involved in the agitation
and their objections to Mbiru, and to explaining the reasons
for the graduated taX.

3. Not one teacher could produce a single valid objection to
the tax. Their only real complaint was that it was difficult to
assess people fairly and to maku sure that different mitia
and chiefdoms wer. assessed on the same scale. They could not
produce a.single case -in which one of their acqui ntancc had
been unfairly assessed, and it was easy to show that proper
machinery existed for tih hearing of appeals and the levelling
up of the assessment between different areas,

- 32 -

4. It appears that :
(a) The first 3 3 Y thornn fare, w',re originally
chosen to represent to the Bara a .Luu th,, iceas :f a section of
people of Usangi and Ugwno concerning IT- T '. Th&ir main
fault lay in thu fact that they had subsequr tly written a
letter of coniplaint to chief Sacretary without ev ven inforn:ing
the District Cor!imissioner.

(b) i',! other 4, front South Pare had thrust themselves
into the business, though they pretended that t-, had boon
forced into it by popular clanour. They had beun guilty of
holding meetings without the kn~owldge, or consent working
of the Nativ- authorities, deli:beratoly worklin up an opposi-
tion to the Nattive iAthorities and probably instigating people
to refuse payi-mnt of the tax.

(c) Aza in particular had been guiltyy cf showing open
contempt of the Native Authorities and had boon heard by one
of the Chiefs instigating people t, raise ronoy. for the purpose of
opposing the tax.

5. M'y iuprescion is that G'erscn is in the iain honest though
mistaken in his opposition and is unlikely to n.-e further
trouble. Aza and ineza- are trouble-makers with an exaggerated
opinion of their own iup.ortance a:nd ability and are quite
likely to be a nuisance again. ;The others are of no great account.

6. 'After we had gone into the matterr thoroughly I informed the
teachers, that their conduct could not be tolerated and pointed
out their duty as teachers to support the authorities and tech
obed once t he law. I warned then that their political acti-
vities were endangering thL work of their cis .i:rns,
S. .... ..... .... and
that in future any seditions activity on th.e ,a.rt of z.:,ission
teacher would result in a held up of grant.-in-a-id, since the
District Conmi:ssi -nor could not sign the required certificate
on the paymnnt voucher while the teachers in the school were
working against the Governiuent. I gave thel an O~-dir to obtain
fror any political activities in connexion wh ith L.:u L: yond
their c:imaon right to state their opinions and :ake any justi-
fiable c. il.'ints in opun boraza, and I warnl th.u that if they
were Guilty of any further i.isdeioan ours they could no lon.:er
be teachers.

7. They/=, dLy opinion no excuse for not understanding the
Mbiry and their own duties and position in r nation t' it, and
if any of their is ,again guiJlty of editions activities I shall
ask you to cancel his teacher's certificate .

8. 1 an sending a cpy of this letter t, the ssistant iEdu-
cational Secretary of the Lutheran lMssion for his information
as the .nattur closely concerns hin.

l'i, g'.. :M 50

Tho .e A.l 1; fc d 1 ti. 1

With Attorney General's opinion I think it is very doubtful
if evidence on oath or affidavits against individuals will be
forthcoming .

If there is definite ovidcnc that as a result of the agi-
tation and duneoni'stration at Sa labour is being withdrawn
or intircted (sic) /In the docuacn 7 fren working on essentiall
war product such as that of X sisal-'" and ruhber does Attorney
General consider Defence Regulation To. 23 cannot be invoked

--33 -

against loaders of a moveuont which has this result. If so
please state briefly reasons for this view.

1, I: N. 31

S.. 4 The anr..ti-Mbiru dc.oenstrators atiSr.. and the
ring-leade rs.

.... It is because the ringleaeers are succoding in provnting
the law from following its nor..al course that in my tel.. ;r-
of February 21st I recor..1inded actin. under Defence regulations.
In the circu.istances, I wish to C. ,".- io that ad .issible. evi-
donce is oxtr aeely difficult to collect if is obtainable at
ll. Since co.m-plianc with legal advice would take considerable
tin.l it is un .reasonable to. expect th nil.itary to remain at
Sae2 after the deputatin are-turns frcn Us:,ngi this evening as
expected and subject to your approval I propose ,o. to inform
the Brigadier adding that his nelp [ay again be required in the
event of serious adverse reactions to any arrcats which nay take
place in due course if and when, adequate evidence is obtained.

Dononstrators at Sane at present number 1200. Acdlissible
evidence of reasonable belief that they will coi:._,it broach of
peace or-provoke.others to do co is lacking according to the
Superintendent cf Police (Wolton), and thcrofc.re no action is
possible under section 72 of' Penal Code.

COT;Z. .. NO. 32

ITh: Chiefs of all areas except Suji and St,.,~ have
reported to eo by letter or tei.gram r thcat their people have
turned up at their ta; collc.ioiun Earazzas. but in each casu thu
vast majority have tendered 12/- and said they intend to pay.a
flat rate and not the graduated rate. The C iofs of course
refused to accept this and the people frun tihe South Pare Chief-
dous have come in here arriving at intervals till today there
is a crowd, which I esti ito at about two thousana me n in Sane.
In the i.n.uatinc u '. '. .:, K'icha the Chairman ,with a letter front
: :visited Usangi and Ugwono front where the first lnws of trouble
had come. iHo found that :.t Usangi there were reasonable nunbor
of people who realized that to refuse .to pay b iru would be an
offence and advised their fellowsc- to pay and tlien protest in
the hope that theb law should be withdrawn. Doth the Chair-ian
and :Lf..iw, Sabuni arei2 satisfied that Usangi'will now pay. U..wono
was more obsJtnate but i.,;ibacha and Minja are of pinion that
as soon as the Ugeno peoplee see Usangi payi.:n. they will' fcllo

2. As far o the peoplee who have come into oa,.,e to oe m are
concerned I have pointed out to then that the law is the law
and.-a1ust be o!)byod and that therefore they ;.ust pay the r::te:
having done this if they were of opinion that the law was bad
and should be withdrawm They should put their request throu-gh
the proper channels that is thrc.ugh the Chiefs who would sub-
lit it to me and I would forward it. What the G.vernj.ent decision
would be I could not say but I could promise then that the
Government would consider r presentations iL'de this way. As
the crowd had already sent for the TUs.ngi people (i,)Lwana of iwe.ibe)
sent the telegra:.) they asked to be allowed to wait for thcemi
I said that I had no objecting *to this but thk7y "u.st u-,perstand
that the law.must be obeyed r:nd that no increase in nuimbrs
would make any. difference to that fact. I have little doubt
that they will pay without furthertroubleo The Ushani people
should arrive on Sunday and will rupert after seeing the people

- 34 -

again. They are quite- polite and orderly and peaceable but
wilfully blind aind afraid that if they do not'stick together
soume of thou will be victi.is oe hence the r crlost to rb allied
to wait fur Usangi. If they sawv that ha .pe t h whole crowd
would be prepared to niake a?_t_,yras cf theu' ,lvOs and follow
the "'victiins" -into: whatever punijshlaent thiy' uffored.

3. A bad fLature of the den.oonstra.tion is the distr-ust they
shew of their Chiefs. They regard the local rate laws as having
been introduced by their chiefs at :lry instingati ;- an for sone
reason try to persuade thuiiselves that it Ls nothing to do
Switch the G-veornlant fori when they express loyalty a.nd obedience.
,hen it was poi nted tc their : that refusal t.-, pay the rate w-as
a defiance Cf the Govcrn.-!nt threy said t-hey did not ,,liev
it though pu ttir it rather nore politely saying for instance
"You say it is disob eyina the G-ovorrnn t ut wi. do not look at
it take that". /like that'/

4. Thero was nothing now they had to say ab-ut '.'Jiru. It was
usual for a speakr- to start with "We have coe hero to say we
cannot pay Ibiru beco-.use the burden is toi;. h .vy fo' us." In
many cases it then transpired that the speaker's tax plus rate
cane to lscs th.'n the shs. 12/- he was rc.eady and willing to pay
and thIe spakeior e udI admit that it was nct the presennt rate
that he va,;s v;or:ud a; ut but th dar t i-t it-would go up and
up. One speaker definitely c.i:1 that he -was
protesting against L'biru to save his children. it was of
course poin-tled cut to the3, that the rate requires the approval
of the Governuent but though impressed they did not f. l
that was a sufficient saofeguarding to defeat their wily chiefs.

5. It was pointed out that if individuals had been too highly
assessed they only had to state their cases and the question of
hearing their appeals out of tine would be scym pathetically
considered but not a soul was interested in this. Another fear
thahtI b f-rgt ward depended on the fa.ct that they are
the only tribe who are required to pay a gr-.duate rate and
they feel there is oc. 'thing wr n about and -it not b
that they are being vi2-cti"i.ed. i:.er is no :ride, in being

6. COe other striking fact has e2 rged.m Th vast majority
of speakers wore people who ha. nut a.tten ed y BT'razas on
the subj-ct of the, rate which I think suggests that L:ore
administrative touring would have saved scu:e if nt all o:f Lthi
trouble. It might not have saved all of it because it is rooted
in the characteristic Pare. distrust of overyb'y..diy including e0cn
other. A point which was brought out by one spker wh. o said
"Our Chiefs have explained the who le thin, to us but we dono
believe then." It is thus obvious that if the oxperienoIC t
is to continue more ad -inistrative help is requiredd. The
Teach,.rs have kept tnhiuselves out of the pre_.nt demonstrations.

S missionn teachers opposing to the Graduated
Rates (uee .dc ou.nt 19).53

ith reference to the minutes at pages 3/4 in Sccrotariat
file Ho. 10849, I enclose a copy of a letter from the Govrn-
nunt Inspector f Scho..:l, Har.ngu.

2. As you will observe the GoverLnment Inosector of Schools ,
acting in monsultctin with the Di)strict Co.ais.sionor, Sae,
addressed the Assiistant .olcntitonal Secr.tary on lines s:DezvG

- 35 -

similar to those proposed in my minute of 18th of Documber.
He had not then received my letter on this subject asking
him to make enquiry.

3. In view of the; Governor's instruction noted by you in
a minute of the 27th )f DceC'rtbr, it is regretted that the
Government Inspector took this independent but well-.l-eaning
action and it is hoped that no enbarrassnent has boen caused

,L, '; 1j:' ITO.34
Chief Socretary requested to attend the ITre
citizens on the Gradu.ated Loc al rates.

Pare citizens ask you attend them on graduated local rate.
On 4/1/45 we all arrived here but political gave us insufficient
judgement. Provincer left on 12/1/45. Till now -e are here...
With twelve shillings each awaiting for justified judge ent front
the Goverm ent Ve experience great difficulties.

Original in Swahili

Raia -.wiare waomba ufike juu ya Kodi ya nadaraja. 4/1/45
wote turefika hapa do asitupe uamiuzi N akutufa PC pia
akaondoka 12/1/45. iT1.:. leo tupo hapa 12 alfk pC-oja shs. 12
IC:Z:- T N0. 35

.1... ti.-.n --. D- 2' 7 `ti. that chiefs
be represented at discussions:

Your telegram 1161/16/215. I have told Govurnor of informa-
tion from Political Sane, regarding probable decision of protes-
ting elements to send delegation to Dar os Salarm. If they express
such a wish it should be accepted and nothing said at this stage
about possible noting with Governor.

Question arises whether if delegation goue to Dar es
Salaam Chiefs should be represented at discussions. Suggest
Political should ask Chiefs if they also wish to sen3 reprosen-
tatives so that they can hear results of the discussions at
first hand but no pressure should be brought upon then if they
have no particular wish to do Co.

S,'* _.-tion that the Citizens of Sane send a
delegation to .i. if they are disatisficd
with the Graduated Rates:36-

Telegram received here fro:j Paolo Mashonbo requesting ne
to visit SIAME. Ploese inform hin and people that I an unable to
comply with this request. Governr.ent is a-are of position and
if people not prepared accept explanation and advice given to
then by PROV.I ,'. L and yourself they arc at .liberty to send
accredited delegation here if they wish. In this connexion you
should take other action as in latest instructions from PPROVICER.
/eoply sent to Paolo i'ashi lbo Saue 23/1/457
Sinu iLeniwasilia jibu litafuata baadaye.

l... -0. o 7
.. ....-. .. .. 3 7

There arc approx:inatelv 1,COG ,::pare in this district
about 300of tlese are c:iployed by the Ton,,,ganyiLa -,.Plantin;r
Co. Ltd., at Arusna (hini, the ru ain icr are loyed on
various "sha:baos" i:.-. :.,ut the district, nd :s CG.-overnent
clerks, personal servant _tc.

2. I understand that the .Aruha Chini 'a:are hav already
sent a c deloegatio- to Se to repesent their in-t;rests .there
cri ;ially they had apparety i n intended t proceed to Sa.::e n
.lzs;e, but the Distric ot Co:r-lissioneor, lii ci persuade I the:
n1 t t do 'c I undorsTtancd that the D.C., J. 1 is ,no eavourin
to arrange tha~t tho Arusha Chini VTapar e forward their 1C. cocaplaint
in the. for.i of ,a l,-ttor, instead of thesoilvos sroceeding to
Sale and swellingI the crow.vd of c;alcontets alre-d gathered there.
It appears however that thie 3., is not very hopeful that he
will be able to persu do thc." to to r his c-;-:estion as
apparently the :: .-o' of Paro are .. trying t,) brinL pressure
to bear to :e:su- .d the Arusha Chini ..apare to a-xnv ar at Pare
in person, ins t f.d cf .r:ely conittin, thoir -ri vanco:s to
paper. It now ra u.ain ti;o be oen ,which course tihey will adopt.

3. It is ruTiourud that certain native pastorecf the Lutheran
uis;ians in this district a ppear to be ta in- an intero.t in
the San,. affairs, ani hai. exprescsed their inaontion of
proceeding to Sie. 1 have ho:.ver ein_; unable to obtain the
naues of th..se pastos., or anlry confir,.ati n iof this runour. I
have :aso received i nformaitin fronx various oiployers that their
''-.i'.re personal servants .ave Ptate. that they i'uld like to
go down to join their Vbro the-rs" at Sa.i., but so far I have
not been told that any of thse servants have actually gone to
Pare area. Proesu:.:'ably if sufficient pressure ws broughtt to
b e.r on the local .apar., by the natives of Pare arca, nd the
could be induced to th tink that their presenc.. th.re would vf;ry
possibly sway the balance in fvour or thu tril:, then te. y
:light prsOsilly down to ls anid ake for ".. wittho-ut any hfrtl.her
hesitation. If they :e.l that way I dr not s*;e what is it
stop then, unles s as ..n sugs.,ted by t ohe I a'le, the
Rail.ways o. .'.:struc-bd to refuse to c-ary ay r.;,are fro.i
T.oshi t, Saue; presuLma.bly so-c special order would have to be
;-ade undar tne .Defence /...J..ations bu..f.r. Tih. Gu-eral Ia-n. r
could .gf. to this step .er.. ver it is '..ny journey of a
coup.ie of .hour. y ,i'r :..nd th-re. d.ay by :oct

4. If the nativ.c of -the Lulthoran Miisosicns in this district
are interested, and ire ared to eddle. in this ..a tteor, it gives
one to think, as if religion i. bru.: ht into it, one can never
toll how far the flame will spread, and should the U-!pare
succeed with th.ir petition for remission of the "nbilu" it is
not difficult to imagine th-. wily "C :a' rub-ling their hands;
taking full -dvantage of the sit.ution, and staging a similar
"show" on their ow if they think hy thi.t by so d(ing they ;y
possibly gain sone concession or other, fro-: tihe Gov-erncint....

5. There is a rurtour going round that one of the .apore
leaders was told by the I) .I Sa-e, that if Ie persis ted i
encouraging .'ther W:'.re in t eir r.fusa.l t' pay the "-nhilu"
he would be sentenced to a long tern of iupris~nnunt, anl that
he replied "Jesus C.(.._ .t gave his lif. to s:-ve us, and I ao.
quite willing to give L y. life for Ly pocple.

6. To date I have not heard that .,;- L:7 characters, or trouble
un.kers front this district have gene t- Pare Area, nor that any

- 37 -

persons hvye b1on .sont into this ,district tc in'liucc tho l.oshi
VWpa-e to procaod .' ::ou.

The an:i--Ibirt doleoga tion (fror Pare District)

I: understa.-nd fror.i Pinglo that a d.eo.tntr-ticn fr'n
thl. Paro prot o Jnts has ne to Dar o- .1: .
rajph 1io a *un n.:ry of in tLrviow in urd.or t-hat I 'ay decide
whothur or no ; to hcir their roprsent-iaion(s) at mSano on the
way hack to 31 ,.hhoto.

38 -
D-'C.._T HTO 39
Governor to seo the anti-i-biru Prothaonists
at Sa -e.3

3. P.'..i passing through Saue on Tuesday last there were
front 1000 to 2000 people lined on the roal juot below the
Railway waving branches (olive branches?) and singing God
save our Ki-n. I told Princle that he could now oet out and
set about his prop,,,anda tour, leaving de Ch:ioal in the Station.
They had bcn perfectly orddrly in every v.- no dIrun'ken s.
or other signs of borddo:n. Revington tells en the CI-- are
closely watching and he thinks sortingtin g the d n-eonstration
as are oad agaLinst nythin like graduated. t;xes, I tld
'inn le I would see the people on uy 1Vay i,ack (if necessary)
after their visit tc Dar es Salan i. He did n?t ce altogether
ko,:n on this but J think it :ay be as well. You are no doubt
s.ndi noe the results of their Par us Salaan interviews before
thi s.

Sgd. ,.E. Jackson

DOCUI-. IjE I .40

Deutation ain a revi^io on thc system o:
Taration in tll P0are .Dtrict.

Y*ur telcgraan: of 2nd February. Full nots of discussion
with Pare deputation posted 5th and should it awaitin-, you on
reotrn to Arusha. Lanb reports talks very friendly -cd frank
but somewhat inconclusive owin.g to deputation n-i talkingg they
had boen sent to ask Go.ver.nnt -to replace gra':dated system and
had no -andoate to coi:_it the people to acc: ,tancc o any other
proposals... .

2. It was .i aint ined by Ia:.ib that priaoipleo rd lf atiO1 tn -ust
bD preserved but he ,, e sted that Pare scho -i ciuld be revised
and siapiiied. Cons.iderable reduction in ni:beor of assessment
clase ,s seeiis necessary. Deputation enquir:ed whoth,-r revision
could .be uade effectiv, this year. It is appreciaed that this
work nay take .o.e t.ine b.ut I consider possibility of :- eessanent
cf rates for 1945 is worthy of recon .endation to I.-ca.l a.in.ist-
ration for consideration

uOCJU-[T NO. 41

Civil disobedience Ba.Ji Di:strict (:'are tribe)41

Early in January 194. 5, natives of the PA,!; tribe e f .a:.o
district staged "n dacnotration as a protest against the
introduction n that area of the Native Authority (Local Rate )
'Amendnent Ordinance 19-2, whereby the Sane Native Autho sity was
e.uipowered to assess local rates according to a graduated scale.

2. By the 9th January sone 2000 iapare had ass.oubled ct the
District Headquarters. They 'appeared to have brought the ir food
with then, and refused. to disperse when instructed to do so, adop-
ting an attitude of passive resistance.

By the 17th January the nuuber had increased to souc 3000
natives, and at the date of writing a large crowd still r :mains
there, although the-number is reported to have considerable y decreased,

39 -

3. On the arrival of the de:iontrats., police n.easures wore
taken to deal with any disturbance that night arise Up to
the present ti' no, however, the crcvwd has r nanin~d orderly, and
has caused no trouble.

4. The deoonstratoro consist of jales mainly between the ages
of 19 andC 50 years. They have constructed a canp cono 2- niles
froA Sance Bona, to which they retire at nieht, reappe aring near.
the Bona during th; uomring and afternoons, where they re!cin
quietly seated, pass-ing the time y singing 1hy 1rs, etc.

5. 1A certain nuLmber of Pare laboiurrs froil sisal states inr
the Vicinity have .inrc thu do :.onstrators, vwh cCnsisto slel7
cf ao:-ir3 cf the j-ia' trib. ri o woa.pcons or st icks are cearriod.
It is hclieved that all these labourers have now returned tc work.

6. Present inforuction si .ts that the ring-lcoaders o:, the
movcmrcnt nro Tative icission teachers belonging to the Lutheran
Missions, although, with one exception, no mission teachers have
appeared openly with thie dconnetratuos. It'is allegedd that rival
claimants to certain chiefdoms in the area mai.y also be supporting
the novcnoent.

7. The denons.trators were instructed tc disband peaceably
after Loninating representatives to discuss their complains. Four
representatives wore chosen and es ie to Dar es Salan:; to lay their
case before the Guovernm.nt.

8. I will keep you advised of any further deovelopCoents.

DC :T c.42O
.Antli-Mbiru doc:onstrators before the Govcrnor
at Sanc:42

I visited Same yesterday and intervened at a barin.za of donon-
strators which had boon called by Provincial Co eai c nerwith a
short speech after which I left the Laraza :nd .cntinuA.ed journey.

2. I said I was surprioise to see then there, that they were
being :;sled and deceived by the people who -- then that n.sseobling
at Sano would induce the Govermnant to listen to thou This was
false. However long they remained G-:verLmennt vwuld not recognize
or listen to complaints put forward in this way. It .nust be done
in the proper way through barazus of the Chiefs and the District

3. The crowd which w-s not large was perfectly quiet n'-d showed
no signs of either p'oto sting or indeed of comprlehnoi -.,&*

4. Provincial Co..issionr and District COwn:isioner told re
that protest idea was spread among the teacharcer and clerks who
were supporting it. If the Governnjnt teachers at LTA. Schools or
clerks take part or avow support they should be promptly and
sharply dealt with either noved elsewhere at once cr dismissed.
A.S. should got in touch with Provincial Comn-issioner in.r:mediately
on this issue.

5. I discussed with Provincial Commiissionor question of action
against :ringleaders for intimidation of labour cnployud in rubber
and sisal, and he is collecting evidence and will report as soon
as possible on this point.
***++ *

40 -
I:'0C: 7 i NO. 43

'Talki with the Dcput-ti. n fron Pare District
on Subljct of Graduated Lccal Rating SYSton'.

The deputation, having express e reUret that I had not
been able to goo to uaio :.. n Imy recent visit to tno Tang.
Province, said they wished to thank Government for the
opportunity to come to` Da.r _s Salas. to st to their case. (It
appeared that hearing I was at Tanga ~wo del ;ltos wcre chnsen
to go down to see .:. At 02.progwe they hard I ha. onoi t Lusho to
but before they ct- thri I h.ad ~.lroady left .-;ain for T). e's

...... .'s roeards the l.cal rating syston the d.utation ade
it clear that they w,.re fully in favour of .loalC rnAting to
provide revenue for their native treasury. They did net ask
that the collection of this oI.cal form of tcr.xtin should
case in their district but that the :.eothod of collection
should be chanSd. They wanted the graduated as'::s.e.unt replaced
by a flat rate..

I thoi asked the deputation to state ti:r objections to
the Pare rating system ... Their "objections"... followed closely
those already recorded elsewhere ....... /iuanarisod into 2
general ones and 8 particular objections .7

DOCUKI2'T :.0. 4.

Second deputation from Pare re before the chief
Secre otarl .. :

The deputation consisted of:-

(1) Ahaenod Joseph nener of first deputation
(2) Masudi Kivandiko of Usangi cultivator
(3) Ha tibu isihanga -cattle trader
(4) Saii SaiC of 'i anba l cultivator

Th'u C.. ti-'- .tion, wn ose arr:ivoal iad, been q i.te unheralded,
said they rogrotted to have to rop.rt the failure of t1h. first
deputation to pe:rsuad the crowd to disperse or to convince
them that there was any 'prsp,.ct o f a modificactin f the
present ratirgsystoe, and they had therefore co.:o to arsk ne to
go to SaLe ...

I reiidmlc.d t deputation that H.E. hi.rself had stoprod at
Sane on his way ,bac ttoLushoto from IN.P, and anld n:d the
position clear to the people ... I could not ,.nderst:and wy they
should come to Ds: to nak in.i to go to :;ame after the Governor
himself had spoken to th.zi. It then became evident that q~ite
a wrong construction had been placed upon the words of H..:.
when he said !h had not cone to discuss tax questions. The people
had repoetod those words as an argument that H.E.'s visit to
Same could not be regarded o.s an end of the matter.

iy talk with this second deputation nadai it very clear that
antagonism to the methods of the N.-.'s is perhaps as ;eat a
factor in the present situation as opposition to the rating system.

Other points of interest o-nerging fr the statements of
these later-visitors were:-

- 41 -

(a)-That the gathering of the peeplb at Same had its origin
in the action taken by Chief Daudi of Manba. and not in propa-
_..;.-.. by teachers or others. It was stated that on the 4th Jany. a
.ua;ber of taxpayers raised objections to the rating assessment.
Dauli arrested 44 of then, hired transport took thorn to Sane
to :e conscripted for sisal as a punishment for refusing to pay
the rate. others followed to see what happjne. crowds b,-:an
to issoeble.

(b) 28 lcders wont to Chief Sabuni of Us -gi to protest
against the rating syst-. They were told that if they did not
lik the system they must say so. They the p'c-rlo should gather
together raoke a strong protest! This was taken to mean that
the Chief hinsolf supported the opposition to the system. He
was asked whether such action would not endanger his position as
Chi f. He replied that there was no danger of this. Ho did not
mini what happened about the "imbiru"; his position would remain
unaffected whether "nbiru" remained' or was abolished.

(c) It was stated that in 1943 and 1944 none of the chiefs
paid tax or rate. Seeing the opposition of the system they had
stated that they wore going to pay this year!

Note: /?rom the margin, entered 22/2/457

(a) and (b) reported to P C. who will pass it to D.C. for varifi-

As regards (a) P.C. said he was aware of this but while
this action nay have brought matters to a head the organization
for resistance was already in being.

Passive resistance demonstration against
Graduated rates at S.m o and Positive acts
against D.C.(Same Dict).45

Mr. Bonavia rang me up at 11.20 a.n. today. He informed me
that a telegram ... was sent yesterday from Police, Same at
Kisangiro Pailway Station. The telegram was adi-rossed to Political,
Tanga, and was signed by Dinham-Clark, Superintendent of
Police. This officer and Mr. Pringle were on safari in the Pare
District, collecting evidence regarding the ring-leaders concerned
in the recent passive resistance done station that has been
taking place at Same.

2. The tolograr ran as follows:-
"On leaving Usangi with Political today car was mobbed
and stoned by wonon. We got away but Chief Kibacha and
Ulangwa(Sub-Inspctorof Police) were cut off. Owing
to lack of news from them it appears that they and Chief
Sabuni are 'in danger and must be released. Have arranged
with loshi to send 20 men tonight with Harvey-Webb
(Inspector of Police). Will proceed to Usangi to relieve
the Chiefs. Please inform Provincer. It is expected
the whole-operation can bo compl.tcd tonight.

3. Mr. Bonavia added the following facts:-
(1) This is the second attempt that has boen n:ado on the
ID' .. during his safari of the last fov: days. A day or
two ago, his car was mobbed by women who held on to the
wings but did not seriously contest his passage. The P.C;

- 42 -

gives is as his opinion that the reason why the women
are upset il because the belief has spread /ic.77amongst
them that their non are being detained at Same by the

(2) In Same itself, the demonstrators aru still peaceful
but the ring-.leadors art, responsible for agitation
throughout the district, which has resulted in a dciei-
nution of rub` or, sisal and food production. The tribe-
snen should at this tine be in their fields. Moreover,
at the barazas which the o.C. has atte:ipted to hold
recently, attendance has beon extrCicly poor owing to
fear of the ring-leaders, it is thought. Efficient
prosecution of the law is being prev-nted and the safety
of the public is being prejudiced.

(3) the _P.C. has telegraphed to dame, instructing the
A.D.O. to put the Same Internal Security Schb:.j .... into
effect at once.

(4) In view of the present position, he is of the
opinion that conclusive evidence against the drmonstrators
will be difficult to obtain and asks that Governnaent may
accept the word of officers in regard to statements
concerning the ring-leaders.

L D'I-T NO.46
Second deputation and Donionstrators at Same.

As you nay be aware a second deputation fron the \aopare
has been to Dar us Salaam to see me. They leave again today and
have asked for a letter.

......The position was thuref~.re purfuctly clear. Before n:i
consideration could be given to possible future modifications
of their rating system the first essential was that the crowd
should disperse and return to their homes. The deputation said
they understood this and accepted it.

