Study area methodology
 Statistical analyses and resul...
 List of Tables

Group Title: Research Report - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 1993
Title: Perspectives on farmer adoption of alley cropping in semiarid areas of Machakos, Kenya
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073334/00001
 Material Information
Title: Perspectives on farmer adoption of alley cropping in semiarid areas of Machakos, Kenya
Physical Description: 26 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abdurahman Jama Barre
Hildebrand, Peter E
Publication Date: 1993
Subject: Hedgerow intercropping -- Kenya -- Machakos   ( lcsh )
Soil fertility -- Kenya -- Machakos   ( lcsh )
Farmers -- Kenya -- Machakos   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: Kenya
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (17-20).
Statement of Responsibility: B. A. Jama and Peter E. Hildebrand.
General Note: "October, 1993."
General Note: Caption title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073334
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76923475

Table of Contents
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Study area methodology
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Statistical analyses and results
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    List of Tables
        Page 22
        Table 1 - Farm and household characteristics of the 60 farmers interviewed
            Page 23
        Table 2 - Estimates of maize yield with or without inputs (manure or fertilizer) of farmers with interests in fodder or mulch aspects of alley cropping
            Page 24
        Table 3 - Livestock statistics on an average farm of two hectares
            Page 25
        Table 4 - Factors associated significantly with the interests of farmers in alley cropping for fodder or for mulch
            Page 26
Full Text

Perspectives on farmer adoption of alley cropping in semiarid areas of

Machakos, Kenya.

B.A. Jama* and P.E. Hildebrand

October, 1993


This paper presents evidence, collected through farm surveys in Machakos

district of Kenya, that the potentials for adoption of alley cropping are limited.

If any, the potentials for farmers adoption of alley cropping are more for fodder

and less for soil fertility improvement. Although the farm holdings were small,

with 76% of the farmers sampled having less than three hectares, farm size

appeared not likely to constrain the adoption of the technology. The principal

constraint was fears of decreased crop yields due to competition from the tree

hedgerows. Other constraints identified were the relatively high capital

investments required to plant and raise the large number of trees required by

alley cropping in an environment where termites are a problem.

Key words. Alley cropping, farmer adoption, fodder, mulch, semiarid tropics,


B.A. Jama: International Centre for Research in
Agroforestry, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi, Kenya. Corresponding
P.E. Hildebrand: Professor, Food Resource and Economics
Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. 32611, U.S.A.

1. Introduction

Several studies have reported the beneficial effect of alley cropping

(synonymous with hedgerow intercropping) on soil fertility and crop productivity

in humid and sub-humid tropics (Kang et al., 1990). Consequently, there has

been an increasing interest to study the potential of alley cropping in semiarid

tropics (Singh et al., 1986; Nair, 1987; Rao et al., 1991). However, these

studies have shown several constraints to the success of alley cropping in

semiarid tropics: 1) the quantity of biomass produced by hedgerows may be

inadequate to improve soil fertility, 2) hedgerow prunings are too valuable as

livestock fodder to be used for soil fertility, and, 3) competition for water

between hedgerows and crops may outweigh soil fertility improvement (Singh

et al., 1989; Ong et al., 1991). Based on this, it could be argued that the

potentials for adoption of alley cropping by farmers are low. However, given

the novelty of the alley cropping and its limited presence on farms in general,

there are few and sometimes contrasting reports about its potential for adoption

by farmers (Dvorak, 1993; Fujisaka et al., 1994; Swinkels et al., in preparation).

So far, most of the research efforts on alley cropping in both the humid and

the semiarid tropics has been on the biophysical aspects of the technology such

as improvement of soil fertility (Kang et al., 1990). There are relatively few

studies on the socio-economics aspects of the technology, in particular, on

factors that may influence the potentials for adoption by farmers (Hoekstra and

Darnhoffer, 1992). Such studies are important as they may help generate and

prioritize the research issues required, particularly in the semiarid tropics where

the potentials for competition are high between the trees and crops for limited

soil moisture.

With the above considerations in view, a survey was conducted in 1991 on

small farms in the semiarid Machakos District of Kenya (a) to determine current

practices used by farmers to maintain and/or improve soil fertility in the context

of a farming system and (b) to assess the potentials and constraints to the

adoption of alley cropping multipurpose trees and shrubs for purposes of soil

fertility improvement. The results of the survey are reported in this paper.

