Historic note
 Title Page
 Agronomic management of wheat and...
 Small grain management for grazing...
 Insect control in wheat and grain...
 Grain sorghum: harvesting, drying...
 Grain sorghum in double cropping...
 Relative feeding, values of corn,...

Proceedings of the ... annual fall foliage forum
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073371/00001
 Material Information
Title: Proceedings of the ... annual fall foliage forum
Series Title: Quincy AREC research
Cover title: Fall foliage forum
Fall foliage proceedings ... annual meeting
Alternate title: Feeds for livestock
Forages for the 80s
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Agricultural Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
North Florida Research and Education Center (Quincy, Fla.)
Publisher: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Place of Publication: Quincy Fla
Creation Date: 1981
Frequency: annual
Subjects / Keywords: Leaves -- Growth -- Congresses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
conference publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
Dates or Sequential Designation: Began in 1979?
General Note: Decription based on: 3rd (1981); title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: 7th (1985)
General Note: Until 1984 each year had a theme which may be presented as a title.
General Note: "Proceedings ... annual meeting".
Funding: Quincy AREC research report.
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Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76789108
lccn - 2006229110
System ID: UF00073371:00001

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Title page
    Agronomic management of wheat and grain sorghum
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Small grain management for grazing and for grain
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Insect control in wheat and grain sorghum
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Grain sorghum: harvesting, drying and storing
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Grain sorghum in double cropping systems
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Relative feeding, values of corn, sorghum grain, and wheat for cattle
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

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~~ ~~~b~C~~~~' II~

Fall Forage Forum Proceedings

Third Annual Meeting


November 11, 1981

Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension

Proceedings of the Third Annual Fall Forage Forum

"Feeds for Livestock"

The papers presented at this year's Fall Forage Forum are enclosed in
this proceedings. These forums are presented to help keep county agents
and producers up to date on the latest research information available in
the areas of production and utilization of feedstuffs which will efficiently
and economically fulfill the nutritional requirements of livestock.

Due to increasing producer interest in wheat and grain sorghum as feeds
for livestock, the 1981 Fall Forage Forum is dedicated mainly to the production
and utilization of these feedstuffs. It is hoped that this information will be
both timely and useful.

-Michael F. Cain-

This year's program includes the following speakers:

C. Hammond, Extension Agricultural Engineer,
University of Georgia, Athens

R. O'Quinn, Sales Representative, Pioneer Hi-Bred International
Inc., Dublin, Georgia

F. S. Baker, Jr., Animal Scientist
University of Fl., AREC, Quincy

R. D. Barnett, Small Grain Breeder
University of Fl., AREC, Quincy

T. D. Hewitt, Area Economist
University of Fl., ARC, Marianna

R. K. Sprenkel, Integrated Pest Manager
University of Fl., AREC, Quincy

D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist
University of Fl., AREC, Quincy

Agronomic Management of Wheat and Grain Sorghum

D. L. Wright, Extension Agronomist

Wheat and grain sorghum offer an alternative to corn for grain for live-

stock. These crops fit into a multicropping program and may be planted in

the same year and offer the opportunity for crop rotation with soybeans which

are often planted in the same fields continuously.

Wheat has been grown in the United States for many years and a limited

acreage has been grown in Florida for several years. Diseases has been one

of the main reasons that wheat is not grown in large acreages in Florida.

Wheat was grown as one of the main grain crops over 2000 years ago in Biblical

times in semi-arid regions. In recent years, wheat breeders have bred and

selected varieties that have good disease resistance in our humid climate.

Several commercial varieties are now on the market that are adapted to Florida


Grain sorghum varieties have not been the limiting factor in its production

in Florida but rather markets have been limiting. The reason for this is that

wheat is harvested in May or early June while April planted grain sorghum is

harvested in July. Grain elevators are not busy in May and early June and

will take wheat which does not have to be dried while grain sorghum harvested

in July, August or September usually has to be dried from 20% moisture to 12%

moisture to keep it from molding. If grain elevators do take grain sorghum,

many bins may only be partially full because of the limited acreage being grown.

This results in grain elevators not wanting to take the grain which leaves grow-

ers feeding livestock as the only other alternative as a market. Competition for

bin space with corn and soybeans has limited sorghum marketing.

Agronomic Practices


If wheat and grain sorghum are to be planted together in the same year,


the land should be plowed before planting wheat rather than preparing the

ground with a disc harrow. Plowing allows better root penetration through

the soil, resulting in a larger root system making the plant more resistant to


The pH of the soil should be from 6.0 to 6.5 for optimum yields of both

wheat and grain sorghum. The calcium level of the soil should be about

600 Ibs/A of CaO and 100 Ibs/A MgO.

For each 300 Ibs. below minimum calcium, apply 1000 Ibs. of calcitic lime-

stone or 1000 Ibs. of dolomitic limestone or 900 Ibs. gypsum per acre. Gypsum

will not increase the pH.

For each 50 Ibs. below minimum magnesium, apply 1000 Ibs of dolomitic

limestone per acre or 16 lbs. fertilizer grade MgO.

Requirements of phosphorus and potash for wheat is small as compared to

other grain crops. Potash is important for good stalk strength and both

phosphorus and potash are important for high test weight of grain. However,

high applications of phosphorus on wheat should be avoided because it has

reduced wheat yields, increased diseases, and caused lodging.

Effect of Phosphorus Rates on Wheat Yield, Lodging
and Disease Incidence (Ga.)
Septoria Yield
P205 Lodging Infection Grain
Ibs/A -----------%------------ Bu/A
0 0 29 37
130 35 47 51
260 64 70 33
520 77 73 29

A soil test value plus applied phosphorus should be a minimum of 120 Ibs/A

P205. A soil test level plus applied K20 should be about 160 Ibs/A for high


Sulfur should be applied to wheat at 15 to 20 Ibs/A broadcast. If gypsum,

sulfate of potash-magnesia (Sul-Po-Mag) or magnesium sulfate have been used

to supply other nutrients, no additional sulfur will probably be needed.


Zinc and maybe manganese need to be applied to most Florida soils. Zinc

is especially critical on most grass crops. Five Ibs/A of Zinc and manganese

and 1/2 Ib boron/A should meet wheat needs. Fritted trace elements do not

supply adequate amounts of micronutrients for the short season of wheat.

Nitrogen should be applied at rates as low as 20 lbs to 50 Ibs/A at plant-

ing time followed by another 40 to 60 lbs/A in late January to aid tiller formation.

If half of the potash is applied at planting the other half may also be applied

with the sidedressed N. A total of no more than 120 Ibs/A of nitrogen should

be used on wheat because of its tendency to cause lodging from rank growth,

reduced grain quality, delayed maturity and cause increased disease buildup.

About 1 to 11 bu/A of wheat should be planted between November 15 and

December 15. Varieties currently recommended for Florida in order of

adaptability are:

1. Coker 797 5. Coker 762
2. Florida 301 6. Delta Queen
3. Southern Belle 7. Omega 78
4. McNair 1813

When weather in late winter and spring are warm and rainy or very humid, a

spray program should be followed as outlined in "Plant Protection Pointers" No.

27. This program involves the use of Dithane M-45 or Manzate 200 fungicide in

3 applications 2 weeks apart starting when the second node or flag leaf is


Coker 797 and Florida 301 wheats are early season varieties and are usually

mature by mid-May. The earliness of maturity allows the grain to be combined

before June rains start and allows these varieties of wheat to dry to 12%

moisture in the field without any problem.