They appeared to be very upsett at the news that the situa-
tion had deteriorated since they ,luft S mn., the woelun had not
started taking a hand in things then, and thoicrraction was
that these new developa'nts made their position as a delegation
impossible and shattorod the hopes they had einturtained of a
revision of th: rating system being put into effect this year.
Theynow wish to return as quickly as possible and statc they
will use their bust efforts to persuade the cr:,wd to disperse
peacefully. They said they foresaw one difficulty. Sole of the
people had said they now feared that if they returned to their
homes they would .o victimised by the I'ative Authoriti e and
they asked me to mention this to you.

DCCU~ijMT 0O.47

A: ll _J tions ainst jrinilead rsa of the anti-
ml)iru ovc ment. 47

2. In view of ringleaders using their organisation to prevent
local labourers working on sisal and rubber production, culti-
vation of food stuffs, destruction of locusts, holding of meetings
by political and native authorities and indeed th administration
generally and fact that two houses have been burnt, one native
wounded by an arrow, and two attempts made by women to hold poli-
tical hostages whilst on tour until return of frro Sane of demon-

- 43 -

strators which now include 200 women, the ringleaders are inde-
finitely prejudicing the public safety, the maintanne of public
order,,the efficient prosecution of the war and maintenance of
supplies essential to the life of the community. Since in the
circumstances.comprehensive evidence can not be procured advice
is requested whether a listb@f ringleaders with available infor-
mation against them should/submitted without avoidable delay with
the object of order being made as soon as possible under regula-
tion 23 of the Defence Regulations 1939. I am convinced that
unless ringleaders are deported very soon we shall be compelled
by the mob to use fire arms on them in order to re-establish
the authority of Government. PROVINCEP, TANGA, 2nds.

Provincial Commissioner is being asked to submit list of
ringleaders with best evidence he can obtain. On receipt evidence
Attorney General will be asked consider with view to issue of
removal orders.

Women demonstrators at Usangi.

.... On hid return to Same on February 21st Political reported
that demonstrations at Usangi was by=500=,vomen. They threw stones
at his car smashing the wind screen and slightly injured him.
Chief Kibacha and sub inspector Elangwa escaped into the bush and
made their way safely to the railway. Chief Sabuni was held
hostage by the women in UsangiCourt House. He was afraid to go
home as the crowd was in a dangerous mood and threatened to follow
him. He feared his life and property if he moved. Threats
against his life were shouted by the crowd. Political and
Superintendent of Police together with Inspector and 20 constables
from.I Moshi marched into the Court House and released Sabuni at
4 a.m. The crowd scattered short distance from the Court and were
warned that anyf further lawlessness would lead to force being
used. At his own request Sabuni was then conducted to his house.
The crowd was subdued and did not follow. Before the escort
turned the crowd had reassembled at the Court, but were orderly
and peaceful and so they were not disturbed.

2. Chief Minja who is Suffering from diabetes was taken from
Usangi hospital to his home at Ugweno at his own request as he also
had been threatened during the night. Political, Superintendent
and Moshi Police then proceeded to Same.

3. In response to an urgent appeal for.help Political, Superin-
tendent and 30 constables left Same in the early hours of February
22nd for Usangi to the relief of Chief Sabuni who had been besieged
a second time. Partly reported that they had dispersed the women
using batons causing bruises but not serious injuries. Political
and Superintendent returned to Same. Inspector and 20 constables
remaining at Usangi with wireless set. 20 constables from Arusha
left for Same 6 a.m. February 22nd.

4. These incidents are infimently connected with Suae demon-
strations which so far are still quiet. At 1 p.m. February 22nd
there were no signs of women demonstrators at Same District office.
There is evidence to show that the crowd at Same knew the women
would demonstrate at Usangiand recent speakers at Same have stated
that some overt acts would be necessary beAoru government would
listen. Women at Sane on February 23rd numbred 50.

5. Demonstrations at Usangi having ceased to be peaceful, violence

may again break out at afy time. Political submits most strongly
that the time h:s- now come for quick action. Present situation
is dangerous. He considers all leaders should now' be arrested both
in Same and elsewhere even if this means loss of life.

6. With your telephonic authority arrangements have been made
as follows:
(a) Wolton Superintendent of Polite leaves Tanga for Same by
train February 23rd with 30 constables bring Same police
strength to 100 and 2 Europeans. Wolton will take over
from Clark wno will return to a- 'olton will accelerate
submission of report and recommendations b1- t ringleaders
but will use his discretion to arrest them without further
preliminaries if he is .satisfied that it is necessary to
do so in order to prevent the disturbances spreading further.

(b) Two companies of the Kings African Rifles will move
from Moshi to Same on February 24th and continue their
training there including firing exercise at discretion
of the local commander who is being issued with the
necessary supplies with the consent of Brigadier Anderson
with whom I spoke on February 22nd.


Particulars ofth rnl s of th of e Sane
*cons trations.

The Provincial Colmmissioner Tanga has authorized rc, in
order to save time, to submit to y.,u direct, the particulars
of the ringleaders of the Same demonstrations -Iith a view to
obtaining orders for their deportation fro; tthe Pare District
under Regulation 23 of the Defence Rugulations 1939.

The Denonstration at Sane have had a direct and adverse
effect on the war effort in that the, policy of throats and
intimidation used by the .cadcrs of the demonstration to collect
recruits has resulted in the loss of labour on rubber and sisal
estates in the District. On the Kisiwani Rubber Estate the normal
labour force. : is 250 and only 33 are no\' working. On Htii Estate
thei normal force is 330 and none are working at present. The
normal producti-.n of rubi r in the District is ab .ut 4 tens per
month, and the loss of labour has caused this prc auction
practically to cease. On Sisal Estates hPre conscripts and
Pare laboururs have deserted from work, to the extent of 300
men.. In addition the one mica minur in the District has had
to casu work o.wiUn the disa;rtion of his 70 labourers. The resultant
loss in production is 2700 1s. of 1:ica per .onth.

There is evidence that the labourers have not dosserted
their employu.ent because they synpathise with the noveeont, but
because the leaders of the .rove1ent have caused them to be threa-
tuned with loso of life or propery if they stay at work. Two cases
of arson have occurred which can be directly attributed to the
movement and so can one attack by arrow, but no direct evid ence
is procurable owing to'the fear thai these threats and their
execusion have inspired.

In addition the conscript labourers roquireC fo'r the
Sisal and Rubber Industri.es cannot be provided while the Chief's
authority is at its present lowv bb owing to the deno nstrations.

The evidence given in the enclosure has been provided by
the Chiefs and has been checked from reli'-.:bl sources, and I
have no hesitation in reccmmeunding the deportation, to a distant

part of the Territory without delay, of the 24 persons included
in thc.attacheo list.

1. PAULO : Si DO MAS AL 30 Age 55. Tribe: MPAD.
Address: ]ii'MFIHJ -.. -, Chief 1. 'i.
Occupation: Cultivator,, cx. 7t!l Day Adventist preacher and
pensioner of Mission.

Local leader of the demonstrations. Persistently mis-
reprosonts what has been said by the Government Officers, and
openly does not -trast Coverrnnent Officers. Uses his power
of oratory continually to prevent the crod disintegrating.
A fanatical and uncompromising character. He has assumed
a oiiinating position in the camp. 1'itnossas: Provincial
Cor-imissionr- and Directtict Counxissioner. Th.- only point
in his fa' vour is his repeated insistence that the crowd should
observe non-violence.

2. SAIJUEL DBIT KIBATA, Age about 52 years. Address: IIPI'TJJ,
-.-,J a, Chief Daudi. Occupation: Cultivate.

An active agitator of thetu .iru Party and an able lioutanant
of Paulo, but differs front hin in urging violent reprisals
against those who will not join the demonstrators.

3. ELISATE BIN I'1TP.,. Age 28 years. Tribe: IAi~PL
Address: .:1i.i'JI, 'Maba, Chief Daudi. Occupation: Cultivator

An active loader of the demonstrators and a number of
the delegation to Dar es Sala a. Is one of the pillars of
the present demonstrations. Consistently urges the people
to stick together as in thu end the Governient will be defeated.

4. DAUDI BIN S.DO. Age 35 years. Tribe: `PA'LE Address: Kihurio,
i a, q Chief Daudi. Occupation: Cultivator.

Porsistently stirs up distrust :,f the G-vurnnment and
Govir-cnent officers. Has threatened persons that their houses
will be burnt, if they do not join the demonstrators, and is
one of the local leaders of his village. Told the District
Conn.'issi nor that hu did not believe that -thorc had been
any Governnent law about ibiru, but that it had been imposed
as personal whim of his.

5. LUKAS BTi KN.SIl. .ige 50 years. Tribe,II'PABRE. -ddress: Kilaweni,
Usangi, Chi-f Sab.uni. Occupation: Cultivator, ex Lutheran

A fanatical supporter of Paulo and one of the pillars of
the local demonstrators. Urges no conpro!iises with the
Government. \'ishes to see all the Vapare involved in the
demonstrations. His wife is the leader of the omen agitators
at Usangi. Is the father of a MJakerre Scholar who at
present is a teacher at Old "ieoshi Govt School. Is one of
the regular preachers to the ~1Co and has remained with
demonstrators since the beginning.

6. JETH BITT KIDISA. Age 48 years. Tribe .ii PA, Address :Kilaweni,
Usangi, Chief Sabuni, Occupation: Trader.

One of the vriginators of the n!ovelient against ilbiru and
has given his full support ,ven to the extent of leaving his
business to attend the Sane demonstration.

- 't1 -

7. MA1SUDI BIN KIVALTDIKO. AG 40 years. Tribe: yI 'AAiE.
Address: Kironweo, Usangi, Chief Sabuni. Occupation: Butcher.

Has great influence over the demonstratorss, works under-
ground and has continually advi sed the dous.,trators to accept
no comprc.nise. In spite of being a nei.olr of the Second
delegation to .iar CS Salaam, is considered by the INative
Authority tc exercise a dangerous influence over local

8. .',HMiED EI JO.. i. Age 30 years. Tribei MP-,' R, address :
Kiricho, Usangi, Chief Sabuni, Occupa:tion: Tailor.

Is widely travelled and has contacts with Kenya. Has
been in prion for the theft of a, cheque. Vory anti-Govern-
nmnt. Secretary of the Usangi anti-Miiru Association. Has
considerable influence with people outside the chief don, who
regard hi,. as a .nan who knows the world. Spa:ks English and
states openly that the Government must bow to the will of
the people. One of the delegates to Dar Cs Salaam, and a
pillar of the movement.

9. RAFEL BI 1 I .Ae 35 years; Tribe .PARE.
Address: Uberoe, C'., i, Chief HIriel. Occupation: Lutheran
!i.l-,on Teachcer.

One of the oirLinators of the novenint at Cho-ne and has
been very. active in forcing out demonstrators. Tock a personal
part in turning ou.- -lanya Si'a:- la1.:.u.rer.,
fro:i their work. Docu'Ant..ry evitdncu in Bona secret File

10. ELIEZA Bil:. IaOITDO: Age 35 years. Tribe: I.T-are
Address: Chelii Village, Chief Ieriel. Occupation: Cultivator.

Issued signed passes to sisal labourers to return to
their hones front the demonstrators caip for a period only;
one of the passes was seen by Chief Kibacha. Tra :urer of
a village fund to help the movement.

11. RIAHIDI I IADIO Age 35 years. Trib.: LITha:
ddress i: kanya, Chief Heril. Occupiaticn' Po-cbo Club Proprietor*

One of the -riiginators of the moveMent, and one of the
delegates to Dar es Salaam. After his visit to Dar es Salaam
he was prepared to coprouise and ap eared to loV e the
confidence of the demonstrators, and declared, his intention
of leaving ithe ievmennt It has since been discovered that
he is working underground, and is preventing the supply
of foodstuffs to Hassani Sisal Estate and the return of
labourers to the Estate.

12. JOATIL .d BIN jTOHGO.i0 Age 30 years. Tribe: paro
Address Chonie, Chief IHriel.
Occup-'ati'-n Lutheran School Teacher.

Very active mUb:er of the novenient in the Chiefdon.
W'hilo in the d-oeonstraters 9amp was one of the Inner Circles
and took an active part with Rafael Kiny~opvie in forcing
out labour front sisal estates. Together with other lead-rs
from home threatened reprisals fro;:. anyone who filed to
join die.onstrators and Choine is one of the: few areas where
threats have been carried out.

13. SIMEON i' LU;I'JfO. Ag-e '4 yuars. Tribe: Upare
iddress: iCHdar-u, Chief Chanka
Occpation: Ex Trihal Dresser.

S -7

Leader of the.movenent in th, Chiefdcm. Enforced reprisals
by taking a goat front one Sengerwa bin Sengonjiffr not
joining deoonstrat rs at Sane. M1iao Sauli is a witness
bf this act. Turned back 50 labourers "t Hedru on 23.1.45
who had luft th" d(unonstr.:cors at Sano, l to return to Sisal.

14. T.. T:Y.- BIl HTYO1Gl Age 28 years. Tribe: Mipare
Address.: Suji, Chief Reuben
Occupation Carp.nter.

Active leader of the Chiefdon and is responsible for the
trouble which spread to Suji. Was ea ~:emrbr of the demonstra-
tion at Sane,. At a meeting held at Suji on 4.1.45 he threatened
the people with destruction if they paid 1,ibiru.

15. JU31IN BIN KIBJDU. Age 55 years. Tribe: re
Address: Gonja, Chief Kigono.
Occupation: i'Rative Treasury Clerk.

Reported by Native Authority to be a strong supporter of
the demonstrations and to encourage their activities whilst
still performing his duties.

16. iili:I.T L.'.7 BIN llIUYA: Ag 30 yO ,crs. Tribe,: I..,.
Address: Mauncha, Chief Daudi.
Occupation: 7th Day Advc r'ist mission n Teacher.

Reported by Native Authorities and other reliable sources
to be an active mnuLber of the mnovenent and to act as
secretary to the local group. Expelled two adults from thQ
Kihurio fission School, because they refused to attend an
anti-Mbiru meeting on 31.1.45 at the house of one Eli
Senadala of Kihurio on the grounds that they.had already
paid their tax and rate and had no wish to jet involved in
the demonstration.

17. liL.I. BIN SIUJGHURjU. Age 35 years. Tribe: IPARE.
Address: Isangeni, Ugweno, :Chief I'inja.
Occupation: Trader and Cultivator.

Reported by Native Authorities to be undermiining the
authority of the Goverrnnmnt by &advising people in the Chief-
dcn to oppose Ibiru and continue their demonstrations. Is
known to support the collection of funds to assist the

18. RAIL'DH,'4I BIN IM'HIKU. Age 40 years, Tribe: Hpare
Address. Kiruru, Ugwono, Chief iiina.
Occupnwtion Cultivator.

Reported by the Native Authorities to be one of the
leaders of th: movement in the area. Continually urges the
people in the Chiefdom not to pay _-'._- ru, but to join the
delmcnstrators at Sa !o. Is said to have thr-mtncd reprisals
by burning homus of those who refused to join the demons-

19. JOHNSTON BIN SHUGHUDIU; Age 50 years ,Tribe: 'o 'e
Address: Kisa.juni, Ugweno, Chief .i;ija. ,
Occupation: native Court Clerk.

Publicly stated before the Chief that people should not
pay Tibiru. Reported by Native Authorities to be a bad
influence and intent on undermining their authority. Is known
to have the full.l.confidence of the ring-leaders and acts as
treasurer to the local fund rained against ?'biru.

20. ELIS. BIN l .! i .... Age 27 years. Tribe : l.p-r.
Address: 1isangeni, Ugweno, Chief Tlinja. Occupation:Lutheran
Mission Teach.r.

Reported by the Native Authority to be an agitator
and worhin; agcinst the Government. He is alleged to
have prevented male adults from attending the District
Couissioner's : .raza huld at Uli.weno on 6.2.45, and to
havc sub:astituted wonen who w.;re threatened with danago to
their property if they did not attend.

21. I:iUSA jIN KII.oDA1: Ae 32 years. Trite Lupare
Address: Vujo, Gonja, Chi-f Kiiono.
Occupation: Cultivator and i Ruber tapper.

lReportP.d by the Native Au-thori+ty to be an agitator and
loader of the noveoent in the Chieii.dcu:. Is said to have
personally frightonod miale and female labour away front
rubber Estates. Also visited Est.:ates recording naues of the
la', our who had, n.. t carried uout his instructions. One of the
status he dealt with is the larg-est in the District. It
had a labour force of 350 nohe of. whou are now working.

2. Ti1BTAITA BIi Mi-AONGA Ace 46 years. Tribe: IIpare
Ad:ross: i.woTlmbo, Chief Joseph.
Occupation: Trader

Persistent agitator. Is the loader of the movement in
his area, and has continually threatened those who did not
follow hi;2. Has taken an active part in the demonstrations
and is the treasurer of his local coll.:cting centre.

23. LL ';: BIN TLVUIdA: Ag;e 48 -: rs Tribe: '[paro.
Address: Kisiwani, Chief Joscph.

Treasurer of the collecting centre in his area. An
ex-Chief. Mliuber of the inner circle of dei.u nstrators at
Same. Owin"g to his former posit.ionhas a considerable following.

24. JUIL. BIN KASIILA. A;e 25 years. Tribet :i-..'e
Address: i.Laga", 'o .i.o, Chiuf Joseph.
One of the younger generation of leaders, violently anti-
Chief, with a following of young men. Uosd as a contact
between th,.. dueronstrators of Saei and the \;apre in

: Suggestion that the ringleadersbe deported.5

... As stated to the Administrative Secretary in the morning
of February 25th I strongly support the'rocomnn.ndtion of the
District CuriMiissionor 'aiie contained in his letter D.25 of February
24th to you that all 24 persons nanmd should be deported to
Southern er L:l-e Province i:rmediately via P" r-.::;ro. If Governor's
order is tul:phoned on February 27th action will be conmaenced
and coripl.ted on February 2L0th or l,,,rch Is-;. oIctor transport
from Samn to 1o-rogoro has already been arranged.

I should explain that a third case of arson (house of acting
Chief of HAuIBA) was reported on February 23rd and th:t outstanding
Sane quotas of Local conscripts are rubber 660 and sisal 275
and that if unrest does shortly subside the iustrict will run
a risk of famine.

For orders of dep,,rtation 11 subversive Aft'.cans fro::-
Tanga see your secret telOgr.'m S 259/35 of July 22nd 1940.

49 -
r: .'cri .: i NO. 51
.- -. .. .

Siru (GrA-duated rates) 51

Reference visit of j;ELEB,' it should be; und :-stood that cny
departimental action taken to dismiss teachers at an, tiveo adinis-
tration school at USOJfGl will be under local civJ... .;.rvice
:-._ dl: tion 21 on account of subversive and undioc iplined atti-
tude adopted by them and not repeatt not for f..il.i',- .. to pay
rate for which law makes other proper provision.

.- ;;2 No.52 52
I I,52
-.n tj.-Air ,ru cdemonstrators at Sae\o.

A group of additional demonstrators arrived at -:,.. by
train on Satuirday, the 2-th February. .l.u .iors aru ostirated by
the Superintendent of police at 600 and by Military liaison
Officer at 1,000. .. y carried food and bedding. There are
no wonen a longost thon.

One outstanding Same speaker is reported to have spoken
to a Chief before this Chief's departure for his home at :..
The speaker told th., Chief that it was the last tino they, 'fuld
speak together and advised the Chief to greet his wife and
children if, repeat if, he arrived at Manba.

This speaker is reported to be a fanatic who would be
prepared to make hiis:;elf a martyr f the demonstration.

On the arrival of the K.A.R. at Sane on the 2-4th Pehruary,
the wonon demioastrators dispersed.

The D.C. went through Same village where the demonstrators
are camped at 18.30 hours on Sund'ay, 25hh i bruary. He states
that the feeling of the demoonstrators is worse than it has ever
boeen A rumour eas sprear among the Usangi demonstrators at Saae
that womon and children have died and were injured during the
recent Police action at Usanci. This ruuour is interpreted by
the Police to be an attem-pt to keep the demons. rators at Saho.

It has started to rain at Hoshi and rain is expected at
Sane any day. This, would iake transport difficult and is an
additional reason for expediting the arrest and deportation of
the listed ring-leaders.


Reference Report 1 '.I District Commissioner Sane on
ringleaders evidence sees sufficient to justify action in a
number of cases but I presune you will let ie: have Attorney
General's opinion by tel,.-.,..

I consider that some finm action is desirable but number
involved seems perhaps larger than necessary. actionn against
dozen or so should I think be enough but Political should be
asked for his view and to indicate choice of individuals.I
think that those where he has direct knowledge rar most suitable.
Si' .. :tions by P.C. Tanga on deporting the
rinleaders irme diately.

- 50 -

List of rin:gleaders submitted by Chiefs contaihod 60 names
from which he /O.C. Sami7 had selected 24. This was considered
the irreducible 1_iniimu:. .... Each of thu 24 whose a es were
being sub'd and recolmnded for deportation was a man of standing
who had either addressed the crowd- or carried out underground
work in his own chiefdom. If less than these 24 removed a suffi-
aient nucleus of leaders would remain to carry on disturbances,
though probably the method would differ.

The rains had started and delay in auction would be dangerous
owing to interference w-ith motor transport. Umiediate. action
would havu the effect of saving the food situation in Pare.

In answer to an inquiry the L3C., Jame, placed thu 2,-
names sub'd ... in thu following ordur of priority the nuibers
been /s-ic.7 those in the list.

1, 5, 6, 8, 7, 4, 19, 18, 20, 12, (, 7, 11, 15
21, 2, 3, 10, 16, 22, 23, 24, 14, 13.

"2nd deputation returned from Dsm. 24th with letter ... and
stated intention to report to crowd that they should go home and
pay 'mbiru' and bow to chiefs'authority. Deputation reported back
today saying crowds intended to disperse but first wished to send
elders to Usangi to find and bring back originators of Usangi
violence, after which they would parade and say farewell in peace.
I consider pose of deputation is an attempt by leaders (1) to
save themselves by handing over Usangi culprits as scapo-goats
(2) by spreading false rumours to maintain present struggle when
crowd returns hone because leaders find they cannot persuade
followers to stay at Same owing presence of military. I do not
consider possibility of dispersal should affect action against

"", 'L, No.55
.i attorney General's Coj--mnt on deportation of the
ring-leadors of the ranti.-- i"ru movement.

o. Report on ringleaders received and Attorney General advises
that in no repeat no case should action bu taken under Defence
Regulations and in particular under Defence Regulation 23.

2. Subject to required evidence on oath Attorney Gcneral advises
that Section 2 of Cap. )1 Deportation provides the most appro-
priate general procedure in the circumstances but he consider that
where in any particular case there is good ovidunce of violence
intimidation or .reprisals police should prosecute under the
Penal Code.

3. Apart from or in addition to action as contemplated against
alleged ringleaders specifically Attorney General advises that
dispersal of demonstrators could be attempted by the arrest of some
of them on a charge of participating in iil- .:9'1i assembly under
Section 72 of Penal Code. Proof that assembly is unlawful would
require evidence of reasonable belief that persons assembled will
commit breach of peace or provoke others to do so.

S51 -

4, Action mightbe taken against certain of the ringleaders named
under section 13 of Cap 47 but proof of conspiracy is likely to be

5. Latest advice.from Same is that demonstrators propose to dis-
perse peacefully as recommended by deputation returned from Dar
es Salaam but Political sees in this some sinister purpose ana
advises immediate arrest of ringleaders. I consider this mistaken
and I am instructing Provincer that observance of the purpose of
the deputation as expressed in Lamb's letter must be honoured.
Afrests can follow at any time afterwards if necessary in accordance
with legal advice.

SDOCU:iliT O0.56

iM'J,1I:_'rI NO.57

Second deputation, demonstrators and the

Reference Political Same telegram to you dated 26th Pebruary.
The demonstrators have repeatedly been told that they must disperse
and submit their representations through normal channels and the
second deputation announced their intention of endeavouring to
persuade the crowd as reported in Lambs letter .....I am at a
loss therefore to understand imputation by Political of sinister
motives when deputation is doing what it promised to do and that
we have at all times wished, and I cannot escape feeling that
this is an error of judgment though pardonable in the circumstances.
Please instruct Political that on no account should arrests of
rigleaders precede or interfere with the performance of the
deputation's announced intention which must be honoured.

2, It does not seem necessary to delay dispersal while Elders
bring offenders from Usangi for they can be arrested by Police
on information given in normal course. If, however, that is the
wish of the Chiefs and people, I see no strong objection.

- 52 -

DCICLv,'I' HTO. 58
Assault of Usangi womenn.58

Pare community Arusha deeply regret to hear assault of Usangi
women resulting to ..... sixty women being injured and one died.
This has created another grave situation beside mbiru itself.
The community fears this nay turn to worse than ever. This
community most gratc;2.ul request your inim:;.diate assistance by
appointing of urgent s-)ccial commission to investigate both


SWomon demonstration at Usangi 'exaggerated'9

Grateful you inform Arusba Pare Community with reference
to their telegram of 20/2 that information available to Government
indicates that rumour regarding Usangi is greatly exaggerated; if
not entirely unfounded. Government if fully aware of situation
in Pare resulting from opposition to present local rating system
and due consideration will be given to future modification
subject to dispersal oi demonstrators and restoration of normal
conditions in district.

53 -

Chice Secretary's comment on the Attorney.
.,-.,_. -*- "-J -' .-,-!i L--,Li ,i-,--''r ..l... i ...-L.rL.j.... L .. -t, .
'nti-Mybiru ring-lcadcers.

..... Attorney General states in his opinion Defence Reg. l..-.tion
23 oould not be invokdd if evidence of kind mentioned in second
paragraph of :-our telegram were available. Kis reasons are
that maintenance of public order and essential supplies and
services are very different matter from public safety and defence
and it is only those acts prejudical to public safety and defence
which are specified in Defence Regulation 25. This regulation
is aimed at potential fifth columnists and not at persons whose
acts are prejudicial to war production.

School children and women demonstrators.

On 20/2/45 Superintendent Clark and I proceeded to Usangi
arriving there about noon. Our business was entirely with the
Chiefs and no baraza had been announced nor had the people been
told of the visit, but nn arrival thcre was.a fair crowd of women
at the camping ground. I greeted them and told them I would speak
to them later. In the meantime we went on to see Chief Llinja
of UgwoJno who was a patient in Usangi hospital occupying a
small detached building. .'!iiL. taking statements from Minja the
womon mobbed the house and refused to go away though informed
by the Chief that this was no way to behave but that if they
sat down near the camp I would speak to them. Finally we left
the house surrounded by a mob of shouting women. To give them
time to 0ali down I Sot the Chief to tell them we would have
lunch first and then talk. The women first tried to prevent my
boy getting the food out of the car and I had to assist ]him then
a woman grabbed at the basket Athanasio, a son of Chief Sabuni
seeing this rushed in rather wildly to assist and was promptly
grabbed by a number of women, others seeing this started pulling
at the thatch of the rondavcl, however the Chiefs and we managed
to calm thewonen and restored order we then lunched.

2. The worst feature of this part of the disturbance was the
attitude of the Noative Authority Schoolboys to their chief, a
number of them had collected and were rude, abusive and aggressive
to the chief when he told them to go away.

3. After lunch I talked to the women in the Baraza, I estimated
there wore some 500 of them. I noticed a detachment had been
left behind round the ccr. The women wore orderly and did not
resent being told that their behaviour had been disgraceful,
though they did not apologize for it. Their spokesmen made the
usual points that thoy were tired of working their shambas
themselves and they wanted their men back. They:were told that
their men had had a coriplte answer from the Government and that
nothing prevented their return except their o-vwn wrong-minded
attitude. Discussion went on for about two hours and was quite
friendly. At the end 1 said goodby and Mr. Clakk and I left
the Baraza, the women made a rush for the car. ,7e got in
however without trouble or molestation but one crowd of young
woenc tried to wrench a door off the car. The Chiefs (Sabuni,
Kihacha, Daudi) and sub-Inspector Elangwa formed a sort of
reargard preventing the women from grabbing the back of the
car, those in front tried to u-se their weight to prevent the
car moving butin low gear it moved slowly forward the crowd

- 54 -

broke and we wore able to get away. At the top of the hill I
had to stop to -ry and pick up the Chiefs. The crowd then
recollected in front of the car somei women jumped on the step
and told me they intended to keep me till their men came back.
While we wero waiting the vwomin started throwing branches on
the bonnet of the car and Chiei Sabuni came along and tried
to prevent this he told me lhe did not know what had become
of his fellow Ciieifs so I decided to nove off as Sabuni's
son had come to his assistance just at the moment a stone crashed
through the windscrcon and others follovwed in quick k succession
(subsequently I counted 43 hits on the car) one stone caught
me on the uide of the head its force being broken fortunratoly
by my hat. I moved off the crowd f, i1i_,, to stone the car -
round the corner two logs of vcod hlad been plcod a road block
but the car cleared them. At the bottom of the hill we -oct
Chief Daudi and Sub-Inspector i'a ngwa and -while taking the
on stoning started eagin 3langwa failed to got into the car
and we moved on. A Iessage was sent back to the Chiefs that tiyey
should come on in the C-overnrient lor ywhich happened to be
working at Usangi or get a message to us if they were in trouble.

