Historic note
 Title Page
 Portable electric fencing
 Which Bermudagrass would you...
 Integrating pines, pasture and...
 Permanent vegetative cover...
 Small grains for grain and...

Proceedings of the ... annual fall foliage forum
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073371/00005
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the ... annual fall foliage forum
Series Title: Quincy AREC research
Cover title: Fall foliage forum
Fall foliage proceedings ... annual meeting
Alternate title: Feeds for livestock
Forages for the 80s
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1985
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Leaves -- Growth -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1979?
General Note: Decription based on: 3rd (1981); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 7th (1985)
General Note: Until 1984 each year had a theme which may be presented as a title.
General Note: "Proceedings ... annual meeting".
Funding: Quincy AREC research report.
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System ID: UF00073371:00005

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Title page
        Page 1
    Portable electric fencing
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Which Bermudagrass would you plant?
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Integrating pines, pasture and cattle in the Southeastern USA
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Permanent vegetative cover establishment
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Small grains for grain and forage
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida



OCTOBER 31, 1985





The papers presented at this year's Fall Forage Forum are enclosed in this

proceedings. These topics are intended to provide useful information in areas

relating to livestock and forage production. Each speaker on this year's

program has many years of experience in his field of expertise.

David L. Prichard David L. Wr ght

This year's program includes the following speakers:

Mr. Lacey Abbott, Agri-Machinery, Lakeland, Florida
Dr. Dave Baltensperger University of Florida Gainesville
Dr. Glenn W. Burton USDA Coastal Plain Experiment Station Tifton, Georgia
Mr. Bill Brown Atmore, Alabama
Dr. George Tanner, University of Florida Gainesville
Mr. Robert Vonaxelson ASCS Office Milton, Florida
Dr. David Wright, University of Florida Gainesville


by Lacey Abbott, Pres.,

420 Alderman Rd.
Lakeland, FL 33805


1. Break feeding winter forage crops, post-harvest stubble or any
time a controlled feeding operation is desirable.

2. Rotational grazing systems, such as the Savory or Wagon Wheel
system. Many times a field laid out in long narrow strips and
divided with portable fencing is more practical than the Wagon
Wheel arrangement.

3. Protecting round bale hay storage areas.

4. Creep feeding. When positioned at the right height, a single
strand can control the size of the animals you may wish to feed
on a better forage while keeping the larger animals out.

5. Temporarily isolating small groups of animals in a large pasture.
A single sick animal may be detained in this way until proper
help arrives.


Portable fencing usually consisted of 17 gauge soft steel wire,
steel rods with insulators, and a 6 volt battery charger that ate
batteries and choked on a weed. These fences were fairly quick to
install and take down, but the wire became increasingly hard to
handle with each move, especially when cutting to length and
resplicing, which was usually required.


A. Chargers: The era of sophisticated electronics has entered the
electric fencing field like it has all other areas of our lives.
Today's portable chargers such as the PEL PE-6 will power up to
a mile of fencing, ignore a lot of weed load, and give up to 4
months service from a 6 volt Duracell battery. It delivers a 6000
volt pulse once per second. Heavier solid state energizers such
as the PEL PE-12 will power over 10 miles of fencing with a
moderate weed load. A 100 Amp tractor battery will power it for
over a month before needing a recharge. The heavy battery isn't
very portable, but it can be moved easier than AC power.

B. Wire: The more common term now is "Hotstrand" twine. A brightly
colored plastic twine interwoven with 6 strands of stainless steel
is sweeping the portable fence market. It can be spliced simply
by tying a strong knot. It is lightweight and very flexible. It
is much more visible than 17 gauge wire and will even outlast it
if left in service for extended periods. Dispenser reels make
handling a breeze since they are insulated and may be hooked onto
a fence with the excess twine still on the dispenser, out of the
way, causing no extra load on the fence.

C. Posts: With all the many types of insulators available there are
still many who prefer using steel rod posts, but fiberglass seems
to have taken most of the market when used with the Hotstrand
twine. The advantages of using fiberglass are many and the
disadvantages few. They are lighter than steel; they are self-
insulating (eliminating the need for insulators); they are long
lasting (no rot or rust); and they spring back when bent. The
two major disadvantages are: they will shatter or split if
driven carelessly into a rock, root, or very hard soil; and they
gradually weather exposing the glass fibers. This doesn't affect
their electrical insulating value but makes them difficult to
handle without getting the fibers in the skin. A low-cost
alternative that I recommend is common white PVC pipe, cut to
length. It is good insulation and though it may not last as long
as the fiberglass or steel, it doesn't leave glass splinters in
your hands. It is not generally necessary to drill or notch the
posts when using Hotstrand twine.


First of all it should be stressed that the effectiveness of any
electric fence depends on how accustomed the animal is to electric
fencing. I recommend a high security "break in" pen with a stand-
off electric wire to hold animals in for a couple of days before
releasing them into light security fencing.

Temporary fencing with Hotstrand twine has the same limitations
as permanent fencing with smooth steel wire. There are three basic
elements that must be met for effective control:

1. Adequate voltage with reference, to ground, either earthground or
grounded wire strand. A minimum of 1200 volts is required to
control average cattle, while hogs may require up to 2000 volts.

2. Tautness of wire. If the Hotstrand twine is loose, an animal
with thick hair (since hair is an insulator) can walk under or
through a properly energized fence without getting shocked. The
wire must be tight enough to push through the hair to the skin.

3. Spacing of strands. Spacings will vary greatly depending on size
of stock, possible need for a ground wire, and stocking rate. A
single strand is usually adequate for cattle or hogs at a stocking
rate of up to 10 head per acre if food is adequate, animals are
accustomed to electric fencing, and soil is moist enough to give a
proper ground return path for the electricity. If a voltage
reading of 2000 volts cannot be read with one lead on the hot wire
and the other pressed 2" deep in the earth (such as an animal's
hoof will do), then a ground wire should be run. Place it at a
level that would go underneath the animal's neck that would attempt
to go through the fence while the hot strand will go above the
ground wire about 12". When break feeding animals in crowded
conditions or when they have not been broken in to electric
fencing, it is often necessary to use three strands of Hotstrand
or wire. Electrify the top and bottom and ground the center just
as for a permanent 3 strand electric fence. The exception would

be in wetlands where grounding is excellent. Two strands, both
hot, would work just as effectively there.


