National intelligencer
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073213/00050
 Material Information
Title: National intelligencer
Uniform Title: National intelligencer (Washington, D.C. 1810)
Physical Description: v. : ; 49-62 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Joseph Gales
Place of Publication: Washington City D.C
Creation Date: April 28, 1825
Publication Date: 1810-
Frequency: triweekly[jan. 2, 1840-]
triweekly[ former 1810-may 8, 1819]
triweekly (semiweekly during recess of congress)[ former may 12, 1819-oct. 26, 1824]
triweekly[ former oct. 28, 1824-july 31, 1827]
triweekly (semiweekly during recess of congress)[ former aug. 1, 1827-dec. 31, 1839]
three times a week
Subjects / Keywords: Newspapers -- Washington (D.C.)   ( lcsh )
Genre: newspaper   ( marcgt )
newspaper   ( sobekcm )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- District of Columbia -- Washington
Coordinates: 38.895111 x -77.036667 ( Place of Publication )
Citation/Reference: Brigham, C.S. Amer. newspapers
Additional Physical Form: Also available on microfilm from the Library of Congress, Photoduplication Service.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 11, no. 1580 (Nov. 27, 1810)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in June 1869.
General Note: Issued daily: <Vol. 38, no. 5420, (Mar. 1, 1837)>-v. 38, no. 5423 (Mar. 4, 1837).
General Note: Publishers: Gales and Seaton, <1814-1860>
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 10202373
lccn - sn 83026171
System ID: UF00073213:00050
 Related Items
Related Items: Daily national intelligencer
Related Items: Weekly national intelligencer (Washington, D.C.)
Related Items: Universal gazette (Philadelphia, Pa. : Nov. 1797)
Preceded by: National intelligencer and Washington advertiser

Full Text




Przce, for a year, six dollars, Payable in advance.
F4r six moneh,. --four- dollars. a
\- *


HAMILTON has made his Address to us, in No.
II. of his Eighth Series, the vehicle of a series
of statements and arguments, which, from the
note at the close of the number, he appears to
be aware, have not the merit of novelty. Neither
do we perceive, were they ever so new, that they
are very much to his present purpose, unless his
object be to recommend a further increase of.
our duties on imports, or the establishment of
prohibitory duties, at a moment when intelligent
commercial nations are increasing at once their
trade, manufactures, and revenue, by lowering
This able writer appears to have persuaded
himself into an error, to which he clings with pa-
rental fondness, that the happiness of the People,
the great end of government, as he justly calls
it, is to 'e acoriiplished by high. duties and prpr
hibitory restrictions. Our habits of thought leaed
us to a directly opposite conclusion, and, without
feeling either "ire" or indignation," but all
the respect which is due to his disinterested
labors, w'e must take leave to.dissent,,by antici-
pation, from H's conclusion, if it is to be what we
might infer from the course of his argument. ,
We cannot concede that there has been any
thing rotten" in the policy of the country,
because of the things which he states.. If we
could not clothe our armies-if our revenue-was
deficient, before and during our last conflict with
Great Britain, it was because we had just mad
a thorou'ghtafI off thitf very prohibitory system of
which Haniltonr' is so strenuous, and able, and
hlionest a advocate. a e had, first, partial ppin--
tercourse, then an embargo ofayear and a fraction,
then a non-intercourse,' more or less perfect, of
two oi three years---len a war of three years.i
During all this period, having no manufactures of
our own, we reflised' to receive the woollens as
etl" ldother fabrics of Great Britain: we con-,
sumed, meantime, the stock which was in the'
country, and we ceased to deri-ve revenue fromT
-the importation of further supplies. We see no-
thing niysteri6ous'or surprising, therefore, in our
finding ourselves short both of cloths and of reve-
nue, afterthe war began. If there was any error in
,our policy, thus disclosed, it was in commencing
the prohibitory system to operate upon foreign
nations, before we were ourselves in a condition
to bear it. Our opinion is, that we could not
bear it even now. Wehope, at least, that there
will be no occasion shortly to repeat the experi-
inent of it.
It is admitted, by Hamilton," in his postula-
ta, that our country enjoys moral and political
advantages, as well as natural, never exceeded,
and perhaps never equalled ; that our citizens
ait free from any but very light taxes; that the
government is unexpensive.' He will not deny
that personal' arid mental liberty are everywhere
protected among us. These, it appears to. us,
are the essentials of good government. If all
these blessings are enjoyed, it is by means of good
government. After all this, to tell us of the
country suffering distress, intense distress, is
,merely to say that occasional distress is the lot
of humnanity. No people ever'was, or ever can
be, universally exempt from suffering. The very
prosperity of portions of .the people living under
the influence of our benign institutions, leaves
others in comparative depression, which they
suppose to. ditress. Unless HAMILTON" is
a convert to Mr. Owr- N's theory, he will search
in vain, even in a. fertile imagination, for a peo-
ple, who, for a series of years, enjoy unmingled
prosperity, without variableness, or transition,
and among whom every vocation flourishes in the
same degree. Before this ideal excellence can be
attained, the human character must undergo a
lustration of all'its ordinary propensities, habits,
and vices, and assume the moral and intellectual
properties imputed'to angels.
We have no-intention to enter the lists of ar-
; gument with our correspondent, of whose perse-.
Sverance and indefatigability both we and our
readers have had experience heretofore. We
will only further remark, on the essay published
to-day, that, in one thing, we entirely agree with
him, viz. that the present melioration" in com-
.merce, by the rise in the price of cotton and to-
bacco, "belongs wholly to the chapter of acci-
dents." Doubtless it does. It is produced
by no act of our government, but by the
state of the markets, in Europe. It is not
our legislation that regulates the course of
trade. But does not every reader perceive,
that, in this single remark, H. has surrendered the
whole ground of his argument? If the rise in the
market belongs to the chapter of accidents, so '
s6 does its depression : so do the fluctuations of
commerce generally: so does the late pressure ex.
perienced in the South, on which H. so much re-
lies : so does the pressure, occasionally felt, here
and there, and, indeed, every where, in the revo-