4. Arrangomeint wore made at Kiscng iroto .cll in the Police
reinforcements from iloshi. At 9.p.m. as nothing had been heard
of the Chiefs, these instructions w..re confirmed and the Police
instructed to come on, at midnight Chief Kibachas and Ea langwa
arrived on foot.. Kibacha reported he had been prevented from.
joining the ca:r by woman and had had to seek refu e in the bush,
he had.been stcned by schoolboys and that when he left sections
of the crowd wore, shouting threats at Sabuni saying he would
"bite the dust that day" and others "that he would sleep, with
ancestors that night."

5. The LIoshi reinforcements arrived and so did the Government
lIrry from Usangi with a message from Sabuni saying that the
women were keeping him in his Baraza he could hot go to his
home. because they had said they would follow him and as they
were in such a state he feared they would hurt his family or
property. Superintendent Clark, Inspector Harvey Wobb and I
with the 20 constables from Moshi then proceeded to Usangi
arriving at 4 a.m. 7e marched into the Court House, thye nwo:eon
scattering over the Baraza wall as the Police appeared, They
reformed a short distance away and I warned them that any more
behaviour of the t peo they had been indulging in would monn
that force would be used and advised thm toe go home. Chi ef
Sabuni was not willing to leave Usangi and said his f-'mily
were-far too numerous to collect and take away with him and also
he felt that now th. Government had displ.aye-d a force and hc
would b.. auit;- sa.c.He 6v.as tohrefore conducted by Police
to his own house and left -hero. On our return it was found
that the women had again collected outsic:e the Court House but
appeared to be bchaving themselves and ;'o certainly quiet
so they were not disturbed.

6. Tini,- of Ugvcno had also been disturbed during the night
crowds of wonen shaking- the doors and windows d ndos d shouting threats
so on hearing from 'the Hospital Assistant that he was fit to
travel and at his own request the party took him to his home
at Ugweno and left him there, from Ugweino the party proceeded
to Same.

7. On the night of the 21st I received a message from Sabuni
saying that even more women nad collected round his house this
time and were creating dangCrous disturbances, Super-i ntendont
Clark and I thor'fore left at 4 a.m. with 50 constables and
proceededto Usangi .whe.re we were joined by Inpsector Harvey--Webb
and a Jcep with wireless. He arrived at 9 a.m. The crowd of

- 55 -

course saw us coning and by the time we arrived were so orderly
that Sabuni was able to leave his house and moet us. He
informed us that the woucn had boon there all night had thrown
stones at the house and at two people who had left the house
to go to the latrine and also that some woeon had brought their
children in ains because they were quite sure the Gover:lment
would not move against then owing to the danger of the
children been crushed.

8. I addressed the crowd and listened to what they had to
say no n-,w_ points wrer raised but it was iound that some 40
wo~en froi' Ujwcno were present, they said because Satlui had
hidden their Chief. They were of course told that this was
nonsense and that I had taken him home yseolf, they then
changed their tune and sci d they proposed to '.-:it there for
the men to return. The Usangi women's leader was the wife
of Lukas Kasha one of the active and fanatical preacher and
:i "aders in Saue. Finally I told the wonmn that they had been
d.;: orderly, damaged property, throatnned their Chief and must
Sorse. i gave them five minutes in which to disperse peace-
ably and informed them if they did not disperse the Police
would be used to disperse them.

9. Superintendent Clark gave very careful instructions to
his rmn as to how to use their long batons and as to the
particular care to be taken of women with children.

10. At the end of the five minut s the women refused again
to disperse and the police adv ncd on thc-i from above and
behind them. They moved the wonen with a sort of stirring
notion, very gently but effectively and oncethe vonmcn at the
top began to move the others started moving too. There was
no stampede, and I wish to record my appreciation of the
restrained way in which Superintendent ClerI:, Inspector
Harvoy-Webb and their non carried out the operation. I did
nit see a single constable raise his baton n an;er. One
woman tripped and. fell and several others tripped over her
with the result that something like a ruggur scruil developed
but was pulled apart and the women sent on their way. The
whole affair w.-as' ~niest gentle no strlmpoeing; no 3hruts end
screams and barely a-nd tears. Crowds collected at various
points but the sign'ht of a constable was always enough to
set them moving. The woncn were obviously hoping that the
Police would move off as they had done the ni;'ht before and
then they could collect again. How-evcr, Superintendent
Clark and I stayed till 3 pra. and when we left Inspector
Harvey-W obb, the Jucp and 20 men meicleft behind. The whole
district of Usang-i and Ugweno has remained peaceful since
with the cno exception of assault on a man who had aid iMd biru
the Hative courtt has dealt with this.

11. Inspector Harvey--Yehb has reported by wirlecs that
three wouen were admitted to hospital, one with a broken
am one apparently an injury due to falling astride a log
and the third with a blow on the head, noe:. of them is serious,
some people were treated for bruises a3 out-patients. A
cndical report is being obta incd and will be forwarded. The
delegation which wont up to Usangi LIr. Harvey-Web'l reports,
nade a public s.tateuent that they were satisfied tha.L the
Police had not misused force.

12. This delCgation S.ub-Inspector Elanewa reports informed
the elders at Same that they had seen these ;women, the first
states she was struck by a constable but does not know who he
was or what he hit her with, the second claims to have been
injured on the Wednesday night (? getting ovur the baraza wall)

- 56 -

and the third claims to have be'n hit by old nn Sabuni when
he was trying to clear the wnocn away front my car, it is nore
likely the was hit by one of the stones flying about. As I have
informed you the delegation did not mention inrurics of wonen
to ae.

13. I apologize for writing at this length but I felt you
should have a full statement in view of the runours circulating.
I consider people of Usangi owe a deep debt of gratitude to the
Police for their amazing restaint. I i-entioned this to the
Dar us Salnan delegation when they visited ue before the Usangi
d .ut4tion was sent off.

T.E.M.L PringlE.

DOCUM01 T N0.62
Graduat-ed Local Rating Pare District.62

I have the honour to state that the representatives of the
Wapare tribe in the Pare District have iistr .cted me to petition
His Excullency the Governor of Tanganyika for the repeal of
tie laws imposing the ab.ov tax.

The tribe in order to show their grievance to the Govern-
ment made a peaceful dnernontration at Saule and the i.ruiediately
stopped it when I advised thue that the natter has to b, placed
in a lawful manner before the authorities. They h 've been advised
to pay the tax pending the result cf their petition to His
E ccllency. They are petitioning His Excellency for this year's
tax as well and they hope that if His Excellency be pleased to
grant their petition for this year any tax paid by persons in
excess ofvhat they nay be due will be refunded.

I shall submit the petition to his excellency in due

--onren dcmonstr- tors at Usangi and th'e anti-
..biru doC.onstrators at SAne dispersed63

I transit to you a copy of letter ... of t.:e 3rd Larch
from the District Commissioner Same, rel-ti'j to the allega-
tions about injuries caused to wonenof Usang-i I;:de in the t legraj
of the 28th which was addressed to you by the Pare Com-nunity of

2. There is no dobut that something had to be done to re-
establish the authority of Chief j.abuni of Usangi and I agree
with the District C'uL.iosioner that the police are to be commended
for the restraint exercised by theLu in carrying, out the order
to disperse the crowd of wo..flen who wure besieging the Chief
for the second tine within twenty-four hours. The dispersal
of the unlawful assenoly at Usangi, nild as the police action
was, served to make it clear to the t'. n that Govoernnnt was
duteriiined t. re-eotablish its authority and .ras prepared,f
necessary, to usoe outhods at least as rough as those the wonen
demonstrators and the school children thou-ht fit to adopt.
Having been uade to appreciate that fact the Usangi denronstratcrs
did not again resort to violence ag:.inst Governnent Officers
and native Authorities.

3. The last of the Same demonstrators left thadistation in
the morning of Saturday 3rd Ilarch and it was arranged with

- 57 -

Brigadier RoC. Anderson, D.SoO., M.C., 29th Brigade, E.A., Trai-
ning Brigade, East African Command for the two Companies he had
sent to Sa;e at my request to -return to Moshi ,:. Sunday the
4th liarch. I consider that the d.ic-onstrations came to an end
when they did largely causee the ringleaders cuuld not
persur-de their intimidated followers to rei:ain at Same any longer
while the troops were onthe spot. I have ther-.fcrc, written
to Brigadier Anderson expressin.'g y- wara thanks to him and
his of..icers and men for coming to our asistancu so promptly
and for helping us to put up a show of such overwhelning force
as to nake the demonstrators givj up their misguided and pro-
longed atteo-pt to f,,rce the hands of the Governuent.

4. It rr::.ains to :e seen whether deulonstratoras i protest
will be staged again vwhrin the deportations if and! when
authorized, are affected. Those are in fact the tactics of
the organizers, but their followers lay have lost tLioeir nthusiasn
by then, At least I hope so, for if not we may have to reppat
the whole tedious performance.

5. The ostensible reason for the dispersal cf the dononstra-
tors was the arrival at Same at their request of mr. MIohamed
Husein, Advccate of T'nga, in the a:lturnoon of toh 1st of !March,
which coincided with the return from Usangi of the d&logation,
and his telling them that he would not agree to represent
their case to His Excellency on their instructions unless and
until they dispersed. Before his departure for Sam:;e, 1'r. Mohamed
Husein assure ;::e that he was anxious to holp G: vurnrment as well
as the natives of Pare in this matter. I believe that he
arrived at Samu at the psychological monent to enable the
demonstrators to disperse without loss of prestige of thdir

L 7 ,64
Advocate hired by the anti-i'Liru Prctagonists.

I am now in a position to c .iir. that the two Coup'nies
of King's African Riflos left Sane on Suntidy the th Harch at
about 7.30 ?n. and arrived in M'oshi at ahout 1.00 on the sane
2. It was reported on the 5th larch that 200 labourers had
returned to work on rubber estates and othi-r-vwere believed to
be following their example.

3. The police detachment was withdrawn from Us.-.ngi on the
5th March and all areas ar, quiet so far.

4. The report of the 5th March included a statement to the
effect th';t a i.ceting was being held at Cl... -: a. money was
being collected in furtherance of the cause Thi money is
probably required to pay the professional foes of their advocate,
Mr. Mlohamd Husoin. It appears that when he asked them at Same
on the lst of .Iarch for a thousand shillings ii" advance they were
unable to raise that smi, having spent all the.nonuy they had
on keeping the demonstration going.

P.S. A report has just been :received that meetings are being
held in North and South Pares and the people are still being in-
.tinidatecd by their leaders not to returnn to work on sisal
and rubber estates and not to pay the graduated local
rate. Very lit-jle labour has in fact returned to work
and the rate is not being paid.

58 -
D .'-"i.; Z'T N0.65
..TT Anti-li iLriu sentiments spreads to different
sectors of Society:65

2. The agitation against payment of th, graduated local
rate has not ceased. From Usangi cone reports tiat traders have
refused to sull to persons who have paid the ta: and local rate
and th thathe native butcher of Kisangara Sisal oEtate (Schadrack,
who is in favour of graduated rate) cannot get cattle. Chief
Sabuni of Usangi reports that nore n.eetings hav. taken placj.
Chi,,f Heriel of Chone reports that meetings ha-ve taken place
since the return of the de1onstra tors, and that tthese
meetingss the speakers openly threlz tened any who paid the
Grraduaed.rato and stated that conscripts shil n';t go bach
to work on sisal estates and that if any one cl,;, wre consc-
ripted the people should ilu.oidiately go and ca ip round the
Chief's house- following the tactics of the d1_on:ntration at
Same. The throoe vision hospital dressers at .' b-,a told the
District CoLnaissioner and the Superintendent of Police, while
on tour in that area, that they wished to pay the toa and
graduated rate due by them but did not dare to do so because
they we r.e- raid of reprisals. They -:ade the pcint that
though/knew the Governuent would punish dnyonc who could be
provide to have set fire to a house, they felt that the chances
of getting enough evidence to convict such a person v ,o very
small indeed.

3. According to a telegram dated the 9th -'..; from the
Manager of Rubber Production Group III, the rutber plantations
in the Pare District are now in full production. This is taken
to moan that the entire complerient of tappers, all volunteers,
has returned to work.

4. I understand that Mr. 0F.P.E. Wolton,M.II.,Superintendent
of Police, Tanga Province, is continuing his investigations
in the Pare District and fuols that he nay be a-bl to ;,et enough
evidence to charge four of the Chone people with coinmitting
criminal offences. Three of these are included in the list
of ringleaders which was submitted to you direct by the District
Comaissioner with his letter ... of the 2'-th f!'bruary. Hr.
"iolton esti.,!.tos that the collection of evidence against the
ringleaders as a whole will take three wcuks,.

,t rii f I 1No.66
T r,,rm Objection of the Wapare to the now system of
Graduated tax (nbiru)66

On instruction from my cli-,ents the ',,apare iTribo of Pare
District I havi the honour to submit the folli win petition
on their behalf and setting out their principal objections to
the imposition of the above tax,

1. The tax is entirely foreign to the people of Yaparc.This
is an innovation of the taxing ; ., in the District and
people feel absolutely out of gear by the impooition of this
tax. The old Mibiru was not in the nature of tax but only a
voluntary offering by the cultivators to the rain nmakrs
and naturally a noan who got o bigger harvest offered rorT to
rain makers but there was no obligation on thc peCople to pay
anything to the rain makers. The iru was only pay0ab'le by
the cultivators and the non-cultivator did not pay anything to
the rain makers or the GCief either in ash or in kind. The
tax M.biru is reminiscent of the uncivilized and rbarrous state
of the community when beliefs in super natural powers of certain


pe6~pTa was the religion, It also reminds tho people of the utter
confU.sioh of their administration and the state of their slavery.

2. The tax payable is levied entirely at the discretion of
the chief of the. place. The "~liru although it i. assessed on the -
capacity of the man to pay his tax is ontiruly levied. at the -
discretion of the particular Chief, and it has b7o)n the experience
of the Tribe that the Chiefs have been taxing p people in an -
indiscriminate nanner and quite a nuAb-r of influential well-
to-do persons paid far less tax than the conperatively poor
people and thlre being no standard laid down for the assessnont
of th, tax there can Ibe no .appal: which can based. on facts.

3. That thu payn.nt of the tax cannot ce askedd on a uniform
principle deduced fro.u the income of :. .inan. Th iV'apare tribe of
for the matter of that any tribe in Tanganyika T7'rritory do not
heep -- Looks of account or any other record of their incomes
and expenditurus and so .- reliable formula' of a .nan's
capacity to pay tax can be deduced. In the casu o: non-nativos,
allowance is mado in the computation of incon., tar for fafrily
and other expenses :while in the caso of Jlbiru no such allowance
is nado. A tax on property is an unreasonable tax as if the
property does not bring enough in;corne it may be exhausted in
the payment of the tax.

4. Thu tribe is still in a primitive stage

The tribe is still in a priLitive stage .and tho Chiefs
(..~usuwa') are cgenrally ccmpara.tivoly ignorant people without
any tradition or training and it is dangerous to leave such a
power na that zf impo-ing tax in theu hands of such people. It
is true that the Chiefs are elected by the people but once
elected they are appointed for life subject to dismissal by
the Governrcnt. The result is that hathey coase to be the
representatives of the people and beco:.te Goverunantt O:rvants.
Moreover as they are appointed for life they seriously lag
behind the tiil.es and they generallyy are out of contact with the
general population.

5. Provision for Appeal

Provision has been made for appealing to the ITative
Authority but as of income tax the public canicot take any advanca,.- of thu provi-
sions. U.:. public has no confidence in the Council in such
niatters as the Chiefs have particularly to c.dpend on the assis-
tance of one aincthr and they dj not v,'ant to cnterf,-re in each
other's decision. There has bben a general dissatisfaction in
the way the t-axes were assessed but owing?: to lack of confidence
appeals have buon filed.

6. The in ..- ,:.I : r ',.
within any ;groat limits.

Aiongst thu nn--nfricans nan,.I-ly Europans :;nd the Indians
the dispriy behe riheo carninn tof di.ffoerunt individuals is
very great whilst son; of the' persons n:ay be cuarning inconues
running into fiv, and six figures ,1ur yuab -the oth-.rs earn
just enough to a;nage to lioe. Under those circumstances every
individual should Lb taxc: according to his capacity to pay tax.
In the case of the ,fricens and --prticularly the people of the
Pare IDistrict inco: e vary within very siall range and it
would not be unjust to tax people uniformly.

- 60 -

7. Th- V.. -.t.. -..re living.a uore or less a corii'tm1al w,:a of life
and the people are .always sharing each others' eamiin;s.

The well-to-do people are always ready and willin; to help
other ~,ombeurs of th, tribe who nay hot be as will off an. it
had been the uniform practice durinL all these, previous
years that if any person was hard up in the ,: :r -t of the tax
his relations (which tern includes a wide range of people in
hhe native language) were always ready and willing to nake
their contribution to help him. ...ny variation cf this practice
is a serious disturbance in the li:.e of thle native Comii:unity,

8. The tax is very uncertain and the people are always in a
doubt as to what amount they r-auy bI called upon' to pay for' the
tax of the next year. In a pr imi tive people such doubts are
undefirablcand loads to lots of bicherings an: unpleasantness.
Moreover if the people realize that the -iore they oern the
more taxes they will have to pay it will kill -the ixrntive to
work harder in order to earn more and improve theirstandard of

For reasons disclosed above the Tribe pray thot the
Law imposing this tax be repealed as from lst January,1945.


The anti-mbiru Iuver.'ment leaders in Gonja (Parc Distrzict)

I am the chief of Gonja Pare Distr.ict. The leaders of
the anti-Ei.iru movencnt in Ly district are the following six

Willian s/e Sekai. ef ii,
Baraka s/o ,.:ii : of tiiut,
-li is/o Kilage of Bobom,
Chidieli s/o Kirema of VYine
iMusa s/o iKiranda of Vuge and
Rashidi s/o Chkcir: of Vujc.

Those people work in cooperation with the leaders in
other chiafdeoms. One or more of then meeting with othcr loaders
to decide on the action .o be taken by all. .,'i-: then return
and these six carry out the policy decided upon. They have
held unauthurised redtinags of the people in u.y chiefdon, at
which they have jiven false information as to t.he roashon for
and working of, and the effect of the graduated tax: they
have preached that I, as one of the chiefs r.. -on sible for the
introduction of the graduated rate, have failed in ny duty
to my people and should therefore be removed. They have built
up an organisation to oppose, by nuumbcrs and unify, the exe-
cution of :m.y ori.drs or tbc law. They have obt ,ained this
following by trying' to n:udernine the loyalty of y people,
and separate .1theI from me, by saying that all the ),people who
are true to their tribe will follow thou, whereas those who
follow no and obey the law are traitors. They have supported
this by threats that anyone, who fails to s:-pport then Ly
subscriptions and doemnstratirfa at Bano, will either be killed,
or have his house burnt, or be expelled from the District or
Le fined.

- 61 -

These threats have had a disturbing, effect on ny people,
because, with fow.exceptions, the people belie the .fove.1nt
would carry out these threats, as the ,overnm:nt. is far away,
and could not help any individual in timn .to save hin. They
have, therefore, followed those leaders blindly uhtil nun ers
haye given then strength. The result is that I cannot give
an oider or arrest' a person, because the pe,:ple would be
afraid to help :.:ie, and it in iLnpo; s.Jibl to gct ce nictin,
because, fcr the .sa-e reason, the people are afraid to .ive
cvi cence.

Since the break up of the Same deio nstra'cion those lualdors
have continued their efforts to keep the people together and
to keep the ;ovement alive by the s::-,e method t:f threats. Even
y,-:t, there has been no payocint of _ibiru, b-cmuse the people
are afraid to.--, though mcst of them are tired of the hole
affair. .They are still being forced to subscribe, and '.cnly
half the labour has returned to 'tli l'ltii Rubber Estate.

I have satisfied myself that these six are the leaders in
my chiefdcn, because they are the people who c-ll and address
the meetings. This information I have obtained in private
conversations with :Lty people and front two of ..y headuen, nwhoe
I employed to obsurve the r.oveaent and attend the onetings. These
two were not allowed to attchd the secret .1eotinjs of the

There is one other, person, Aza s/o iluhandi, a, Lutheran
Mission School toacher, who was an active and influential
leader up to early January, but he was then transferred to
Arusha District,by his Mission.

I consider that the removal of the leade swill result in
the restoration of peace and go'o-d order in uy chiefdom, and
restore fre-dom of thought and speech to ny people.

Sgd. Kigono C.'ll.'..-l

;,, .. BECORC RE
THIS .?-.:,TH D.2Y 0'1 'ARCH 1945

T.E.M. Pringle
la tistratec

DC,' 0: 1'i,' I HO. 68
The Pare not support thn_ anti- i u Tovonent rqcarded
as traitors:68

On the 3rd January 1945 I held a Baraza with .iy people
at which Elireheua s/o ifyonge stated that he had ben to s,;o
the Provincial Coor':i'issiner at Tanga about '" .- ,.'u and that the
Provincial CoiL.issionur had said they nust pay this yar as
assessed and if they desired to petition the ,'ov.;~nil-ent in
respect of the future they were at liLurty to do uo in the proper
manner through their chiefs, and what they had to say would be
considered. Miy people wore quite satisfied with this and as it
was late it was agreed that there 'should be a tax paying baraza
the next day. iLxt day the people were gathering at the baraza
when a man from Bwaubo, IMamba and an thur fr:m Tai Chone appeared
and said thuir people were not going: to pay i'ibiru and are goin. to
SaIe. My people replied that!ht that had nothing to do with thein,

- 62 -

they were going -to pay this year and petition. With that Eliroheina
cane ovor thu hill from MIamba shouting to announce his arrival. He
told thepeoplo that the Bwaimbo people were not going to pay and
were going to San_ to supu.ort the 40 defaulters wo hod beehn taken
there and that if th.: Suji peope paid the TEw:a-i.!. people would deal
with then -n their return frc._ Soae The C'. :an supported
him with the state.iunt that the Tai people ire quite prepared to
deal with then before ,,ing to Sae. unless the pe'oplu cf Suji
accompanied then. Various people made exauscs to ,avoid goingg
to Sane, but Elirehen a said "You have managed to come here to
pay Mbiru you can nan:;e to go to Same to oppose i;L if you don't
you have hoard the consquences ." It was Elirh oen who broke
the peoples spirit and they left the Baraza.

Elirehona is a cousin olf nine and I have talked to hin and
tried. to change his at itude, but he has remained obstinate
saying that the chiefs were traitors to the .'are and they had al-
lowed theuselvcs to be deceived by the Europeans, and -'hen I said
there was nothing to be deceived about in hibiru he said that
I was blind.

Elirehe.ia has held mie tings and talked to the people on these
linos :: ...:j distrust of the GeovornOlint and the Chiefs; he is
in contact with the loaders of the movement in other chi.-fdois
and has continually preached that any Pare who does not support
tae noveminnt/ a traitor to his people and as Sudi will be dealt
with by being killed, having his house burnt, bein- expelled or
fined. Because of this the people are frightened ad : dare not come
to the baraza or obey an order or help in any way. In particular
they would not help lie arrest an offender. I beliv e that if
this man is re~rov, d from my country it will return to a state
of order.
Elirehcma was one of the .lea1ers at the '- .r demonstrations.

Signed Reuben Shazia
Sworn before u.oe this nin.,teenth day of "irch 1945



The subject natter discussed at the ,. .iti-_bi.ru
noven;nts' m tings.69

There were oore than 12 meetings held in the Ghoiq
Chiefdosm in connection with the protest against the paylnent
of i1'biru.

All the u.aetings held at Chc'ne vcere arranged by 'iafael
s/o Kanycupwo.
Yohannes s/o rlcharo
Mbura s/o T.,mand and
liz,. s/o / : ] .u.;'

The noticeseore sent to all chiefdons notifyin;g tl.-m of the
place and date of the proposed meetings. The notice was only sent
to trusted persons -who then advised others, verbally of the meetings.

I attended two big meetings at Chone and a third one at

- 63 -

Gonja. Tha oirst ne tiin- I tGunk'1 "i Cho ic rn 22a dulF,
19/. and thc. second at Chb-:-, k_ cn tlI" '20tlh; 1 rvracr, 1044.
The Lutin: att CGcnja waj .id on tho 15th r, 194K

The sj.'kers a L tol -.ectIitS hAlN .t 2-A :1 c: t 'h 22-r July,
1944 wwru:

d/o ne.ciTarc ,.frm Chorne

7-i3-Lnnle LVO fr/ o i. a

SSfro;:.,, GoriIj
f-al /n s k/o 1n )j in, rn Gonlbi,
Zo Shun :iva fru:: Wji aa

I do nctA ::9j .Ou,-i otao:L'r OTO aO1 t this~ io~

Yolha..i~nnL-o s/o rcha, cpcnod 'ouinc, a'K Siko firs-t. He
sail",1 I hav) nsld you tc, this notin s so that can -t &aCuthcr
to oppose the payruenit of :ibiriu If ally pers)n Y cr laC-d upon to
pay Idbiru, ho rLhe:l f reuso to do so. Wrao61n tic js;11-roooiitaii
frowm each ciaii:flcm rct-,Lrn hao e tlny riust w:ri t_ 1z b ttor to tho
District CSaLbo .Lssi'no ;1C to] ilinr thL t th y ,id >o mt wat.
p-ay Miinn Nos t~ne. s woru useud by Yohnnrus s,' Win1oI. All
th'. -otbor S spo_-.-. to tile :!uutin;; ix ithc ;: j straii. Tilcy
utto-r-X no thro ts *Yohannns ta-1W thi, rfror-seixt':;i vs nL'> thc-
various 6hilleLs t:at viwhen they rcturaO honeij thcy :~uu:i i, j 1d a
Le(inutil 0-E "nc:Lr inml Uaid lo t lhauk~-~w.~ ho-iJ bc:- said at
-tlti5 .'. -_ ;.tin'_;. He Llso told thii. that thoy nuct i-o -in to collect
mlunoy froiah 0>- t"- Li lC .nuOi n,, :> ojplo i r aid 2cr
future :-ieotioL 's -:hich :.!ill b,. held, -G? opp-no ti, ri-o o :yj
H-. :a~icsed t- T-;roJs-i-nti vu from zaoh o:?O -: t,- h!-, d a
faee-,;ting c;ach riontl-t'/i uxpl)ai- tro th-L_ C-. .upo-::ud nibah
thn,' jou o1ppooo( 00'00 0 _,otlhano .,!so was hsn

Th. sauCucO725 at srth second cnin at onic, on 20th
H nvuwber9 9,- o I -ttkonded, c

it i

Yohailulo S/::: 110110
Audi s/hivuniiiko UIsnnci

9";~oSi/c II i ha Us -
V11L S15 5/ hn101 q I.Wl
Pr::acis sl,

''11 1- ~-j7;- 'C ni

c/lu--' Lu.hi s/o birindo I-'l 10a

~'t zr hi I -hi tin Tile
majority c :01: fr-at CUMU, but smu.-\were fr-oll utcn: wiNUris.