Grain Sorghum

Grain sorghum not planted in April should generally, be delayed

until early June to catch the summer rains. The month of May is generally

dry and sorghum planting during this time may result in poor stands due to


moisture stress and lesser corn stalk borer damage.

may be planted in any of the 4 systems shown below.

Systems for Grain Sorghum

However, grain sorghum


Irrigated Corn +
Grain Sorg.

Wheat +
Grain Sorg.

Grain Sorg.

Grain Sorg. +
Ratoon Crop.

Date for Sorg.

July 10 to Aug. 7

June 1 to July 1

March 25 to April 20

March 25 to April 20

Date for Sorg.

Oct. 20 to Nov. 20

Sept. 15 to Oct. 10

July 10 to Aug. 1

July 10 to Aug. 1 (1st)
Nov. 1 to Nov. 20 (2nd)

The relative feeding value of grain sorghum is 95 to 100% that of corn.

Protein content of grain sorghum may be slightly higher but energy from

corn is higher.

Grain sorghum may be planted after wheat under no-till, minimum till, or

conventional conditions. In-row subsoiling should be practiced on many of our

soils to decrease water stress during periods of drought. A better seedbed

should be prepared for grain sorghum seed than most other grains because of

its low seedling vigor. Planting depth should range from 1 to 1i inches being

deeper on sandy soils and more shallow for clay soils. Deep planting of sorghum

seed often results in failure to emerge and good emergence will be about 75%

of that planted and 65 to 75% emergence under no-till conditions.

Soil temperature needs to be 65 to 700F between 8-9:00 a.m. in the spring

before planting. Plant non-bird resistant hybrids where the grain is to be

sold. Feeding value is also higher on non bird resistant varieties because they

have a brown seed coat which does help reduce fungi attack as well as bird


All varieties of grain sorghum currently recommended in Florida are hybrids,


Therefore, seeds cannot be saved from one crop and planted the next year.

Generally the later maturing varieties are the highest yielding ones, but crop-

ping systems must be considered as to the variety to use. A full season variety

may not mature when planted after corn before frost, or a mid-season variety

may be best planted after wheat because of dry fall weather. Refer to the

"Florida Field and Forage Crop Variety Report" and fact sheets for high yield-

ing adapted varieties in Florida. All varieties, especially late planted varieties

need to have anthracnose resistance.

Grain sorghum seedlings are not very vigorous and should be planted in

30" or more narrow rows. Non-irrigated fields should have from 2.5 to 4

plants/ft. of row. With irrigation, plant populations of 4 to 7 plants/ft. of row

can be used.* Narrow rows shade row middles much more quickly and help in

controlling weeds as well as reducing moisture loss.

Influence of Row Width and Tillage on
Yield of Grain Sorghum After Small Grain (Quincy, 1981)
Width No-Tillage Conventional
Inches ------bu/A------------
15 61.3 a 58.5 a
30 50.2 b 54.4: b

Avg. 55.7 a 56.5 a

Whether grain sorghum is planted uner no-till or conventional conditions

seems to make little difference. Grain sorghum may be planted more timely

when planted under no-till conditions.

Sorghum does excellent under subhumid and semi-arid conditions and

has been grown where annual rainfall is as low as 15 inches. However, total

water requirements for grain sorghum is almost the same as for corn, It

will tolerate periods of drought better than corn but still needs almost 50%

of its total water use during the boot to dough stage. Water stress can be

reduced by 1) Subsoiling,


Water Use by Grain Sorghum (Kansas)
Growth Inches Cumulative
Stage each stage Water Use (inches)

Emergence to 12" 4 4

12" to Boot 5 9

Boot to Dough 9 18

Maturity 2 20 (Total)

2) planting in a mulch and 3) banding the fertilizer near the row.

A fertilizer program should be designed to make 70 to 80 bushels of

grain sorghum after small grain, 100 to 120 bushels as a ratoon crop,

and 70 to 100 after irrigated corn.

Fertilizer Program for Grain Sorghum in Systems
System Soil Test Applied in Fertilizer
N P205 K20

After Wheat 100 140 180

Grain Sorg. 100 150 200
ratoon 60-80

After Corn 100 Residual from Corn or
140 180

Phosphorus and potash may be applied at planting time. Nitrogen should

be applied at planting, at 10 inches tall and at the boot stage. Zinc should

be banded near the row at 5 Ibs/A at planting. Most of the zinc is taken up

within 4 weeks after emergence. Sulfur at 5 to 20 Ibs/A should be applied in

split applications with the nitrogen.

A pop-up fertilizer or a complete fertilizer can be banded near the row at

planting time to get more rapid growth of the seedlings. Several studies have

reported 10 or more bushel yield increase/A using pop-up fertilizers near the

row. Recent studies done at Quincy and by a commercial company in south Georgi

Indicated that these fertilizers may be banded on the surface with equal yields


to where fertilizer was put 2 inches to the side and below the seed. Starter

will often give double vegetative growth in either corn or grain sorghum in the

first two months followed by maturity a week or two earlier.

Uptake of nutrients is very slow for grain sorghum the first few weeks

as shown in the table below.

Percent Nutrient Uptake at Stages by Grain Sorghum (NM).
Weeks after Emergence
Nutrient 0-3 3-6 6-9 9-12 12-mature
---------------- Uptake-----------------
N 5 33 32 15 15

P205 3 23 34 .26 14
K20 7 40 33 15 5

Lack of preplant incorporate herbicides and poor management with herbi-

cides that can be used as a post emergence directed spray or broadcast for

broadleaf weed control has resulted in weeds being one of the major problems

in growing grain sorghum. Weeds are usually less numerous under no-till

conditions but require even more management to control than under conven-

tional conditions. Therefore, when planting grain sorghum after wheat no-till,

a well defined weed program must be planned including having a shielded

directed spray rig on hand. Many times grain sorghum is planted under

optimum moisture and temperature conditions for weed growth and they will

outgrow the sorghum. A list of herbicides to be used in grain sorghum is

found in "Weed Control in Grain Sorghum" in Weeds in the Sunshine.

Early control of weeds is essential for high crop yields as noted in the

table below.

Yield Reduction from Weeds as Compared to No Weeds (NK)
Number Weeks after Sorghum Emergence
Cultivations 2 4 6 8
------------% Yield Loss-------
0 1 24 58 75
2 4 11 20 36


The above table shows a yield loss of 11% after 4 weeks If projected yields

were 60 bu/A this amounts to 6.6 bu/A loss or $19.80/A at $3.00/bu. This

amounts to almost $2,000 on 100 acres which may buy a directed spray rig and

then cultivations may not have been needed.

Diseases in sorghum have been controlled mainly by using resistant

varieties, crop rotation, bottom plowing, clean cultivation, seed treatment,

and insect control which decreases injury sites for plants to become Infected.

Only seed that are treated with a fungicide should be purchased for planting.

Ratoon cropping of grain sorghum requires a little extra management.

The crop has to be planted in late March or early April and harvested at 20

to 25% moisture in July. Immediately after grain harvest, the sorghum should

be sidedressed with 60 to 80 Ibs N/A, a cultivation may also be done then if

weeds are present, or apply the nitrogen with Paraquat or some other suitable

herbicide in a directed spray rig to control weeds while applying nitrogen for

the ratoon crop. A sicklebar mower can then be used to cut the sorghum to

within 4 to 6 inches of the ground. A rotary mower will work but shatters

the stalks much worse. New tillers will form from basal buds which the second

crop will put grain on. Usually grain yields will be 55 to 70% of the first

crop but under good conditions can yield as much as the first crop.