lutions of commerce and the shifting of its chan-
nels. The personal observation of this effect,
in Philadelphia, for the last four or five years,
first brought Hamilton" forward as a writer
on this subject. His humane feelings were en-
listed, and wrought up to a degree of tension
which seems hardly yet to have relaxed. The
"distress" at Philadelphia, however, we are
happy to see, is rapidly disappearing before the
influence of reviving commerce. If we did not
know this from other sources, we should not
doubt it when we observe that nearly two thou-
sand dollars have been lately taken at the Thea-
tre at a single night. .There may be paupers, as,
from the frailty of our nature, there must oe eve-
ry where, but there cannot be intense" distress
where, in a population of the extent of that of
Philadelphia, two thousand dollars are taken in'
one night at the Theatre.

The Court of Inquiry ordered in the case of
Commodore PORTER, consists of Commodore-
CHAUNCEY, and Captains CRANE and READ-
Judge Advocate, RICHARD S. CoxE, Esq. It is
to meet at the Navy Yard in this City, on Mon-
day next, the second day of May.

of Philadephia; WM. DARLINGTON, of Chester
coun.ty;,.ALBERT, GALLATIN, of Fayette county,
and DAVID SgooTr, of Luzerne county, have been
appointed, by the Governor .of PENNSYLVANIA,
to compose the Board of Canal Commissioners
of that state.

Two newy Professorships have recently been
created in Cumnberland College, in the State of
Tennessee, the one to be called the Lafayette
Professorship, the other the Jackson Professor-
ship. Great preparation was making .at Nash-
ville foir the reception of Gen. JAC.SO'N, on his
return home from attending Congress. Gen. J.
has also received marked, attentions. at Louis-
ville, in Kentucky, and in. other places through
which he passed on his way.

It is known to our readers, that 600 journey-
men carpenhters,of Boston have refused to work,
until their working-time shall be abridged two
hours a day, A writer, regrets this on the fol-
lowing accounts: 1. The master, carpenters can
live longer than the journeymen !without work.
The .capitalists can live longer than either
without putting up buildings. 3. Other mecha-
nics will flock to Boston for employment. 4.
Idleness begets poverty and vice.
The persons engaged in building, the.present
season, in the City of Boston, have held a meet-
ing, at which H. G. OTIS presided, and passed
resolves, deprecating the course of the journey-
men carpenters, and pledging themselves, rather
than that the masters submit to it, to refrain from
prosecuting any building during the season.