S-uU-c h:>- f 11:L0 i( -or aric. 'ctill;; 071:11i ls sl/
Irigc '402u l u-;c -e at 10 astin cpicts t o irs. 17:-: the ti
bega_-n Eliza 'DIc: juL. c tnc s -)_aakurs, as' u_-.chi -f Dno
a~d A;ctin:; ChiA-i vwhe-Ler hi- y roro\rith thc in OPI son:;
ib .Wi'U. --- aende JAIL Wid 5ic s -if -isara t. >1 5hz' :t)n~o
lbs t thuy \-ccre at thu ROOM, is -e 4tat-us on-and ',ad nct COU
th'_ero tc-intL~rI', ac 7_nt u/n 1cC il

El2.zn 41:o'o tol~d Sub-~ciL I )u' .-n C:f T s '-~a
that Mthijy aia. no~t trust thun, nad aaif tI _.y to h..so2l a 'h
rayriont o7f '.,Wra, W3 should sig n th,t Cet.
Daniol a-rd i onra )X2 au' to s~qa tbc .-ndr~ d tol a !: _,,L-Lsa
Tidondo thi,,a W.y 0 II) o;uih., to say t. 't; ui*> tt if zt.tn1
::as sNkid to the u iatrlent of Cmhiv. Qrii they ,-'uzlK t11_ hiLTLi.
All thosE -'.ro iu nt su.at hav bearcd ttf. 1r i e DaliIu

lft, r. this convi.rsati,_an vis i'a wisi> a, t. e *iti. :os ca..nod.
Soclorio sl(u noind -, :a !.".- vL) s t t .14fi `5 ") is C.- ih (11 to0
the ICt11 knnhci lo all. tn';a. .1 tzo0110-
UOSud to ..LAU d -fL to Nr',,j.,u1 tui 11iAT 'all
in yotu Ch2 -6,, t o t x -,.T!_iC
r,4Y ,)C :iYcu. ro in coma wiien with ;..fl iht 1,200t -Pi ma, ill.-
cbuinjth2. coot rirpovct.if it is ,9ocJ.J.~or -,-,o an- no
I Wfant oil 0 011 of -to ct.<,., to ral Vv iT'at 1 ia 'Is -to dlh,_ tax
ohculd palry." S. '.io. >: s/s Rin 10 t.n sat dove'. j ie '.deu no
thrniatn a.;c.inst pocsoix's wrho wishud to pay 'bi:u. 11 o.'.: p Ol U
I have,, ,-,cjt uy it the,''cigoKKKL ClICd hewV' :i..1ch
nIonecy tMey had col.lIactrtd in the ohi1.fd~ur'.s t to O.ist thu
fi t Quitaizt T'i5iru. lii tlare o WNW. by any : spudrs,
or any *.:, -rs1*l ni,: *.r: ii, a_ outa n'g Ti f t)eUrd it Ur
hours, then brclm up, it wan araid to hold
tI.. nT.: dy (2-'ioI o

On thne 21: t r;et .r, 194-, an'., hor nctti a; was n.ld.
people ti t tOn Ltin- ,-et~ a, Ir. thi;e repo3e-'nt'- ftivc.s frci: a thec
v-rious chIldoos. :t ';as in the_: nature of 'niVaic xo'etin<, and
the public werel noCet' pie ont. I.-t waO hucd in 'P!Ah.J :* a ti ITO '.ii:ssicn
School at (_'.. _a. I a.C Mur S A .j 0 tdl this L.ctbti,
as we W'ierO c. r'aannn a1 hos e. I and fi:are a,! _irTp-Oya nc 1:Dno"__r
reprosrint 2i-o'e, as re have i.tL l throvm out "Pf tliho ptrt j,- o)c si ng
'mu, iru, because,, w rWO Ole 51.-peCteo0f rwpourtin t .h' ofn the
r :prescntK'. tivc, _t. u3 chi- '. n un f 23-le
19 K K ''as st tend e, by-

P,-afacl Kainy_-p.lp

Eliiza 'lk"undc

ichsud ixivunclilfo
P~lauls iY:Taoha bo:


Mics Shenl' .xnO

B:Lsantc cWiTEI
?'r.'.vlvoli a iff uate

WAIwO 7asira0
S. ,L,,.itashi and
Ali. Kin'ashi
I and Kiure '';v;Oj 'are ClLSO Opreinft.

The oponu-t:i.;1n; y Yx'. :I n chro s11ck to the
:teeotinL: as as 1lO2

"You hay v-.d thej to -chens tie '.wniierco f th, v.'a to
oppoSo thu -aya,-t .if and, it is *ierts.in, L.fx ln, ,:, -.iC
s I-)all iu cieniisoda r ifc. tiour bydtim rv..rn !.-? cnt If
this noaj)p-.,n, w_ t.

iivalirau. i'raecis frets Jgva>: toon saidJ 9 "I we.r :.ro-dim%,issed
bjy Govc~r.nilaet, it '10.-nit t ,-er. 'a r. 2,uh'.ia Pm. r cc'.n-ntry. "

- 6." -

- 065 -

M.asudi Kivundiho fro3n Usangi said, "'Chen our tea:.chrs are
dismissed we a,: :t unli.t with then, an.; subscrlibe u;ney so that
their salaries can be paid."

iEliza :iondc fro. Chone ithen ot up and 'ai., "'hen the
tine co.ios for us to pay our: t::.:- :.Tht shall-we .., Yohannes
Mcharo replied and sao : the tir coe s for out tax to be
paid, we nust only produce and pay shillings '7/S, and say we
have no _icro ioneo, If any of us ar:: arrestedd or accsulted ,we
should c.ke a loud shout, and all of us will thl-_ r-.tt:ick t.he
person aryirng out the arcre;st or com litting the aoausault."

Eli'sa k,.n. said, "If the chiefs get to knw abo ut thij,
they will n:-- senGld -th1r tax collectors alone -to coll.:ct the t.x,
but polica:on : -.ill be sent with the;.. ',i -wt jalwe o in That

Yohannes r. lcharo said, "If polrc en are sent with the tax
collc'trs, tlcn we nuest fight the policecn as '. ll. T[e wiill
fi"hht then -ith ,bows and arrows. Jh.un the. police and tax col -
lectors arrive -o collect the tax, we should not show hostility,
but hide our bows an'. arrows .besid the road. 'iLho the police
and ta x coll ctors; 1:,;in to colle.t tax, awe su.culd attack then:
on the road." He went on to say, "You should not be afraid of
dying because having to pay 5:biru i s the sa:-e as acth. If we
pay ]Mbiry we shall be in the sa- .ie position as te C ,r.o i1n the
Central Pbovince, who are very poor, and ar..; lo.vi'; the
country, because the D)istrict Com-isicner, who i. at Sano~was
the sano District CcLuissionor who caused the .Toyc t. econe

Masudi Kivundiko then said,"YWhat Yoh:anuels Ti hC has .said
is true. We have the sane. District ( ori.ission: r, who caused
poverty amoingist the Wasoo, and 'h will kill us by reduci n us
to poverty. e supported Y:.l:-l.. ''o by ayin that if any
person Twas arresaded for ionl-paly:i- 'df L.biru, th;.n the person
arrested should shut, On hea rring, the shout ouvcrybody front all
districts should go to tb: assistance of thu r.:rrestCd person
qnd fight. Ie went o;n t say, "If .wu are succsfurl in abolish-
in'g tbiru thea we Vi. 1 take stops tohave th. chi. ,' recoved.
1!o, people of North Pare, intend to assist you .in iouth Par.
by roeovin:; al n---.nativ,: tra-drs front th-i i: t:.'t. In caoe
wo are shortof IolnCy, hi ve spoken with th-e -'ch.:r:, ;: 'ldrs,
who have prolis. to ass: n st us with i:oney."

S'"i:"- La. ude then said, ;Suppose any person pays his tr:x
and refuseS to follow our instructions not to pay, :what hall we
Rafaol i:anyo-pe said if th't I ha ppes, he rs- sted that
such persons be expelled fro:l the district, nobc1 should -assist
theo -f they are sick or inn trouble., their hones should be dest-
toyed by fira and nobody should ;o to their assil'tne to 'help
then to rescure their goods, when their house wis i-o fire.

When Rafael Kanycr.ipeo sphke these w-ords all thoso present
agreed with hi.n, and expressed their approval of this plan.

MIasudi Kivmndiko then geot up and said, "You have: all
heard hat has beun said at this meeting, Return to your chief-
d-nns and explain to the-- people what we have decided to do, and
what action should 'e taken .against those who fail to oey our
instruction. He 'said that the next aoating should be held on
the 15th DcoenbLtr, 194-4 before th.; tax falls due in January

Williarn S.ekajino asked that next eeotin.g b held at Gonja
and all those present agreed. The :meting th- n roke up and we
all went away.

Tihu nuxt t attE(2Oni xqs 'it anGon,-Ia on t 15eth Decz-
iaor, 1944. About )a'0 -_or r -ttondcc *thio T-til. '[1-,
5T~i~kcrr u7jrcK

'iuvako c Ir
T::v~k &~n~;. ar!c f~-o:n. j~ilj:-aa..~uc:
iwurna .`.anuiu~ li
ash r ) j i :afr Us-nnpi
I::s~~~:i bkhan:: f ro-, rl-;~
Yohan:nos T-:charc' fixrx, CmOco

'av~Ci~ j *i

f -i' -.r oi C L. &aru riAid,

In ard:1itio n t'. t.11) ovo thu:ci\i. ,r o;h
ati...:dcct t1'." ati o: ,n tho 2ia't in..: 9L;

TOho pc.rzcson to oal tWD riuctin(I; was o'.uh a Lrdo fromn
Gonj.. i sanid, "Y. or Lo ccsi :o at Chomo to -a, 7/5(, is nut
I think. Wi; Mod Oct JC52 0 1121 1i,5 10'/--

''Lnxuna L_ J"W ::Aii;e -2c-i I i1Ocve .)Ocfl ~~~'vo~l 3:~I).V2.bO nfci'c-
niation iri:- -ohu! and *Jus tin :"ihluAU, cm lor i
if i'm cay Ru;t and Mit I"P-1 tax' 'nly w shall U s o yl..~ .O_ no.t
paying~ Enccy W tiio o Tv* Ycc. zuuv Tic'osoo two c-11c~m.
su, a;jted that w6 pay shillings 12/-, w-hio'. ' otory
to '; Lic. in' ITuc;S utf i to
the _.'!ativc'%rC T r i with >' i Vi tl-12 t1) y t
POLa i cisso that this %onm ~ tu KA 1hs who ar o. at !o
and toll thma t o save shill ingso 1 2__

Azon. oci'uciU tu a aid thlt a aot'h 'ulK. s-aL to
the Di o l c lt S;nn 9 c, 1aio in7or ;yh vin: 'L; h.LI our-'L a. a
porod. to ay- olipay _12' >/-, and not ohlf>7 !L
Cid'.d upion --it n ho_:ld n-ti o s. Ky noy>
af,,roud to this oc .. s, -

"If a' 1ic~ 1'-,.
Groo n dit all a -~tihe tcukujrn s should stLo< .m- ala'." Th
this smugA~sTiorU iL 7,),,-h saidi1 "if ai teoch;r f_ dionissod Lv
Guirornrlk t, it U Jo not tooin farn Sir th e:thr Lu.041,sto stop
working, -.s thu. au)rcpeaUYIn. figlt L in Iha'oju 3: thu aro
carrying thz J arI in. -this co unt.l :y'.

hiana followuo. 'a gunural dismis'sio-n oni ili 51t> c) 'NO TI"
put 1orwa 'y % 'Tnac-haro and Davis Jlosuc,ili 1h-s 110 rc-
sciat %,ia ith ID:-'vis OQh. ",ash,-.urii Ui
that he did imt aO ruu. e't5l t.. 9aihi'cci s n ion c1.,a d fat C othat *eoolo
should fight vatL,;h tf:.: .3- ccr aricd Poliec if Ktod any
person for imon-pa a m U of tax, and t-hat tho je, should reo-aiai
qui-at an,.d ;,-:o on proto, t .nL, agaist [bdru. If t r-,- fn -Lt th
tax c-ollactoeds =1a policeL, woa uld sooil th~udy, cz,-cc Tuval'ko
saLPO:9N 5PUND ill thu BRA& strain as "05 aua`..-n-ola. ;-li those
lprcexait agcQ-ud Witth" r> tvio

laiz a hondo';'-Lion sa-iid: -d ot xauCto cu~rtaianr mtters
at -this ioig Thu ia~ ssue is for usti- to rutOn-y Mru
and no-anto if 0,nz or0 l 1'mild in e,.jieJ1niti-, _>1ru., 1.'t us

- 60 -


Uibr l.ot it can by tht r -t eke. oratsis .11 uroent %::rued
-to th-1is. anoll proos.tritivS iron vorica 0.. ( Lid
tha,.t -they i.ec-s asi t.__ ,-ir p; pJ C o. ;' tbi)ll z 12/- tlox o11y2
and. n ct shilli nZ2 7/5a a(hioh _s 1. cidd u;4en a Chore.

Only thi Thr:. et1hers I 1'nait,-oncI as specakes oly- G6 v at C.e ,eiiit; an0
rt, t Wh(;tO Z' .cthTBd O02. o:Leanhr. VeU u,.u l:e SE( .l Loris
put on,,rwai ;-I nco threats _1rvIC ag~ntC2d~aor
persons viIIhe; -UI: mlic e 4u n th;l -oretost a,;ca-tLn li,.r. ?h ovn
then OOJ'l ut rcoI.vs.a In C 'i I
aoain aftcr 1b C7ur .-L 22 t at- 2e,,nd ". 0. 1t Lj.htt
v7,7. S -tilU- y Kiure 1 'Ioya.

t.i t he _ieeting, }I C LU C a 'n 151 71
ther, w e reo I o1:L~:~g J 22L ut C. 1,-oe j. no att(.nd
t h os e n_,cotings. I did nct join i-t deuonstrators t SaneC7.
nahivc not _-,en three toru,-ane hr ,_n- p-rscmf althou-.; oI 1'~ 5L151)O-tcd
of bcin jO.n 1-16cu2 'er ho (Thief. Tii 1

M) ti. 70 7
1___b___- ;eiivoont as a Inati onaii~st eet

i am:i tao cImeetf o2 W' i. n tne Pare Distr i c Tlae loaders
of thc; an ti-i-111u v.: cnt in i-,Y Chi-,fd, d hcy. toz&u- the peace
and good erior in it ano! sot uyi authority an4 the authOrity of thy
Government ,,t Tfiance. The lo_ AIcrs in the Ciicfce.i at in consul-
tation nnd concert wri-'th the lcIc:,dcrs froa-r ta tic. r c-' o 0dc. Ls ;witi.t
x her th1 y holj z'ret oi'k-tis's end: thcLt ouaso do are e-n( tuC4
h.y tIn 1 cal 1'. a drz t tGci .:7a sinu'.ts rho r and o )l~eOci
siC'~urltions Ali: tILe Var1ious crsni h

The 1ondcr-s huiv.- calledj. and lind d oi-. s rlthue yoorlo
wihctiyp~ra~;me and at these: 1e~ 4n say prdfAs.
proptgranda abs eLlt th-I, of :Ir -n] u1r.op thi, apro-
paCganda. ,,itll 1_ ,es oustih as that thu D,.;t co t 0, JL~ jtr rho Jv 1
buenr roeoeJU the, i1t dCiduaetio,- T I7 oi' 'ebs:I Uh
Wage 7:o to povc,:r-*y bbr tho. 'a.,n neams end [ u thIl I
imp' ?iverished.

~ihe~ te'~ b 1) .!Vc a 2011 oso- art tl'nici 4cr s .-if
succ,sa flll ill -3it~ Zr. ;i::= II.;U 1.itf il nd -Im. --utl _, -ici `-he
thu .h Te-de-s ruu 2Jmtri o 'etnC h
ChieJfe and -thuc timh ; ~n-'s~la ive iL~rrloias, 1h'v~ y in~, -t; yet soid i~t
openly ;lii the ilext s`_tz; 'ee d 2 to _c" t i,-L f o'-I o i e U: 17 "',15 am 1 E s
I t i S in 11 11C t a, an II, sor Co -~ vr.an 11 t h& 11 d -t. -11 1D att--
ra-ct recruits _.y t>o tPare vlh- )triotIs o'li~ se
stand by thin Chi'dcfs1 ad Uc C11v-.an 1 t rit."ro ad Vas lho SU-
ppu.rt iths.. _' e -i- nSois

~Jh en tin tae 21 to 'ata Lie I s*it eaou. ''h .they3 reoSrt
to Ine;s LJiU '1 ~51 U1rr he~ hnao~ Y
cur na oxU
111 orsy~i elo :dr lh31. a ,I-:L-_ct i0 th lis L us
r-r the fjowaa th i t to ') r is t,
ttivc fior ny 1) '-.,c t i t J- s, :-Urn;:.in : r u;~ iu
_,1 ev 'h di:11 this Ghreat as ad
ce-.anaL-`kis ci thoe41, f'or .-inh. LIaiI1 'I thinv uo s theyr S t-yol
irse i c-t ely ah.h'o nd j~rrp.l r+,; U- t'-s 2' 2A up whi ch
isstre in th hr 1

T~he ri:suit hI'as ,,o:n that tt c:'A .p c i IaLrCOS, nore
in syrisathy w.i ,kh tila. 'onetrateno" n-: acts ': c t S e. de"s, they have
tak-en panrt in tho3.; throu,,lh fear o f '61'.u eSri ,- hei L s.

- 68 -

Thorc ha1s e c oe cos. of aCrson in :.;y couitry nobody
knows who firod the. )ho.:.:, buo tjioerc is no oc::bt -"'.ht it L'
concerned ..i h iL.u because the ocnor '.as a .:.n -:ho Lad prov iusly
boon lc.l i ad'er, but '_eft thc..party because .. di- d not (3 ro
ith thi, policy th oth.I Gr ,er and. aid ir" -hen hi.
houe was fired "o called fr hulp in Lusui.'1 v ..,.i by
tril1 law,7 itL is tl. "o'.ndo duty o c-i fibs:,.' to tu ;. ou
and h lp in such (ircut stnices, but in tis lrto.-.;Tc th: pcil-

droso. lvi; h o..n 'n St t t th o
doorway vi h oicc d arro1 J c ph. ho iC K obilant
wa s.i' tih foar .o r -ria I .:t 4, l supportt -,
poopl to ": L t -- ct.y do b th
havoc luft thoir ;orx (;o sisal, even cho co A-scri-ts 5oc-uvu they
hav,,v b -e..n oo dic r -otd by thu loadors.

Sinco the drik-up of tho durdnstration at Sto oi t the "Iader
ih..av held i; tin,;s ,nd r.i ov ad thi;ir throats ac c;in ct oiy pi on
who iopays iiru oC .arri.s on his i-.r aid hvc O aOlL te'd ts: :c0 nst-
rate again should I of thi or i laourr a;'rtc d..

Proan infori tion at 1miy dis.poual ac. sa -' is- d that- tho
following ari th" principal l:Y oaders in i.y chifa- ;:;

1. Rafael s.o Canyoipwo
2 Ychaunn Os c.-. 1' Char c
.). ]-bura s o.
4. li c s.,o. ul, ond"
5 La shic s.o. Kadio
and that p., c d _ro.l d ordr' wi ill not bu roter d in .: chief-
don until thiuco po plo sav.o Iuco.. ro'oGu.

Si anod d .r. .", .;iaan. ;

S"itoso l strawa to.

Decisions talo, at th_" Inti-Lslhiru ctov.icnts im.ti s held.
,t Ohn .. .... a : l 'ci '. d

I at tondod 0. aL..inu hul, at Chonc .n 2.'Ith -v".nuor, 1O, .
in connection with thuj n:n-piay/nt o:' iru. I wv'nt with _:. i
ICgwono. fu re *ax.pro:ntin th p people at i:. neo in the -aI-x is-
pute. I uarC ruicOvud fro. this po sition 1u :.us- I ,iuld o t j-in
thu dionstrat.:cs ct Sa".; I h.avc. no fourth r cnn.ction with --ho
deu-;-'ostr- tors bp.causo I hYvo paid ny ta: for thcL s year and I an3
regarded o a traitor. ( ter che rcrtin hold at '.,-n. on th7
20th ,ivI.bmr, 14.- at which abouL t ,-00 pooplo attcrded, there w.as
a secret o tin'; of all thu roproJsC ntativ. i.. the various chief--
dc'1s in thi dJist'rict. Tho o...tini \.'a h.ld in th -uthoran Iission
School building at !cl.:i on toii 21c.Bt 'ovo lor, r i-.*. T'ihe

Rafael ]lanyc..pu of 0mo1c-

,:lia. s hi'ondo n "t

- 69 -

A 1. -;

ia 1i 'I cd ZUjL

1,11 attn, c MoMAI sioi',Wn


vat oopou y..- Ury scn ,

tha low0 nra Mina T2r Ha diLnOP n.-!uY thc osI~n
Ca --4c; c, i., :, zin

c,)r _s.-,cu ctl.o L ~tc2 acfJL-j our

3,idulln fLon.L.,. II(-:,n a10cgrcee2, IL this so';t 32

MTiza ..o0l.Iu tLCo:L -o uq; .aa said, 11`i.0.231 -n .t. c.;owo
for usL? t,-; ta::.r ui.t oh;l'taill vfi; cdc
'021~U2n : 12 Jll pAly usidCl 1Y.h~cii thi: us20/.3 '.7 I
to pny ~y r n;, ust uny Dn Nfli: 1A to tho t=
coll-ct(or. Iif :1.2 tO/I col3 cto m nrrutso a C0.c- ,c' oo-, s n3
&21327.lt on1 an7. r)- p is(il .31>.,p'..ro, 'Y1 rr(.)zt'2 1 ro.I:l !1 2. UIU J u s.2 Cry
out, and tli-n x i l >11 wc1 to --.1 23 j-3ncc aof Ili,, -,;h,
tax call it v.ij19 tPii3.ii s.huA.-

s t t0.]t i 7 !.-It .L .

1 got T and said, "If you fi,:1;i-ti-!!s ?~ht with~s
inst2.&d Of 3:cuw,j K 1.rOp,..r `..DL..21 to I Cv,~ i..n

an t1 of n'

to MS. th

-.S t,,-, tlclc 0i:3t2.'L.C
s ensribb adio.o ln tloinl: a.e -iA. i.a 'c Atci ttold"- :-t -v : lsoh
in2ti thoyLf. i tan'.- a.:Ol nto ta;y oni~. a2 :2 -.

-, to0 11.Lt HS o0nd thnt if thl tax f s 0.' t -D
accopt .w'il ii. T150 uo... -h '
th'..:L hinsos.

with iW si 017.o.r ruarin imw, LiC-h;-I'.-:trc

T r2 u: u llanu 0h0 01wi c3uo tall9.y th.:'.. mW~nn Writ j70 aniy
tax colluctor or ,i ',iuco.n-.'ytr. -toc.-> 2 r..s
for no~oy u of tax, tal'2f 1.1. pal 2012 sO ,ui2-1, fi.',ht tO. w;ith
bow a73oi.n,,-, CU 1, 1 .ml 110%~ ~t.. nd~ :,, ootr
with. thlis a -(31.im

- 70 -

Yohinn:.o I/c. ro *.';n get up and said, "I :a.y a .',vrson die.-
obey' our order a'd ;ay' Mbir', vw Rh'uld Lith r Kil. hil, -u:.M
hi hous O t... 1" ,. ...: ro. i .. x,. h fr'-. l\. .tric ..

Kliam'. Mkcn'i., tnfail ;. ,on '. aad 7:,- -iv;...cli:c suppnr;tj[
this suiot:i;'."o ;.c objocti:n \,as r,.s .d to "'.. Suglostion :y
othur puronno prasu..t nn? it was Gocit(;d -.,:- \'in tlh rdo'ca;;nta~
t'v-':s r t.r.d thc. *; ir hui us, th _y 'hs ulit t .the peopi l
what action ha. .:a. n g.ro.ud upon in E; r.' to th ot o ,:r; ," .ho
&pay ::. 'irtv..

present t aoua t; plcu .. at GoM.a on Otn: ; l" co "'r, 14
t-h -n CV tr, JO 2 a-in1

TaWA.iua ,o said t IAt ;Y _y pre nt l.- Si ul-. --", yo:, t th .;y h.l
heard at tAe ;ti.,. Geor ;t tnd vay nLothing to the aithorities
rdin pl., decided uon. Thy sai t i ny p.r
playWd traitor, they dosrvT d death.

I attc .dCdl th, :;io tin at Gonj n ';. 151th 1) .j. .l ;" 19.';.4.
.irst of a ll thc -i. m;s a cr ...a ctin of ll th.., .,pr ttiv
fro:.i all chi..:fdoius. This was follo.-ud ,-y a public _ing and
tthin a scon tin of reprc -Statr.. t .iinr :"," :: wt.

Thoal pr,-.-- ;- it a-- tah s oCr-.:, mo.tin.s ." .
T n. ... I...a. -cuof]-o<,:l 3- ;.]u. i _o~o z~

;Tllia..': S,-;kajj in:
Gai1^.-clj. Kinut-

1 Jr i 1%. I u 1.'V .
Azn .uhan.do
. :tur : :- .i .',
li za :.Tkon:do
"foha',nncs i.charo

a. ani ,.r:ashis

:. .11:. 2 i1:s 0'..
.o11la'C.tl -ndo
11. 5n tJ -5 6 re

:. u i:na


ii Ch


.i 'j a

ni i i

.i i i l. ..

lily ti 87' toner. or.

,t the s..crot sa.. o-in; the foll: win- 1cision1-; r :.do;-

1. To i.foru all th p..opl- in tLu vor.,.ous chiU::"-'c.os to ni.y
shillings 12/.- c:ly.

2. Tc ,;rit. a l tter to tLh :u:i trict t C ..i: .1 .:,. :, o. :!ni
info'n hi ::1 of th ducisoon uo pay a tax of 12/--n'ily.

.5 Should tl bi.iid 'opt iln Wth ti 'ict ;C : ",''a -' ciS.j. t pay
Lbiru,' stops should o ta" ..n by t'- p...:pl in or cic

4. I-f a tuachor C:c.s diaiscd 'y G-vrn.n t; r t s
should coiVtinu" 0o Jork

5. If any porso.s fail. to follow orders :,a ,.ays l :rm.!, he should,

These are tht

- 71 -

be instructed to go to Sa.au, :nd hold a cden n,- tion.

All thcse pro('t a -ro0 d t i o the proposal I a 2 rer told
to tell th,_ p. opl.; i:n bih vbl ous chief -.-: w. :. h. .'en decided
upon at this secret :. 1 .ring.

Theo public .I..utinj was th,,n hold .s. .\a 'ul:':-o ,~Lother ran,
iwhos nane I do not 2:. beor, ad dressed the _e:tin. They told
the .i-:..-ti., thit Ithey uA t .ily pacty llingn ./-'-.:; th.'..t
they u',t' a-oci2t th 4 titiJ1 p.opl. to r;sit '.:.t .bi,
,z',d of nu::c::; ry, pr.vt thKl r .Iro: ; i,-n If ;.:ny ..teac r /as
disnies ed .y G. ovri; : Lt f r tt-;"l ptt he .' ,ht ......n t.
riDiL:, thU oth. r tonbh r: shi d'. c ntin-." to r, If any ; recn
is ocia U 1. .. ullS"
is arresti.d and t u '.i n t ~.. prior t7 'l c the DcOpl1. in.
th,: various ot-.i:i-f G. ;should :.. ousored 'i-.'^"..r >';- h-t
thuy could dt..-an at;It a ;inst th arr-ots. -y D. rating
Authorities v/ill re t rai Ito ac fartler .cti.. :o :.c .ting
was also told -th a.t a l ;t'it;..'., as .. -1.-n'; scent to th, u i, tricti C.c.. _-_
nisci:,nur, SLIC to all th, chi ifs, and to T an andi DR r j
Sal,.ara sarnyii;7 ,that thu. puopllo of the -arc- d- ; .*. t had a3.'...
to pay a tax of shilling : 12/- unlyr Th'u ...tlln: .;- c:;c ; to
an ienl.

,t thu ,oond sacrot s .ootin,- ..thini va dis cuscd, 'iut
AIa -'.i.:.i.' and IDavis Josoplh 7erc ivn the task of oritin "t
':- letor to DisTrict C "o' ""issionfrs, ;, .1'" chiefs, to th
J-rovincial .u.-:issicn.-r, i'a,., .n... d to th, Chi.f SecrLt..ry, 3)r
s alan, th, am I tin. thlin ca. to an und.