Nothing could be easier than Hotstrand! Make connections with
several wraps and a knot or bowtie. Splice it to itself with a
double square knot or any other large knot that won't slip. Tie it
to fiberglass rod or PVC pipe line posts with double half hitches
after it is pulled hand tight, or just wrap it around the post 4
times after pulling it tight. It will then stay tight with minimal
pressure while you string the Hotstrand to the next post. I always
bend the post slightly toward the originating end while I pull it
tight and wrap or tie the twine. That way as the next span is
stretched, the post straightens up.

Connections to the charger or energizer and to the ground rod
may also be done with Hotstrand, but care must be taken to make tight
contact with a maximum number of the six strands of stainless wire.
Any arcing would melt the wires back until contact was lost.

ONE CAUTION: Do not use an energizer or charger that places
continuous current on the line. You must use a pulsating type. A
continuous type may melt the plastic twine due to the overheating of
the tiny wire strands if a short occurs very close to the energizer.
A pulsed type is safer in every way for any application, portable,
temporary, or permanent.


Summer legumes are important in forage production in Florida.
They include a wide range of plant types that are adapted to the hot,
humid summers of Florida. When properly inoculated, they supply
nitrogen for their own growth and provide nitrogen for other plants
growing with them or following them.

Summer forage legumes are being grown in practically all parts of
Florida. Several thousand acres are grown in the state at the present
time and it is anticipated that the acreage will increase in coming


Forage legumes have the ability to take nitrogen from the air if
certain bacteria are in the soil where the plant is growing. When
these organisms are present nodules develop on the roots and the
legumes accumulate nitrogen for their growth. The bacteria required by
the legumes discussed in this circular are not found in all Florida

Not all legumes use the same bacteria for the nitrogen-fixing
process. The nitrogen-fixing bacteria are divided into several groups
and care must be taken to secure the proper one for the legume to be

These bacteria can be introduced into the soil by treating seed
before planting with commercially prepared cultures of these organisms.
Directions given on each container of the inoculant should be followed
closely. Inoculated seed should be planted at once and not exposed to
direct sunlight or allowed to become heated or dry.

A. Perennials

RHIZOMA PEANUT. The rhizoma peanut is a persistent perennial
rhizomatous legume adapted to the well-drained soils over the entire
state. Florigraze is the only recommended cultivar currently
available. The recently released cultivar 'Arbrook' will be available
in 1986. They are propagated from rhizome sections. This crop is slow
to establish and often requires two seasons to develop complete ground
cover. The perennial peanut is best established in a clean seed bed
and any perennial grass to be mixed with it should be planted later.
Florigraze peanuts should not be grown in mixture with grass for hay.
Two or three cuttings of hay per year are possible with yields ranging
from 3 to 6 tons per acre in established stands. Forage quality is
similar to that of alfalfa (Circular S-275) .

IIFAS publications giving more complete grower information about crops
discussed or practices in preceding paragraphs.

SERICEA LESPEDEZA A somewhat bushy upright warm season
deep-rooted perennial that reaches a height of 24-48 inches. Stems
become woody by bloom stage. Low tanin types are suggested for grazing
and hay, but high tanin types may be better adapted for erosion control
and soil improvement.

ALFALFA This crop has met with good success by many growers in
recent years on moderately to well-drained sites. It requires
intensive management including high levels of fertility and favorable
moisture conditions. Excellent hay can be made from this plant, but
high humidity in Florida makes drying difficult. Harvesting and
storing alfalfa as haylage or silage eliminates some of the weather
problems that are associated with making hay. Florida 77 is the
recommended cultivar. Florida 77 will live for 2 to 5 years. It has
lived for only one year on flatwoods sites in south Florida that become
water logged during periods of heavy rainfall (Circular S-271).

WHITE CLOVER This is the most widely adapted forage legume in
the state. It requires a continuous and abundant supply of moisture
and will tolerate flooding for short periods. It can be grown in
combination with most grasses if management is such that grass is not
permitted to seriously compete with the clover. Osceola, Regal and
Arcadia are recommended ladino type varieties and Louisiana S-1 and
Nolin's Improved are recommended intermediate types. Summer production
is limited to June and each July most years, but its contribution of
nitrogen to companion grass can be seen throughout the summer (Circular

B. Annuals

ALYCECLOVER It is a spreading and branched plant attaining
heights of 4 feet under ideal conditions. Seedings can be made from
March through June at a rate of 15 Ibs. per acre. It is a high quality
feed (over 15% protein in most situations) that is readily accepted by
both grazing cattle and horses. The major use of alyceclover has been
as a hay crop where it brings a market premium compared with
bermudagrass. Alyceclover types currently available are susceptible to
root-knot nematodes and should1not be planted on soils susceptible to
flooding.. (Agronomy Facts 80) .

HAIRY INDIGO A coarse stemmed erect forage legume frequently
reaching heights greater than 5 feet. Hairy indigo is the best adapted
forage legume to low fertility, drought sites. Hairy indigo has a
crude protein content similar to that of alyceclover, but it is not as
acceptable to cattle until they become accustomed to it. Herd health
problems have been associated with continuous grazing of pure hairy
indigo stands, but such problems have not been reported in mixed
pastures or where free choice between it and grass is available.
Seeding rates of 10 Ibs. per acre sown between April 1 and June 30th
are recommended. Hairy indigo is resistant to 2 of the 3 major species
of root-knot nematodes in Florida and partially resistant to
Meloidogyne arenaria (Circular S-98).

IFAS publications giving more complete grower information about crops
discussed or practices in preceding paragraphs.