A Letter from Campeachy, of March 11, pub-
lished in a Kentucky paper, says, that Geri. ST.
ANNA resides there, and is as great a fanatic"
(meaning, it is supposed, enthusiast) "as ever
Gen. MIRANDA was." He had. a project on foot
to revolutionize the Island otfuba, and take im-
mediate possession of the city of Havana. For
this purpose four hundred troops were embarked
on board two merchant brigs and an armed
schooner. The expedition was to be commanded
by Col. SEMANA, a young man from Cuba ; the
immense works which fortify Havana 'were ex-
pected to be delivered up through treachery.-
But, just as the expedition was on the eve of
sailing, an American vessel arrived from Hava-
na, and reported thht three thousand troops had
arrived at that place from Spain, and also a num-
ber of ships of war. This knocked the expedi-
tion in the head, and the embargo whichhad been
on for a week was removed, and the troops or-
dered to disembark, much to the satisfaction of
their wives and relations, who had considered them
as already dead, and, at the moment the letter
was written, hundreds, were flocking to the
wharf to receive them as from the tomb.
This is a curious piece of intelligence, and may
serve as a key to the lately increased vigilance
and rigor of the Captain General of Cuba, who
could hardly have been ignorant of the projected
expedition, notwithstanding the embargo.

In KENTUCKY, the Old Court of Appeals has
lately held an adjourned term, but, under the pe-
culiar circumstances in which they were placed,
after receiving an official account of the breaking'
open the office of their Clerk by tihe order of the
new Court of Appeals, declined proceeding
in the transaction of further business. They
have retired before tie storm; but in doing
so, they have not turned their backs upon it. In
an address to the People, announcing their de-
termination, signed by the Judges Boyle, Owsley,
and Mills, the People are warned against misre-
presentations of the personal motives of the
Judges, designed to lead them from the true in.
quiryby the delusion of falsehood, and the Address
concludes in the following strong language :
Your Constitution, your government is
BROKEN. If you restore it, you will no doubt I
find individuals to fill its departments, when the
present incumbents are no more, and the stabili-
ty ofyourgovernment will secure.the blessings of
freedom. on yourselves and your posterity."

Extract of a letter from Lieut. Comdt. John D.
Sloat, commanding U. S. Schr. Grampus, to
the Secretary of the Navy, dated
ST. TniOMAS, 5th April, 1825.
Under date of the 19th March, I had the ho-
nor to inform you that I had visited St. Johns,
Porto Rico, for the purpose of offering our testi-
mony against the pirates that made their escape
from the vessel taken on the south side of that
Island, when the Captain General assured me
that these miscreants should have summary jus-
On my arrival at this, place yesterday, I had
the satisfaction to receive the iiformnation, that
all who made their escape from the vessel, (ele-
ven) were shot on Wednesday, the 30th ultimo.
They all, except one, met their fate in the most
hardened manner. The celebrated Cofrecinas
refused to be blindfolded, saying that he himself
had murdered at least three or four hundred per-
sons, and it would be strange if by this time he
should not know how to die. From his and other
confessions, twenty-eight others havoc been taken
and seventeen are to be executed ilia few days,
and the remainder in a short time after. Those
already executed have been beheaded and quar-
tered, and their parts sent to all thW small ports
round the Island to be exhibited. i
This capture is thought by the Government of
the Island to be of the greatest iniportance, and
it is believed, front the number taken and con'-
victed, that it will be for a long tiie a complete
check to piracies about that Island.'
m- --. .f _
W. W. HOLT has been recently elected Mayor
of the city of Augusta, in Georgia.,

We recommend the following paragraph to the
special consideration of the Editor qf the Nation-
al Gazette. There is sometimes too much list-
lessness, we acknowledge, in the popular branch
of our National Legislature, but that exhibited,
occasionally, in the British House of Commons,
it appears, far exceeds it:
"The House of Commons, the special guar-
dians of the public purse, pays very small atten-
tion to very important financial questions. Un-
less you amuse the gentlemen by brilliant speech-
es and political sparring, they leave the benches
empty-they will not be bored with the pecuniary
affairs of their constituents. On Thursday even-
ing, when Col. Davies brought forward a motion
for the appointment of a Committee to consider
whether the duties on tobacco, brandy', &c. could
not be lowered without loss to the revenue, there
were not above 30 or 40 members present; and'
the Chancellor of the Exchequer took advantage
of this thin attendance to avoid giving any direct
answer to the honorable gentleman's remarks.
[London Examiner.