I attndod :ai.oth;.r n ieet.n of raep- e.cttat i.vs t U 'a;i

Yohanausn icharo I' "
Pi'ra nci ,I -jw: no
.tci;a:n.t c :.. clir.ro "; r A.t.a

li .lao Gn
'a7udi jivunlio ; s n i
So.-fu cs."ana "i ;
uit, Ka"uh' "tto aila.
Seth Ci L.disa ii

There was others pr,:;ont but I do not kn ';- thei; n i os. This
wvas a public .-Ii.,; an- chief S-) lT was as .2 t0.; att.1nd.. ",un,
Chief SAB ii_ arr:.:.vcd he vIs told th.t the p.o ple had ac-reod
to tpay a tax of shi .ii.i;o 12/-. Ct e was told thic ,y. iasurdi
Kivcundio and Sou iana. Chif Saun:i said that L;to -pay a flat
r:te of hillin(;s 12/-- was not ill accordance .ith GoVIo-nI:-.,nt'
instructi-ons an, id ho would ddTlmand th. tax .s. .-Iu;hori:sd v
Gov,_;rm-:int, when iit -bc ;I) e duo on ird dJanuary, 19-5. ,,asudi
and eofu told th- chief that -thy had vri-.i.n a letter to the
District Coiuq:.tssionor, Sa.ro, regarding the payt,.:.ut of the 12/-
and they wu:-e sendin;-; t to h-Ji.1, I and Gukaa ; c:ir *"..re chCa un
to tke the lette to the :.is tr..t CoisGionin.,.: Sialoon Lushino
and Salomno .::irindo followcl us to Saoe. e dli-v.red the 16tter
to tho Distric-t Co:'lisic;eur.. Sa..o, lo tlL u;. that the pay-
nent of a flat ratoe o..i 12/-- vas -lnot p:uisshlec and '-that al
the .people o.:rc required to-.p; .the graduated tx.:I explain:ed
to th Ctho .arc district
woro very -poor andi cold not afford to pay, th graduated : tax.
o. =1. to pu !z .. .-,:,t?

- 72 -

He explained to .o that it the law, and therefree the tax had to
be paid for 1945. ine said the people cculd, if the, wishes~ ,
appeal to the Governn.ent in respect of the tax in 1946. I realized
the truth of what t:e iListrijct CooiiAissioners had told .e. I
explained it to the others, b1ut they did not a:r_'ee with me. As
a result of this differ.once of opinion, i fell oul t '.it, the
other representatives, and have not joined with then since.

The doacnstration at Sane '.as organized because' chiefDaudi
arrested 44 persons in his chiefdoi: for refusing to pay IIiru.
As soon as thi-beocane knew'n, the people were su5.?:o;od to-Same in
accordance with the decision taken by the reptosentatives front
the various chiefdon at the meetingng held at Gcnja on the 15th
Decoe .ber 1944. I did.rnt attend this denonstrati.crn.

So' far no action has boen taken against ;.1c by person s pro'.-ttti-i
against iibiru for .. ing. M]',iru, but action has been taken against
my friends for paying this tax.

Francis i'.iange of '!.. i- was shot at with a poisonE*d arrow.
It passed through the sle,,ve of his shirt. 2- ". iweno of
Chone, disagreed with, nd left, the represeutativms, had his
house set on fire. Those two incidents teoo: pl.ce on the night
of the 8t!h Febiruary, 1945. 1 a'i told that threat.. are still
being ra:.io to those Twho .. Mbiru. I heard the labourers v 'rking
on sisal and rubber es:;ltates were forced, by throats, to join the
demonstrations at Sa e.

This is-all I have to say.

Submission of Eliv-.si Sbu guni s ":.- a -
-u partiei-pant. i

I ai.' a cult.ivator' and carp nter. I hiave ttc;. d.eo svoyral
small mee-tings held at homlie in connection with the prot-est against
NMbiru. lhe nieetings aere all arranged by Yoha:-meo MPcharo Pafael
'::,-"." .!3, I1'Ibura lkaindo and Eliza Ukondo, R,..,azani iarcisi was also
present at somo of the ieetins. At a :,meeting hld oit Cho.ne
towards the end cf Dece:,:ibe-r, 1944, which I at-t~;ded., those present
were addressed by Yohannee lMch-'ro, Rafaol ia..;- and Eliza ir:ondo.
Only people from Chone attended this meeting. 'hour Yohannes
Mchcro spoke to the citingg he said, "The ti:.ie is approaching when
we shall be called upon to pay tax if ofs are arrested because
we refuse to pay tax we will all go and rescue the person arrested,
and we will assault the person making the .rrost. If a fiiht
occurs, then we will us'; bows "nd arrows, and chase the tax
collectors away. Any person voluntarily pays Tibhiru to the tax
collectors. We shall either kill that person, set fire to his
house, expel him front the district, or nake hin-pay a- fine of
one cow. We will carry out those pu ishments when we have
succeeded in abolishin-; IIbiru.

Rafael .-..'.yelpe then told the rree:tin g, "You have heard the
word of Yohannes ;..:-'e. You must all siin a declaration that you
belong to those who are protesting- agEainst :,.-,."

Yohannes 'Icharo then produced a piece of paper on which we
all had to sign. I signon this paper. After all had signed this
paper, Yohannes Itcharo said to the meeting;, "If any person, who
has signed his name, or those who have not si ;ned, disobeys our
orders, then we shall carry out the punishi.nnts which we have
already spoken to you about at this meeting.

- 73 -

Eliza :Tkond0 TIura .:: ide: and Riazafni EI-:nisi also
addressed the meeting and re-iterated the threats uttered by
Yohannes and Rafaol. The meeting then cane to an end. The papers
on which we signed our nanes ..ay .be with either Yclhanns :'lch-,,
or Rafael :anyepe. I was ;at the Baraza held by Chief hOrioi, at
which a letter, whc:c- was received froiL. Covernnont, ws ready iout
to all thcos presemon. The letter thankedal. -h chiehofs :or the part
they had played in introducing MbirueRashidi Endio .ot up and
said to the chief, "The thanking does not concern the people.
It is only for you and the Dis rict CoL:-aissionor. eo do net want

On the 5th Ja.nuary, 1945, sou people fro ]-all a passed
through- :: -. ;:. They told the people at '.::_- *' : wore
holding Baraza, that so e people at i.:anba h I. l. on, ar.eCo ted by
Chief Dhudi for non-pay ointt cf tax a.nd tai-n by lorry to S..:2 .
They said that we should. new carry out what haid boon agreed upon
and all proceed to Sao. -R ashid : ,.li-i and Eliza ,]kondo got up at
the Baraza and told the people "i". is the tine to, carry out the
arrangenicnts which we ha7:e unado and agreed upon. oe ::iust proceed
to Sane and join our i ri.cds who have becc arrested. Those who are
old and sick will be given money to pay their taoes to S.aoe. T. so
who remain behind and do not join us will suffer the punj hne.nt
we have already agreed upon" All the people :-t uce loft the l-araza
and proceeded to Sj, I went to Sansl with the others. On arrival
at Sane there wre nany people collected. All the people were
separated first into chiefdons, and then into si-all groups .under a
leader. The groups were arranged according to villages. The
loaders of ;y group were Rafael Kanyen-pe and Yohannoso .icharo.

_hen the Provincial Co- i.ssionr Tana P- ro vine, visited
Sanle, and told the. people to -o ho.eo and leave representatives at
Sanoe to present this case to Governuent, iRofol Iianyeupe, as'idi
Kaduo, Yohannes icharo and :l -ra llkande cane to oaur camp anid told
us not to go honor. T'ey said if we went ho.ie, we should bo cheated
and forced to pay tax. They told us that vwe s-hoLl,. rclain aot Sano,
because we had not killedd anyone, and we shall not b:o h:illed ourselves
if anyone left SaX oe and went iio:ie without per-v.tsion,, then t c..
would be punished according to the punishnonts already a eed upon.
If any person had a good reason for going h11i.e t' h.: they sh ul
apply to, the loader e--d :obtain their periiosion iefcro leaving.'
Those wishing to rtlurni hone freo, Sale were required to obtain a
pass fro. the leaders. In ;y group the passes wero issued by
Yohanncs Mcharo lan.L afl Kanyonlpe. I obtainedi a pass to go hone.
The following were the leaders of the other groups o far as I know.

..ura i~lan( woas the leader of the group fro- C-wanga and TIpeta

Ranlazani IIacisi was a Sub-leoder of ily group (Choio.

lashidi Kiidio -was a leader of th.e group fro L-e iakanya and

Eliza ,ikondo was the. leader of thie rroup fro.i r Mueur..

1asudi Kivun.diko and Davis Jcosph were leaders of groups
front Usani.

Paulo .1.asha .La fro- .Ia:jb-a twas the g:enral leader of rll the
groups and he issued o'rdrs to other leaders in chargo- groups.

:7lisanto iMTcharo and SaLweli .i: iute were leaders of a g-oup
froi -. .'.a.

Ali .'. n d;o and Aza :.'ahando were in; charl I of a group n .

- '74 -

Sii-rcon IAusliino w!as in ci i',,e of a -Jroup re:i HLodaru9

FGaIOMO ao rkla~O 1U in Cilarg Oif LaX.oUP "C"7"T

JiciYrd Joc7:3iph alia-s 1,l`avV i Juoxph -i in chrar{:e o,
a ro froy~l Ua

I do not knovx; rin osth";Y's0

I ini S~ch ;,,itih the do:Tt 1ird IRafaul
h flny lila)o wiad -v *u 1at 1` -wcre) 5, i0l -.
ing of tlho I.oadrs and .,u,;just to Vi..n, tla a l.u sc,. to all
estates in thoe district to tu. 11 to fbI '.i.l the : alll thc
on tho ostatoec. Ai Ir hor- f u
Racael Kanjco: pe to ler.;to ltter me L=. s KmL
3isal Estato to o"_.1tle to'l022r t o: Snv. ot00t S713.1i
Q. lator, 1 a-)my u Iaur~s froui Hlsani SWal 0-Id ;tthor qstat,s,
joined the do ons Urator at .1..0

\Ihilst at Haiui etho Sub-lnottec-tor olfna of
the ?oLcn ~uo to i 2C and tuld thc.- lue. Seers tuift thu a,. .2. O
should return, ho'.e to t L(ir -aark, anld loo/O rupress. ULVuC t
Same to deal xvith thcir u.pua1 ag'inst thu `-i_,y t ci iru. KIahy
of t~ho leaders '. ry :1 to-t thJ.aa',ror pipoyod on Sisa.,l and
Rulb .or Estates shoulO. ruii -to t.i r .ci1kft_ Mtr E'u'-TLnspcetor
Eilanrgvic. 1.i.t, Iy.uza ..or ae and iNajmza i. e to thee elders
not to listen to what SE'lanC--.hsP. joti..ga! h'sold, as Ia_ vwas
workin1 for~ tho Gc.vuranw.io and ho \Lould cha:t thun inl thv s"ivi xvay
as the Distr--ict an~eeissic:.erd ithe chiefs U.K oh;2ole3d thn,,-. T!
labourers woure 1015tflct d to `c1.i15 Yt 0i~O.

Wheu I was a-,at Same with Mta dml ,onstriztors a :iar, call.,,d IT Q.Ja-
i-i 1Iclfokre ao:civod J:220- -aL. 2. iie told Ttfo that a
-voi ,an at __aj.Yan1r LLOLLat. 'sail KL. C li icn roo3p"ct 0u, "ft 10
for nat ivo r.'3uc, caa--- L;uC vs tin to bu c-ar. ii xiith tro :flff
alco before, the chiei. wn HqfLa2l .,a e Ic r this 1ie 3o ld
he ivould spcak, to thee oi.hr Ic:;oors r iac an!: arrane for all
raarinc.'ts in th _- i tric, t te 'ee closed down (. S. 2l7 Li'" a q"

Towavdo sth oav (cL o january i-)r, soneu S dtloninluta
at Gana !.Ocala tix..i ty oIf UQ n Kvcnto to
hoi;' tuLi -loud u: Jhi,&.rd 0-1'.' this, thiujy ,ut R'1;uh .ld:L aio at
sa.ic Saia:, Gtioa to Vi~t~u~L ..v ih o thle

thcrx tha"t ChLho '. 2 7L:'t otay at sa.- 21 1 Oa'I ule fl..8 t, -a-
insit ti< t iii' 5' yi th. ft t 2 C.(T.)'rint\! ul Ors jli z ce- l1
their iprop-a.by _s ;-3. lo;j t '2 the Juo lcris r tr' -)rs 1--,,t :t
ni ght e_,nd rut-:irned to -hi.z lC uono s. 0,,a us. lC S 1kcovorod,
this, otey sent'a n:covu so. gu w a~ n Tn thc3 '. -"i-wi Chas,.
thes'. peoOple jW an&. sed 0t1".. c -4 S.aco,.

Whenl 11mhiiidi s/c L..22X t2iIihithl ti:,- f2*, Dl 21UItO ar
'05 -0 laan l, i I i `d nii' n* itll th:- dai+:oStrat(;rS ta -6 1:7,t tie
duL~,a ti~on had. told 'this Chie f ncreta ry th th v~i:. 's lmd Iiitro-
duc.ciA Mbiru \Oith1nluut a' SLl tin" th'u V'Tisihlus 0:., L h,". e Hson
the C. ief Suer. tai' hoava thin hc. expros- 2.,. uryp.ins a; nd tolk
thee 1c:iogation I.u:.t'the (n.h h 'oni 2. tedposed. 'i-u 2.u 's. i ''5
IC ro vury ri o 01t.-u rs. oca,` Fo 2' -9vud tlICL
chiefs VicrC i.;: to r. you, II "ii>' a/a 'K, a' Woo t6'"! 1 the
d 0.nc-s i.r~trs tKilt 'tki ffcr -t i --i tm A bu thu 2 ftp ation that
tni. yL'.jJ I'vior>.; -,, t 'iiU,t Vj fsix tho csi~otot th4- '0'n rouidV
I)LIY in;

hDcsidos thos5'c T :';'vi. :i end as n cfi 101 010 et.roups

ocf. .o nonstrator Lt t

- 75 -

Ali s/o Kimashi from Mbaga and
i'i i:.c.~rS s/o Kanyempe from Chome.

That is all I have to tell you.

Signed : Elinaza Sombughuni

Sworn before me
this twentieth Day of March 1945

The Anti- fLiru discontent and its side effects.

I an an acting Chief. On the 20th November, 1944, I attended
a meeting held at Chone in connection with the payment of biru. The
meeting was arranged by Yohannes s/o M1Icharo, Eliza s/o Ikhondo, Rafael
s/o Kanyoape and 10.3UiLL s/o ':-o..iLI.

There were many people present at this meeting, and they came
from various chiefdoms in the district. I went to the eatingg with
Sub-Chief Daniel s/o Kiondo. When Daniel and I arrived at the
meeting, we were asked by Eliza s/o Nkondo whether we would unite
with the people in protesting against hibiru. Daniel told Eliza s/o
Nkondo that for the time being, he would not unite with the others
in the protest, but would sit down and listen to the discussions
on the question of the-payment of Ibiru. Eliza s/o Hkondo told Da-
niel that he did not want him at the meeting, unless he signed a
declaration to the effect that he would unite with tho others in
the protest against 1biru. Daniel and I refused to sign a dec-
laration. Daniel said that if.those present were only going to talk
about the payment of ,biru, then we would stay and listen but if
they spoke words which were detrimental to Chief Hcriel, then we
would report them to the Chief.

A man named Paulo s/o Mashambo, who comes from Mamba, stood
up and said, "We who have gathered here must unite in protest aga-
inst Ibfiru. Our chiefs are blind and have agreed to the introduc-
tion of this tax, which will reduce us to poverty in the sane
way as the !agogo have been reduced to poverty. The aojoo were
reduced to poverty by the same District Commissioner, who is now
in charge of Mipare District. We iust not accept anything the
chiefs tell us regarding the payment of ili-iru because the chiefs
are in the hands of the District Cormissioner, and if we are cal-
led upon to pay this tax we should only pay shillings 7/50. If
the District Commiissioner insists on our paying 'ibiru, then we
must pay the tax in the form of crops."
Paulo s/o Mashaibo then asked all those present whether they
agrQedl with what he said. All present shouted that they agreed.

Rafael s/o Kanyempe then stood up and addressed the crowd.
"The chiefs are blind. Fonrerly Mbiru, in the form of crops,was
paid to the rain makers. This'.Llbiru was then divided amongst the
people, but now ibiru is to be paid in cash which is taken to.the
Bona, and we do not know how the government spends this money. We
must refuse to pay this tax and if any person pays the tax and does
not unite with us, then when we have.succeeded in abolishing this
tax, we will expell them from the district."

Y( Irnes s/o MIcharo then addressed the meeting. He (aid,
"We must not say anything new about the action we will take
against those persons, who .pay Mbiru, but we will talk about it

- 76.--

Other peopleprcsent Spoeo about thn paygont of T'hbiru,9but
no further threats ::oait.t those'wh6 paid l;iru weore .iade. Buforo
the lecting cc.c -o an ond, Iburm s/.. ,ande suc;;O;tcod that ovury
person present should s scrii.be one shilling c' leIs according to
1his nOans, to'ard;ao thei -cost of the protest; -ainit "iri, The
*uG ting then ,ndeld.

The follovinC :,ornin; I heard that there ha:id been another
n1eetinr h.ld in thu Lath ran School at Cnhoe. 1 did not ;go to
this rnectia. i hi.ve heard that threats have : con .adoe against
people w]ho were will ng to pay 'ib iru, but I have. nc hu::;rd then
made myself. TIlhu threUats .ncludod miurdi 2:, .u.nini; of houses, ex-
pulsion fro;-l the district aici i:inn; then a co'r.
I know i.?.shili. s/o Kadco In ,veout r 19., lettc.;: wnas rece-
ived 'by Chite H1'ri il hroeL the .Di:trict Con .isci: ni"c, Sa'ia Thhis
letter thanked thi. ChiJ for T h' ..ction'h had tail:. in introducing
i.ibiru in his chicufdon 'jhia letter was road to thu people', at a
Bar= za. After it was r6eadT .Rshidi s/o c..,:, .0 sii to the Chi. f
Sbefore all ti.oso prueont, "You and th Dis strict Con: 1niS.ioner ore
the only people ".ho dcserroe tha.l's but the .....,L d:isapprove
of Ti-ru". .I wvEa s-ri.-risc'd to hear these words u.ttered b y ..'-shidi
s/o Krdto, as such hahvi:our is disrespectful to the ch:i.f ::.nd it
is ag :.;Jst native, cust:Ci.' t s]peas. in this miannor to s chief
before ani .tn Bara ,:..

Thuiih printed `isal:a IrinTo.

This twentia-th LY 0:?' icarchl 1' 15.
This. 'e

')OCU,".T l 0. 7,4
Thr'e..ts against people, who' didn't participate
in thu anti-n... iru moveoi Ut .

I h!'vo not pcrsoOially hard any threats .ade by "iafn.l s/o
any"Unpe, u.-a s/o ':ande Yahanes s/o ..-o, and 2liza '/o
ffiondo to individual persons N I was, i'.-u ..rc Ty li Nyoya. and
s/o Manento t at. they hac be1:. teateh:d b-y ashidi
s/o K1ado and ili a "- :. .ondo that if they did not s :sczribe one
shilling c0,*' towards ljh cost of the d:,_ilonstration aga::.nt iru,
they \ould .1v'Y their houss urnLt, b.. 1illoli, e sent out of the
district otr oe iin.d a cow.

On the' 20th ovouber L4.- ;- I was present at a 1 ,-.-ing hCld
Sat Choae by ;:. u. s/o Bkondo, Yohannes s/o ilcharo and lizar s/o
Nkondo and 2'afael s/o Kainycnpe Thesc four persons called the
unuutins.;.T.t this u.cotin' i;ura s/o ]:-- dei ave a sp;.coh and old
the people -.::it ni nut re O to pay ".iru, and pay only shilli-
ngs 7/50 (overno:-nt L: Heil said that our chlIf are : ind and
they want to :ac. the count:ty poor. They', are .. e -:nds of the
D strict Co-,ission.Fr, a:e, 1who .ade the tu.co poor a C.-
luded his speech by sayiO-,, c.tht any rscn c; ailod .to in,.e
with them, we -;ill h. y. his house set on.fire :r s,. h:i: a .'a
from the district, or ,ill. hi:,; r f...: hin one co.

Rafael s/o Kanym.p spoke in the same vei. as ,.bura s/o '::c.nde
and also said'that unlosu people joined the d.:onostratoro, they .would
either be killed, have their houses burnt, bo expelled frol the
district or fined one cow.

Yohanmes s/o iicharo spoku and:'sedthe so,-. throats as ]:bura
and Riafael.

- 77-

.dliza 0/0 111condo spakc and usod ii>. s5&lc le b-rcIts, as thLc
other sp~: hors.

I 2ciUr sacwin KlulQ,/aIVO ,r-i. t 1h .2;& 0
J a.iu', Rash 0/',, d-c told rme
that all halL aLroCd to _j :, iliY.iru thisa y),r a;uid tL tb, Dkt i t
CC21:L.w.mzissinur, Saym had iamci(d tCine Oh i fr '1-c"li-: hii-i oic
LL ayia1J 6vor:/1,`body in :iairu t1 Ltri' IW' U~ : i
iiorcthL. :0liatri wsygo1 Coli,2i, 0i hL roe.-
-foraall r ]iin conno Lithe liP Lh
stration,11li ILOIs to had heu K:l3jiftz .I j c_: on the
'1uj... Lion puojpl. 0 11 1i ccr i .O !ii

R11201 i C, / 9 Yohunpu s /~ ol IAC -I L .. ar S /2
Iliza s/a s/o adludeo a no._ U.-c *nJrsr~ns .: A
stratcd atiu S1010.

dnlao Dikoiiuol iondo

THIS twufluJ.ot1 hL Y of ih 1305.

Lcadcrs& of tlic nniI.u oaat iod-r in t.
J'ar&. Diz tioit

Theio inner of1l a ah Anti-I rbiru orjan saiA K:1 in :_i vhi~ccl
iS COL1_QO.,;C 1.' Of 1' Cli

1. Joh.isan Shlathudn
2. .Layaa i.i ah,_Cu
3. .i Miry

5. nizan or ,

7. flai,.lisi~5ngl

'Thjh~~ ~ ~ ~~~~~~ 3'' in uahw-r .Ct,!ca,,(1,, u
svon ar.:1 tif n cAu omtral coin.1Lntt. Thuy suet. together -- iij of
their aio. on.. a:-u toi loith o
soi._,O and so luitinos Q7 oi trlXVc 1l'l- tL. p -1:~ ~ O iil
chi.fWo., slcrli.z wy ajs tLA sp2:;dio tI 1 in opa-
nanda. They 1ivo 1 o nh
uiso cu!isod it under t~i, : fi sutsc -iO uiol 0a L, 01- C Thlrjo uiu">.

Until tho _-C,,J.jtro 2ian of ;loyp-t. _;an t1iurc 17-S 110 op
sition to TK)iraL il-CLUQ t Ut 1c1O_ naVi.-_."'U \L !h d S tarted
in h'oaiy opru A to iq a 'owir, tho ho. 12 rc *m _n Goz I
and 7t who Loarvo ri .i by Q and 6 ci SOfl as on ii cn i ood tacit
the IE:OV:MOt had no unao i ts c U ]"ovo ma et hi Wdn
Thos(; no:. r t .a.Liin theiy addrissc26d -m hi rtclay .' thIr suJ;'o)r-
diiaato_ rA:-u '.10(1 .a s dr'- .o a tao th.a that the c ianna
of C. *!_,-,v t
thn -it /1(2 jo '2 I :J ifCO ic tax, a wimn tom l maa Mc
urju; ans p A2 d m t )Tavorty-st *.L okon }r.u Ed ,o t, .. .tao
1vc,1hi Uhy d 1ac ta;o,! -- tl2 2n'i ci a orriultted iron
of th.iur hotis ,as -t.e tho=inch c of 1l;heir fin_16, I Lh c_:,tth9 cho,
and _,ts an*,a ctn ickna 'vo;. thcu' ',uhac 110ch) ., ..d ::.t L'Jt.


counts a plant. T'ihay ai.nt on to say tha t not;I*2 oh UIJ yO I; L.JiiuV
thoe dunas.. o.K tin' cdhii s U c causu thay o. ,rc trattuors to thec Pc',rCe
havin, le. t tnW:ouAVuo !U d..aceived the Luro:LC' If tho: Chief
really bolle 'w.d wha't Ui said it Was tiLO. c-: ,ol: un.m:.?cztud
(unlih.s thi. 3pu-aluro) sal s ouid be turnind '-,ut t.he' Lna thcy o;, re
traitorsZ to t;hleir o. The Prt r t L'ot
rid CoL. thuir crhi, alib 1siru and unai tt'_ hom1i %h' i cl 'i'_s had
(lonu. To o.the dan,ro tthey i;ad ow '-il to NO:* at LI a Thoir
ti- country to its ot15. ft of ;'"J-
varty by thb esae tu ct'hat hoi 'I intradIi~uced `:_, ; ::ry 2,,rce
shobid 'thuru4.ero join' tho .L if ht di d no L in nv untor Wt

burnt, bu a-txpolle dtlii- tl-i, ccjuln ,,-7, fs`_r.:d --if 11:u~ ci liui
h l Iasc .. o :.ita' im sh \' .u.; 20 to'e'i";. iC i. ofteni L,_:10 Duos..

cthilfs wh L lW d I'S told Oc10;L 'd on o c. C t 3d W-l :n

di,, lotal, cbl d to ohi: li' Tb0 t 1mo id )cr:spq
and ofeaundso coi, ua d not.K ill. thufr n 'ii A U 3a th o
L',,rC tu Of~~r WA30 'acm tihe Acu ims o~mtin rul ,A'c t tiiui2

leader-s. H"~l dom AL adres miin~sipotly 1'ut 1 i ACi
:)roof who didt ho ra Vimd oto so c re L u 00 piln Is p:roof ': 1'rc. at
hri _dmtun..A Ony thetrson s wh tworc thes ot~ x :Ct t;ce to

payU, 0Tl in ;_mother cayv m a imul yho pc r ha zu .Lsf(." -cc, th.e ladars
and oth-uade-.J ould .ci to Wot i wn that h. h1 I pAQ
Johnean 2hududi2 i v:oy !-)Y LoV~ oafCir .IaS' 4t

to ,,et i.,n tehi: i.ch wi~ijh thu leaders thcr otii 1e rt h :rc mp -ly ohn .- -uo c~j

cnyctS inu whb p-,_,, ,ys W 1: z n. A ths Onit tm- )3's ,.r-l:,za o i tn-;.o G oar heO.
adto siCno u puoplo L p ltlsc word '.s vhc -aveet tL said "th
notars; H x Piy. ..o U nddtn m; t 'o tns o-,adr bu4 -.
whatuf w il h h as, ;La>i 'ad o:,'o- 6,C) 3coit ti."v

the advioud aoan phinan, 0 wtli' IK 'Kjcud t4,.:5 c hL' -I lx-_ 'm'- to
of thses tnuat doiss [tr 't ul amoi1o ti~ n _u. _'cii j7aisit

to-us ).ni-,n! sc-_ tol tvithu thuman Ir hi ho .iU biiI'o
notsanol, ..e in o w OaaO ru/a d ainot'' t..i'~tiid on anew

achat onI1d l. ju an d Gmyo 9akm 01 usg.