2.0 Study Area and Methodolovg

The study was conducted on farms scattered on the hill slopes immediately

south of Machakos, Kenya (latitude 10 N 33' S, longitude of 370 14' E). The

ecology of the area is semiarid with a mean annual rainfall of about 600 to 700

mm, falling in two seasons: long-rains (March to July) and short-rains (October

to February). Besides meeting the criteria of semiarid, the site was selected

because earlier studies (Hoekstra et al., 1984; Rocheleau et al., 1988)

suggested that crop yields were low, perhaps as a result of low soil fertility, and

that agroforestry technologies such as alley cropping multipurpose trees and

shrubs could be tried.

The study site was close to the Research Station of ICRAF where alley

cropping research was going on since 1982. Thus, as one might either expect

or assume, farmers in this area would be better informed about and potentially

more adoptive of the technology than distant farmers.

Average population densities in 1983 were around 250/km2, rising to

300/km2 in the wetter areas, much higher than the 72 persons/km2 for the

district (Warner, 1993). Most of the people living in the area are the Akamba

who owned the land, officially or by de facto.

Sixty farms from three administrative sub-locations (Kiima-Kimwe, Muvuti

and Kivandini) were included in the study. Based on the outcome of a three day

rapid appraisal exercise, stratification of the farms relative to their location on

the hills (low, middle and top slopes) was felt necessary. Interviews were

conducted on single-day visits in the months of July and August, 1991. A one-

page check-list was used as a guide during the interviews. The interview team

was made up of the first author and a local who helped with the interpretation

of the Akamba language. Interpretation was not always necessary because a

large number of the farmers spoke either Swahili and/or English which the first

author also speaks. On average, five farmers were interviewed in a day.

After analyzing the data from the 60 farmers, a second stratification or

regrouping of the farms was carried out. The farmers were grouped according

to their identified interests in the use of the pruning from the alley cropped

hedges. Basically, two distinct use-interests were identified: fodder or mulch

(soil fertility). The purpose of the second stratification was two-fold: (a) to get

more in-depth information of the farming practices and, (b) to obtain a more

informed evaluation of alley cropping from the farmers. On the basis of the

two major use-interests of the alley cropping technology, three farmers from

each interest group were randomly selected from the low, middle and upper

slopes of each of the three sub-locations. Thus, a subsample of 18 farmers out

of the initial 60 was generated. This sub-group of farmers were taken to ICRAF

Research Station over a three day duration. At the station, the farmers were

given a tour of the trials where prunings from alley cropped species were being

used either as mulch or as fodder. During the tour, questions and concerns

raised by the farmers about the technology were recorded.

3.0 Statistical analyses

SAS statistical package (SAS, 1992) was used to generate descriptive

statistics of the farming system and frequency tables of the potential uses of

alley cropping by farmers. Chi-square was used to test the significance of

association of the preferred use of alley cropping with various farm or

household characteristics.

4.0 Results

4.1 Household characteristics of the farmers interviewed.

Table 1 summarizes the major household characteristics of the farms

surveyed. Farm size varied widely from 0.4 17.4 ha with nearly 50% of the

farms being under two hectares. In general, there were larger land holdings in

the more semiarid areas at the foothills and smaller, more intensively managed

land holdings in the more subhumid slopes and hill tops. In spite of their small

size, the farms supported a large number of dependents. On average, there

were 14 members in a household, with 50% of these members being children

(under 18 years). Hence, the dependency factor on the farms and on the adult

members of the household was high.

Most farmers relied on family labour to do farm activities. Hiring of labour

for weeding was, however, common (n = 36). Also, farmers with coffee (n =

34) hired labour for picking. Additionally, 68% of the farmers interviewed

exchanged labour, particularly for weeding.

Although there was limited scope for off-farm employment, 44% of the

farmers interviewed had at least one member of the family engaged in regular

off-farm employment. Most were men, often in distant urban centres. This off-

farm employment created patterns of out-migration that results in a

disproportionate number of female-headed or represented households. Indeed,

60% of the farmers interviewed were women.