Grain sorghum is a versatile crop that can work into many other cropping

schemes and must be considered in the future where drought often causes

corn failure.

Small Grain Management for Grazing and for Grain-


R. D. Barnett-

All the small grains can be used for both forage and grain but the yield
and value of wheat as a grain crop makes it particularly attractive as a dual
purpose crop. Wheat is much more versatile than the other small grains. It
makes a good grazing, hay, or silage crop, or can be harvested as a seed
crop which can be used as a food or feed grain. Although rye normally pro-
duces more forage under a monthly clipping schedule, wheat does well under
grazing and cattle like it better than rye. Rye is normally a very poor seed
producer under North Florida conditions and is much less desirable as a feed
grain. Wheat is less likely to be damaged by cold weather than oats.

Young wheat plants are very high in protein content (usually greater
than 25%) and are, therefore, a highly nutritive pasture crop. The fiber con-
tent is low and carotene (Provitamin A), minerals, and B vitamins content is
high. Cattle normally do well on wheat and gains as high as 2 Ibs per day
are possible with young cattle.

The value of wheat as a grazing crop should be a major consideration
and in some cases, the grazing value may justify sowing wheat for forage
alone or with the grain crop of secondary importance. It may be that the
grazing value of wheat is so high that the livestock farmer might profitably
use it entirely for pasture without taking a grain crop. The grain yield is
not seriously affected by grazing until plants reach the jointing stage of
growth. The forage yield is about tripled if wheat is completely grazed out
instead of taking the cattle off when grazing begins to affect grain yields.

Wheat grain yields generally are not reduced materially and may be in-
creased somewhat by moderate winter grazing if growth is unusually heavy.
Grain yield is reduced by grazing when the crop has made only limited fall
growth because of lack of soil moisture, late planting, or inadequate seedbed
preparation. When conditions are unfavorable for growth of the wheat plant,
grazing usually results in reduced grain yield. When wheat grows too rank,
its growth may be checked to advantage by grazing. Grazing tends to reduce
the number of heads per plant, makes them mature later, and helps prevent

The best use of winter small grain pastures requires more management
decisions than does the use of permanent pastures. An extremely dry fall
would lead to very little growth of wheat and would make dual purpose use
unlikely. Many farmers have discovered that irrigated wheat can add greatly
to the stability of livestock production. With fall Irrigation, one can be cer-
tain of prompt emergence of good stands and vigorous fall growth.

Presentation made at the "Third Annual Fall Forage Forum", held at
Marianna, Florida, November 11, 1981.

SAssociate Professor of Agronomy, AREC, Quincy, IFAS, University of
Florida, Route 3 Box 638, Quincy, FL 32351.

Choice of Variety

In choosing a variety, one needs to consider whether it is to serve
for seasonal, temporary, or all-season grazing. If it is for only seasonal
or temporary grazing, it may be more important to choose a variety with
good recovery for grain production, rather than for maximum amount of
forage. But, if it is for all-season grazing, it may be more important to
choose a variety that produces the greatest amount of forage during the
season of the year when the need for forage is greatest.

Varieties that tend to tiller profusely generally produce the most
grazing and the more prostrate varieties recover more rapidly than those
of more upright growth. For maximum fall forage production, varieties
classified as intermediate or prostrate in habit of growth may require an
increased seeding rate, perhaps 2 or 3 times the normal amount required
for those varieties which in general have an upright habit of growth.
While forage production in the winter months (December through February)
appears to be associated more with variety than with the particular small
grain crop, no single small grain crop or variety is consistently high in
forage production throughout the growing season.

Seeding Dates

When wheat is sorn as a dual-purpose crop, the recommended seeding
date is 3 to 4 weeks earlier than for grain production alone. When seeding
early, hessian fly resistance of the variety becomes more important, and quite
likely only hessian fly resistant varieties should be used in early plantings.
Care must be exercised in early seedings because in seasons when tempera-
tures remain high after seeding, heavy losses in the stand can occur from
infection by seedling diseases. Seed treatment with a broad spectrum fungi-
cide is especially important when seeding early. Also, it must be remembered
that early seeding usually increases your disease problems in the spring and
a foliar fungicide program is very important if high grain yields are to be
obtained. We recommend October 15 as the earliest date that wheat should be
planted as a forage crop in North Florida.

Seeding Rates

The usual recommendation is to increase the seeding rate by 50 to 100%
for forage production. A heavier rate of seeding will produce more forage
in the early part of the season compared to the later part. Usually the
demand for forage is usually greater in the fall and winter than later in the
spring. For grain production only the recommended seeding rate is 60 to 90
Ibs of seed per acre and for forage or dual use 90 to 120 Ibs/acre.


The minimum growth temperature for wheat is 37 to 390F, the optimum
temperate about 770F, and the maximum about 900F. Temperaturesmaterially
above the optimum do not produce normal, vigorous plants and root systems.
Temperature variation during fall and spring, from year to year, exert as much
influence on forage yields as the crop and the variety.

Soil Fertility Levels

Maximum production of wheat pasture is possible only if soil fertility
is high. Phosphorus and potash requirements for wheat are relatively
small as compared to other grain crops. Potash is important for good grain
quality and high test weight of grain. Excessive application rates of phos-
phorus should be avoided because it reduces yields, increases diseases, and
causes lodging. The soil test value plus applied phosphorus should be a
minimum of 120 Ibs/A of P 05. The soil test level plus applied K 0 should
be about 160 lbs/A for high yields. Sulfur should be applied to wheat at
15 to 20 Ibs/A at planting. If gypsum, sulfate of potash-magnesia (Sul-
PO-Mag) or magnesium sulfate have been used to supply other nutrients
no additional sulfur will probably be needed.

Zinc and perhaps manganese needsto be applied for optimum yields.
Zinc is especially critical on crops such as wheat. Five Ibs/A of zinc
and manganese and 1/2 Ib boron/A should supply the crops needs.

Wheat should be planted with 20 to 50 Ibs N/A followed by 40 to 60
Ibs in December and then another 40 to 60 Ibs when the cattle are removed
as jointing begins.

Grazing Management

Wheat should not be grazed until plants are 8 to 10 inches high. Then
graze rotationally leaving about a 3 inch stubble with 3-4 weeks between
grazings. If you use continuous grazing, control animal numbers to main-
tain height of 5 to 10 inches. The date the cattle should be removed to
allow for grain production will depend on the variety being used. For
early varieties it will have to be several weeks earlier than for later matur-
ing varieties. The best way to judge is to closely observe the plants and
when the plants start to joint remove the cattle immediately.

1981 Wheat Forage Trial at Quincy

Wheat forage yields which were determined for 26 varieties or lines
during the 1981 season at Quincy are presented in Table 1. Clipping was
done with a forage plo t harvester which cut the plants to a 3 inch height
which left the lower, prostrate leaves on the plants. The plots were clipped
five times during the season at approximately monthly intervals. This data
would simulate the production that might be obtained when wheat is grazed
out completely. Varietal differences in forage production are particularly
apparent in this data. Florida 301 and Coker 797 are best for early season
grazing (November-January) but would not last as long as some of the other
varieties that are later maturing. Both of these early varieties would be good
choices to mix with ryegrass and then graze them out completely. If they
are planted early in October or the first 2 weeks in November, they might
head out too early in the spring and grain yields would be lowered by a late
frost. McNair 1813 and Coker 762 are good grazing wheats and would be well
suited to dual purpose use. Coker 747, Southern Belle, Arthur 71, and
Doublecrop would not provide much early grazing but would produce good
forage in the spring.