.Abalhia N~iand Hosnin nun a Mily 1 I; *. in.''1"(,.1 a 1
19d22s.o 1h,! tot i to 'iuse taa thIa h'ta. n etio visi I k
-tos thro 's

ilnol: u, .uu, I a i- v lon Aer,2 1 'fncWr spahe oun Qv 0.1r
ah tloaders Lit (",% Cd j and c...rq 13.Nv o ws ao iarov at t.:
SU- Pal,,n ,mid. 00:.l 0. Kn a Iun Out to x (iC''L/O atp.21

-Gto theil tth' ''i,.v-,loJ')olew l

iiac nd OL -e "i 2n .. 'L _ai 'j'. e dr1 u ,oo s .c.~att

thu 1eudci~5 1 (Si 0 at) ''2*1 (o]', wsa cvd:' 4!tn

Till Li .:h1Hm 20th Ia-y- af Larnch,0

1 Co27tif. 161'Ia t tin' s, is a 131231'2e A ccp -)'L 'c -1

1- 79 -

'- ? I0. '76
The of ani.....ti- 1 i:u oovucnt to Hepaani S. sal aStit
(at ,Tak .:: -"

I an eoiployed as Hlondacn on the Hlouani oiS.1 s'. statu
.Lakanya in the P::re .utoricit. A out the 12th January ]9'5 9 I.
weub to the te factory early in bhe orni.;. O n u, ar-.L'val

Ap. re na ..d. an.. ssistant cle ... the sr tato
tol n, that li nad ro c- .v1d a .1 t[;er fron:i tIl- ". -ri '-
wi, n.::"C dl:i' tr.;1:tin a ;a-- i"ir., an d t hie y .an- : Ph. p-
a at i;the ntbto to u!.'vu th.ir vo n',and joi..:. ti'. :at oi. I tlcd
th i.: that tilh should not leave thlir .ori, tl -h y Il p n
to r. Ind, ton. 1'..l na; :r of ta.: ta i b. 4 .. lit'cle la r. ] 'un,
arrLCvodo .He oe.s, od i.t... hL trouble, and. 3. /a, a nyc.p'
told hi'2 about t1 loItt. ;r hei ha? rc. iv from '; I, u' i ,ctra-
tors "at Saxc., wonc .nao.tOd all thlle apaire Jtiplo d on h os-ct ute
to join tho.u- a Sai ... -ir. Z..d Itold l..i:ik.aza s/o ":-r, .a .po that
t;_r'- ror. suf:.icicnt plop at S.a-o to protect a; i st Iu:iru.
and that th -. 0a-:oj la'bourrs on thu ..Otato .. OL rturn to Lthir
lo of.... t ho ;? .. .....ao
work. On hc-.ng t e \or.d of Mr. Lund, all th Y aparo s toud
out that they did nC't ri to .o s ack o wor: out -.ur- c oin. -n
joJ.i: thu dCIonstr :'tors at Sai. i.r. Lund asi-.,d to the lottor
se..t to .hiL o aza s/o ay; e a;. This ,ii an produce -d it... i '6': :. o r
Luad took pusssaion of. it. All th 'apOnr2 1l. 1.;t.rr 1 tho n 1 .ft
th'-, stato. I' r..\t.aiuc.d L.hind.

c..hn the OGcvrnor a. ,xpuctcd to visit S: .., I o1 gained
leave to vi;At Sa:..c iron th% Jdit Pto. I c tte ;with calc-in si/o Tus:.
-.yo of .0.itivc Villan iakn' .a. On arrival ;t Oa..;., '::i- s//o
riusa was approac).3 .;y a : an --na' d l2c idis, IC doO, w; o aai:d
to hin", 1 'i art; you L.''t..? loav you paid 0-a CuL.ac2ijtioi oi
shillings 1/-?" Haki, s/o lus, Gold achidi -1/0 "'I.lc ": t h
reason .'hyL he as late bcausl h h:.d vioitod his ;. -1ho
was sick. 116 also staid he had: not yet ]paid hi su.u I .crn.pui. nl
shillinL:a 1/-.
Rascidi s/o Kadoo toldI Hain :s/o musa that ia hlad Ctt er
pay his s.utscripticn.at once, if ht was in sy pathy: v:ith lth
dono. tratorss. If hu did not pay hii subscri-;ption he better
return lhon' a, once, b .-cau -X'l whenu -h]ue de 1 on .*C. r Curned
froi -i 'e, .. w.,'ld b. requirul. to ex.0lain Ohy i o ha. not: joi-nd
the d.2 n1..tratc.' ', and C' e ,oul].d .. exp) 1 .,.dd. To. tO h. .'i10 C-0. I
hoard th e. w.ordr. t : o.n ears. -.f t.r HI i..i 01 / :adeo fini-
shed speaking to E.s. s/o, u "a lie turned to .-.. c.1 said; re
havc you ben. 1i tia iinL?" -1I told hin ., as wa n he. dLuan
at ehsani Estate I c "ul .0 not :leave .ith the oth r la' urr.; as
I had .uch /orA tc. 'aurther, I haod 1no ony tC lTe.v.. .-y 1ife,
should, I e at] ni; :,or a-~. le'j th of- ti'.e .tasii i s,/o : :adn
said, "Do you th.L. .. CO ac f.o:ols when we 10' Ou WiV. .t h.- '
.,s I w'as talliato hiti Ir. Lund arrived anl. C wateud .no t ,o
with hii. to .uesni Estate. I Mared. ;r. Lund to ",iv... ;c ingso
thai I could ask th. do.. -tra'tors for pCr i-si'in t ... !LIr ith
hi. Jor. Luad t"ld Ia. tba i'e could culluct 1d at .i G.i;1 't...r.
.r ,altidiJ. u/o iadoc -taJio said to .ve "ha' yo.u. 1.f t ;ii '- our as.er
o ',.ld have. uirevented the ca ron ,oin tae. ;: u out of L i"'
car and'i iven you jood ',t:Lng."

I t i..n asked I.ahidi s/C j.dOC. to allow O to r. t ir'. to
..osani Estatc After a IP.. appeal ooashidi s/o ,. Udoo sCave nu
pornTissi.n to return to h estate. t f<. A;' oin i 'Ce as' ed i0no where
ny friend Mltohanmadi s/o Sin;jo was. I i;,:: d hi t ,-t I had. left
hin on thOe _,ta Go to a.ke ny L10ac-., .'hen I cOa.s to sanu. !.,ashidi
s/o kadun shen said, "Yor and you- -'riend do n t F wish to join us.

* II al rixtur~i rol; IC alla~l].. ahaiw you whurc La live. t I
loft Rasahidi aa;o ida an t r.i rihd ito.s lani. I-to -istatc.

Oan tho 8th r',ir ISy 1)5, Thtiht3i s/o c-ar>. to Hes:-,ni
Estate ,thim 6apw Ct3, no ti:.c Dii, Lrict IaaltOu VIailtc ilqin};Ta*
t:VI1 -y YaU..L, %)rc taer2 13c-1kari /o :_ L old 3. .* 1t T-,a,,hi'i s/lo
Xridua had.(il(9i ~ unqpc' i, h i rh-11 h(, had 0.Ooar 20 .'.)rfi ssio %0 ( .1h110
sta5,inl-, Y,!ith thu1 doi. :'> 1,rti'rr ut S cas lo0 iollJufl 11 -'. ,
,I OiCk Chl-ile an(" hor bc li-di 3. cund UL rar:- on -th(e IOba
tol: c' o Lr..: !:-rL% Lat G -iorry, eG tj,) ;a_ o1,'.a i'tate.
Ia raothe r i i j3inud do. to-a bsra L ro f- eFbr th- iiu a P 103s r '0
by. jr -Lava K/c- I12L17ia t> -telv.l yat l i. jaLt Wwn
I visit. a Jo TRashi~i s/o 0aa2 nsd no -to toll ;or :iobh c.r 1Kb
s,' 0 ando thi Ivt .tj .. .-ac. liulht-'.2' 3
1i aoalAd ..'into 2 apv hOLbl? -'h.~ thu Mio K9trataia ra. 'r> 3
iia1 .C

On Lb,. 3rd .:-.ichica R;-i ii s/a ct o -%9r1i3 viit9,:i
lusani late s:cnid araro at oih. HoI sacid to w, arc yu still
woki.j; instead of joaiinn gthw dwemienstr tors at 31 -? :-.LtC ht
You ,_;o on -iaisin{, trn v it and sac"'

Abo-at the iiddlu 9 Ztury :J,. i~t .r \'a, ciorht cof
~a nno.Q( -ed ivojr'i a/C Jyn- f b,'hoe ro--- tLa. A lnara t
We. This -la-tti_2 itrua Iah~r a/o "swon- of I ty
WllaVii ace, hia rr>. b'~. a WQ C itCO a!- LK -' vilI. :ara U! lctt,.'r Ci '1
that evuryy nimL p'cruan A2i tC susCC rie hi:li a 1/- Ttec-. -
peroan faiiled -a a a;?EiWd 3. Lb. In tratorE iw. snai cc ior
twio hundrX ppi.c nnnw- j. urth Pr 9n b h i: zinr he -m3d s1ufLc
the confluqe s a.s, wcoru 1221 wiod oif th-aC9 Q'ront, the
.Lajortty- of the K!iJ. alar at iLka297". stiiin'e ed 'tja c ia y xr-.s

219 no hi'pr(9t i9: MUM~i-& s//a 79,,do bold th-,3. r
la' ourers at l1afanai at- thVLIait th. / fiould 11_ir 9TUv u- i'faas 1U)2ilt
down and a-1 ni.t c, t'.1I0.' disrict, 1f IL y ni:.ot I Ia voa thoi.-.
r'k anct1 join 1 it a -tI n' thL.- he th hhad

Z,2- r. si ; s/A ondo
-) ; 3.ih'O -. ?'

THIS tI.: .-:ty firs a I CiJ i- :ch lL_ 19-15

2008 I I -.77

I aml inploy(c :.y :--'~SiO2Ct1 _istntc. a I ,)-nv-aya 9C -a s.
a locro Loliv. dr.ivue.

tic .. wring of dHur al i'Y.~ -~.nl tha' coIa. ions Iratoys
ha-d -'tr at 3 /o ,:-adeo .-o a-LahL Soni 5sal
da rzita; dtad tale] o, h. 'pir 1or thata-> al lca~vc
ti.ir 1V,11: and. ao 0.( jandpin i.- dr -aions Li-tars at FJ.2. *hos(O
!'nao not .0 'u0o Id C-v-. th-._r hLanas 7-urnt ':-., a-L>C Joi-1astrt batrs
wzhen thay k.i-cLUL:I.C- or, a ) they wnl la -1 ~a n-t zra: cy i'rC'_-
theu :Jjrict. 1 vt' afai '10 thi1s1( an I- .1 iaICC t1)-
dumco uastrator-s l 3. a' Yl an VA", but 1: rMb.y ;i> local

ulbr>ri s/a (o)da n-ia prca-Jo{ 9 lha~ 'Ii)hiJ2 s'/, h0.uo U pre]J 1in
throa.. .i

kuft(u,'r I joiroc! I i u.)on tnsatioan at Sa..&e, q [r?!icii s/o.
Kadoo o.vi to mic acwi told ac that nll tli_ labouro,:v -iho jA ,.o d
to join th~ i dano ;atic-sa -{.L V. -o-uld k~it"Ibor tiJ
houusso burt downl b,3 i.-..; thu, dliotrict o-ar 1), ,a co to
m.y CL .rinu of one r:ows, _aw forc od to pay o' a L Lilia5 thr&
those thrjats, to sasaici s/o Laclo. Lu on o/, rodo was ar
sent vaa.ashidji 31o i.- o snd thcto m~* CL'd Ai 1u u id om.
roh:lliwn-g to Rnsh

p ri a t. d b, u 0a-

DOCTJLiii? i1,1`-. 73
The oiynisation of the .niint x. rt

i a: thin. (J!i. 2 for wK!.:t in iiht 1i-ru ina~t ai-Ir
organisation in :Inr Obi "I 1, L:~.~~...L~~
tho leaders :fry/naiY thianco eA Wok to thlJ. COolelO/_cdc aide' Cuer; -y
it out throu>h suborec tos.
Tho leaders areC

II. Iji:Zi laxolha 9 0.
2., Sa;_',ul j~i.. Lha te
;li ioan o ifoharo
o Ch.ui Sado
o J'Jlla@i.d;7j ..
7. Taiis uirina
3, Bx'v:..el h~onda

They I we bruan; downi law and order in :1 c_.i. Vdo.1i ':.y 2iro t
spreading; fc vrL'P~ 'a ida about .A.vL9 rCf '1(' 'ito 1lOo
tax, and tcellirxl the puo1.. how b-avy a duie m; .t c-:, Thuy
havc startm up utrife by sa'yingc Lh t I anrUy .1 lo'' e 'Q .a mc.i
Loon traitors tu :I p~U ucC vc vs, Lintrw toed hi- ad horo-
fon.. al1 truck ;xr.:-; sk'o--Ld tui.ian us 'ius .iachin. '; ,LV.
follo-i. -to .1ith tlnlL ts of urtc a 19 srlo. aoi asn or i a instl- any
who oppose thc;y', Thtc -tlrwts have wfC1n .C t. yr oop. l.
po :plej e."l tblat owlto -Lao th... .wlb in The .- ;ov -oc.iLt c ',;C
c'arricd IOut -1d no n;it! he jo'theo;m -_' i .: lue
pro 11,hod thal' ii fi 0'L =g. OA l'..i' tha .9/ 0 :i.. "0Cai n''d
haive talli~o.ti,- -:L to Cvoe tlal tthey 6C .o. ...o <. t .L'
alv"( ..r .jgr a Kaiii U jan 'Y y I'_
ofM; pcaxrt Iiu hu" Vano v in th... iatro(LQlur 0oo :':i i
rate. :1, rcoviv! iLn' Lio ut.1 in a round aboI-'it
bom (] ed... in a s._cru t c Cio,:A ILoub buml'l J. i "*
dut Lyn -,-h, olains ia Ji-.L ai i. r sa i.i .. a''in. !" S
burnat. o m *'lan.c'wtOv i vila- ii.. to 010ev>. 1210 (j!o it. J-.* t
-nu_,, 19 ;n th. notf &Lain OUIC to 0,I'*roijd
-to by !--wialla.'

-The M~adtoaeher at -noI SeyvIt1 Myv*ia't'o: Sohool qat -i.hurio
'i'lun(ltJaT1 *'ra.ya (an i"n.,li on :srb'nas~) two :'11'IJ t
pupils out of hii:, .351100 bequse %huy A~ v e&A Uyu. This amon
thou.,h) h,, O.ocn no t a muItc..ings: outisicic his A-P a Lce
uar'Id acts as, the scr-ut ,io' of thisi Zroup.

In vi1.'v- of tlin. Qhroa i an! thi. factU thatUSLeCitl. t 1
boon ca.-,.J 0_ out it is the. looders ihat thu POOP].. oA 1y at tat. ;aooant
and Luz~ alil' .. Ar will Auk b e restored until -ihe-j ,,,4v-c ,, rumoud.

Paulo 'lasuh. um .; i ..ied 00t. 1a.dcr: rip-, of L l',,5r~jf
11iano X.TI5 th. l r'-torZ and waxo usecd 'y th- loadues' to ..inttcain
uni. ty Cue-io ,st i ix.i.d o vtr Ition by hiis apl.,e 1. to (d

.0. U ILPr. Sekiianrza

SWrorn L:i IA ly thini Ay cy: oj h 5.


_00C Ci i j 79
IZUL'.sn~o fo

I Z-0- lan ~iof :Opnru 0 1 CMini Audi. I minna0t.I Q2 Cl;io unch r
Chief An. di. 1 .2 t t uiii. 1u J 19-
s -I-s ardL ],y oif Wadi to acoI 0.e OiJ in to ao YUiU yoid :is
boinC ko.'1' ait hib; ou' u uo oisouso usi.. qw_ioci o02 Tira, C
persons w'ho nrLrancoC, 0 dis ot.; nrc.-

2. hii ltos/o 2VO

23. Lareli s/o icjflnute
,'_.Iza /o Charo
5. iwm-:zi s/0 Vondo

ti'11t 160 pcp.lo o tteiidG(1 the ioutj_?,,. L a -./0 opict A10
the !!cutia. and said "iRL 9 cheitciv riefiii 2
act at Y and tllcuy havC 2 o 5'lCtJCJc id to t(-II 1111. 10312)1 of
-a':.that thno.y ilavo, d'ucisd~ A ~ toi T~ UC- Uy yr
have wiiadce this dociic ~n bccauoa they rualisa tuAt if 2 lou is paid
it Wiill rotUe.C Uid POOPlv1 pcWPOv'rt;. It Wifl.'alo- rOdiCLCC the
poopl, to olaviury ~s- L' of thu F;/o liy G0
i tcharo then. addreasoc" I. c.. in Heo ...aid ,"Th'_; ii o :oi't their
i;ion have dweein die v >; t. lrintrivc t Ctnitis:i on r t'l. qous-
tion oi la',,ir.a an.J adI to accep t -this tn:, .' ou thu t Ku;h(
District iui .~ o ILh sn2.u. pursoor] r ho dn a 51: alar
talc in thc oo c-.G'n- as a i result r fue.. 1. o epic K a
state of poverty. TM inuto jt W; sau Lii: in eon-c, y
He then spoliu to ChLof DAcuci mid uad.;.J '. Chi i vo :nit hnou
to request y.)o -O b -i t

Chiu efMudi told those prosca. t tic t he cou (7 not Mlolish thm
tan and hu &nquirad; W'iaur any p-,--- ,rishoK o boutthinY about
the -tax bc.:-_lr u u I he ad. ectia No;Pulo z/ :0/c! Xe Stood
up and sc:,d & L rcupr cc-iit LVW 2Of nii ni1Xu. c. :i u
C1hoi, and h vc 22 hoc -..o u. :port L rot es. c ainsL Ui iru. Coy
havo dchi.dodtJ:t M1 aho 2ji do rolj ,I [li in Mh~. ]wrotle: t vlil
cihr5iOYA 2rol thy distrW12 or "wv, 'siot on.0
firu. I do not know; whothanr jI W Jun hfi r L6t c
'I S :ii p"uopl'u t'-r.. t "x.l at t Ri>nc. Palo s/o '0 0
-the, pc-in ,cL; to iYj and sr -Id '1i1 i o you cdie r- r pc
to pay M coo,

UiK=~ni S/o Ki.ono clo n tl poe. Ic poW. td to Cioi C Doudi
and said, ', hW di.o said the pi~opiu hLvoe ro. 0122, to Q ay iiru,
aid thoec who a -or,_ !ar2 'd say tle iri -L-ay their houscs ,rnt ea' o-. Cn i12v ti l 'to tu, --oasider fit.
Sariweli s/o i. ,Lbute said M'e shall r,,J-.50 to., -'ay 21 ,.cru iia Itil
our thrucats ir, cut. Cdi I m-b on nuireO to oay pC.h i -.2011 cishu
to speak Iut there ..a, n,- ruopoCL

Chief Ij-adi than t ri K -to Cxpiain thu ovccna; o of [ .>irug
Lut nobody paid Utotuteion to c/hiI J!ic S:Lid. Yo-Ii s/,) Tahira then
told the I oo.lci to hoo3p q4 ieJ;t so that ihe Could a praycr H10
then prayed and Said,,, :'Oj:-, Coc_:L--.. i aod.vunq 0.ne naa.'nll t here to
protest agaitrst 'o ru. You arena -W hinly nAbligty G od 141 0 oIs U A00101
or )ac!. "iJju leave this antter in your- hands. IX4- at. is LIood thing;

- 84 -

sold us and our children to. the Europeans. Follow e to :.aae ,when
I go to protect against t I!iru. If I don't succ ud at Saue then
follow mn to Tan;a. People tohei dispersed.

On the- .;th Jan:ury 19-5 I told nry people to :.c to IIdungu
to pay their t-:-,. I vient with t, .c. .,t dungu fifteen of A,
p-.plu paid their tax. I saw:-

1. Sanwcli Kinbute
2. Paulo ..
3. Daudi I sado
4. Daniel ..i amka
on the road near lddun;u. I heard theui tullin,j th: people not to
pay .Jbiru, but to pay shillih as 12 only. f th,. Chief refused, to
accept 12/- then not to pay their tax. Paulo narhaki.. told the
people that Chief Daudi had boon blind to acc pt .iru, as this
tax would reduce thoui to poverty. Chie LDaudi called upon the
people but Daudi Isadlo, l-'aulo iasha:7o -~nd Sa.nwli :;inbuLe told
tho I not to pay. Chi-f Daudi called the people and told then he
wanted to conncript forty four 1:1. for world: on sisal. 0le conscri-
pted the m en and put thu;.t on a .otor lorry and wcnt wiri.th them to
Saiie. As soon as uih puopl l saw tha- men conscrip-ted tihy shouted
'"Let us go to Sa.eu." A ll thu people then lfitait.r the people
wont to Saul a few rutur:ned to Kihurio to collet food ac d moneyy
f.rnc: the vill, .urers without; per-iasion. A man nani-d Kahandwi
Ishiika told i.ie th't he had buen instructed by thu loaders of the
demonstrators at Sao.. to o :iiurio and collect food add ..oney
from the p..ople T Is lian cent to the Heatteocher of the mission
school whooc naii is is luikudiwe Mauya, and told Iii. that I ;o..:,-l
not p- r'nit :-onuy.anc. food to bo collected ir, *,I people. Tik u-
ndirve told hir not ;o obey n.r but to follow', theo instructions of
the deuonstr. tors. -y son heard this o,~aersati an. told n about

ThEu...-p rinted by ."isi!a Tija
Sworn befo:'e n this twenty first C-" oif .iarch 1945.

Magi str at
and witnursed.

DOCi;_. 81

lR action of the sub cs against a chief who enforod
'1/hirul on thon:

About the :iddli of 1943 I was s..nt C]Ji' f Jaudi to attend
a mcotine hold a i Bvwa: o in thu arna under Chief Dudio This meeting
was organiscd by Sca;,';li s/o Kin '-ute, faulo s/o : -sa'.i.o Daudi s/o
Isado and dwazi s/o Kiondo. Th ceting was h-ld in the bush
near the Bwanilo village school. .Aout 90 poolo were present at
the nji.cting which owas coLfi ni ed to those persons ..longing to
B.varno village. A this .L t:..-ng Daudi /c Isoado, was th first
person to speak:. iIe said, "1We have failed to get Chif Dlaudi re-
toved. Thu 3oi.1a ri:uso to r(itov, hi. bec Icse no has don ino wrons;."
Paulo i ushao'n o tLn spohe. he said, "As .' have knilcd to re;iove
hi.._ we had better .:ill hi.' Sa1:.li s/o Ai.bute s id D not
lot us kill hiL-1 but wait till he maL.es a .istake. '.e aist disobey
his orders then til Govera tent \will find fault with hiu .a.d ove
hin.. Se nLujt hold a ieoe-ting urchl o, so that w, can discuss
our plans." Sai,.:celi then said to ,.c "'You live near Chief Daudi.
If you tell him what has beun said we shall kill you. If you
keep our secret then lwh we have succeed~ d i -c: onovin;l ChiafDaudi

J- 3 -

let it continue,. If it is a bad thing andd ;.ill bring ruin to our
country then show us the w.ay to fight against it. The ue~. ting
then closed.

This was the only nootin; I atto'nded in' connection vwitii Miru,
although I heard. 1, t svcral ne tinxigwerv held in various villages
in theh chie.ido;:.

On or- about the 16th Fkbruary 194i5 ay two sons Ali and
Soe.ai care to Udun.au and told -no that ly brother, Lusinu, had
hoard that n-y house wnas going g -o be s..t orn f:i .r and ..Iat I bad
better return to Svwa;n:.o so that I could save y- pr ,rty. I
enquired into this story but could not discover who had nade the
threat. On theu '22nd Pebruary 1945 1 t-ccivJd infor; tion t at ~y
house had boeen d ctroyed by fire. I do not kno i uho v: .s responsible
for this act which occurred on the nirht of thie 21 it i.:L.ary 1945.
The only property save was ny catttlu. io lives oro los t.

I was j i a-._ie wh.n Tuiiaini son of ".. anl.o askod the rrovi-
nvial ConL.isuiLoner, Tan.,a Province to depose C:-ie- Dlaudi. The
Provincial Co;; .s!Aioner sid he could not do this as Chief Daudi
had done nothing to warrant this action being Lcaken. I tcld chief
Daudi about this.
The persons respo cible for causing trouble in the Chief-
dons arc:-

1. Elisante o/o icharo
2. Pa.lo o s/ asano

5. :l'.; i :3/o 7. iondo
6. Sam..rli s/o K:i-ibutc

I know Hihlindie- s/o 4Manyi o::: ':iurio. i.. is a Seventh
Day Adventist His:jion ohool tac:Tcr. This u.lan xpellod two of
his p!pilO frou his school beoc.:'se It had .pid ;ij.:':.. i. also
acts as Secr-tory to the leders in the chi'fdo:-' .:h'o are fighti
ag '.inst :. iru.

ThLu:ib-printed by Kindle tano

Swoorn bfore C thJi. twenty first day of oiarch, 191-5.


and witnessed.

iD(,C'CjlP)IT O. 80

The characteristic position of a_ chief in the anti- ..iru

I a::: the iheadd:a o:f:' Iihurio Vill.ae Aobout the end of Decu-
L-bor 1944, Daudi s/o Isado Jnd Daniel Kisaka c-,., to Kihurio. Daudi
asked no for pcrn.:is-ioii to 9ound the dru:s to s e on, the people
and he s-id he wvrnted to t toll the. not to pay ':1J.ru when it Lccaoe
dueo I refused hiJ1 pe ri;;sion. iHe then called the people to-
gether hinsel.f. heac tLb pqeple ,had asseribled I wv.iet to the
place where they stood. saw 'Sa.w eli Kinbuteo Hi spoke to the
people and saeid, ".pns do not be afraid. I have bcon sleeping
but now I an awak. :I want to tell yoa that ChieJ Daudi has
introduced sl.avory into th: country by acceptingg 'iru. IH has

- 85 -

jii ,.jjke y3u a Su7o-QL:f.u It Ionsa to inuontics of tih
or&"niioors of this stooting -to reomuv., uhiol D;i. hi ..n rnid'i.cc
his,, wiftl. ,2 an -,,in 12:ltLizOiaina S/o vJ~ ho. S, -OO f fOrof'a-,
Lho;rs verc thu first to cor.a i;o th-. country.

Th. outing -io c MIC t;o an cand. I rcpe rtod r.hiat; T
heard to chiH Dai.udi., I .AJ1d n. t ait:iid any uthoi, otig i
at Bac.

Signed '1 4mnjara Lil.: c

Sworn.mut~' ;''tir~ a cf 'rc]i L9,5

DOCU!" -*'CT N 2
Vi i~ c O u i tin. sii .jiru no-v:) Let

I mi )5 yon-)rs old' I hoga,?n attendi~n. $ Sov',atn !K r id nt-
l ist IUsicn ISchool aIC itl in T'--; 14;.~ o teaoo"-L.r
of the schol ij .si~cncilm u/o ;ncqt.ya. i: to en. r whuo iizt;ruct,l
lao in nay ico!sons !a ,.un ,/0 S Jc.~h, it the &L:iLi *i. of' Joanry
1945 thu- 1ijooplil u-.e uoc to go to :,:'dun ._.u t;o l i t.,iL- t,-:x. I
went to w K i1',ith ;a joiny of tmpuk lt
pay thuitax bt I l p LiMa. C;iif Di naudin r ,ix u Li.. .o t.1osu
who rcWusz:r -o p-ay tini r Ks: as i. so oiai tho So U as thi
haipponmod t!amf 111pU'io arx:,a t. U 1
irsolc to ti ...oao annencala i;:.t

On 22n1u f1n-'ryl;7S tl st 3utu ca-ic Lo '2ilrlO f'0'(.
,aiso Hi .;. sick at th.i -U,inco a.;nd otayud in~ nit. o-us.. L Ul i o/A
Eguzo. I wuent co C 1 .n tho 2d Jh 4,nuary. iia aukcd no, if I
wns attcvsdin. seflooi sacd -1 toldJ -L.iaoo. Kt rio as&:U o1 in. toell
tih.t a H-hcaC o to c10-1 an. SouLj hin. .,t tn-1. o.0 '1 Cli :1 h. KW:)
no-iado thi-o r, ,queoot I -wo ,a. with Joan 0,/7 : urn., so .?.lso a.ttocnds thu
school. Jona s/o 1L22U:Dl. to c liru-diwo, tia: li wiu:.d ; to so'
him. On the 24t ch Jrauarvr villh Jon. I:.uri andii ., noro icavin.. % school,
ailxuL s/o u0Of;-piI oar tohLr toui si,, achat tLol ',a L-ista-,cturid
bl- thi 1-',, T ,... 0. X105r not -', c i.o sc50110
again. I as.hod hi,,i ta!. reason, and, 1',- li; ; ih U'c i
I haed pai.s'i T111iru o OL J ona h;.nraicad .ofts 'I tc)~t io'L
Abuooy to .551-Sit thu Ki ai i cialuoptratim! at W a u D.7inst arm.