4.2 Farming system.

4.2.1 Crop Component

The farming system is based on food crops as the dominant and livestock

as a subsidiary. The predominant crops are maize, beans and pigeon pea.

Various vegetable crops such as tomatoes and kale were also grown by nearly

all farmers during the wet season and during the dry season by those close to

river beds. Bananas, sweet potato and cassava are also grown. Typically,

farmers attempt to grow two crops a year.

In spite of all their efforts to grow sufficient food for the needs of the

family, nearly all farmers interviewed expressed insufficiency of food supply.

Indeed, 67% of the farmers interviewed bought their staple food (maize) in the

previous year. The insufficiency of food was probably due to low crop yields

(Table 2) and less to shortage of land. Crop yields were low because of both

low rainfall (only 214 mm at ICRAF Research Station during the season of the

study) and poor soil fertility. Renting of land for crop production was rare.

Coffee was a major cash crop for farmers on the cooler upper slopes and/or

those on the windward valleys of the hills. Fifty seven of the farmers

interviewed had coffee on their farms. Besides coffee, other cash crops were

mangoes, guava, citrus, avocado and various vegetables. Sale of sisal baskets,

particularly by women, was also another source of cash.

4.2.2 Livestock component

Livestock statistics on an average farm of two hectares are shown in Table

3. The absence of livestock on some farms (n = 21) was attributed to drought,

diseases and/or sale. However, most farmers without livestock (n = 17) had

intentions of buying them soon. In addition to providing manure, livestock

acted as capital stocks that could be converted to cash when needed.

Moreover cattle, particularly bulls, provided drought power. Sixty seven percent

of the farmers interviewed ploughed their fields by ox-plough. Those without

ox-plough rented them. At times, those who did not own the oxen owned only

the plough, and vice versa. This often necessitated an exchange of the ox-

plough parts. Possession of both the oxen and the plough was expensive for

individual farmers. Most farmers ploughed at the onset of the rains and planting

was done at the same time as ploughing. Besides cattle, farmers kept sheep

and goats mainly for sale and home consumption.

All the farmers with livestock (n = 39) responded positively to shortage of

fodder, particularly during the dry periods. Many farmers (n =30) did not have

designated grazing areas although in some, it was at least twice as big as the

area under crops. Where grazing lands existed (n = 9), the vegetation cover

was generally poor, overgrazed and the soil often eroded. Additionally, the

amount of land under grazing was declining on many farms because of

expansion of cropland. In an attempt to increase the supply of livestock feed,

farmers rented additional grazing lands and/or crop fields after the harvest. The

renting of crop fields once the grain was removed was practised by 45% of the

farmers interviewed. Typically, the expenses for hiring additional grazing lands

were met by selling animals and\or off-farm employment although some

obtained it from relatives.

4.2.3 Farmers practices to improve soil fertility

and crop yields.

All farmers interviewed used livestock manure on their crop fields. However,

amounts of farmyard manure available from ones livestock was not sufficient

for all the land cropped. To enhance the use-efficiency of the little manure

available, it was applied on the crop rows and not broadcast. Additionally,

farmers bought manure, mainly from a few with large poultry houses and/or

from cattle ranches 40 50 km away from the study area.

Between the fodder and mulch-interest groups, the percentages of each

group that bought manure were similar, approximately 39%. The purchase of

inorganic fertilizers by farmers was negligible; only 3% of the farmers

interviewed mentioned inorganic fertilizers as their most expensive farm input.

However, for farmers with coffee, use of fertilizers was substantial and it was

obtained at a subsidized price from coffee factories in the area.

The use of tree mulch as an organic manure was rare. Where it was

reportedly used (n = 12), it was typically mixed with manure in the livestock

yard. However, the use of grass mulch placed under coffee or fruit trees was

common (n = 22).

Intercropping maize and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), pigeon pea (Cajanus

cajan) was a practice mentioned by many farmers (n = 27) to improve soil

fertility. Intercropping was more common on the smaller farms than on larger

ones, suggesting that it was preconditioned by farm size. For instance, of

those farmers that intercropped, 60% had farms two or less hectares. On other

hand, 85% of the farmers that did not intercrop had farms greater than two

hectares. Besides intercropping, rotation of legume crops with cereals was

another measure mentioned by farmers (n = 15) to improve soil fertility.