AESCHYNOMENE. A coarse stemmed semi-erect forage legume well
adapted to the wet flatwoods of Florida. Aeschynomene is the only
widely grown summer forage legume capable of maintaining growth under
root flooded conditions. It frequently reaches heights of 3 or more
feet and the leaves are extremely high in quality (20% crude protein
and 70% digestibility). Due to the coarseness of the stems, it is
infrequently used for hay. Aeschynomene1has resistance to most
root-knot nematodes (Agronomy Facts 134) .

OTHER LEGUMES Cowpeas, peanuts and soybeans have all been used
for forage. Usually when seed harvest was not economical. Florida
giant beggarweed and kudzu have also been used for grazing and
beggarweed has been used for high quality hay and silage, but they are
generally recognized as weeds.


Plant summer legumes on a well prepared seedbed from March 1
through mid-June except alfalfa (see winter legume guide, Agronomy
Facts 146). The soil should be thoroughly moist at the time of
seeding. Seed should be planted with a cultipacker-type seeder, drill
or other appropriate seeding device, and given very shallow coverage.
Packing is important as it gives a smooth, firm seedbed, presses seed
into the soil and usually gives all the coverage necessary.

Frequently it is desirable to seed summer legumes into an
established grass sod. In such cases, it is not necessary to
completely destroy the sod. Pasture drills (sod seeders, grain drills)
can be used to seed directly into an undisturbed sod. The grass
should be mowed, burned or grazed closely prior to seeding. Bahiagrass
sods may need to be disked prior to seeding. Introducing legumes into
grass pastures increases the total tonage of forage produced, improves
forage quality and reduces health problems.


Have soil tested at least two, preferably six months before
planting. Broadcast the recommended kind and amount of limestone two
to six months before seeding forage legumes and incorporate it with the
soil during seedbed preparation. Most soils in Florida used for forage
legumes will require liming. A suitable pH range for alfalfa is 6.5 to
7.0. Other summer legumes will require a pH of 6.0 or above (Agronomy
Facts 147).


Soil tests will indicate the kinds and amounts of fertilizer
required. Plantings on virgin land or where fertilizers have not been
applied for several years usually need 600 or more pounds per acre of
an 0-14-14 (NPK) or similar mixture at planting. Where legumes or
other well-fertilized crops have been grown for several years the rate
may be reduced slightly.

IFAS publications giving more complete grower information about crops
discussed or practices in preceding paragraphs.

Minor elements, particularly copper, manganese, zinc, boron and
possibly other elements, may be needed in some soils. Sulfur is a
necessary plant nutrient that is usually supplied in superphosphate
and other fertilizer materials. If sulfur-free materials such as rock
phosphate or triple-superphosphate are used sulfur should be added in
some form. Attention should also be given to the calcium and magnesium
levels in the soil. See circular S-271 for specific information on


Rainfall distribution in Florida is such that drought is
frequently a limiting factor in legume production. Irrigation is
useful when available, especially in establishment of legumes. Cost of
installation and operation of an irrigation system is expensive and
should be considered only in intensive forage production and management
systems after careful checking of economic feasibility.



Legume pastures require intensive management if the full potential
value is to be realized. Grazing of most varieties should be delayed
until a plant height of over 6 inches is achieved. This is usually 11
to 2 months after germination. Rotational grazing with several pasture
divisions, each grazed for a short interval, and with enough cattle to
permit some seed production while being grazed is one of the most
efficient methods using legume pasture. Other methods used include
limit grazing and creep grazing. Limit grazing is where cattle are
given access to legume pastures for only a few hours each day to
supplement their protein and energy requirements. Creep grazing has
been utilized productively by some ranchers. Ideally a small
intensively managed creep pasture would be located centrally to larger
grass pastures. Access to the small pasture is restricted to only the
calves and provides much needed supplement to them.


Quality production from summer legumes requires intensive
management and good timing. Quality hay can be put up only during 3-4
day periods with little or no rain. Many growers wait for dry weather
in September to put up the annual legumes, but quality usually begins
to decline in early September due to maturity. Perennial legumes,
especially alfalfa and perennial peanuts must be cut more than once a
summer. Hence, alternative harvesting methods, i.e., silage, greenchop
etc., must be incorporated into the management, program or some hay
will be ruined by rain.

This guide was prepared by D. D. Baltensperger, Assistant
Professor, Forage Agronomist, Agronomy Department, Gainesville, Florida
and G. M. Prine, Professor, Agronomy Department, Gainesville, Florida,
and C. G. Chambliss, Associate Professor, Extension Agronomist,
Agronomy Department, Gainesville, Florida.


Use of trade names in this publication is solely for the purpose
of providing specific information. It is not a guarantee or warranty
of products named and does not signify approval to the exclusion of
other products of suitable composition.

Prepared by Dave Baltensperger, Agronomy Department, University of


Glenn W. Burton1/

Again and again by letter, telephone, or word of mouth we are asked:

"Which bermudagrass would you plant?" You are wise to ask this question

because the bermudagrasses being planted are different. I would want to plant

the best one and so do you.

To determine which bermudagrass is the best, experiment station workers

across the South have compared them in replicated plots side by side for

several years. They have measured dry matter production of these bermudas

when cut to simulate grazing or hay production. They have also determined

every other important characteristic including quality. I have summarized

these research findings in Table 1.

A study of dry matter yield data from Texas to the Atlantic indicates that

once established the first five of these bermudagrasses give similar yields of

dry matter in seasons following mild winters. In Florida and South Texas,

their dry matter yields will be similar. Tifton 78 has yielded up to 25% more

dry matter.


Callie and Tifton 78 with relative ratings of 1.0 (Table 1) rank first in

ease of establishment. Callie, Tifton 78, and Coastcross-1 can be established

by scattering green top growth (the older the better) and disking it into a

moist, well-prepared seed bed. The soil should be well packed after planting

to reestablish to soil capilarity and help to keep the soil moist around the

I/Research Geneticist, USDA,ARS, and Univ. of Ga., Georgia Coastal Plain

Experiment Station, Tifton, GA 31793.

sprigs. Tifton 44 with the greatest production of rhizomes will be best for

dormant planting in February and March. Spraying with 2,4-D (21b/A)

immediately after planting in freshly prepared soil will give the seed control

so essential for the successful establishment of any of these bermudagrasses.