Tv,,( woo,-,Ls 1,a.tor J .;rt C1et to tn f hr ~iuii
ascisxj:- hi,. ,matut~r it w as truci thx. ta r. s ~ :o school
IUCaDUc12 I Paid oaja' 5-, 1. a~~J. 4 lT elara
soc mo at 5iy hoi..~ ri a th0-I ... Tx.cC L,) .iy hcus.. t
the Woas 1. usc wt a, ziuadC1ian Lafiic~d ~iloa nfo Aa.aoU
noacci Ezehsc 1 j. 1a 01' Iss1,'--1fL1 asn c iT ID aw .'~' 1 0t c-
i,,1:Lod C 41 ochi 1., 'sit :nio(Lo tuld, ilsion. IUstt Vn-t0
1 Id 711id iMU, amt wouldt not asooriate vso SyiGi. %vonntvrators
t ha ts t i n n n l s a n tho n CIO .5( .a IA n it~ d 1 i th oti.? h. d o n oc o v in g
GO.it 0..r ASCul oait....-'Ic Slo' o tiB raatct.-;sa ta sa'r-tc,. Loona
tuni, tin. honoot s, d.jtairs notir aii.o A: a' ,: lth coY oW nol ho stjid do
00 V'orl Za:Lid ~IU. s I-~tn ,'Yrllod Lu ;tar Joan! ire-; ta c1~ slo.'..ca-

he ;rood ninth tar. .anstr atovs, 1Lic thI w..si ,o ~
had ascluo-d aa U -i .. hi'm to.' ncr t h a
to --vo thin. as asVa,-s. lbun ll cont w:- '.L:'i! i oc v ,s .rC t forced
to expi.!l i-rU an-_d. -onan frol thn slch ool; we is z Lnron., cu:lpnort,!o of Ithc

- 86 -

demonstrat-ors, and le ha.-s a-,.isi.d lth by ce.,tinr noneuy fioWa
the people of :iburio Vili.a.eo

On the 4-;tL an.uary: I 'hen I w"nt to Ndm;u. to pay .y
tax I usaw aulo s/c Juashnto
..lisane s./o McSiaro
Daudi s/o i-sado
A .. s/o C'- _'o
lDaniel s/o hi:J J::
prvc.:tin S .'Uopi' iro. paying thir tax. a'.... na.ce l very
sick ; an. T :se c:jole we'r sti 1 .in..;: on tho rc d tl.;v i. r:- ody
not to p::.y birn.u; and' tha;-t ty houll d wait i;til th iC v .::V; ::'ot:
ar.,oa to a.cc)Cp a fitat ratu of 12/-o As a result on:, cvcn
pocopl p ,id thui t -tir L .it of ,.out two hundred, I hear P11aulo
Mash: o telli p..c ;ple no bt to 11ston to the Cruj of Ohi.:
Daudi, b.ut to 'follow the:Cir ordrs, because Chief i'-,di 7..- not- a

,his people. No also said that O.hi.- Daudi ,ac in c i.;hand_ of
the District Ooni;i;.n r.
h no o i r....... L _.a dt ;h

Shortly ufter :. return to Kihurio after.': "- :y t: at
a -.dunu, Jaes s/o CY.2a c -., tc, Kihurio viliac aid tild the people
to o" t Sa:..Te .:ind joinJ thle .3o')trators.

About 15th January, I -D~auci s/o i s/0 S.do can to .:ihurio vil-
lago. o id to 3 "As C. have paid ;W"iru oand not join 1 d t;eL
de0tonostr-ators, you will ee Mhat \7e shall .do to yCou wh i return
froa Saiiuo.

I .ois prs.nt 'in tihe shop of Drniel ./o rsado von :)audi
Isado told hi: Lot o s011 :., pair of Khan;c .. to tl:e wif of D:Tnil
Lusingu becausu huer iu.-, i. had not oid o
Sa lc and had ru' efucSd to uscri:? be.0 n.ir :CU:d.

signed Waroe.. Luu

worn b.U:re thi t;..'2 first Tay o.'i ar 1945

and ;i..t.iLossed.C


Thruats a ain. C thc sunpotrt'rs : -'I .

I aan Aviciultural I .Latructor under ChifS CHhauka 'i Hcdaru.
I cake to ;oae nC th C--.. January, 1945 to obtin .y s alary. On
a-rr-ival at Sac aet ..l thanitli s/l 'Ialu.ar: :lricultural
Ins-tr'ctor Jor Vude .. After hein a paid I aun vith ::aIh:Uniel to
a to.a shop in Sloa Village '..',oee I found -Cna g/6 -ron0a with
sone vil .;e p eople 't his tiL .; ..any Afri.an"s ,..- in 1 : .C
protesting n'; a.J-nst iru. \'h ..- C C.hani li Cand I r th.; te3a
shop, b1tanC 0' ', rong,. caid to th. people a o .0 -. : h ain
"Thesu Arijcultur. Instc-tors havo paid the..r: iru and 1c shold
p'unlsh th-:. ac...rdin to our -plans. i.:-oy so.1ul :., o s eci ly .. ....
thL .-i .....- na-. tani.li L ho "o r,::s at Vu/deo e. shal:. e i. w1-h il

o id nothir, to Lbv-ana s/o ', 0'onga and shortly f'tC:.'ryls
.o left the tea chop.

- '7 -

Signed ;lianani Ukenugw..a

,.' O I ,37 ,9? ; I. :.] IIR1 tw- .nty first Day of : ,l.C 19-.-5

and witncssud.
.)2CUl' U 1O0. 84
Th.oatots .ainst toh. cu- por trs G, Iru.

I a-: the hua;i::;r of idunu,. i:,ut the .:.iddlio f J. nuary
1:-1.5 .after. th. do;lO.:n rationr- had cc; .ue-.lcod at o;.I ::. :7n na.Lud
Ch..rl'- Sin.:o cai to wi Il a c'ssa.*o fro .-;a .. had bocn :on.; to toll t: at as I was lat in j:ini.i;, the djrcn-
str.-tors at -aic, and a 1 d ::-a t told bthe .ho, ;.lo. o-
:u al Et:.;t to cav their wtLrk and jun -Lh- J..Loi tr rs,
I "\-'uid rccive n puniih.jt I ,ould j .vrr' tor*--t I a.> .cd
Charlos Sin0 o w'ht puni-h :nt I was ,"oing; to rcce .vo. 1- told
t' that iy houi .s: vou.ld i deslruyod by firo. l :lo tld :
that ithlj houn of ctin,, Chif .'indole rit.a :'aj about tc 7
destroyed by ir and thy orc watirng 0or ChiL i': :udi to rturn
frou 'u hn h.. woul'. ho Illed t,.tncr .nith actin.,I i 'L t
lad."ol. Hre did net s.. .hich prso-...s wor'o wuai2.i:. I told e11rles
--Aul w-e J--t

S1 ..:r o ta' t I -o.v.ld report sr:'? ,.li ti.i.butL. to t : :.. '.,. tlhruat-
cn.in; n and I ;ou.l. c:'Tl hin as i. .itns,.L s Chr K..js salA ho '-.
a rr d to be 1 it1..:so -cc..u : if c'v- .,_a(C a'ai-s-
Sali iut,. h :-1ould hav hi.s hTC- .se burnt ;,ct ,tU
uo. 'c< other-' scr .our; broubl. ..ctin Chif Kd 1. at 1 'u
aLt Lthat t:iul an-. I told hita about thi, n1ussa.:u ; 1n iy 3:. \,li.
Acti. Chi.f ..indl.. :1 ho already hard .but. it and tat he
was ,oin5 to report a.uruli to the Bona. On U]., i2t il february
190.5 Cha rl oingo a.-i. caniu to nI an', broiht at .. sag fron

On th Gt :.-- 19. IP -at a nuossa to Samonul
j i.butc through io.;.c itu, th: houa.iian o0f ':' -illa, in-
quir n at I .:o that he slh ul thro-' .... ;:. : di-'i nn,

anoli ,i b .ut. to th : i: ., i ict o C.olJ-ii .-ion Ca .

I h,.ard tot ',.z Cha,rls ,'as th- can vh A.nt to 1n i:.a
-, ub', r Eot a.. told tho iabour-.r to luu tho-L,- .'ori: and oin
the dct-on tra. rat ._ .izi liondo :..n Sz vcli -i2but. al-
the ::)ursons saup, ctoUC. cif st-Ig fire 'to th- lous1., of :C1in,:- chi.-f
Kindo u.

On the 20th iP.b :ruary a Yoa -an na:_ d War..r:a ,Lulun-u
came to "' and said hat hk. w:a looWki:: fo (hiif .au.di, as h-
had b1. ..n xpcll,, .1To:- Sho'ol by 0 i-.T a.di* 'anya, ta Tu.chUr
at thu 3v.vnbih L-dv'ntist + 'is'>ion SchcO ait hi urlo for pa: .1.
?biru. I went ,o soLi.,;ini.w and a- v h:i. "hy h had xplod
.,r -na .cun,'- u fr.,o i..; a c ocl ci told uu to had_ *:2. .n thi:
action bcaus,.l ar.- ha,. paid lb'iru an'. h.ac. `G'' or 1r' s::
tch.. ord r of thu di.....n, tratcre. I. told in th- prosoc C3-
Ez. '.i_,l tioracha and Ar s/o ': I hucrd t-ihat .i'IOuniv- ct:puild
o- I" I" 1 sc o
a s.cOd boy fro. this school f'.ur the sa'i, ro;cz, 1...i. n ::
is Jona tu'uri .... .. .. ;.

iLncd OCho. ilson. I daa

[SU,: ,:,'' L.. 2HIS twenty first D-.Y 0:17 fMarc1 19.5.


Thi ladcrs o"f tLu anrti;thiru ivAnOvnxt in I. .
(Pare district) discloaod.u

- 8.-

I a:n a hoad,.an u tnder chief Oaud.i. I -"as present at a .ie..ting
hold in July 19.1-4 at .a i aua by liaulo /o i .-.' 'o, Eli anto s/o
M'charo, Sa~-iveli s/co. ilbite, .za s/o Charo arn-. .. 'xwazi s/o ?'iondo.
a.irwoli. as.o.d nio to u Lons the villagers of '"' to this .'otings
which o.ra organised by th.. pr clson I _.ave .!iuntionod, to oppo;
iMbiru. I refusdc to instruct' th villagers to at ten the necting.
These uprsos then ur. ored the villagers ihCuTsalvos I was
present a :. cting and I .heard Paulo s/c a an .ani
s/o :iondo 'tell. the p;epl tih..t any p...son who i':I no join in
the f eight aaL o.inst irl.i would inav his house sot on firo or
would .t euxpelle. d _.':i. theiL district.

In Jan'nary 19`45 at i'a:.ba I hard Ju ;. es s/o iu.hina toll the
people to join thu do~ionstr Lators ; gathered .at S:n. Any p.rse n who
did not join them. ,1euld .ave his hot2... burnit I; fi-r, have his
cattle taken o: ,e eopel led front the district, -.. also told the
villagers that the dc, onat:..'atcrs at Sa..u ':ere i.,.:,i:-, plans to .:iJ1.
onue ot te A .i .ofso 'sa:1d the fi";ht against K.iini "./1as becoming
very' sEorios ad unlels a person wa ..tod to bu Iilled 1:. had better
join the demonstrators, ie also caniw to Ic an told nL th..:sc
thinGs. 1 told his that I did no. bulievo hi. an,. that people
would not 'use -thi.s ind o: force. the end of Jan.itar,- 195 a ion
iai:ed !ashai.bo s/o Chany li..... who is wA orin. a 'o.he :Lc :ba. ubber
Estateu ,old', e that A: s/o Charo ad. visited theI eota.te and told
the l i',:.ouri..'s .c:'ployed on: the Es :ato to voleve their w.ork a.lnd join
thu dc io.astrators at Gai.. fe told the labiourers tiha if any
rue..ainedt on the i stat they w would i doit Il:.it \;hen the others
returned .o Sac 'o. O hOeuring his tLhrat t.l'any of the laourers
left e tate ad went to Sau. .".- ; oe loabourers 'rucain'ud
on thi. 'sate.

Aza s/o Charo told theo- that if they Ganto:1 o be saved
they uust su1bscricbe SS, i/- each tovwiards the cost of the doeon-
stration. The labo.ures p.id a't ....za collected t-he oney.

,1huin ihdianio s/o (-,. .i aeli told no alouL the activities
of .&za s/o Chir_' if: ..
of Aza s/o Char, I aso.d hi if ht. would ho p)reuparod to give
evid ueic a;ai st ., a s/o C.iaro. h1o aid t Uat he las afraid to
give uvii aonoe iec uicc. t.h de onstr toris wonid i ill hin .

I .Ri afraid of all the people I have .ntionod in this
state ment, If tI:n. 1 nuw that I idt nado this statmint acnd reported
their activities' I .n sure that thuy would reve '. themselves.
They .il-l e, 1:.arn -- housu or force ne to leavo tho district.
I rely on the Gov:rnuont to protect Io .

')0C9UT.1f N 0. 86
The, An ti-- .I .i.:u dl. onItr 1ion at jSae and its o;ffect
on ithe .a p of oane (in the Pare district)86

In iy country the anti. -'iru or "anisat on has consisted of
leaders wo hI. ker] ]t in .. an:ld r .ed -ith lea ters in other
chiufdon.s who have distr/Jad.e .o:.s subordinate o to hlmaD and -coll:ct
subscriptions in their o,.n areas. I regard Liwana s/o ilma: onTia of
iaubwve os bitu principal ,e.dor in my chiefdom. As far as I can
ascertain, collections ,..I the the r sections of the chi..fdo. are
brought to him and he l cakes tho:.1 Lo thl central zulnd

TMbwana :-.s for years been a trouble cakore, but in the past
I have bo,;n able to ,.Ieal ,'ith hiii but now that .; has an or.ani-
sation behind hi.. l hao ;;ot out of hand. By means of threats,
nurdor and arson, ;9 io & fines h; alnd his satelites nake the
people ob].y hi. 71i, has pe:,'sonally threatened people. I ha1e evi-

89 --

dunce in c no caso, but o-ta nu people ;'re -ch too frightened to
talk;. Inately when I ordCerud.a .caraza for the D)is b;rict OorJ:ission-r,
not a nan turned out o:ccept ]Ly own staff, but several hu:,dred
women dorontr:-ted ins. c ad. Ily pDopl'. refusedd to obey ;.Ay sun ,on
to beat hupper and left their wck oln :sal. and ::'uTbor stat es
in the: chiiefdo:t at the bi.ddin of fand becausee of threats ndc.
by person.,s scot by th leoa,('rs of tho dcnonstr.:tion a-i Sane.

since the break up of th,_ d"i.onstr.tion cret ; ins
have bLon hull.d 1by 1:b;. n annd his ..on. i have 1.not .n able to
find ouc ,t .wh '.s s-ai but it iJ. obviouU tai he in soill c.:a. --iJn"
out hisopolicy of thruats I;oca us toro lo.as 1. a: no- en,.'::. r .urn
to work on thI Si02l and. ubb"r a.''toV in ly chif: or.: .nd
because the pooll; are too fr: .-.:: uod to pay i..,:'u. op::'. f3.
ny chifdoi ._-.vu told t" .( t ;i ;c.ct Coimi on :: thct b y r
afraid 'to pay o..' s.. "toy fear t"t -their ho.es '_.l: /:-ltl ,.; bi. ,bP
anti that ovideonc tc .onv:ct tJ culprits wiil not o o .tainable.
'',is tcrr oris;: wiLl not cease -il t -i a.a is rL'l-a vodo.i

Th. ot-ur leaders are:-

,VMwono u1. _an .cl SEBsi
2. Sali ;ono
3. Yakobo Fau fatlur in-law--of -,bwoa

Vudou. 1. Hoseni 'doo --0roth.r in law of Libwana.

but h,, has bu..n n urn cow by the lea. ers b.c.use of his vwimh- to
co01p roll S .

3. Alli inashi
4-. 1ia asira
5. .;liad Chal. i bao.

Elisa *as th.; person 1iho as sant to prvnt p eopl co ning
to the bar :zo. I ave uentioned.

ThI actual order for his and for the.wo.:e de i.onstr-.tion
as- far as tho information I hav, 1 uin able to collect 0>o0o, was
iven by l ,I ..-' na and Horeuni wl.c ue,. both at ai .

The leader of thu wo_.ien at Iw.ubo wavs ,P::.'a's wife's
sister (unIerid); s i t ..;d. to raise -Gh; h .1ouIn of .isiwani ,ut
sho wahs unsucc, s. .fulo

sindr 1. ;ilo:.Lon .:., :Iro: or O arind.o
2. Paulo PunIo

lanla 1. nphrai.nL Kit. ir;-.;ji
2. LEnceza i.d.l-b a (ilision teachur ..-n.uas b.en transferred)
S. O.uari Kidonji
2. 'anasse Kan.iuki

I consider r h1..a b i:' ,wana /o liarona is i':: o v. d fro. -' r
Chi ufSon it -i.l u.c: :'.,oin return to te c,. and u. ::Cor.

ipgned. Mapoub

CWOREl ".',.0:.l i 'rIiS tv-n-y rf:,rst D'C: 0b b N....(yT, 1 i 5.


- 90 -

DOCUim JT I O. 87
iThrat against Govurnnecnt unplo:re. s who

In n y chiui'doi I had nrinagod to prevL.t secret beatings and
the spreading of false propa -;nda by, aeints of t~, novuent: there
is her...fore, no organized Lubversivu organisat.on iin -y chief-
don and 'lbiru i was ,,in; paid nor.-ally before tihe Dcnonstrotors
at Sa :e took placu. but since then pay ent has c~n~aed though
the people in other rjas cts, ar obeying :y orders 7hile dewcn-
s,;rators were in 0r~.-e iy puopl u,,re continual-l-: in; told that
they wure traitors hsCai and no-u Pares and wo,-:ld in du. co..r~c
be dealt with A's traitors. So Tuch so that on, villag ; '-as fri'ihtenfd
into subscribing to t.o .ov.ount; b:\t zjal-a h board o: this and had
the subscribers rpaid. 1t is easier to deal -.ithth h Sa-U people
because there are very fei literate. people, ai._.ngst thoL,they are
mostly hardsuien.

At the deionostrations at Sanu the. deUionstrr-to~o1 used to
hold _cotings aI;:iressed bj such peoplP. as Paulo liae. :i'la, Tuvaoko
3S:..ipomu, Lukas ,.asha, Seth Ziciisa .nd, others. 'i'hTs speakers all
emphasized Pare patrioti.. and said that those who were not with
then were traitors. This was a war a ainst, no. asnly Uiru, buTJ
to get rid of th: r chiefs ,who nad boen tr itors to -iheir people
by being loyal to Europeans, These things 'lore opaly said in the
speeches tro he -Dlonstrators, as a whole. In addition the leo-dors
had their own private neetings. Reprissals. iere not openly
mentioned, but that it was part of the policy., is shown by the
fact that a nan of the, iariba contingent i;tro lashanbo, i ho
advocated accepting what th, goveriiunt sii', c :ne to 1e for

Lukas Kasha caie to ie r with Hatibu and another nan one day
and said "V dC not want to throw you out. If you consent in
writing, to accept 12/- and do away with .Tbiru we will nako you
the Chief of Pare.~

The leaders unphasized that the rare nust show a united
front and for this reason no one. was allowed to love the denon-
stration without a permit; if Ih: did he was thra;-tened with punish-
nont. I myself sawv one of the, poccits issued to a nan naned
kipiLo Fue signed by laphauli Klanyonpe. I was unable to retain
this permit as the holder w:as afraid to part with it for fear of
whahtight b done to hin if hu went hom.with .ut ia pi.it

Paulo liob'hanbo was the chief speaker to the demonstrators.
iHe boasted to us chiefs t-iat he was chiaf of the e qcple, and
said we had no followers. On one occasion he addressed chi;.f
Sabuni, in the presence c. th,_ chiefs and people saying, '"You
have said that you support the Europeans, theroforo, we don't
want anything uore to do iith -ou.' On. another occasion, after
the first wonen:'s demonstration, C-ad Ahen w, heard that onmen
*-areo coin to Saec n sent for the. Elders of th, denonstr- ticn
and talked to thin. Paulo and uany others were present. iH
said, "I hear tb at you have had troublC on safcri.That is what
you deserve- going off to soe y people behind ::y bac?:1. He then
repeated his stateo.ioen to Saluni about loyalty to ,uropeans .
Ho then .let the neti:g.
Another leader 'nlbawana of .;,: e said "PVe \:lll hold thi wo:cn
back. If you don't agroc to settle this natter a, we want then
they will con.e" Paulo at each iaraza wLas openly difiant to
governlunt offic-rs ineludi.-ng, the Provincial Comiissionerand
to the ChiefSo

- 91 -

AhIl-id Joseph and Llisata i :'.i-ro said -to thhu people and ii
thu Baraa that.it va t- people ih. nade h u "l and if they
did not li.he the. then they -:ls t : ,bolishnd.

A nan nc1.d ia;',.i iilonzoo o aua" a dru ed th. .n...on-
str-tore sayi,-;, that they had b .-. here for loni' tJ.:eo and tiha
.the only way of ;:t-tinfc Gov;.r.i.unt to inove as -to :')ill :1od.
Th-,y could Lc cda Iill chiefs b.:fore Govern:.:.-at hip a-rrived.
Whi-atovcr happljnd aft -.oC, ads Aft'er this ar,.ovs wroe :,.nufL-
tured in thki. ca.ip.

SAo .r- s 'a,:r,C or possibly t-o sai-i l2ianni, I l.avo not
b-con a;;l -to identify hi, told thu s-, cry o0f J acob fi hatin the
Engiel and h66iin, hi-:. u-Jtil he proniscd to l.lss.

After the Id..:.onstracion at Usan :i, :hiu thU on .rid
to hold the C"hiuf and bhe District sUo.issic:--r, spo1e to Elia-iani
and talking ab,,ut this incident hu said they ;,uo followi:.- the
cxai:npl of Jacob.

:'Justin Hihdu, the i'nativo Trea--.i.- Clorl2, has .not yjt
joined the d o..onsr.trator opnl ,but wne havOe vtidonco th. -.he. ha
voreod unc.er, round for thln., even i.oin to Lochi t. encourage
the :;.pare frou tjere to coil. to S-::u to de!lcstr to. On the othor
handd I no-c be hu.ported beca usu :e,. has wor-:.cd
for us ior t'.;enty years, and his O:wn chief (i:iono a t.-Bonja) fiels
that hb uill be able to Ico..p hin in order. P'or his disl,-.lty to
th iloverni..-ft the chiofa are prepared to disLiss i>.

Signed Ki'.acha Sin. u

.... d "--:0"- HE THIS twenty first DAY OP .'.::O-, 19 5

DOCUi,'o'"' C iO 88

I ar: an Agri-cultural. Instructor .-nd I 'uorl: in ithe Vudc and
Ubaga areas. I c -; t h B3o, a at a;. c on the 27th of Janary,
1945. I car,; to se tihe District Co,.:i'3sioner a.tnd to obtain iy
salary. I wa.. pi.id ny salary on the 50th. of Jalinary-,.oln; th,; so_-.o
tinie I paid -y tax for the year l.-5.

When I cae -to the. villa e I i.. t lia. nni o/o ;:u.n.a.
Ther wore ny po ple t .cr.; prot.,.utin, against iru,They -ero
caupinf;. in the village. ,;.nt, lianani and I, into the. villasu
tea shop for a cup of sia. nil-t I "as thor, I r.. .ppro. che by
a .an na.ed :'aiana s/c -',i .on"a wVo con. -: front .L'.noc. Ii was
with nany others. He pointed to inu and sai., "Th.s. agricultaral
officers have paic" their ...biru and so .e shole-. unish _,, e:1 as
we have planned. They should Lb grilled --. sp. ci.ly his iai
hIathlanaeli who 'worhls at V uloe. ,e shall soee hiL-. nhen h1 returns."
I :.ild no replyto to hi. ren.-ark of lbwana s/o c %ron1gai. I finished
"_y tea :cnd left the s:op. The se I re curnrd to ndoe.

Signed ......

Sworn before ;-n ni this ...... Day of 0lTarch l1.5,
a:.si strat,

Witness .....
Owing to the distances involved this ian has 1:c.n Tnable to reach
Saio. to .s,:ear1 to th.is stat-unnt, i.' tine for )Despat-ch.

- 92 -

DOCUiLnT f10. 89
Woeons' discontent a,;ainst tnhe v'.riou.s ove"., -nt

On 20/2/45 w-.\ atte r ded at a cai.p to Ielt Lrip:-7a and conclude
about our husbands, who ar: at Sa-.iu, for have not seen the Zor
a period of 2 months s .iad we arcr in dif.icultisi

At 12 o'clock thoe District Co.'issioS.ner and a -iicc Olfficer
with Sub-inspec tor li:Lngwa Shahidi carni front S7n. Also vafunwa
arrived front Sane and these are Kib'acha and Dandi. When they arr-
ived they went to Hfui:-,.a Minja at the house of dresser MalaTi wh-Ire
he is being treated; '.ul:n:s. Sab::un.i went there too. hIofore they
car;e back Ata.nasio Sabuni told us too go L cause the D.C. would not
listen to our complaints but l.iould drive his car a-w'ay. When :,e
heard this we went close to his car so that hn should no;t oo.
._vthout hearing our cas-. "nja. -ah.na .' ang rc asked us to
stan, d aside since the D. C. could not -,o oway without hearing us.
The j .C. and the Police Officer cai.e and wont for their lunch.
Ce sent sone of oh. woin to ;o and as.. for so.c. food for our children.
He (D ..) refused. h.'n he finished catin, he told us to go to
Baraza and we vent with hin. 'huen ne .skled hin about our husbands
he c,.,_id the case did not concern hini bu.t 'was or Hafu-iwa. H. left
and we ccortod hiu. 'ih,on we re.clhed at his '.oto:r Car, 'fu:.nwa
Babuni took his stick and beat a uona- near lin -.t the GyT and
she blooded. Atanasio and Abel assisted hi'i in dcing so and at
the sanie tie we o.:-, the D.C. bleed but could not -ake out who bhd
`eaton hi 1. He went off with his ca.: and tnire :e sa[I w where his
car stood, soilu pieces of glass.

Ihun the 1D,0. had left we uwent bucL. to the "iraza, -.ollowing
IHifu]rwa and at the sa:.e tinu wti sang WIslen Ch:-'_ ist in aLnd vei"nja-
cular songs until 5 < 'clock iin th- ..crning wh.en the :.. nd the
Police Officer with 50 ::iative soldiers co.Le. Thi took th, chi-f to
his hoase, leaving the :;inun a th araa by thu t:stlves. T' ey
toc)k Ii.AL L .inja an'. si-ent hi_, tJ u'. n.: on -6;. sn:-re n.i ht. On the
WednesdCy v/ wore i..'cro.s.d in inuier, coming iro;i very :a.rt o-"
th. country. On 21/2/4-5 the D.C. caO.e again u..u-hlr with t, P-olice
Officer and two other Europeans whou.. w; do not kno~., 30 native
soldiers cane. T hey jsuruinded us on the noj;rth-r,, j The D .C.
s--id' to us, "I give you 2 .iinutostinl- to, think and if you, are niet
prepared to Co you will scc soo.thing happen." A whistle na
sounded and the soldiers started chasIn us cnd heat us on buttocks
with Icnor parts of .uns. So e. of us had .abies on our :.cks while
we were chased. 6.- woe.on .golt injured; bire w(:.in .. re adui ted
in Hospital. Of thu three one is .... ia.ba wi.we. one cf Ug-veno
and the other of Usa:i;:i. Others did nt sleep in h ..p .tl becu;use
they did not have -.:'ious injurius.A wonan front Usm:c i, who slept
in Hospital, a ad he ar-is '.on, broken, and th t of g.enc dis-
located h.r .:- o. A wo.an nwho \.'s beaten: y I.i: u.(w.a is .'> -. d/o
IT gona. ,-.be.. d/e Junge was injured in thu; f"le p...rt i. a-
j uina d/o ` ......
juna d/e :.ii.wa .as ,ea oe.: by t'./o soldiers with 1cer -.i;'ts of
their .uns. .ii:.ia wife f Lua s, was thrushod -:ith st-hcke nd
had one khan a --ken a .ud anoilthCr ;., toLna i:to piLees.

i0 thereofo.re sen1d ti is accusation /Co.shj ta/r7 -6o you oC n
that you give -h t-rue jud~ ..a.t to let us k.p ii eU L iid tihat
ou:'- British rov.rn.eant is just.

/'iiis is a literal an' sonlet-.. s aw.:oard tr-.i;sl.ation. Th'
last para re.d in, Swahili:
K.wnhio Bwana tun+.ayl ta nashintaik y.tu kanko, kana
utua.iulic ikio ,.:-.ki ti.-itu-.lini Utaw.ala etu vrenye haki wa
,'iing oroza.7
Sgd. ILariaC:t I hedea Mzi-r:.
: ,[ :,.a weana-,t tu
T-iike d/o ,-.jangu (right thuut-b)

- 93 -

I iCT. ^' NO. 90

Allegation that theru was -.ill .l1-"'.'- i:i
( ,-- .. ..... .