However, there was little evidence of land fallowing (n = 11).

Soil erosion was not seen as a problem contributing to low crop yields. This

is because most farms (n = 42) were terraced well. "Fanya juu" or soil bands

placed on the upper slopes of cut-off drains was the common method of

terracing. In addition to soil conservation, the "Fanya Juu" ditches acted as

microcatchments for water; hence crops planted in the "Fanya-Juu" ditches

often grew and yielded more than those outside. Also, various species of

grasses (the predominant one being Panicum coloratum) were planted on the

"Fanya-Juu" soil bands. In addition to reinforcing the soil bands against erosion,

grasses were periodically cut for fodder and house thatching.

4.3 Interests of farmers in alley cropping

As expected, most of the farmers (62% of those surveyed) were

interested in the fodder aspects of alley cropping, 33% in mulch or soil fertility

and 5% were not interested at all in alley cropping. Notable among the many

factors that were associated significantly with the interests of farmers in alley

cropping was the presence or absence of coffee on the farm. Among the

coffee farmers, 76% were interested in the fodder aspects of alley cropping.

Although precise determination of the area under coffee on all the farms was

not done, estimates from 10 farms ranged from 0.1 to 0.4 ha. Because of the

prevailing low prices of coffee at the time of the study, many farmers with

coffee (n = 18) were converting their coffee fields into other crops or uses (in

spite of not being allowed to do so by the government).

In addition to the presence or absence of coffee, four other factors (Table 4)

were associated significantly (p > 0.10) with the interests of farmers in alley

cropping. The number of farmers interested in the fodder aspects of alley

cropping was significantly higher (p > 0.10) for all factors (excepting prior

knowledge about alley cropping) than those with mulch interests. Contrary to

expectation, the interests of farmers in alley cropping were not associated

significantly (p > 0.20) with farm size.

The use of chemical fertilizers, hired labour, ox-plough, purchased manure,

purchase of animal feed, frequency of weeding and, purchase of food were all

observed to be significantly higher for farmers with coffee than those without.

All the other factors considered (e.g., farm size, number and type of livestock

kept, number of household members engaged in off-farm work, etc) were not


significantly associated ( p > 0.20) with the possession of coffee on the farm.

Although the use or purchase of fertilizers was significantly higher for farmers

with coffee on their farms than those without, the yield of maize of those with

or without coffee were not significantly different (p > 0.20). This suggests

that fertilizer was either not applied to maize on farms with coffee or the effect

of fertilizer applied was not significant.

When asked where the tree hedgerows would be planted if they adopted

alley cropping (regardless of whether the interest was in fodder or mulch),

nearly all farmers demonstrated some confusion. Ninety percent of the farmers

interviewed were concerned about competition between the hedges and crops if

the hedges were planted inside the crop fields. Even those farmers who earlier

responded positively to planting the trees inside the crop fields expressed

serious doubts when they saw alley cropping trials with Leucaena leucocephala

(Mimosoideae) and Cassia siamea (Caesalpinioideae) at the research station.

The trials demonstrated poor growth of maize close to the hedges. The soil

conservation bands could be an alternative site for planting the hedges.

However, this site was generally planted to grass. The question asked by many

farmers was "is planting the hedges on the soil bands better than grass for soil


5.0 Discussion

5.1) Biophysical and economic potentials of alley cropping

The significantly higher interest of farmers in alley cropping for fodder rather

than for mulch was expected from farmers in an arid area and is consistent with


the observations of others (Singh et al., 1986). Livestock feed was scarce not

only because the area is semiarid but also because the cropping area was

expanding into the grazing lands, an observation made also by Vonk (1983)

from an area adjacent to that of the present study. The expansion of the crop

area into the grazing land is due to the increased demand for food from the

large families.

In addition to the loss of land that could be cropped due to the physical

presence of the hedgerows, competition between the hedgerows and the crops

(and the accompanying risks of crop loss) was a major concern of the farmers

about alley cropping. This concern becomes acceptable when one considers

that most of the studies on alley cropping in the semiarid tropics have reported

reduced crop yields (Singh et al, 1986; Sang and Hoekstra, 1986; Nair, 1987;

Ong et al; Jama, 1993). In most of these studies, reduction in crop yields under

alley cropping has been attributed to competition for the limited available water

between the tree hedgerows and crops.