A second application of 2,4-D (2 Ib/A) 4 to 5 weeks later will be required to

give good weed control for another month.

Seed yield

None of these bermudas produce enough seed to be propagated by seed. The

fewer seeds they produce, however, the easier it will be to keep them where

they are planted and to destroy them when you want to plant a better grass.


Rhizomes are necessary for dormant planting in late winter. Rhizomes also

make the best planting material any season of the year. Tifton 44 ranks first

with Alicia being second in this characteristic (Table 1). Coastcross-1 with

no seeds and no rhizomes will be the easiest to destroy and replace.

Short day yield

Most bermudagrasses such as Coastal and Alicia slow down their top growth

in the short days of the fall as they store carbohydrates and proteins in

their rhizomes. This process prepares them for winter. Coastcross-1, Tifton

78, and Callie do this to a less degree and hence outyield the others when the

days are shorter than 12 hours.

Relative average daily gains (ADGs) with cattle

The average daily gains made by cattle grazing a pasture or eating hay

made from a forage is one of the best ways to measure its quality. In a

4-year grazing trial at Tifton, steers grazing Coastal and Coastcross-1

bermudagrass pastures made average daily gains of 1.07 and 1.50 lb.

respectively. Since these pastures carried the same number of animals per

acre, Coastcross-1 produced 40% more beef per acre than Coastal (1.50-1.07 x
100 = 40%. Both grasses produced the same dry matter yields but because

Coastcross-1 was a better quality grass (was 12% more digestible) it produced

40% more beef gain. Because the six bermudagrasses were compared with Coastal

at different times, we have had to present their ADGs as relative values

letting the ADG for Coastal equal 100%.

Alicia bermudagrass compared with Coastal bermuda in clipping tests in

Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas has always

produced poorer quality forage averaging several percentage points lower in in

vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). I know of no controlled grazing

experiments comparing Coastal and Alicia. I do know that IVDMD is a good

measure of quality and if we use such measurements to estimate ADGs for Alicia

they would be only about 80% as good as the ADGs for Coastal (Table 1).


An average of the many IVDMD analyses made from clipping tests of these

grasses when they have been fertilized and managed the same would rank

Coastcross-1 as the best with a rating of 1 and Alicia poorest with a rating

of 9 (Table 1). Coastcross-1 would also rank first in protein content.

Average daily gains of cattle consuming a forage are highly correlated with



Rust is a foliage disease that destroys leaf tissue and reduces the yield,

the quality, and the performance of animals consuming the grass. It usually

attacks susceptible bermudagrasses in mid-summer. Callie is very susceptible

to rust. Alicia is susceptible but more resistant than Callie, and the other

4 bermudagrasses are immune to this disease (Table 1).

Winter survival
Coastcross-1 and Callie are the most susceptible to winterkilling having a

rating of 9 (Table 1). These grasses, when properly managed, have survived

severe winters at Tifton. However, some farmers in South Georgia and Alabama

have lost these grasses in severe winters. Tifton 44 is the most winterhardy

and will be the most dependable in the northern part of the bermudagrass belt.

Observations to date indicate that Tifton 78 will be as winterhardy as

Coastal bermudagrass.

Which bermudagrass would I plant?

The information I've summarized above would make me plant Coastcross-1 in

Florida and south Texas. Wherever the climate will permit bermudagrass to

grow year around, Coastcross-1 will be hard to beat. It is adapted to a wide

range of soil types including soils containing too much salt for many crops.

Its high yield potential particularly during short days and its excellent

quality has caused Cuba to plant one-half million acres for milk production

without concentrate. Holstein cows grazing Coastcross-1 and receiving no

concentrate have produced 10,000 Ibs. of milk per lactation. The failure of

Coastcross-1 to produce seeds and rhizomes will make it much easier to control

and eliminate than other bermudagrasses. Thus it has much less weed potential

than seed producing grasses.

In the northern part of the bermudagrass belt, I would plant Tifton 44

because it will be more winterhardy, will yield as much dry matter, will start

growth earlier in the spring, and will produce more meat or milk than either

Coastal or Alicia. In the rest of the South where Coastal bermuda has

survived the winters, I'd plant Tifton 78 because it is easier to establish,

gives better daily gains and yields more than the other four bermudagrasses.

In a 3-year replicated clipping trial planted in 1978, Tifton 78 produced

25% more dry matter and was 7.4% higher in digestibility (IVDMD) than Coastal.

When compared with Coastal bermudagrass in a 3-year grazing trial, 1982-1984

conducted by animal scientists Gary M. Hill and Philip R. Utley, Tifton 78

produced 27% more steer days, 36% more liveweight gain and 13.5% better

average daily gains than Coastal. In 1984, when fertilized with 150 Ibs. of N

per acre plus adequate P and K, Tifton 78 produced 1024 Ibs. of liveweight

gain per acre. Steers on Tifton 78 averaged 1.7 Ibs./day from April 10 to

October 3. In 1984 well established Tifton 78 burned in late February and

fertilized with 100 Ibs/A of N plus adequate P and K on March 15 produced 2

tons per acre of hay when cut on May 7.


Text of slide tape program produced by

USDA Forest Service, Southern Experiment Sta., Atlanta, GA

Contact person: George W. Tanner

Department of Wildlife and Range Sciences

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL

Cattle have long been associated with the South's piney woods. Early

records indicate that some of the finest grazing lands to be found any where in

the world were associated with the Southern Piedmont and Coastal Plains at the

time of European settlement. Natural pine stands of the southern forest were

sparsley stocked and had little shrub development. The native forage associated

with this region became an agricultural staple as the area was lumbered in the

late 19th and early 20th centuries. Today, grazable forage is produced on about

20 million acres of Southern forest range. Principal production is associated

with the longleaf/slash pine ecosystem, but, there is also good potential in

other ecosystems if overstory density is controlled.

Native forage yields on southern range are commonly high but nutrient and

energy values tend to be low, therefore, cattle reproduction and growth rates

are poor. One solution to this problem is the combining of pines and improved

pasture grasses. Combining these two commodities yields more and better forage

and, with fertilization, increased pine production.