Table 1. Wheat Forage Trial at Quincy in 1981.

Forage Yield Pounds Per Acre Dry Matter
Variety Total Total
Brand or Through Through Season
Origin 2-19-80 1-30-81 1-30-81 2-26-81 3-25-81 3-25-81 4-22-81 Total

Blueboy 11

Southern Belle

Omega 78

Florida 301
Arthur 71

Delta Queen

North Carolina

North Carolina




Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the
5 Replications in a randomized complete block design. Plot size = 10' x
Topdressed with 50 Ib N/A 1-2-81 and again 3-9-81.

5% level according to Tukey's Test.
4', harvested 26.7 ft2. Applied 600

Planting date = 10-22-80.
lbs/A 5-10-15 preplant.



828 a-e
719 a-g
1007 a-c
664 a-h
663 a-h

379 e-h
794 a-f
253 gh
S542 b-h
1043 ab

195 h
211 h
522 c-h
616 b-h
1014 a-c

436 d-h
654 b-h
529 c-h
902 a-d
295 f-h

627 b-h
426 d-h
576 b-h
604 b-h
1167 a
697 a-h

677 c-h
592 d-i
853 b-f
476 f-j
369 g-j

76 j
711 c-h
96 j
739 b-g
967 a-e

116 j
81 j
210 ij
432 f-j
1034 a-c

304 h-j
1022 a-d
676 c-h
1300 a
65 j

845 b-f
301 h-j
930 a-e
997 a-e
1145 ab
587 e-i

1701 a-d
1760 a-c
1706 a-d
1450 c-e
1549 a-e

1383 c-e
1S59 ab
1625 a-d
2018 a
1515 b-e

1858 a-c
884 fg
1471 c-e
1669 a-d
1234 d-f


455 e-g
1505 a-d
349 g
1281 b-e
2010 ab

311 g
292 g
732 d-g
1048 c-g
2048 ab

740 d-g
1676 a-c
1205 b-f
2202 a
360 fg

1472 a-d
727 d-g
1506 a-d
1601 a-c
2312 a
1284 b-e


3212 a
1352 g-j
2697 b-d
1360 g-i
1460 gh

2497 b-e
2761 a-c
2508 b-e
2089 ef
644 m

2522 b-e
870 k-m
1302 g-k
957 i-m
2854 ab

906 i-m
2433 b-e
899 j-m
769 m
832 Im
1233 h-I

1726 a-c
1619 a-d
1556 a-e
1423 c-e
724 g
1531 b-e

5458 a
5375 a
5299 a
4938 a-c
4907 a-d

5050 ab
4816 a-e
4671 a-f
4659 a-f
4985 ab



4104 b-f
4779 a-f
3961 c-f
3793 f
3868 ef
4048 b-f

1443 a-g
1245 c-g
1201 c-g
1477 a-f
1442 a-g


1350 b-g
1977 a
1179 c-g
1058 d-g
1897 ab

1032 e-g
1616 a-d
1705 a-c
1461 a-g
981 fg

1574 a-e
897 g
1584 a-e
1705 a-c
1600 a-e
1322 c-g

6901 a
6620 ab
6500 a-c
6415 a-c
6349 a-c

6322 a-c
6230 a-c
6187 a-c
6067 a-c
6031 a-c

6016 a-c
5914 a-c
5890 a-c
5864 a-c
5823 a-c



Insect Control in Wheat and Grain Sorghum-/
R. K. Sprenkel-/

Insects and mites are frequent competitors for man's food
and fiber supply. Energy accumulated in forages intended for
animal use is not exempt from attack by arthropod pests. When
evaluating the need to protect forages from these pests through
the use of chemicals, several factors must be taken into con-
sideration. These factors include the type of damage and the
amount of damage done or that might be done if the pest popu-
lation is not suppressed. The latter factor must ultimately
be given a monitary value and then compared with the cost of
suppressing the pest population, (i.e. the cost of insecticide
plus the cost of application). If the potential loss exceeds
the cost of control, then treating is justified. If the cost
of control exceeds the potential loss, then treating is not
justified. On the surface this seems fairly straight forward,
however, the value of forages cannot always be determined, and
as a result, the need to control insects presents difficult
management decisions. Nevertheless, recognition of the poten-
tial pests of wheat and sorghum is important.

Insect Pests of Wheat

The fall armyworm and occasionally the true armyworm cause
losses to wheat in North Florida. Armyworms tend to be more
destructive when wet weather, dense planting, and/or over fer-
tilization have caused rank growth. The fall armyworm has four
pairs of abdominal prolegs and coloration and stripes that are
variable. Usually they are greyish with lighter stripes running
the length of their bodies. The head is usually dark with a

1/ Presented at the "Third Annual Fall Forage Forum,"
National Guard Armory, November 11, 1981.

2/ Assistant Professor of Entomology, Integrated Pest
Management Specialist, AREC Quincy, Rt. 3, Box 638, Quincy,
FL 32351

Page 2

light-colored, inverted "Y" on the front. When full grown,
the larvae can be 1 1/4 inches long. The true armyworms are
similar in appearance to the fall armyworm, but are usually
greenish-brown in color. They have a narrow broken stipe down
the center of their backs bordered by a wide somewhat darker
band. Their heads are usually honeycombed with dark lines.
Populations of three to five armyworms per square foot may
justify treating wheat grown for forage (see Table 1).
Greenbugs and corn-leaf aphids suck plant juices from
the wheat and can cause yellowing of the plant and tissue des-
truction. Aphids are pale green and usually feed in clusters.
When fully grown, aphids are about 1/6 inch long. Wheat grown
for forage rarely needs treating for greenbugs or aphids.
Another insect that may be present but rarely causes sur-
ficient damage to justify treating is the chinch bug. The
chinch bug tends to be more of a problem on wheat that is under
stress due to poor soil, excess water, etc. Problems due to
the chinch bug on wheat for forage can largely be eliminated
by giving proper attention to soil fertility, plant stand, and
drainage. The chinch bug grows to about 1/6 inch in length.
It has a black body with white wing covers. There is a tri-
angular mark near the middle of each wing cover.

Insect Pests of Sorghum

The corn leaf aphid (described above) is occasionally
found on sorghum grown for forage. Under certain conditions,
large populations may be found feeding in the whorl. However,
chemical control of the corn leaf aphid is rarely justified on
sorghum grown for forage (see Table 2).
The lesser cornstalk borer can cause problems in sorghum
that is up to ten inches tall. Heavy damage by this insect
frequently results in a poor plant stand or weakened plants.
It lives just below the surface of the soil in a silken tube
attached to the base of the plant. It feeds on the stem of the

Page 3

sorghum plant and may tunnel up the stem causing damage. The
caterpillar is approximately 5/8 inch long when fully grown,
and has alternating aqua-blue and purplish-brown bands on each
segment. Because of the difficulty in controlling this insect,
treatment of forage sorghum does not appear to be justified.
However, damage due to the lesser cornstalk borer on sorghum
can be reduced or entirely eliminated by planting early. Sor-
ghum that is planted early develops before there are sufficient
numbers of this pest to cause damage.
The fall armyworm (described above) and the corn earworm
have a number of hosts including sorghum. Both pests feed in
the whorl of forage sorghum and are usually not noticed until
the leaves on which they are feeding unroll, exposing the dam-
age. The corn earworm varies in color from light green to nearly
black. It has light stripes running the length of the body,
and is usually lighter on the underside of the body than on top.
One of the most reliable ways to distinguish the corn earworm
from the fall armyworm is that the former has a yellow to orange
head while the latter has a darker head.
Both worms are very difficult to control with insecticides
when they are in the whorl. Unless the worms are small (less
than 1/2 inch long) and a heavy infestation exists, treatment is
usually unprofitable. Planting early will help to minimize the
damage caused by the fall armyworm and the corn earworm.
In summary, insect control on forage wheat and sorghum is
profitable only when heavy infestations are present. Each sit-
uation must be evaluated separately to determine the economic
advantages when treating. In evaluating the need to treat, the
period of time the animals must be taken off of the field after
application must be taken into consideration.