Even in the absence of competition, mulch from the alley cropped hedgerows

may not realize significant gains in crop yields and/or the opportunity costs

foregone in terms of milk production may be great. Generally, the use of

hedgerow prunings as mulch has been observed in both humid and semiarid

conditions to have significant impacts on soil fertility and crop yields mainly

when applied at high rates, e.g., 8 10 t ha1- yr-1 (Kang et al., 1990; Mugendi,

1991). Under the conditions of the present study, biomass yield of alley

cropped species may not exceed 4 t ha-' yr-1 (Jama, 1993). Even if the use of

such amounts of mulch were to realise improvements in crop yields, economic

analyses (Hoekstra and Darnhoffer, 1992) suggest that, given the price

structure of milk and maize in Kenya in 1991-92, the use of the foliage of alley

cropped hedges as fodder for milk production is three to four times more

profitable than as green manuring for crop (maize) production.

From the foregoing, it appears that the potentials for adoption of alley

cropping by farmers for soil fertility improvement is limited. The exception to

this generalization may be contour hedgerow intercropping which has been

reported to control soil and water runoff under both humid and semiarid

conditions (Young, 1989; Lal, 1989; Bannister and Nair, 1991; Kiepe and Rao,

1994). With contour hedgerows, the use of the rather expensive "Fanya Juu"

structures could be minimized. However, even for purposes of soil and water

conservation, a number of factors need to be taken into consideration. It is

important, for example, to establish whether (a) the hedges alone or their

mixture with grass are more effective in the control of soil and water loss than

grass alone, (b) the hedges or their mixture with grass are less competitive with

adjacent crops than grass alone and, (c) it is cost effective and technically

feasible to establish the hedgerows inside or close to the grass strips.

The higher interests of farmers with coffee in alley cropping compared to

those without raises some speculations. It would, for instance, suggest that

the farmers with coffee on their farms are likely to adopt alley cropping

(primarily for fodder) more than other farmers. This could be true because a

considerable amount of the farmland of coffee farmers was under coffee and

food crops and little or none under fodder production. As a consequence,

coffee farmers purchased livestock feed significantly more frequently than those


5.2 Constraints to establishing and managing alley cropping

Whatever purpose alley cropping may serve, its large scale adoption in

the study area is likely to be limited by the lack of cash among farmers to meet

the basic inputs required for establishing and managing the system. For

instance, the labour demands of alley cropping are high (Dvorak, 1993), yet

both family labour and cash to hire additional labour were scarce. Besides

labour, alley cropping does require a large number of seedlings. Cash is required

to procure seedlings especially when a large number is required. For instance,

to plant 20% of a hectare of land under hedges spaced at 5 meters between

rows and 0.5 m between plants in a row would require 800 plants. Assuming a

highly optimistic 50% survival after six months, one would require at least

1600 potted seedlings. If all the 60 farmers interviewed were to plant 20% of

their land to hedgerows, this would require 96,000 potted seedlings. One

seedling would in 1992 cost at least one Kenya shillings ($0.05); 96,000 potted

seedlings would require $4,800 or $80 per farm. By local standards, this is a

lot of money that may not be readily available to many resource-poor farmers.

It could, however, be argued that the use of seeds as opposed to potted

seedlings may be a less costly route to establish the hedges. For cash limited

farmers, it is observed that it is the number of trees established at the least cost

that provides a better criterion for evaluating the cost of tree-based technologies

than the number established or surviving from given number of seedlings


planted (Bradley, 1993). Because the area is semiarid, potted seedlings and not

seeds or bare root seedlings, would perhaps be the more preferred means of

establishing trees. This needs to be confirmed by on-farm trials.

On small farms such as those surveyed, it could be hypothesized that land

shortage would constrain the planting of many trees required by alley cropping

system. However, this did not appear to be true for farms within the study

area. This observation was unexpected but yet consistent with that of others

elsewhere (Scherr and Alitsi, 1991). This is because trees were grown on sites

not generally suitable for cropping (e.g., rocky areas) and farm boundaries.