One of the first attempts at introducing improved pasture species into

southern forest was at the Alapaha Experimental Range in South Central Georgia.

Beginning in 1946, twenty-three grasses and fourteen legumes were tested under

natural stands of pole- and sawtimber-size longleaf and slash pine. In this

first attempt at what is now termed agro-forestry it was learned that pasture

establishment was poor without soil disturbance, that fertilization was required

for good stands, and tree shade hindered both establishment and persistence.

Promising species from these studies were carpetgrass, Pensacola bahiagrass,

annual lezpedeza and white clover.

In 1962, Pensacola bahiagrass and two other grasses, coastal bermuda and

dallis were tested under a 5-year old, 10 feet by 10 feet spaced, slash pine

plantation. Annual nitrogen fertilization at rates ranging from 50 to 400

pounds per acre were applied. The grasses became well established the first

year. Grass yields the next year were 4500 pounds per acre for bahiagrass, 3600

pounds for dallisgrass, and 6000 pounds per acre for coastal bermuda grass.

Pine canopy closure was complete by plantation age 10 which caused grass yields

for the three species to drop 80-90% in five years.

Another study running from 1957 to 1977 evaluated beef and wood production

with coastal bermuda, dallisgrass and Pensacola bahiagrass grown separately in

pastures without pines or with slash pine planted at 12 feet by 12 feet and 20

feet by 20 feet. Pine seedlings were planted in 1957 and grown competition-free

for three years. Grasses were established the fourth year and then were ferti-

lized annually with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Grazing by yearling

cattle began the fifth year. Pastures were burned each winter for litter

removal and insect and disease control. The 12 feet plantations were thinned at

age 10 to approximately 17 feet by 17 feet because crown closure had diminished

forage yields. Slash pine grew more rapidly in pastures than did trees planted

at identical spacings on non-fertilized native range. After 20 years the tree

heights, and wood yields were greatest at the 12 feet spacings on fertilized

pastures. Conversely, tree diameters were greatest at the 20 feet spacings on

fertilized pasture. Expanding tree canopies reduced production of all grasses,

lowered beef yields, and reduced cattle stocking rates.

Total liveweight beef gains per acre for 15 years of grazing on bahiagrass

in the open fields was 3500 pounds. In the 20 feet plantations the yield was

2600 pounds, and in the 12 feet plantations the yield was 1500 pounds. For

dallisgrass and bermuda grass the open field beef yields were similar to bahia-

grass. However, the yields, as shown, for these two grasses tended to drop more

rapidly in the pine plantation than did bahiagrass.

Because forage production had been lost for four years in the previous

study, another study investigated planting pines and pasture simultaneously but

with trees in widely spaces rows to allow the harvesting of hay. The pine were

planted at 10 feet x 48 feet and 16 feet by 30 feet in both coastal bermuda and

Pensacola bahiagrass pastures. The pastures were fertilized annually, harvested

for hay the first three years and grazed for the next three years. Machinery

operation among plantations was easy accomplished and only a few trees were

killed by the haying operations. Hay yields the third year averaged seven and

one-half tons per acre, which is near normal for that locale, even though the

tree rows removed 5 to 8 percent of the land area from hay production. Average

annual liveweight beef gains was 232 pounds/acre for both grasses and both

spacings. The trees also grew at similar rates as those in previous studies

averaging 22 feet in height and 5.2 inches in diameter at age 6.

Another consideration in agroforestry is the tree planting configuration.

Measures to reduce the density of the canopy are desirable since a closing

canopy reduces forage production. Fewer trees or wide rows helps to alleviate

the impact of canopy closure. For example, rectangular spacings of 4 x 10 feet

or 5 x 18 feet are recommended over square- or nearly-square spacings. Another

option is double or triple rows with even wider spacings. For example in South

Georgia planting improved slash or loblolly pines at 6 feet by 6 feet by 18

feet, which is 605 trees per acre, created a much more open condition at age 5

than with single rows at the same density. This openness persisted until age 15

when the crowns had closed in the loblolly pine plantation, but were still

relatively open in the slash pine plantation. At age 13, tree survival, heights,

and diameter for double-row plantings were equal to or greater than nearby slash

pine planted at the same density but in single-rows of 6 feet by 12 feet.

Similar plantings at the Withlacoochee State Forest and Avon Park Bombing Range

in Central and South Florida showed no significant differences at age 13 int he

survival, height, diameter, and volume from double versus single row spacings.

With a double row spacing of 4 feet x 8 feet x 40 feet there is an opportunity

to maintain an open canopy for forage production throughout a rotation.

Although not tested yet with improved pasture grasses, the double-row spacings

are expected to produce good results. In addition, this planting strategy could

shorten rotations since open areas could be planted 5 to 10 years before final

harvest of the residual stand.

Not all aspects of agro-forestry are positive however, for there is a

possibility of failure through cattle damage. Grazing, browsing, and trampling

are common cattle inflicted injuries on plantations overstocked with livestock.

Two recommended solutions to this problem are: defer grazing for 12 to 18

months and keep cattle stocking rates low until trees are 3 to 5 feet tall.

Another potential solution is in the livestock themselves, for it is generally

believed that cattle accustomed to the woods will cause less problems than those

accustomed only to improved pastures.

Agroforestry managers can expect and must learn to live with some tree

injury, however. For example, studies in South Georgia, where known levels of

injury were hand inflicted on slash pine at 6, 18, and 30 months after planting,

have shown that injury must be severe to greatly affect survival or growth. In

one test, survival was not affected regardless of the severity of foliage

removed. Similarly, after 10 years, annual height increment and total heights

were not reduced for those trees receiving 50 percent or less needle removal.

Another phase of this study looked at combinations of injury: defoliation,

(zero, 50, and 100 percent of needles); browsing (zero, 50, 100 percent of

twigs); and breakage (zero, and 100 percent bending of stems). Only the highest

levels of these three treatments killed trees, mostly those injured 6 months

after planting. In addition there was little effect on annual height growth and

total height except for those trees receiving the highest levels of injury

treatment. Even then, recovery of the seedlings that received 100 percent

injury levels in all categories is shown immediately after treatment, in May,

the following October, and after about 10 years.