Artificial Mahogany.-The following method
of giving any species of wood of a close grain the
appearance of mahogany, in texture, density, and
polish, is said to be practised in France with such
success, that the best judges are incapable of dis-
tinguishing between the imitation and mahogany.
The surface is first planed smooth, and the wood
is then rubbed with a solution* of nitrous acid.
One ounce and a half of dragon's blood dissolved
in a pint of spirits of wine, and one third of an
ounce of carbonate of soda, are then to be mixed
together and filtered, and the mixture in this thin
state is to be laid on with a soft brush. This
process is repeated, and in a short interval after-
wards, the wood possesses tlhe external appear-
ance we have described. When the polish di-
minishes in brilliancy, it may be restored by the
use of a little cold-drawn linseed oil.
[London Journal of Arts.
Ie do not exactly understand what is here meant by so-
lution ; perhaps it should have been diluted uitrous acid.
BOSTON BANKS.-There is a story, originally
published in a Salem paper, going the rounds of
the Southern newspapers, calculated to give a
very wrong impression in regard to the state of
our Banks in this City. The amount of the story
is, that a person presented a demand for $5000
against one of our Banks, and was put otf, from
Bank to Bank, to evade payment, and did not
get his money until the Bank got it from the
country, at five o'clock in the afternoon. By
this story, it is intended to convey the idea that
the Banks in this City are unable to pay tQeir
bills at sight. Nothing can be further from the
truth. It is always customary for Banks in this
city, when any claim is presented for specie, to
draw on those Banks in the City, in their debt,
for the purpose of saving the trouble of counting
out tihe specie, and in checking in this way, from
one Bank to another, it frequently happens that
they finally come back to the first Bank for the
specie. It is always optional with the person
presenting the bills, to claim specie, instead of
the check, and it is never refused. The person
presenting the demand mentioned, probably
knew the practice of the Banks here, and pur-
posely took every check offered, to enable him to
make out a good story. Boston Banks always
have a always will pay specie for their bills at
silght. They never will, like some other moneyed
institutions, complain of any one for asking for
specie for their notes. It is perfectly unneces-
sary to make any explanation of this transaction,
to people in Boston or Salem ; they know so well
the Banks and their mode of doing business, that
it would be useless. But to those at a distance,
this explanation may be serviceable.-Statesman.

LYNoHIURG, VA., AI'RnL 21.--fflicting Oc-
currence.-It is with regret that we relate an oc-
currence which took place in this county a few
days past. Maj. Thomas Jones, an old and re-
spectable citizen, being assaulted by his son-in-
law, by the name of Wood, whose grievances ihe
lail borne with for a number of years, drew his
Iistll and shot him dead on the spot. He im-
mnediately sent for a neighboring magistrate, and
surrendered himself into custody,.-Virginian.

1larvellous Visitation.-The following story is
almost in every particular identical with one
which we remember to have heard sojne twenty
years ago, the location of which was in one of the
upper counties of the state of North Carolina.
Perhaps the same evil spirit officiated in both
cases. It was thought, a 'year or two ago. that
we had a visit from him here in Washington,
where a continued tintinnabulary clatter was
kept up in one or two of the most resnectably in-
habited houses in town, without the cause or agent
of it being discoverable. We, however, are very
much of the opinion, which seems to be entertain-
ed by our namesake print, from which the follow-
ing is copied, that the evil spirits of this our day
are of a description which may be expelled with-
out the aid of exorcism.
LEXIN.xsTONY Vx. Antir. 15.
It is related that some day last week, and from sources
invisible, the house of Dr. McChesney, in the upper
edge of Augusta county, was assailed with stones of va-
rious sizes, some of them so hotas to hiss when they fell
in water; in broad daylight, for several successive days,
the visitation of these stones was repeated. The win-
dows of the Doctor's house were all broken. Some fell
ton the roof and bounded off; others entered through
thick plank, that had been used to close up the broken
windows; that Mrs. Mclhesney -had been struck by
two ; one had cut her head severely. The ladies of Dr.
McChesney's family had become so much alarmed as to
leave the house. At intervals these stone visitations are
said still to be repeated. The louse is represented as
situated in an open space, where it would be impossible
for any one to approach within stone throw, without de-
tection. This account we have received from gentle-
men of the first respectability, but who were not them-
selves eye-witnesses-nor did they derive their informa-
tion from Dr. McChesney himself, but from those that
stated they had.
Superstitious fears are much excited in some that at-
tribute these showers of stones to a supernatural cause.
For ourselves, we doubt not the house has been stoned,
the windows broken, &c. but cannot think otherwise, at
least for the present, than that it is the mischievous work
of some person or persons, (perhaps servants) about the