Whether planted in an alley cropping setting or otherwise, tree establishment

and production in the semiarid tropics is likely to be limited by drought

conditions and related problems of termites. Indeed, 86% of the farmers

interviewed complained of termite damage to trees. There were a number of

commercial termite-control chemicals in the markets of the study area but many

farmers did not use them because of limitations of cash. As an alternative,

wood ash was used by many farmers although its effectiveness appeared to

vary a lot from farm to farm. The reasons for this are unclear and requires


5.3 Measures to improve yields

With or without alley cropping, the low yields of maize (the staple food crop)

on farms that support large families is, indeed, an issue of concern. It is

doubtful whether the low yields of maize, an observation made also by others

(Ockwell et al., 1991; Nadar and Faught, 1984) could be improved without the

use of inorganic fertilizers. While the low crop yields (Table 2) could be just a

reflection of the aridity of the area, it could also be due to low soil fertility. The

latter is exemplified by the reportedly large responses of maize to fertilizers, in

particular nitrogen (Ikombo, 1984). However, fertilizers are rarely used by

farmers because they require seasonal expenditures of cash that is often not

available. Also, the probability of returns of cash spent on fertilizers in terms of

improved yields is low in a high-risk production environment such as the study

area (Ockwell et al., 1991).

Generally, farmers used farm manure as the main source of nutrients to

crops although the amounts available were not sufficient for all the land

cropped. Moreover, the quality of manure available is reportedly poor (Probert

et al., 1991). Measures to improve the quality and use-efficiency of livestock

manure that farmers use would be desirable. It is perhaps in this regard that

alley cropping multipurpose trees and shrubs could help improve soil fertility and

crop yields.

6.0 References

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This study was funded by the Ford Foundation and ICRAF. We are very

grateful. We would also like to thank the extension staff of the Ministry of

Agriculture, Machakos District who helped in various ways. Additionally, our

thanks goes to Mr. Willy Nzuki of the Catholic Diocese of Machakos for his

tremendous help in locating farms and providing interpretation of the Akamba

language. Our appreciation also goes to all farmers who graciously accepted to

take in the study.


Table 1. Farm and household characteristics of the 60 farmers interviewed.

Table 2. Estimates of maize yield with or without inputs (manure or fertilizer) of

farmers with interests in fodder or mulch aspects of alley cropping.

Table 3. Livestock statistics on an average farm of two hectares.

Table 4. Factors associated significantly with the interests of farmers in alley

cropping for fodder or for mulch.

Table 1. Farm and household characteristics of the 60 farmers interviewed.

Average Household
Cumu- number of Average members
Farm lative members number of that were
size distri- in a children children
range bution house- in a (<18 yrs)
(ha) (%) hold household (%)

0-4 77 13(4) 7 (4) 54
5-8 17 16(3) 8 (3) 50
9-17.4 6 14(6) 7 (5) 50

Figures in parentheses are the standard deviations of the mean.

Table 2. Estimates of maize yield with or without inputs (manure or fertilizer) of
farmers with interests in fodder or mulch aspects of alley cropping.

Interests Maize yield (t ha1')
in alley With Without
cropping inputs inputs Mean

Fodder 0.4 (0.2) 0.2 (0.1) 0.3 (0.2)

Mulch 0.3 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (0.2)

Figures in parentheses are the standard deviation of the mean.


Table 3. Livestock statistics on an average farm of two hectares.

Livestock type Average Range % of farmers
( sd) without livestock
Cattle 2(4) 0- 12 35
Goats 9 (8) 0 30 25
Sheep 4(4) 0-13 83
Chicken 21 (21) 0 2000 7

Excluding a single farmer with 2000 heads of chicken.

Table 4. Factors associated significantly with the interests of farmers in alley cropping for
fodder or for mulch.

Use of Posses- Prior
crop/trees sion of know-
mulch at coffee ledge
Interests Use present Use of trees about
in alley of ox or in the fertil- on the alley
cropping plough past izer farm cropping

Fodder 27 22 21 37 13

Mulch 7 12 5 20 9

p-value 0.10 0.06 0.14 0.12 0.09

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