.... Bwana tunayo hIshina na unyenyekcvu iuble yako uoba kuku-
julisha Iuaovu tufanyiwayco-

Hali ya uttujwa wa z:--ani wa kumonwa na k.:tunikishMf a bur ung--
lino kwctu. An rlia ;- fv-.tayo-

(A) iu'lASO 1. Katik. a t wal-a 1932 !-kwa ajili ya Itodi ya vwatu wasio-
luwa na kodi walifun-;v;a :.iawo v/onino \waituir-ldivka jiviw kwornyc
cri, .'.u na kuchcz-shv~n. -aur-ivu haya -roja aliu.'u.a nk.ia.
2. iXuchukua n.zigo wa 0o0;o la n ,o:.i- u: :a.ukinAli nlo
huku itu atandikwUa.

3. Kunyolwa kwa kutiwa chana chha iciai Lila -aji.

4. ,ana;ake alOo likwlanba )iabl7ana zao '--'.'*.:i" huk. waL
na kuarikwa juani kutwa. 7wa nauiivu hayo uk; nToja alikuwna na ;iuba
akirudi riyu-ibani hakujivocza alizaa bila tarch;; azu.
5. l:'engino walipigana su:-ibv:i nchezo wa vita ya kcndoo.

6. Won.,i.no va.liolalana hal li v-ot ni wanaunrc) :ioja
hufanywrL k:-ilc i!oja ni -/,u1e tena ni ,tu na rlikw\oe.
7. Ku-r-ungwa kanba kiuno nakuaimkkokota i.buzi Iika kukinia.
.,ti nbuzi ni gari na :mwo.a.da';.u.a ni punda na :il.bo haibandui:i iwilini.

8. :. i:i.,i yo yotc ya Lifuinwa au ya 'tu -.'.:. .'-e wa soCi-
kali huchukuliTa burn.

9. i_,tu -unoja a.cfan'ya k:.zi k.a nfr-iwa ili ajipatic
kodi. Siku ya kutozvw. kodi l..., -.. .alika'taa 1-:unpa hakx ; *: t nay
auc.aliza A,.-ozi, nahali pa ku-_lia atoa io'-n. tarishi r.. kupi,-'-'
na kulazinishwa kuwa auzL alicho, nacho ,ili ajiko.' Co) aio L .-ibu Zi
kwa shs. 3/- zi ;n.inc al apatiwva na jaraa zako hii ni h:aki?

(B) Kutun.ikishvo.a bila ishahara

1. Tun-i jcnga nyuubLn zaidi ya klii bila nishahara ntu
asiyconokana siku ya kuj'cng: hufainishwa l:utoa Lu... u bila taka.b.dhi
ya faini. Hajmu.;ba 2.a_).,ino 1_. .na kaf s Lss ,.L ..,'.,+ka. .

2. ': ..l hulazinishwa kusafisha :.-aharabamra ila
nlishahara yo youte. i'i. \:.nau-nie hius'uibuliwav: nra .si. hio.

3. K-.zi aifanywazo na i.ntarishi k::ia k 1.p a lok barua
r-ihali fiulani .itu .r.l:in.ino anslaciuis:lhwa !kuzip. lekijn bilsa .:upat-
ushahara akikataa hutoz'.:a au kupigw'>a.

(C) TTn;-.inyi. .tu wafikapo gulio wana chaLngva vyalcula -_tu
akilatn:a -c.nafunga -:-ia l:upiswa., Vyakula hivi :'.. ..* anaula au
watcndahazi wake hali napata I shlhara k1na scrik-ili. Hii ni haki?

(D) Kodi. 1. 3 Jr:anuari 1942 hkodi ilitoz,-wa na 5 J.nua--i '1942
utu cafikapo na kodi i.-b'lu ya ;:fun:l:; atu.:ndikra. PWazc 'i"' .ioiaa 65
au 55 walitandikwa. Gorik-ali yotu ya fiiing.roza -tuaisii':;a -lainil
bado hatujaibna ju, inav:Jza sri.ali y'tu tukufu kugazo ;:.c yvle
huku kwa Raian zaL-?

(E) Kl7ulhauku.iwa bila shcria

`. tu a.r'anc;za kufungwa kutiivai chu- bani na hkushindishw.a

- 94 .-

kwa njaa bila chakula kaai: panya hali ;-u kusi haikul-ishinda
anawoza kukisiw:a tu a n kutuswa, Iatika pandc zinginc ati vil:fu-
nvwa wanapcwa cl.akulc. lakini hapa kw;tu hatupatni hii ni hl.:i?

2. .:,i akitiwa n;uvun'i arnafanya kazi za .f_:,iw na z;tinino
zinazoitvwa ni z.: serikali k-:tzi zin ,ine ni z ha-, ari ka!a kuton
KQavi katika choo k;ilicho-.i.;:a na v-ul:ifanya l.-iwo katika .h.l nrya.
Chuj-bja chao. ovunvwa l.-.z:i.i :akiwo Lati.a hal: ya: uchafu na napapasi.
Iifungwa hapwiisi 7 chairula.

(f) ipi
1. .al.a 1944' li.ruw alipia vatOu .ila o. Ciu acsi Ji ni
haki ini.fu vwa kushil: f.iu.. o na lupigo? Mfatrishi ig'o yanalckzi

2. 1;ala 194 5 I/,a-tu 7walifu't-iLv i'l .aju:t l -i :.3ao na kupitua
hata wanawal .o, izo niaika 5L Du zaidli alipi.'va C nailk/ ici^. /c/
...wonye watoto 2 az..picvag na kun:vm kaiba na 2a.a ayko aliun ,L;a
woCt waklalaa chu~r a ki:oja. ;azi hiyo ni ya taJrish. Hii ni ha.i?

(g) IKODI.
1. 4 Januari 1945 watu --4 walipuloka kodi lka of'-..a.
Mfu:xa akavashika na Ikuvw-tia ndani ya cnotokaa upaka San-c kvIa D Co
aka' -.aawea a._ikononi i"wa .) C. ili v:fakanFiungl e :az. ha:o walikaa Saua
iezi uiwvili biila kuupcw chaktula.

(h) 2 1pi: ..'.

1. IrIaka 1944 wc.tu wanuopisa nzige billa nshahara.

2. Baada ya nzige tu.-elaziisihvwa kujonga ju_.be la soko
bila nshahara no hali hilo so'co karani wa anfunwa mnchan.;a f-:;dha.

Katika s.'ababu zilizotajwa ju ]u i],i'zul;ana zion ,olcwe na
sorikali yutu ilib tukufu.

Og5. 1. Daucdi iaivaji
2. Pctro Dcnka
3. Elisaii Keto
4. Pinial Kitunga
/tarishi bila kosi yoyoto na


Discontent af,~4is tlh Local chiefs that LIy arc
as J n(:L^^^ts- --ti^* ^ -9'1-
usin the lamws to sul'dua -theb.ini.A--

Bw/ana intukiufiu, sClaunu sana.

Kwa heshina na *LninyoCny-l.Cv tunaklul,t.c.- Barua y,, tu ya -.iao.bi
ya -usaada ]7w. dukatili na uovu t-unayofanyim.a na -'.fuivaw -actu.

17.2.45 tulutunla -.ajurnb k,'a':o kwa uaonti y. krc i ya :iru
(nadaraka). Na lkat- ia iazunl.'lunzt yako panIoj.: noo, :.!ip;tana juu
ya watu waliokusanyika SC. uua di .iaju.L.ani iua. iao wli:kuo-
-- ..kuua uatu wana hofu k-a uk:atili wea 'a'n':,a kulipa kisasi
c'a i.biru (yaani dhu.L-un:a). Klw hiyo ulivyo ii'u'Li:ufu azini .waKo,
uliahidi kuwa, hayawezi .kutokec :.aabaya wala ukad.li Vwe woto kati
ya raia na .afu-nwa, 3Baada ya 2-A.una haya yoto v-tu ialiruai
na k1uwaoluza Raia napatano haya. Ia Raila ualiridhikOa :- :arndi
kwao wakiteg;enca ahali zelo zisizovun.jika. lao :::aion:oka tarohe
2/3/45. Baada ya siku chachoe wamtu walikaa n- huku V-wnajihadharii
wasivunje ahadi zilP (yaani watii .Tafu w.a ac) i.lizosivica panoja
ni waju-.ibe wctotu. lidipo w w aaku nchi ('Wafur-'Ta) walianza nanllo ya-

- 95 -

dhuluna zisizofaa katika baadhi ya Vilaya ya Paro. IIazo nchi a.b:azo
zilikatiliwa ni hizi zifuatazo:-

a) Cho-e : I'yunibs ya utu jina hkie llTkwavi illiunjua, na -chc-aji
asipopatikana, Lfuw.. alikanata watu soba (7) biia
salabu yo yioto. Dhahiri yaonyosha lkua alilipiza ] isasi,
ni.ana aiiwatoza kila utv. ;Hjou noja na shs. 4-6/57
ambayo si shxria yo yoto kw.a wonyji. a'.-ika wc-tu hao
7 intu r ,wii ,\alionioa irufan, na kab'l ya kufrPnya o:csi
yo yotc waliyoombea ruTfa, wvaliha-istrwoa panoja na 0ucnzac

b) Usangi :Watu walitozwa faini ku1.:o. bla ; .o ,;i un,-ine yali.oo-
nyusha dalili za ukacili, hi.li lwv. wazi ::tu .uaojo. ali-
ha: ishwa pasipo kujua lililoah' aish..

c) la'ba. Danioli .i :.aka, a:i./u-toz7a sos. 100/- na .ahandvi Ishika
shs. 30/- H.ak!.r:o -iza ohs. 20/- na i 'uu la .jeku na
;a-tu kua-i na nane, 1,- katika vL atu hao wto- r hax7akushindwa
ita shoria.

Kiwa hiyo oo ''uu vutu' nta wowe ufikiri ju-a ya *.atcnct haya
yotc yanaonyosha !:f'-Ji.\wa si ';::'lzi. k:wa Tiaia zi o sasas, bali w:- eci
na wa-lipizi kisasi. iPa hivyo twato,..:c nowce 'lluzi haki (asiyy
Ay-ri) kutu- aua ]:. a haki.

Twakaa tukingojea ahadi za'co ziaizokoina.

Sgd. 1. Elisant iHlcharo
2. A.za Charo
3. P'inili Ki tunga
4. l'cnnas Kaniki
5. Seth kidisa
6. Aniri x-onta
7. -1'', .i Kitiunga

DOCU; .- IT,.. 92
Explanation of':;.u' cand its futur i plic.tion.92

I a. diructud to ackio'.'l-:u nh. receipt of o,.,-t-or of the
13th iarch on the sub.jcct of radc at.. d tax in tih Pare ih _strict,
forw7ardc;d undor cover of the Provincial Co:ris .J.onor s lItter
io. 1161/16/246 of the 14th IIarch.

2. The roprescna-iouns you ...ac on behaLlf of your clients are
approciatcd but nany of thUs. representations areO not 'basd on
the facts. ir,. --... Lta:.ico, I-'iru was paid to tic chiefs in the
olden days cand i-.Es nob voluntary, Elreover y cu con-,,ntion that
the incoine of Li. ,;:ur..s of th, Ifare Tribe do no: vary, to rny
great extent cannot b' accepted.

3. I should unao it clear thnt, as rejardns th year 10 :5, Go-
vern;iint has no intention of -odifying the h ra.duaLed rate as .at
present staprovod uich uust be paid as assscsedo I should add, for
your inform -ation, that ij is intended tc, r,.;v -...;w ti sysGoteo with
the object of simplification on lines which have already ~.un
sugdostod, but i ;..-st emphasize that there is :_' intention of
abandoning the principle of graduated rdte. It is considcroc thit,
with n fiullur apprucij.:-tion of what is involved in a rate o this
natural the majority of the people '.ill eventually b. p"rsu.ded of
the ultiiateo benefit wiL.ch i-ust accrue frc:i it oa opposed to an
ordinary flat r.tu.


Govrn-&olnt not prepared _to taoe .tion- against the various
.,Cf..i_,-1, --- .......-.:.. .t.- .c ,i-.!i 'o.d. eo rt i.in actions b'y ov O en.

I an directeod -e acknowledge the rece ipt of a latter dated
the 20th April, sig dL by yourself and two ot_-er p nrsons and
purporting to be wriit-ten on behalf of the woe.-in of Usan;,i a-'d "G-no,
and containing certain alloegticns in regard to thI cciduct, of the
District Con-.issioner and of the ..iu.ebrs of the Police force.

2. I an nov, to inform : you thlit these alleations ha1d lr.a.dy
been .ndc tih subject of inquiry, and had proved to be either ,"holly
unfounded or grossly exaggerated, and that Gover.t ent is not
prepared to take any further action on thoe.-


An inquiry into -thie nature enforce:.:nt and impact of
'blbiru' on th.e are inhabitants.

I -n interested in th, probllei.s of Africa,_- taxation, I have
heard that you .hcave recently introduced a -- :;.o' of taxation in
the Pare District known as i: U '.o Ti., tax I .at..or is levied on
all cultivators on tho assuil;itien th.:t during. the olden days, the
W!apare paid '.l::iru" t'- the -.in :.-,akers. It is ..ai clear hol: the
ossesiUe.nt is no.. .Iado ,,.: it is on ths ti that I should be r:a-ateful
to meceve your inifor-ation.

F.ther,I shouldd beo .'atoful if' you -,:o ld be ooed enough as
to send no a copy of any legi station the Tang~il:...-a Govern:cnt nny
have passed to impose the :.bi.zru' toaaation on the Wapere or other

Hon have th. ,laparo reacted to ouch an i:uposition of the
tax? Do they regard it as a hardship or arc t- y wi.llin. to piay
because they find It :easy to do so? Does the _-onoe collected as
"nbiru" beco:oc part of the control govern ..nt revenue?

I should certainly appreciate your jiving in, full parti-
culars on this subject.

D0 'l. :, -E 0o 95
.: O959
uompl:in its bc crtain pe rsons of ian. a9

This letter is /,ritt n by persons fro.'. ,:b, 'the one area
of liaiba chiefdo-:. which is still :;ivin;;; trouble. Th..se people are
old trouble-i..'l.crs and ar. trying to u. the present disturbances
for their own .nds. UIh.- th-y are after is the csta'tlish.:ent of an
independent chiefdon O. i- v3abo and they have said quit openly
that they intend t"o br:rng falso charges ag;ai.,-,t ID-udi until he is
disuisscd. The fact that they have to go lack to 1932 to
find these i '-.'es shows thL wea:iness of their case ac.d section
(8)... schows their :entali.ty and their methodsd s

2. It is true.: these ;- tendered tax to .iaadi but was shs. 12/-
which he refused to accept.and :it is also true that nea brbu'ht
then into Sane as Sisal conscripts, -but the -rouble h ad then star-
ted and it would d hve b..en unwYise to treat theot diffiore.tly to the
rest of the nob they were thiiere:ore not detained but they did
stay h-rer d...c.nstratin 1: for two iinonth and of course w;;re not fed
by the governuant.

- 97-

3. I do not think it is no.cs..ssary 'to .,o into the 1932 charges
and as r -gar<.s 13,-. anc 1945 I suggest that th:.- be told that if
thoeyh-.v any complaints thiy should brinj th:-' to th L-I.strict

4. One complaint against a court inessonger by o: Wonan was :-ade
to the chairman as she was a wol.an and appear ntly poor he paid her
bus fare and gave her a letezr to her Chief and told her that if
she ~as not satisfied with the courts decision she could cosne bck
and her fare, would be paid. She Los not returned. Discreet enquiries
aftOe.rwards revealed thdt she had been used by the Bwanbo people
to try and work up a case against this ]:edsso .Lr who is a Bwan :bo
;-ian but refused to oido with these people agains- the Chief,

5. ReFiand prisoners arc noi encouraged but -. n iti is nces.ary
to have a person on : iannd tie is :ed, there is a vi e for the pur-
pose, I have received no co..plaints about this in the past.

DOCUT .'.T NO. 96
Coplaint by various persons in .biru disturbance 96

The gist of this coiaplaint is that thu Chiefs are bing
vindictive and in proo-: of this it is stated that various people
in three chiefdo,.s hI:ve i;een punished and others have bCun deported.

2. This deportation is regardlud by the writerss as sign of the
vindictiveness of the chiefs whereas of course it had nothing to
do with thoi. As to the persons who w;re puni.hedc they ',:ere all
tried by the NTative C.-urts concerned and if they fe.l they. had been
unjustly treated they have the right t- appeal. in fact four of
then. have appealed and these will b,, heard in th.e ordinary way.

3. In Choi:e 7 people prosecuted for failing to turn out to a
fire as rqured by ilative Custoi. Their cases started before the
demonstration broke up though judgment was not -ijven till after
this event. Five of these were satisfied and twi havw appealed.
These two wore dep.,rted before ulhir appeal could bo heard but
they can appoint representative to appea-r for the:. ahd in .ny case
the ad(ilnistr.ation will se that their inteursts are not prejudiced.

4. In Usangi several people were --ined for deliberately firing
and destroying a ,icLentain side which had been preserved for n-.any
years to prevent erosion and protect the water supplies of the area.
One person h.-., ajppalod. In 'I ..-a on. person ].:hai appealed. The
eight who were sJaid to ,be in jail were certainly on re. and "for
three da ys and -were th:.n released as the court felt tlht th-re wa
sufficient evidence against the1..

5. The e.iiub1rs of tai deputation that went to 3'ar es Sal :'
can:e to see no a hout those cases and the so called vin dictiveness.
They were under th, i:.1.pr.ssion that the Chiefs would not allow.
appeals in these cases. V\.,An I xplaiaed that not only t-,'3 ehis
impression wrong but that aplpels had -lre-iady been rec,.vcd and
entered in the court books, they were sa.tis.fi.ed nd I see that none
of thui: have signed this iettur.

6. I have watched the situ,-'tion to prevent vindictiveness
and I anl satisfied there has not .- en any but even so any.thing
which the Cnie fsdo or do not do i.ill inevitably ib interpreted
as vindictiveness. by sone people, who also ignore th, fact that
on their side there has not be~;n a return to nonr'al in the three
areas ientioned and U.weno thott;h ani .a is greatly im-iproved.

- 98 -


Conscription through local chiefs to continue.

I. subit to you copy o' letter ... of 19th :' roi
the District CoL.:-issioaocr SaL., .reardinrg th, let ter of the
24th April froc- certain persons of lai.,ia. I concur in views
expressed by thin District Coiissioner thl.t cou. saints should
invaria.:ly ble sub..i ttod to him in th1, first instance anrd when
that procdu.re is not followed a streotypod reply to that effect
should be sent to the complainants through rno and the District
Coi0Lis ionur.

2. I enclose also letter ...dated 15.9.45 f ro." the District
Co..inissionor, Sanie, rogardinS the letter of 30th April frorn
certain persons of Paro. I nued not add tha-t whether thobe; people
like it or not administration through the chief :-lust continu-,
including conscription for the forces, sisal and rubber product-
ion in accordance with duly authorised quotas.

.t... of Taxation in are District.

I nl directed to acklnowlodge receipt of your letter of _iay
15th referrin; to the systc,,2 of taxation in th.e ]'aro district
which had become]. known as "mbiru." In fact the syston introduced
is a graduated local rate imposed in lieu of the normal tax rebate
system, and it has ;eon applied in the Pare district only, as an
experimental neaoure, since 1943. All the -.oney recc:.ved front this
rate accrues to the ',Tativ, Treasory. The nanie 'bAbiru" ha- been
applied to it in the Pa re district and it is uncirtood that this
naue was applied to a systc:.; of tribute paid to their chiefs and
rain nackrs in the olden days.

2. The .local rate is applied under the Tan.-::.nyiBa native
Authorities (Local Pates) (i~.kendc!cnnt) Ordinaru'c, 1942. It was
introduced into the Pare district where the chiefs had expressed
a wish fcr the introduction of a local rating; syste- cad vhere the
pro-rossiven.es of the native a-dziistration -nd of the people e.,ed
to offer a good field for trying out what is regarded as a valua-
ble experiment,

5. As regard ds the actual ;eiothod of opratien, the following
ar the lis on the lthe: experiment is carried out. The tax
due to Govrncent and the local ra-ti due to then ,T tiv. Troisury
are payable at the .a:. tine and are collPcted, as is at prcsnt
the case with hius or poll tax, by the 1 ;tive Authorities. The
receipts have been printed in tw.o parts, thee ore showing the
Governl-ent tx and the other the c.:.ount of thu loc.l rato.The
duplicates of these receipts (but not the originals) are 'ir-
forated for facility -in accounting arrane;o;'.cits, the part rdla-
ting to G-overn-uent tax bLing handed over when collections are
paid in to the sub-accountancy and the other, relating to local
rate, being retained by the Nai\ive ad-.inistration for their own
accounting purpo ses.

4. .sscessnent of th.j ccal rate is carric, out by the ITative
Authorities and under the Ordinance there is adequate provision
for appeal by an aggrieved person ;-:ainst his -d'.ividual assess-
ment. As the basis o-f ssessunt in th: Pare district the Iative
Authorities have taken thi. for-ier soi.ewhat ct-. l;ic-at.ed but well
recog-ized trial systei of individual assessment for th.e pay-
uent of tribute, ndc.ified and adapted to modern conditions ,nd
cash economy. Briefly .he, result is that every tax payer in the
district has Lben placed in one of fourt4on groups, those in the


lowest group paying "I unit" local rate .'nd thosu in the highest
group paying "14 units". Theu value of the Lait in terns of cash
is determinable each year '..hn thd tribal draft esti::::s ar

5. For your 1nore det::iled and personal inioi:.tion, I am to
attach a copy of a report by th districtt Commissioner of the
Pare district submitted in July of last year.

DOCUL1..E 'i: N1O. 99

Local Graduated Rate in Upareo.0

Latest inforla-cion is t tht that the p ople of the
Pare. district with :particular r.furance to U-.ngi" and V -rno
(two of th-. -..a-in s,.-ats of trouble.) har orderly L:..C p,,accful. 'Thure
aru, however, undercu.,'rTnts running and the t..x, while it is cou-
ing in, is son._-hat in arroar. On past p.rfor.Lanco. it is thought
that so -,thing like1' 3 should have boon olloctLd by th, end of
MayS in fact only 257 .:as .-uen collected in those arras in which
h, ;-raduated rats oper.-'te. In the other part of thl province
the tax coll-.ction has rechud thu normal fi.:ur, of 53 -- narazas
have eecn held recently throughout Upar.; and it is hoped that
those barazas will .'ave a stil.ul::ting ffict on theo collection,
the figures of whLich at the end of Jun, should' b/considerable
interest. (Iiy own view-, for what it'is worth, i, tua.t a collect-
ion of 25> up to the and of iiay -as, reni 'r-i'nL -" that a large
proportion of the t-'-payin-: population sat for ccvr 2 :ncnths
outside tlhu a.e Boa, by no cnano :ad. It is, in fact higher
than I should ha:. thought.)

2. Certain of th,; ;are chiefs have ruportudt.that sci leo.dors
of the "anti-:ibiru" uoveunt have be..n vicitin_ .;..oshi recentlyy
and have aben ..e.utina a ..aJ na:.led ;eou bin :'ana. This ncn, an
assistant district sanitary inspector ;as on thl oriin i list
of deporte:es'but the case against hi:: was not consi.'dered strong
enough to warrant proceedings ,buin-g taken. Sfu was recently
transf..rred to '..shi w .. he now is and thu 0. hopu s to arrange
for hi tio to re-.-transfoerred to so .e spot further away than
Moshi. It is also reported that onru .f the a..ti--biru l. -ers
has g;nu to lioshi presuc.ably to discuss thu position 01ith
-_ a. Yet anrcth ,r -,.an of the .sa.e ilk recnatli departed to
Uganda. Action concerning one Pcro unc- in re grd .to ,:hoi.
curtain s.rorn state:..n ts are noiw on their ...'r to Dar es i.la::._ ,
awaits exa-ination oi these statu-Oents by the Attorney G-enural.

3. Thu question of roassuess:a nt of the local rate is ,under
active consideration throughout the Par. districtl.Th Chiefs are
consulting the loco.l "in-telligntsiai" and air ..icuraging thc
young nun to oxpriess f .-J.ly their views on the tu.,er-. I lurn
that th- existing 1'- c lassos .-ay if agro.unt is reached (,'which
so.is likely) !:b reduced to 3. Tihesi 3 would b, a.ppr.oxilately
as follows:

Total Tap: Govt. FT.
sh ru

Class 1 he iich 20/- 7/50 12/50
Class 2 -- Th.e middle class compri-
sing l::st two-thirds 12/- 7/50 -/50
ofi the population

Class 3 The. pooreruleimet ... 10/- 7/50 2/50

It will b1 appreciated that agrec .ent on the bove ILn.s
has not yut been ru_.ched, but the P Co i-nfo:rs mo that the -.bove

presents the tru;Id of the present discussions.

4. Thure- arc 2 points cf interest. which -.y i niled here.:-

(1) People of the Tan:a and Knorc,_gwo districts have thau-.
sclves iv.do the su ugstion th.:t they should pcy -. flat local
rate during the year 194.6 Thley suggested, tent:-tively a figure
of 2/--, The PI.C is considering this suggestion ond will col.Inuni-
cate -ith us in duo course. He wouid ,havu referred that the
r: te suggested were Graduated, but h, feels, -ihink, that
the institution of any local rate which :ight laItr b.:,co-le a
graduated on. woull b. an indication of progress.

(2) A local advocate was engaged by the anti-!uiru faction
to further their cause with Governiuont. On the 2nd my an unequi-
vocal reply was s.nt to this advocate in which he was infor-:od that
there viou-.d b, no question oI ;iodifying graduated rate now opera-
ting during, 1945. it was impressed upon hi.- that the people: would
be called upon to pay this r::te by Governnint. Th. P C. inforns
me tlhat iwhun the contents- of this letter were co-armunicated to his
clients by thue advocate, they did not _acke the in'-.moration public.
A little later the :ase or: people da;..ndod infor-.,-tion on this
point and nwhn they i.;ard that their leaders had suppressed Govern-
.lint prnouounc,:u.nt; they expressed sone dissatisfl-ction. It is
thought that this inept action on the part of the anti-ubiru
leaders may wull have dl:.'. ;ed thoe:, in thu. yirs of their follo:wers.

.A.J.M. = R.A.J. :ILasuire
.,-cting A'o. Secretary
S, crut ntriat7

.OCU.i-,1 10. 0 NO. 100
Crii.inal Proce-ding;s against certain loeakiors of thi anti-
graduated rate :,ovci-ent.100

As you are a'/Iar, sworn state.ients argainat 'lb.onua /o Singo
vi;re trans:uitted to you under cover of I-y luttur .. of the 1-th
June, 1945. Criniral proceedings have bn i ...st itutcd in the
Tanga District Court against Yonr:za s/o ::L 1 and i aro s/o
Mnyonge with result that they h.ve bc cn rc--anCiedin custody the
former until the 21di for preliminary enqu:-.ry and the latter until
the 4th July for trial.

2. Certain Jlea urs of th anti-graduated rate ,c.nov l. t have
been paying irequ.at 'isits to hIoshi and holc. .ng conferences thor_.
The ne-otin:.;,s tak pl.-.c in the house of an -,:r' _i. n District
Sanitary Inspector naned Befu -ibwana (No. 1 on list of persons
reconm;iended -for deport-:tion to which your sccrct teol r:a-: .. of
the 12th. April refers) Nothing evil has yut co. of t"C
nuetings as for as I know, blut it would be as c.ll if the Polic-
could find cut what ous on at their. i-Th S3up,... -.,te .ldent of
Police, imoshi, reports th..t 1r, .id, Advocate, ios.-i, has '.on
a :p,3:roached by the Fare to tL.; up thuir cis .. ..... r..in rieva-
nce according to Re.id hinIli, is f.ar .of further d_. stations
and the ie ling that any eon of th-i- taking st-ps to f-rthtr
their c.::u, is .-randed as an intri:uer and liable to 'inorted.
Mr.Ruid added that he had ifor.red thu Pare through the. ir
"Connittee" who visited Ioshi that his fei to start witi w'uld
be shs. 5,000/-and collections of moneyy hav since. b--n coming
to his office.-ir. iu id is aware that i6ha.ed lEuain, ALdvocate,
,:nga, twas briefd by thu Pare early this yu:a anld p::;-po.s to
I .nd out front him Cwheh ter thuir case is still in his hands bUeore
,Iaking any other nova; in th.- :.att.r.

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