Table 1

Insect Control on Wheat

Min. Days

Lbs. A.I./

Amount of

Pest Material To Feeding Acre Per Acre Remarks

Armyworm Methyl parathion 4E 15 0.37 0.75 3/4-1 1/2 pts. Treat when
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) 1.8L 10 0.23-0.45 1-2 pts. larvae are
Ethyl parathion 4E 15 0.25-0.5 1/2-1 pt. young.
Trichlorofon (Dylox) 4EC 0 0.5 -1.0 1-2 pts.

Chinch Malathion 5EC 7 1.0 -1.25 1 1/2-2 pts. Treat when
Bug Ethyl parathion 4E 15 0.25-0.5 1/2-1 pt. damage is

Greenbug Malathion 5EC 7 0.75-1.0 1 1/8-1 1/2 pts. Control
and corn Methyl paration 4E 15 0.25-0.5 1/2-1 pt. rarely
leaf aphid Ethyl parathion 4E 15 0.25-0.5 1/2-1 pt. necessary

Table 2

Insect Control on Sorghum

Amount of
Min. Days Lbs. A.I./ Formulation
Pest Material To Feeding Acre Per Acre Remarks

Corn leaf Ethyl parathion 4E 12 0.5 1 pt.
aphid Malathion 5EC 34 0.25-0.5 6.4-12 ozs.

and Fall
Armywo rm

Carbaryl (Sevin) 80WP
Methomyl (Lannate, Nudrin) 1.8L
Ethyl parathion 4E
Mevinphos (Phosdrin) 4E


2 1/2 Ibs.
1-2 pts.
1 1/2 pts.
1/2-1 pt.

Control in
whorl stage



Head, Extension Engineering Department

Drying food and feed products as discussed herein is one of the

oldest methods of preservation. Other options are available for storage

if the product is to be used as a livestock feed such as acid preservation,

ensiling and oxygen free storage which a-e not covered in this manuscript.

Grain sorghum can be harvested, dried and stored with conventional

equipment with some limitations and modification of equipment. Grain sorghum

has some definite differences in the harvesting, drying and storage when

compared to other grain crops. An understanding of these differences will

make harvesting and handling more successful.


Grain sorghum matures physiologically when the moisture in the grain

drops to about 30 percent. However, the seed are usually too soft for

harvesting at moisture contents exceeding 25 percent and attempts to harvest

above 25 percent moisture will usually produce either unthreshed heads or

damaged grain.

Field drying Is possible during a dry fall season. However, early harvest

is advisable in the Southeast due to the possibility of mold growth in the

field during rainy periods. Delayed harvest may also cause shattering and

lodging. Narrow row spacings can reduce lodging because adjacent plants

support the broken stalks. Consequently a 30-inch row spacing is more desirable

than a 40-inch spacing.

Standing grain sorghum can be harvested using a combine with a

conventional header or a row crop type header which is normally used to

harvest soybeans. The header should be raised high enough to harvest only

the grain heads of the plant. Pick-up type guards are recommended if the

heads are drooping. Flexible cutter bars (fixed In rigid position) can be

used with some difficulty and increased header loss.

With conventional headers, combine reel bat speed should be about 25

percent faster than ground speed and set high enough to avoid catching

under and throwing the heads. Wide reel slats may be needed if plant height

varies greatly.

Combine cylinder and concave should be set to separate the seed from the

head without over-threshing. The cylinder speed should be even less than for

wheat, and some combine manufacturers recommend removing the concave bars.

Concave clearance should be about inch in front and about 3/16 inch at

the rear. The combine InstruCtion manual gives details for such adjustments.

Grain sorghum stalks contain more moisture and are smaller than most

stalks. Therefore, they are more likely to be chopped up and carried to the

grain tank. Pieces of stalk returned to the cylinder in the tailings will

be further ground into fines,. The chaffer extension can be closed or covered

preventing this material from entering the tailings conveyer. Sorghum stems

sometimes catch and choke the straw walkers, causing inconvenience and time

loss. Some manufacturers make straw walker covers containing smaller holes

to catch stems while allowing the grain to drop through.

Sieves should be inspected often during operation to detect matting or

sealing of the sieve. The upper sieve should be set 1/2 2/3 open with the

lower sieve 1/3 1/2 open. Air should be directed for full exposure over

the length of the sieve for maximum benefit.

Harvest Loss Measurement

Determine pre-harvest loss by counting the kernels on the ground on an

area equal to the combine header width and one foot along the row. If the

loss averages 17 kernels per square foot, one bushel per acre has been lost.

The header loss can be measured-by stopping the combine in the row and

backing up several feet to allow counting the fallen kernels across the

header width in the stubble. The header loss can be determined by subtracting

the pre-harvest loss. The threshing and separating losses can be measured

behind the combine by subtracting the pre-harvest and header losses.

Thrashing losses for combines equipped with straw choppers can be

accomplished by collecting samples behind the cylinder or rotor to see if

complete separation has occurred.

Head loss can be measured by estimating the seed on a head (about 1800

for a well developed head) or by stripping the heads and weighing the grain.

If harvest losses exceed 10 percent, they are excessive and adjustments

should be made to reduce-losses. Threshing and separation losses should

not exceed 2 percent with header losses not to exceed 8 percent of the crop.


Operators with no previous experience should be extremely cautious

in holding high-moisture grain sorghum ahead of the dryer. Be sure all high

moisture grain has been removed before refilling.

Since high-moisture sorghum packs tighter than high-moisture corn, air

circulation Is inhibited and heating problems may result. Safety margins

are thin if the sorghum Is near 25 percent moisture and grain temperature is

80 to 900 F. These conditions are ideal for heating, molding and sprouting.

Aeration in wet holding bins at the rate-of I cfm per bushel can be beneficial

if nighttime temperatures drop 10 to 20F below daytime averages. However,

if the temperature does not drop, little benefit, other than a slight amount

of evaporative cooling will result.


Sorghum has more trash mixed in the grain after combining than any

other common crop. If harvested prior to frost, pieces of green stems

and foliage are usually mixed in with the grain. This foreign matter

is difficult but desirable to remove before drying. Some growers clean

sorghum before and after drying. Trash in the dryer can be a fire hazard

and offers resistance to air movement. Dryers should be inspected to make

sure all parts unload properly and should not be allowed to run unattended

for long periods of time. Trash pulled into the air intake causes many

fires. Once in the air intake, the trash is carried through the flame and

deposited, still glowing, in the plenum chamber and possibly in to the

grain. This can be prevented by keeping the ground clean near the air

intake. The intake may also be shielded with a screen which prevents trash

entrance. The screen should not be finer than inch mesh or restriction

of air movement may occur. Trash can be blown under bin drying floors and

sift through perforated floors creating a fire hazard.