Rates and season of cattle stocking merit special consideration by agro-

forestry managers. Stocking rate depends on forage yields, size of trees,

species of trees, and length of grazing season. Guidelines include stock
lightly until trees are about 5 feet tall. Then stock according to forage

yields and desired degree of use. If fertilized annually and shading is minor

stocking can be nearly as high as nearby open pastures. Reduce stocking as

shade reduces forage yields. With double-row spacings, reduction in forage

yields from shading should be minor throughout a tree rotation. However it is

best to use pastures when they are most productive and nutritous. This is

especially true when investing in fertilizer.

In summary it's important to note that: combining pines and pastures

permits production of substantial liveweight beef gains and rapid growth of

planted pines; that special attention is needed to assure good stands of trees

through proper grazing; that trees need to be managed to maintain forage yields;

and that forage species need to be relatively shade tolerant. In the latter

respect, Pensacola bahiagrass has proven to be more shade tolerant than coastal

bermuda, dallisgrass or carpet grass. Bahiagrass also withstands flooding and

droughts and persists without fertilization. With careful management, the

combining of pines, pastures, and cattle offers opportunities for multiple-

product yields that should be financially beneficial. Landowners, especially

small, non-industrial ones, may want to consider the alternatives of agro-

forestry in their land management programs.

Paper Presented by Robert Von Axelson


A The purpose of this practice is to protect the soil and reduce the pollu-
tion of water, air, or land from agricultural or silvicultural nonpoint

B Apply this practice to farm or ranch land subject to wind or water erosion
to be established in permanent vegetative cover.

C Policies for this practice are as follows:

1 Cost-sharing is authorized for minerals, chicken litter, eligible
seed, seedbed preparation, and seeding.

2 Cost-sharing is not authorized for:

a Land eroding at "T" value or less, if the practice is installed
to control erosion. It is not necessary to use soil loss rates
to determine eligibility if the practice is being installed
primarily to improve water quality.

b Clearing of rocks or other obstructions from the area to be

c Fencing.

d Converting land from a stand of merchantable or partially
merchantable timber or pulpwood to a grass or legume cover.

3 The acreage seeded must be protected from grazing by domestic
livestock until the stand is well established.

4 The vegetative cover must be maintained without additional cost-
sharing for a minimum lifespan of 5 years following the calendar year
in which the cover was established. Cost-shares must be refunded if
the farmer who receives the cost-sharing destroys the cover during
its lifespan.

5 Cost-sharing for seeds, liming materials, fertilizer, or chicken
litter needed to successfully establish adequate protective
vegetative cover to control erosion shall be limited to the minimums
specified in subparagraphs D 1, 2, and 3. The determination as to
the need for minerals shall be based on soil tests, unless a waiver
is approved under current operating procedure. In the absence of a
soil test, the county committee shall determine the need.

6 Consideration must be given to the needs of wildlife when determina-
tions as to seed varieties and other practice specifications are

7 This practice is eligible only on land where complete seedbed
preparation and seeding or sprigging are necessary. Land where sod


has been removed is not eligible.

D Specifications. Cost-sharing will not be allowed unless all of the
operations approved by the county committee are carried out in accordance
with minimum requirements shown below.

1 Planting. Seeding or sprigging on a properly prepared seedbed one of
the eligible grasses, legumes, or a mixture of an eligible grass and
an eligible legume at the minimum rate per acre shown below. Legume
seed must be inoculated in accordance with Experiment Station recom-

a Grasses Alone--Seeding Pounds

Bahia -------------------------------------- 20

b Grasses or Legume Alone--Seeding

Argentine Bahia ------------------------------ 20
Alfalfa ------------------------------------ 20

c Mixtures. 10 pounds of Bahia with:

Improved southern white clover ------------------ 2
Improved southern white and ladino clover
(50% of each)------------------------ 2
Annual white sweetclover or red clover ---------- 6
Crimson clover ------------------------------- 10
Arrowleaf clover ------------------------------ 5

d Mixtures. 10 pounds of Bahia with:

Alyceclover ---------------------------------- 6
Hairy indigo --------------------------------- 6
Aeschynomene --------------------------------- 6

e Mixtures. 10 pounds of Bahia with:

Alfalfa ------------------------------------ 10
Florida Carpon Desmodium ---------------------- 3
Perennial Peanuts ---------------------------- 30 bu.

f Grasses Alone--Sprigging

Improved Bermuda, improved digitgrasses,
St. Augustine, or Limpo
(planting material)(broadcast) -------------- 500
Improved Bermuda, improved digitgrasses,
St. Augustine, or Limpo
(planting material)(sprigged in rows) -------- 250
Perennial Peanuts ---------------------------- 30 bu.

2 Fertilizing

a Applying commercial fertilizer in quantities which will supply
120 pounds of plant food (N, available P205 and available K20)
per acre.

b Applying chicken litter at a minimum rate of 3 tons per acre.

3 Liming. Applying a minimum of one ton of eligible liming material
per acre. Cost-sharing is limited to a maximum of two tons per acre
on sites where soil tests show a need greater than one ton per acre.
Approvals without soil tests shall be limited to one ton per acre.

a Cost-sharing is not authorized for material containing less than
90 percent calcium carbonate equivalent. All materials shall be
registered with the State of Florida, Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services.

b Cost-sharing is not authorized for substandard material.

E Maximum Cost-share Rates.