The Apollonicon.-There is an interesting de-
scription of anoble Instrument of this name in the
last London New JMlonthlyJ Magazine, from which
we extract the following curious and interesting
illustration of the mode in which sound acts up-
on the air: "Some of the lower notps, and
therefore the most powerfulof all, cannot be heard
at all in the room in which the instrument is plac-
ed. They cause the whole room, and indeed the
whole building, to tremble in a sensible and al-
most visible manner ; but yet you cannot distin-
guish the sound itself. In fact, you can feel it,
but not hear it. But on placing yourself in a
yard at a little distance from the building, and
thus bringing yourself within-or, as it should
rather seem, without-the proper sphere of the
:sound, you hear it with tremendous loudness.
This seems to us the most striking illustration we
have ever met with of the theory which inculcates
that sound is propagated through the air in circles.
One can, in this instance, almost see it, agitating
the air tumultuously, so as to shake every, thing
within the range of it, till it reaches a certain
point, and then, as it were, condensing itself and
becoming audible, just as the rays of light, trans-
mitted through a sheet of falling rain, become con-
densed and visible only at that particular point
where we see the rainbow."

LETT has issued proposals for publishing, by sub-
scription, a memoir of himself and his oten times,
with remarks upon the great men he has met
with in his journey through life. If this work
exhibits a faithful picture, it must indeed be in-
teresting; for no man in the United States has
witnessed a greater variety of scenes. He has
been a scholar at Harvard University, a school-
master, a merchant, a dramatist, a player, a law-
.yer, a senator, an author, and a wit. He has
lived in different countries, and in different states
in this country. His jokes are remembered at
Covent Garden Theatre, and at Edinburgh, and
are often repeated amongst the members of the
bars of Middlesex, Suffolk, and Essex, in Massa-
chusetts, and all along the shore through New
Hampshire to the extremity of Maine. He has
had many "a keen encounter of sharp wits" with
the CURuANS and NosnsaERIt s on this side the
water, and to them he might say-
Oft.have we struggled, and with equal arinms
Shot equal shafts, inflicted equal harms "
His literary acquirements were considerable,
and his muse had once a pointed dart and a vi-
gorous wing. He has praised his friends and sa-
tirized his enemies in every form of prose aind
verse, and spon forgot both. Ile has written ons
the blessings of poverty, and laughed heartily at
disasters, until poverty closed in upon him, and
forced him to acknowledge that she was the
strongest ; but, even in the surrender, lie would
not crj peccavi," but, on the first gleam of sun-
shine, with a new coat and a good dinner, ihe
looked and spoke-
I ask no other Paradise than this;"
but, when the wine cup was exhausted, and the
trencher clean, he would sometimes sigh-
o what a crocodilian world is this !"
but his spirits were generally too buoyant to re-
peat the sentiment. He is now treading upon
the heels 'of his sixty-third summer, antl finds
that hIe has garnered up nothing but a few axioms
ofexperience, when it is too late for him to pro-
fit by them. He was generous when fortune
smiled, aind we hope lie will not be forgotten min
his old age; a;nd he would not suffer, if a tithe
of those whlo have laughed at his jokes, and en-
joyed the merriment of his wit, would purchase
his volumes.-Comm. Gaz.