Trash is usually removed by sifting the grain through a screen or sieve.

The seed fall through while trash remains on top. Most cleaners are

designed to retain the seed and drop the fines. This removal of the fines

often leads to over-loading the take-away conveyors when cleaning the sorghum.

With rotary screen, the grain falls through and trash is retained, requiring

a means to catch that portion which would be the fines in a normal cleaning



Dryers will not force air through grain sorghum as easily as through

corn because the smaller grains have less void space for air movement. This

air resistance allows grain sorghum to dry about 2/3 to 3/4 as fast as

corn under the same drying conditions; that is,, grain depth and air

temperature. Bin dryers which are capable of removing 10 points corn,

in 24 hours, would be capable of drying sorghum about 2/3rds as deep as

the corn in the same period of time.

In column type dryers, either batch or continuous flow, the grain

layer thickness can not be reduced as in a bin batch dryer. In this

situation, a longer drying time is required. The discharge rate from

continuous flow dryers will need to be reduced allowing grain sorghum to

be exposed for a greater period of time to the drying air.

Basically any method used for drying shelled corn should also work

for sorghum. In bin dryers, the drying time should be the same for sorghum

as for corn, if the capacity is reduced 25 to 40 percent. In column type

dryers, the drying time over corn will be increased 25 to 40 percent.

Temperature of Drying Air

Drying temperature should be limited to 110 F if grain sorghum is to

be used for seed. If used for feed grain, sorghum can be dried to 140F

or less for batch-in-bin systems using air flows of 10 to 25 cubic feet of

air per minute per bushel (cfm/bu.) Batch or continuous flow dryers

using air flows of 100 to 200 cfm/bu. can successfully dry sorghum at

temperatures up to 2000F. Drying in deep layers should be avoided due to

the risk of molding in the top layers.


Sorghum which is to be held in storage for 12 months should be dried

to 11 percent in North Georgia and 10 percent in South Georgia. If the

sorghum can be stored below 800F, drying to 12 percent is adequate.

This means sorghum to be stored in cool weather with proper aeration could

be stored at 12 percent successfully.


Sorghum placed in dry storage should be cleaned and spread mechanically

to distribute the dust and fines as well as any trash which may remain.

Aeration is essential for safe storage. The aeration rate should be about

1/10 cfm/bu. Air flow should be increased slightly if aeration systems are

designed for shelled corn or soybeans. Although air flow is not as critical

as in drying, it is reason for more frequent inspection. For details on

aerating grain, see the Extension Bulletin on Aerating Grain in Storage.


Transport augers are hazardous when moved or transported near

overhead power lines. Be alert to the hazard from electrocution from

these overhead lines and always lower the auger to transport position

before moving.

Transport augers In the raised position have a very high center of

gravity and easily fall over in transport or in high winds. Falling augers

create a severe hazard and sometimes the fall destroys the auger.

Precautions should be taken when entering grain bins. Never enter a

grain bin when the bin is being unloaded with conveyers. The flowing grain

can be a severe suffocation hazard to anyone In the bin. Disconnect power

and lock out disconnects when entering bins. Always check inside bins before

operating unloading augers and never walk on grain which has crusted over

due to spoilage. Remember moving grain can be hazardous

Grain Sorghum In Double Cropping Systems

Tim Hewitt

The dry and humid conditions of the Southeast make corn production difficult.

Livestock feeders need a constant source of grain and because of the dry conditions

many producers are planting grain sorghum for a feed source.

Grain sorghum is well adapted to Florida growing conditions. Research has

shown that grain sorghum is much more drought tolerant than corn and will also fit

into crop rotation systems needed by many Florida producers. Grain sorghum can be

used as a livestock feed which is needed by many producers. The long period of time

during which grain sorghum can be planted makes the plant especially adapted to a

double cropping system. This allows for the possibility of more grain being pro-

duced per year on the same land.

Double cropping is a production alternative that offers the producer the possi-

bility of increased profits and/or increased grain production. Under this cropping

system, land is better utilized, per-unit production costs are lowered, and the possi-

bility for potential profit may increase.

Since sorghum is a relatively new crop in Florida many marketing problems have

occurred. Most of the elevators pay sorghum producers a price based on a 70 percent

to 80 percent value of corn. The elevators will not buy the grain sorghum at certain

times of the harvest season. Because of these problems, producers should consider

feeding the grain sorghum or selling the sorghum to livestock feeders in the area.

Production Costs

Enterprise budgets have been developed to show the costs of producing corn,

corn under irrigation, grain sorghum, soybeans, and wheat. These budgets are simply

TIM HEWITT is an Area Extension Economist, Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, Agricultural Research Center, Marianna, Florida. This paper
presented at Fall Forage Forum, Marianna, Florida, November 11, 1981.

a systematic listing of expected expenditures for the given enterprise in a given

area for a period of time with a given level of technology (production practices).

The budgets are divided into two main parts: 1) cash expenses or out-of-pocket

costs (the textbook calls this variable costs); and 2) fixed costs (overhead)

related to the particular enterprise. Fixed costs which include depreciation,

interest, repairs, taxes and insurance occur regardless of production. They are

called "fixed" because they do not change during the production period. The costs

estimated in the budgets should be used as a guide by the producer. Each producer

should substitute the costs applicable to his particular operation.

The budgets are shown so that comparisons can be made with other cropping

systems. The total estimated production costs for 1981 are:

Corn $223.42

Corn under irrigation $367.33

Soybeans $227.06

Wheat $170.49

Grain sorghum $235.59

Double cropped soybeans $168.74

Double cropped grain sorghum $178.19

Double cropped grain sorghum
(following corn) $168.68

Rye-ryegrass pasture $119.60

Outlook for 1981-82

Prospects for the 1982 crop at this time appear very bearish. Weak domestic

and foreign demand combined with large production will keep prices relatively low

throughout the 1981-82 marketing year. Under current conditions the average prices

for 1981-82 for Florida producers are expected to be:

Wheat $3.50 $3.90

Corn $2.55 $2.85

Grain sorghum


$2.25 $2.60

$6.40 $6.75

For comparative purposes the outlook for winter-grazed steers is needed. Under

current conditions, spring prices are expected to be:

Medium Frame #1
Feeder steers; 600-700 Ib.

Medium Frame #2

$62 $66

$58 $63

Comparing Alternatives

The budgets and outlook information can be used to compare the different

cropping systems. Good management and a resulting high yield are assumed from

planting the crops and pasturing the stockers. The comparisons are:

Assumed yield

Expected price

Expected revenue

Production cost

Return to manage-
ment (per acre)



$ 2.75






$ 2.75



Grain Sorghum

(two cuttings)


$ 2.45



$ 9.41 ($ 27.56)



$ 6.65



($ 30.92) $ 45.17

Wheat- Wheat-Grain Irrigated Corn- Stockers on Rye-Ryegrass-
Soybeans Sorghum Grain Sorghum Grain Sorghum

Assumed yield 50(w) 50(w) 150(c) 120 Ibs.
(bu./acre) 25(sb) 70(gs) 60(gs) 100 (gs)

Expected price $ 3.75 $ 3.75 $ 2.75 $ .62
$ 6.65 $ 2.45 $ 2.45 $ 2.45

Expected $187.50(w) $187.50(w) $412.50(c) $ 74.40
Revenue $166.25(sb) $171.50(gs) $147.00(gs) $245.00(gs)
$353.75 $359.00 $559.50 $319.40

Production cost $339.23 $348.68 $536.01 $304.09

Return to man- $ 14.52 $ 10.32 $ 23.49 $ 15.31
(per acre)

The return to management for each alternative is:

Corn ($30.92)

Irrigated corn $45.17

Grain sorghum (two cuttings) $ 9.41

Soybeans ($27.56)

Wheat-soybeans $14.52

Wheat-grain sorghum $10.32

Irrigated corn-grain sorghum $23.49

Stockers on rye-ryegrass-
grain sorghum $15.31

Each producer should evaluate his particular situation and use his numbers in

comparing alternatives. Each situation will be different but the potential for

profit does exist.