1 Regular Rates.

a $ per acre where operation D 1 a is approved.

b $ per acre where operation D 1 b is approved.

c $ per acre where operation D 1 c is approved.

d $ per acre where operation D 1 d is approved.

e $ per acre where operation D 1 e is approved.
f $ per acre where operation D 1 f is approved.

g $ per acre where operation D 2 a (fertilizer) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.

h $ per acre where operation D 2 b (chicken litter) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.

i $ per ton where operation D 3 dolomiticc limestone) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging).

j $ per ton where operation D 3 (hi-calcium limestone) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.

k $ per ton where operation D 3 (mixture of calcium and
magnesium) is required in connection with seeding or sprigging.
2 Rates for Low-income Farmers.

a $ per acre where operation D 1 a is approved.

b $ per acre where operation D 1 b is approved.

c $ per acre where operation D 1 c is approved.

d $ per acre where operation D 1 d is approved.

e $ per acre where operation D 1 e is approved.

f $ per acre where operation D 1 f is approved.

g $ per acre where operation D 2 a (fertilizer) is required
in connection with seeding or sprigging.

h $ per acre where operation D 2 b (chicken litter) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.
i $ per ton where operation D 3 (dolimitic limestone) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.

j $ per ton where operation D 3 (hi-calcium limestone) is
required in connection with seeding or sprigging.
k $ per ton where operation D 3 (mixture of calcium and
magnesium) is required in connection with seeding or sprigging.

A The purpose of this practice is to establish a stand of trees or shrubs
for soil protection, forestry purposes, and to preserve and improve the

B Apply this practice to farmland suitable for growing shrubs or tree
species that will provide multi-purpose forest benefits. Where shrubs are
used, preference should be given to varieties beneficial to wildlife.

C Policies for this practice are as follows:

1 Cost-sharing is authorized for:

a The establishment of a plantation that will provide both forest
products and improved protection from wind or water erosion.

b Clearing land occupied largely by scrubby brush of no economic
value, only where essential to permit planting desirable tree
species. Technical assistance must be utilized to determine
suitability of the land for clearing and the measures necessary
to prevent erosion.
2 Cost-sharing is not authorized for fencing, fire break, fuel breaks,
firelanes or roads.

3 Cost-sharing is not authorized for planting orchard trees, for
planting for ornamental purposes, or for Christmas tree production.

4 Planting must be protected from destructive fire and destructive

5 Chemicals used in performing this practice must be Federally, State,
and locally registered and must be strictly applied in accordance
with authorized registered uses, directions on the label, and other
Federal or State policies and requirements.

6 Consideration must be given to preserving and improving the environ-

7 This practice shall be maintained for a minimum of 10 years following
the calendar year of installation.

D Specifications

1 Eligible trees are longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, sand
pine, red cedar, yellow poplar, Eucalyptus, or such other eligible
trees as determined by the District Forester, County Forester or
their designee.

2 The species and the number of seedlings per acre to be planted shall
be determined by the District Forester, County Forester, or their
designee, based on site examination. To qualify for cost to sharing,
at least 400 seedlings per acre must survive through August following
the date of planting.

3 A crop for harvest may be planted during the interim period following
site preparation and prior to actual planting of trees under
operation D 4 H. The crop to be planted must be approved by the
local Forester or his representative prior to planting. An
adjustment shall be made in the cost of site preparation equal to the
additional costs incurred to prepare land for planting the crop.
Only one crop may be planted on the land prior to planting trees.

4 The following operations, as approved by the county committee, will
qualify for cost-sharing.

a Planting without site preparation. The use of prescribed fire
to be a component part of this practice when recommended by the
County Forester.--*

b Planting preceded by limited site preparation through the use of
a scalper, harrow, or herbicides on areas of improved pasture
grass or heavy grass sod where scrub brush and scrub species are
not factors. All root competition must be eliminated on a strip
at least 2 1/2 feet wide where trees are planted in the center
of the strip. Harrowing to be completed by November 30; scalp-
ing can be done in conjunction with planting; and appropriate
herbicide can be applied up to April 15 following planting.

c Planting preceded by light site preparation through the use of
prescribed fire, with or without mowing; felling or gridling
residual pine trees; sub-soiling; or removing logging debris;
where competition for soil moisture is not significant but
logging debris, residual pines, hardpan, grasses or other
vegetation would inhibit successful planting. Site preparation
to be completed by November 30 except that prescribed burning
can be done up until the trees are planted.

d Planting preceded by herbicidal site preparation to eliminate
all scrub brush and overtopping species that offer significant
competition. Appropriate herbicidal treatment as recommended by
the County Forester to begin after March 1 and to be completed
by August 30. All pine trees to be killed by felling or
girdling prior to planting. The use of a scalper or v-blade to
clear a strip at least three feet wide where trees are planted
in the center of the strip to be a component part of this
practice where recommended by the County Forester; this may be
done in conjunction with the planting.

e Planting preceded by moderate site preparation through the use
of drum choppers or offset harrows and herbicidal treatment.
The two treatments to be spaced not less than six weeks apart,
to begin after March 1 and to be completed by September 30. All
residual trees too large to be chopped or harrowed to be killed
prior to planting. The use of prescribed fire to be a component
part of this practice when recommended by the County Forester.
On sites where hardwood sprouting will not be significant, the
herbicidal treatment can be deleted and the chopping can extend
beyond September 30 up until six weeks prior to planting.

f Planting preceded by heavy site preparation through the use of
heavy tandem offset choppers, heavy offset harrows, or bedding
harrows. Two treatments are required, spaced not less than six
weeks apart, to begin after March 1 and be completed by
September 30. All hardwood trees too large to be chopped or
harrowed will be killed by herbicidal treatment prior to
planting; all pines too large to be chopped or harrowed will be
killed by felling or girdling prior to planting. The use of
prescribed fire to be a component part of this practice when
recommended by the County Forester. On sites where hardwood
sprouting will not be significant, the second treatment can
extend beyond September 30 up until six weeks prior to planting.

g Direct seeding of longleaf, slash, loblolly, or sand pine where
sufficient seed trees are not available. Seeding to be at the
rate of three pounds per acre for longleaf seed; one pound per
acre for slash or loblolly seed; or one-half pound per acre of
sand pine seed. All seeding to be preceded by prescribed fire,
disking, or chopping to sufficiently expose mineral soil for the
seed. Prescribed fire to be no more than three months prior to
seeding, except longleaf may be burned up to nine months prior
to seeding. All seed to be treated with bird and insect repel-

h Planting preceded by complete site preparation through the use
of tractors equipped with root rakes or blades followed by
harrowing, chopping, bedding, or herbicidal treatment. The two
treatments to be spaced not less than six weeks apart, to begin
after March 1 and to be completed by September 30. All brush,
shrubs, etc., to be windrowed, piled and burned, or removed.
All hardwood trees too large to be pushed will be killed by
herbicidal treatment prior to planting; all pines too large to
be pushed will be killed by felling or girdling prior to plant-
ing. The use of a prescribed fire to be a component part of
this practice when recommended by the County Forester. On sites
where hardwood sprouting will not be significant, and the second
treatment is bedding, the second treatment can be extended
beyond September 30 up until six weeks prior to planting.