T lHiE subscriber has at his Wharl, near the Washing-
ton Bridge, the following well seasoned L.imber:
4 4, 5-4, 6-4., and 8.4 Susquehannah prime Plank
4 -, 5-4, 6-4 ain 8 4 mercnaitublc usqiij. Plank
4 4, 5-4, 6 4, and 8.8 Susquehannahs elected and com-
Im n Chullfinfs
Susquchaebnalh Joists, from 14 to 30 feet long
A general assortment t' all kinds of Yeliow Pine
-sh Plank, from 14 to 4 incht s thick
75000 best North Crolnma Shiingles
Also, busqueliannali Shingl;l's
550 casks best ThoiimasLton and l.incolnville Lime,
(very white) which will be sold low tor cash, or0
to punctual custolneos.
april 27-3aw3w I'ETR Ft,.'NOX-.


ST. AUGUSTINE, APRIL 2.-The party com-
manded by Col. Gadsden, under instructions
from the Department of War to survey the route
of a road from St. Augustine to Cape Florida,
returned to this city a few days since. We have
been informed that the most direct practi-
cable route for a road has been marked as far as
Jupiter inlet, within 73 miles of Cape Florida ;
from thence no land communication with the
Cape can be had but on the sea beach ; the coun.-
try interiorly being low, flat, and wet grassy
plains and ponds inundated at all seasons of the
year, and spotted with Islands of dwarf pine and
Cypress trees. Most of the route, however,
from the Toinoko river to Jupiter Inlet, with the
exception of some few partial sand ridges and
swells in the im mediate vicinity of the riders and
branches crossed, is exceedingly flat; and will
require causewaying. Col. Gadwdenreturned by
a more western route than the one by which he de-
scended south, having passed through the head
swamps of the St. Johns, reerossing the same
river at Volusia. We have been informed that
this majestic stream derives its waters from two
immense oceans of grass generally submerged',
and branching to the southeast and west. These
two great basins receive their waters from the
clouds as well as from the interior and interme-
diate swamps ; and discharge their overflowing
not only through the chanq el of the St. Johns,
but the many minor rivers disemboguing into the
Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. They constitute-
immense reservoirs, and are the sources of near-
ly all the rivers oni the promontory of Florida;
and at times so swollen with water as to admit
(it ig conjectured) of a communication between
these streams.
This speculation has been both encouraged
and strengthened by the facts derived from the
Inhabitants in the vicinity of Cape Florida and
from resident Indians ; but on account of the
very thick, almost impenetrable growth of water
grasses, it is very doubtful whether this com-
munication could be successfully used for the
purposes of navigation. If it were feasible to
remove these obstructions, and to prevent their
re-appearance, it is thought possible that a boat
navigation, at certain seasons of the year, might
be obtained from the mouth of the St. Johns to Cape
Florida, as well as to some of the inlets on the
Gulf of Mexico. The eastern branch of this
great grassy sea, where crossed by Col. Gads-
den's party, though as far south as the 27th de-
gree of latitude, it was nearly two miles wide
and from 2 to 3 feet deep of water.
The following are the distances as ascertain-
ed from measurement of the most important
points from St. Augustine to Cape Florida.
From Solanos to Tomoko ferry 44J miles.
From Tomoko to crossing place on Spruce
Creek, 15J miles.
From Spruce Creek-..to supposed sources
of Indian river, 221 miles.
From Iu*ad of Indiari river,-n- parl-l'd
with the same to the crossing place of
the St. Sebastian's, 80J mjles.
From St. Sebastian's to crossing place on
the St Lucie, 34 miles,
From St. Lucie to beach, 4 miles south of
Jupiter Inlet. 41 miles.
On beach to sand point opposite cape
Florida, 73 miles.
Whole distance from St. Augustine to Cape
Florida, by route surveyed by Colonel
Gadsden, 311i miles.
[E. F Herald.

[At 4 o'clock.]