In general a double-cropping system will:

better utilize land

reduce per unit production costs

help with conservation

require more intensive management

require careful analysis of each situation

Producers may want to conduct on-farm experiments on a small scale before switching

to a complete double cropping system. Double cropping is another management alter-

native to be considered by the producer. Wheat varieties are available that offer

producers a good opportunity to double crop. Grain sorghum appears to work well in

double cropping systems. Double cropping is very important to livestock feeders in

Florida because more grain can be produced on the same land.

The comparisons made above indicate that these grains can be produced profitably

in Florida. Under the tight profit conditions of today's agriculture, double crop-

ping may offer some potential.

Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Corn, North Florida,

Item Unit Quant. Price Value Your Cost
Cash expenses:
Seed lb. 12 .90 10.80
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent) cwt. 5.5 6.10 33.55
Nitrogen lb. N 125.0 .24 30.00
Lime ton .33 18.00 5.94
Insecticide lb. 15.0 .87 13.05
Herbicide lb. 4.0 3.75 15.00
Tractor (135 hp) hr. 1.24 7.72 9.57
Truck, pickup mi. 20.0 .09 1.80
Truck, 2-ton mi. 20.0 .14 2.80
Other machinery hr. 2.21 1.65 3.64
Labor hr. 3.0 3.40 10.20
Combine hr. .4 12.62 5.04
Land rent acre 1.0 30.00 30.00
Interest on cash exp. $ 171.39 .07 12.00
Total cash expenses 183.39
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp) hr. 1.24 10.28 12.74
Truck, pickup mi. 20.0 .12 2.40
Truck, 2-ton mi. 20.0 .15 3.00
Combine hr. .4 38.52 15.40
Other machinery hr. 2.21 2.94 6.49
Total fixed costs 40.03
Total costs 223.42

Break-even Corn Pricer at Various Yields
Yield (bu./a cre rPrice ($- /bU)
40 5.59
50 4.47
60 3.72
70 3.33
80 2.79

Your cost
Your break-even price = Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy 0. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.


Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Corn Under Irrigation, North Florida,

Item Unit quant. Pri ce Value Your Cost

Cash expenses:
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent)
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Irrigation costs
Land rent
Interest on cash exp.
Total cash expenses
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Total fixed costs
Total costs


Ib. N





.90 16.20



10.28 12.74
.12 2.40
.15 3.00
38.52 23.11
2.94 6.49
60.49 60.49

Break-even Corn Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Prices (/bu.)
80 4.59
90 4.08
100 3.67
110 3.34
120 3.06
130 2.83
140 2.62
150 2.45
175 2.10
200 1.84

Your cost
Your break-even price = Y
Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.

Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Soybeans, North Florida, 1981.

Item Unit Quant. Price Val ue Your Cost

Cash expenses:
Fertilizer (0-10-20
or equivalent)
Spraying (air)
Scouting fee
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Land rent
Interest on cash exp.
*Total cash expenses
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Total fixed costs
Total costs













*Many North Florida producers are using a nematicide treatment. If a nemat
is used, add $16.35 to total cash expenses and change your break-even price


Break-even Soybean Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Price ($/bu.)
15 15.14
20 11.35
25 9.08
30 7.57
35 6.49
40 5.68

Your cost
Your break-even price = Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.

Estimated Costs of Producing

Cash expenses
Fertilizer (4-12-12
or equivalent)
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Land rent
Interest on cash exp.
Total cash expenses
Fixed Costs:
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Total fixed costs
Total costs













Value Your Cost




Break-even Wheat Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Price ($/bu.)
35 4.87
40 4.26
45 3.79
50 3.41
55 3.10
60 2.84
65 2.62
Your cost
Your break-even price = Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.

____ ~_

One Acre of

Wheat, Florida, 1981.


Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Grain Sorghum, North Florida, 1981.



Cash expenses:
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent)
Herbicide (Milogard)
Insecticide (Sevin)
Insecticide (Dasanit)
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Land rent
Interest on cash exp.
Total cash expenses
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp)
Truck, pickup
Truck, 2-ton
Other machinery
Total fixed costs
Total costs




Quant. Price Value Your Co;st










Break-even Sorghum Prices at Various Yields
Yield (cwt./acre) Price ($/cwt.*)
15 15.71
20 11.78
25 9.42
30 7.85
35 6.73
40 5.89
45 5.24
50 4.71
*If sorghum is valued at 90% of corn; then
$3.50/bu. corn equals $5.02/cwt. sorghum.

Your cost
Your break-even price =
Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.

____ ____..__._
__ _I__


Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Doublecropped Soybeans, Florida 1981.

Item Unit Quant. Price Value Your Cost
Cash expenses:
Seed bu. 1.00 18.00 18.00
Inoculant pkg. 1.00 2.00 2.00
Fertilizer (0-10-20
or equivalent
banded). cwt. 3.00 6.15 18.45
Herbicide lb. 3.00 5.97 17.91
Insecticide lb. 2.45 7.20 17.64
Spraying (air) acre 2.00 4.00 8.00
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 7.72 5.71
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .09 .90
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .14 1.40
Combine hr. .40 12.62 5.04
Other machinery hr. 1.78 1.65 2.94
Labor hr. 3.00 3.40 10.20
Land rent acre 1.00 20.00 20.00
Interest on cash exp. $ 128.19 .075 9.61
Total cash expenses 137.80*
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 10.28 7.61
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .12 1.20
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .15 1.50
Combine hr. .40 38.52 15.40
Other machinery hr. 1.78 2.94 5.23
Total fixed costs 30.94
Total costs 168.74

Break-even Soybean Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Price ($/bu.)
25 6.75
30 5.62
35 4.82
40 4.22
Your cost
Your break-even price= Your yield

Prepared by:

Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.


Estimated Costs of Producing One Acre of Double Cropped Grain Sorghum, Florida, 1981.

Item Unit Quant. Price Value Your Cost
Cash expenses:
Seed lb. 5.0 .60 3.00
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent, banded) cwt. 3.0 6.30 18.90
Nitrogen Ib. 100.00 .24 24.00
Herbicide (Milogard) lb. 2.50 3.45 8.63
Insecticide (Sevin) lb. 5.00 2.75 13.75
Insecticide (Dasanit) lb. 10.00 1.20 12.00
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 7.72 5.71
Combine hr. .40 12.62 5.04
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .09 .90
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .14 1.40
Other machinery hr. 1.78 1.66 2.95
Drying ton 1.75 6.00 10.50
Labor hr. 3.0 3.40 10.20
Land rent acre 1.0 20.00 20.00
Interest on cash exp. $ 136.98 .075 10.27
Total cash expenses 147.25
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 10.28 7.61
Combine hr. .40 38.52 15.40
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .12 1.20
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .15 1.50
Other machinery hr. 1.78 2.94 5.23
Total fixed costs 30.94
Total costs 178.19

Break-even Sorghum Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Price ($/bu.)
60 2.97
70 2.55
80 2.23
90 1.98
100 1.78

Your cost
Your break-even price = Your yield

Prepared by:

Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.