5 This practice shall be performed in accordance with the Silviculture
Best Management Practices Manual (1979), published by the State
Division of Forestry. Cost-share payment will not be made for
operations D 4 a through h unless performance is certified by the
District Forester, County Forester, or their designee.

E Technical Responsibility. Assigned to FDF.

F Maximum Cost-share Rates.

1 Regular Rates.

a Operation D 4 a. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $25.50 per acre.

b Operation D 4 b. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $40.00 per acre.

c Operation D 4 c. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $64.00 per acre.

d Operation D 4 d. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $77.00 per acre.

e Operation D 4 e. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT-not to exceed $89.00 per acre.

f Operation D 4 f. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $83.00 per acre.

g Operation D 4 g. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $36.50 per acre.

h Operation D 4 h. 50 percent of the cost (as determined
by the county committeeT not to exceed $109.00 per acre.

2 Rates for Low-income Farmers.

a Operation D 4 a. 80
by the county committeeT not
b Operation D 4 b. 80
by the county committeeTnot

c Operation D 4 c. 80
by the county committeeT not

d Operation D 4 d. 80
by the county committeeT not

e Operation D 4 e. 80
by the county committee) not

f Operation D 4 f. 80
by the county committeeTFnot

g Operation D 4 g. 80
by the county committee) not

h Operation D 4 h. 80
by the county committee not

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $41.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $64.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $102.50 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $123.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $142.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $133.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $58.00 per acre.

percent of the cost (as determined
to exceed $174.50 per acre.

Small Grains for Grain and Forage

D. L. Wright Extension Agronomist
R. D. Barnett Small Grain Breeder

Small grains are an attractive crop for most farms because they can be

used for grazing in a livestock operation or for grain in a row crop operation

or for dual purpose in a livestock and row crop operation. In a recent survey

about 5% of the wheat grown was used for grazing as compared to about 50% for

oats and 75% for rye. Wheat is the predominant grain crop because of readily

accessible markets for the grain. However, wheat is close to oats in animal

performance from the forage followed by rye. Oats are the best dual purpose

crop although less than 10% of any of the small grains are used for dual pur-

poses. Most growers prefer to grow the crop either for grain or entirely for

forage and then add ryegrass to the mixture to extend the grazing period later

into the spring.

Triticale is a relatively new crop to the Southeast and the variety that

is currently available (Beagle 82) was bred strictly for grain production.

Other varieties will become available in the near future that produce higher

grain yields and some will be good forage producers. The value of the triti-

cale as compared to corn is that the grain is higher in protein and the essen-

tial amino acids (especially lysine). Triticale, like rye and oats for grain,

have limited markets unless it is to be fed on farm or sold to livestock

feeders directly.

A new triticale (Florida 201) will be available next year that has aver-

aged 33% higher grain yields in all locations in the years that it has been

tested as compared to Beagle 82. However, this triticale will not be a good

forage producer and should be used:only for grain.


The Florida 401 rye is a new rye that has produced excellent grain yields

as well as good early season forage. If it is to be used strictly for grazing

ryegrass should be added as with the other small grains to extend the grazing


The tables below summarizes the grain and forage characteristics of the

various small grains, and proper planting dates and seeding rates.

Characteristics of Recommended Small Grain Varieties

Early Season Late Season
Recommended Grain Test Winter Forage Forage Lodging
Crop Variety Yield Weight Hardiness Production Production Resistance Maturity

Wheat Florida 301 Good Excellent Good Good Fair Fair Early
Florida 302 Excellent Good Excellent Good Good Good Medium
Coker 797 Good Excellent Good Good Fair Good Early
Coker 762 Good Fair Excellent Good Good Fair Medium
Hunter Excellent Excellent Good Good Fair Excellent Early
Coker 983 Good Excellent Good Good Good Excellent Medium

Oats Florida 502 Good Excellent Poor Good Good Excellent Early
Florida 501 Fair Good Fair Excellent Good Poor Early
Coker 820 Excellent Good Fair Excellent Good Good Early
Coker 227 Fair Fair Good Fair Excellent Good Medium
Citation Excellent Good Good Good Excellent Good Medium

Triticale Beagle 82 Good Good Fair Poor Poor Good Early

Rye Florida 401 Excellent -- Good Excellent Fair -- Early
Wrens Abruzzi Good Excellent Good Good Early
Florida Black Good -- Fair Excellent Fair -- Early
Athens Abruzzi Good Excellent Good Excellent -- Medium
Weser Good -- Excellent Good Good -- Early
Wintergrazer 70 Good -- Excellent Good Good -- Medium
Vita Graze Good -- Excellent Good Good Medium
Forger Good -- Excellent Good Good -- Medium
Gator Good -- Excellent Good Good Medium
Gurley Grazer 2000 Good -- Excellent Good Good -- Medium

1985 Fall Planting Schedule for Florida

Bushel Wt.
Seeding Optimum Planting Dates for each
Rate Grain Grazing crop

1-1 1/2 Bu

2-2 1/2 Bu

Nov. 15-Dec. 15

Oct. 15-Nov. 15

Nov. 15-Dec. 15

Sept. 15-Nov. 15

4 Bu

1-1 1/4 Bu

Nov. 20-Dec. 15

Nov. 20-Dec. 15

(not recommended
for grazing)

Oct. 15-Nov. 15

2-2 1/2 Bu



3 Bu

60 Ibs.


2 Bu


32 Ibs.

48 lbs.

56 lbs.