Estimated Costs of Producing One
Florida, 1981.

Acre of Double Cropped Grain Sorghum Behind Corn,

Item Unit Quant. Price Value Your Cost
Cash expenses
Seed lb. 6.0 .60 3.60
Fertilizer (5-10-15
or equivalent, banded) cwt. 1.5 6.30 9.45
Nitrogen lb. 100.0 .24 24.00
Herbicide (Milogard) lb. 2.50 3.45 8.63
Insecticide (Sevin) lb. 5.00 2.75 13.75
Insecticide (Dasanit) lb. 10.00 1.20 12.00
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 7.72 5.71
Combine hr. .40 12.62 5.04
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .09 .90
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .14 1.40
Other machinery hr. 1.78 1.66 2.95
Drying ton 1.75 6.00 10.50
Labor hr. 3.0 3.40 10.20
Land rent acre 1.0 20.00 20.00
Interest on cash exp. $ 128.13 .075 9.61
Total cash expenses 137.74
Fixed costs:
Tractor (135 hp) hr. .74 10.28 7.61
Combine hr. .40 38.52 15.40
Truck, pickup mi. 10 .12 1.20
Truck, 2-ton mi. 10 .15 1.50
Other machinery hr. 1.78 2.94 5.23
Total fixed costs 30.94
Total costs 168.68

Break-even Sorghum Prices at Various Yields
Yield (bu./acre) Price ($/bu.)
60 2.81
70 2.41
80 2.11
90 1.87
100 1.69

Your cost
Your break-even price = Your yield

Prepared by: Timothy D. Hewitt, Area Economist, Food and Resource Economics
Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna.


Growing cost for one acre of rye-ryegrass, North Florida, 1981.

Item Unit Quantity Price Cost/A
dollars -

I. Cash expenses
Rye seed bu. 1.5 8.50 12.75
Ryegrass Ib. 20.0 .30 6.00
Limea ton 1/3 18.00 6.00
Fertilizer cwt. 5.0 6.40 32.00
Nitrogen lb. N 75.0 .26 19.50
Machinery -- -- -- 6.45
Labor hr. 1.5 3.50 5.25
Land rent, 6 mos. acre 1.0 30.00 15.00
Interest $ 102.95 .075 7.72
Total cash expenses 110.67

II. Fixed costs of machinery 8.93

III. Total growing cost 119.60

aCost spread; fertilizer is 5-10-15 or equivalent.

b15% for 6 months.


F. S. Baker, Jr.

Factors to consider
1. Moisture dry matter content
Percent moisture + percent dry matter = 100
100 minus % moisture = % dry matter (DM)
Normal moisture & dry matter content of dry grain:
Grain Dry matter Moisture
Shelled corn 88(84.5-89) 12(15.5-11)
Milo 89 11
Wheat 89 11
2. Nutrient content (dry matter or moisture-free basis)
a. Energy Total digestible nutrients (TDN) is simplest measure of
available feed energy. Although TDN is not as accurate as net
energy (NE), TDN is a better measure of available energy in grains
than in roughages.
Grain % TDN (Dry matter basis)
Shelled corn 90
Milo (good quality) 80
Wheat 89
b. Protein
Grain % protein (Dry matter basis)
Shelled corn 10
Milo (good quality) 11
Wheat 12
c. Pounds TDN and protein per ton on an as-fed basis
2000 x % DM x % TDN = Lb TDN/ton
2000 x % DM x % protein = Lb protein/ton
Grain Lb TDN/ton Lb protein/ton
Shelled corn 1584 176
Milo (good quality) 1424 196
Wheat 1584 214

- Third Annual Fall Forage Forum, November 11, 1981

- 2-

d. Foreign matter and damaged grain
Lower value of feed grains
e. Comparing feeding value of feed grains
(1) Cost per pound of TDN in shelled corn (1584 Ib/TDN/ton)
Price bushel Price ton Cost/lb TDN
$ 2.75 $ 98.21 $ 0.0620
3.00 107.14 0.0676
3.25 116.07 0.0733
3.50 125.00 0.0789
3.75 133.93 0.0846
4.00 142.86 0.0902
(2) Cost per pound of protein in 40% protein feedlot supplement
(800 Ib/protein/ton)
Price/ton Cost/lb protein
$ 225 $ 0.2813
250 0.3125
275 0.3438
300 0.3750
(3) Examples:
If shelled corn costs $3.50/bushel ($125/ton) and 40% protein
feedlot supplement costs $250/ton, what is milo worth per ton? Per
Lb TDN ton Lb protein ton
Corn 1584 176
Milo 1424 196
Difference -160 +20
Milo: -160 TDN x 0.0789 = -$ 12.62
+ 20 protein x 0. 3125 + 6.25
Ton milo compared ton corn-$ 6.37
-56b 35.71 bushels/ton
56 Ib
-6 = -$0.18/bushel milo
compared bushel corn

If corn costs $3.50/bushel ($125/ton) and 40% protein supplement costs $250/
ton, what is wheat worth per ton? Per bushel?

Lb TDN ton Lb protein ton
Corn 1584 176
Wheat 1584 214
Difference 0 +38
Wheat: No difference TDN corn and wheat
+38 protein x 0.3125 = +$11.88
Ton wheat compared ton corn + $11.88
200 33.33 bushels/ton


+ $11.88
+ $11. +$0.36 bushel wheat
compared to bushel corn

Difference as shown in values of corn and milo, and corn and wheat, will depend
on reducing $250/ton 40% protein feedlot supplement in order to take advantage of
the higher protein content of the milo and wheat. If the higher protein content of
the milo, or the wheat, is not used to replace protein in the supplement, the
additional protein in the milo, or in the wheat, will not be utilized to lower the cost
of the high priced protein supplement. Overfeeding protein above the level re-
quired to meet an animal's need does not improve performance of the animal.

3. Other considerations
a. Nutrient content of milo is much more variable than that of corn. The
examples shown assume that the milo is of high quality.
b. Milo must always be ground or rolled before feeding, whereas corn may be
fed whole if either:
(1) the total feed mix contains no more than 15% roughage, or (2) no
more than 5 Ib/head/day of whole corn is fed regardless of roughage
level in the feed mix.
c. There is evidence that the finer milo is ground, the higher the digesti-
bility; however, finely powdered milo may not mix well with other feed
ingredients, and also, there may be more digestive problems with finely
ground milo.
d. Due to possibility of digestive problems, wheat should not be fed to
cattle at a level of more than 40 percent of the total mix. Wheat should
be coarsely rolled.
e. Unlike wheat, milo can be used as the only grain in cattle diets.
f. Increased total production of milo and wheat in the Southeast would make
them more competitive pricewise with corn. Many operators are not
equipped to handle, store, and/or process milo or wheat. Those who
have facilities may be reluctant to buy a feed unless they can be assured
of a great enough quantity so that it can be fed over a period of time.
Frequent changing from one feed to another due to limited or seasonal
supply generally means lower market prices for the feeds.