.at Public Auction, on Tuesday, the Sd May next,
at 4 o'clock, P. M. on the premises,
V HAT valuable three story brick House, on F street,
A opposite the residence of the President, now occu-
pied by Josepth Wieaton, together with the western
moiety of lot No. 17, on which the house stands. The
lot extends to an alley, and includes a good carriage
house, a stable, spring house, smoke house, with a pump
of water in the yard.
This property will be sold for the life of Joseph Whea-
ton, and an unquestionable title made to the purchaser.
It will he sold on a credit of six and twelve months, ail
possession delivered immediately.
The house and lot will be shown to persons inclined
to purchase..MAUR,
april 26-tJs Auctioneer.
Tr7lE subscriber offers for sale the Patent Iligiht fuo-
Seach otl the following recently invented Machiies
to be used in all the United States, namely, ,fi
CLEANING MACHINK," invented by William Hoyt,
of Brookville, in Franklin county, state of Indiana, and
sold by said Hloyt to the subscriber, for one moie-ty of
all thie U States, by deed duly recorded in the 2d vol. of
r'ransfevs of the United States' Patent Office, ;ages 3398
anld 399, according to the 4th section of the act of Con-
gress, approved the 21st of February, 1793. And the
subscriber hereby forewarns all persons from making any
purchase of said tovyt, which may in an3 manner-conflict
with saidassignmeunt.

april 27-3t


H AS lately received a large assortment of Groceries,
consisting of-
15 hlids. N. 0. Sugar
10 do. Molasses
4 lids. New England Rum
4 do. Jamaica and St. Croix di,
3 pipes Cgimac Brindy
1 L. P. Madeira Wine
25 kegs English Mustard
15 barrels Washington Gin
I pipe Holland do.
15 boxes Flint's best Havana Cigars
3 hhds. Spemi Oil
15 baskets fresh Sallad Oil
Fresh Teas, Spices, &c.
Also, a new supply of Spring Dry Goods.
In Store,
150 barrels Family Flour
7500 pounds Bacon
april 27-St
Washini.ton 'Conunyi.
District of Columbia,. to wit:
ISAAC N. POWER has applied to the Honorable
.laimes S. Morsell, Assistant Judg-e of the Circuit
Court of the District of-Columbia, to be discharrced from
imprisonment, under the Act for the relief of Iins ,v'nt
Debtors within the District of Columbia, on the first
Monday of May next, at eleven o'clock, A. M. at the
Court Room, when and where his creditors are re-
quested to attend.
april 27--t WM.l B"RENT, CIC,

No. 3743.

_~___ ~___ _~ ___~_ __~_

On the Distribution of the Bureaux in a D pa
meant of Foreign affairs:
Supplementary to the discussion on the necessity a
imp-ortanqe of a Depar' ment of Domestic Affairs in t
Government ofthe U united Siatcs.
A slight attention, to the interior organizati
of a Department of Foreign Alftirs, will pro,
that lanfguagc is an important elementary p inc
pie in the formation of its bran lies, in additil
to that of geographical association.
The language of the United States of Anieric
and of the Uniited Kingdom of Great Britain an
Ireland, is destined to cover a vast portion
the globe. It is a fine and noble language ; t
most copious in the world ; wonderfully simp
in its construction, and daily athvancing in i
energy s ; and, could it be divested of tha barb
rism of its orthography, it might justly rank tl
Whatever destiny may attend th la.nguas
certain-it is, that the circumstance of i ts ben
common to two schi great-nations, will strength
en and multiply the relations likely to subsist b
tween them ; imparting inconceivable force to ll
ties previously formed by consanguinity, by rel
gion, by manners, by jurisprudence, by resent
lance of political institutions, and by an exter
sive and active commerce.
To the maternal country, therefore, must t
allotted, by her magnificent offspring, the primal
Bureau in her Department of Foreign Altairs.
The first Bureau would thus embrace ta
United Kingdom of Great Britain and IrelanI
.and its dependencies.
SThe position of France on tle Continent of Elm
rope, the connection she has had with us in ot
autocratic war, or ou-ir war for self-governmeni
her power, her courage, her elegant language an
literature, and her universal refinement, combir
to render her the second object of exterior atter
tion to this Republic.
The second Bureau would, therefore, compri,
France, the colonial establishments which Britis
moderation has left to her in Asia, Chanderna
gore, Pondicherry, Mahi, Isle '. Bourbon ; tin
colonial establishment in America of which tl
independence is about to be confirmed, the island
of Hayti or St. Domingo ; and countries usin
the French language in general.
The discovery of the occidental hemisphere
the early settlement of it, the number and th
magnitude of her colonies, their proximity to us
their- current revolutions, the majesty and subli
mity of her existing misfortunes, and an intrinsic
grandeur of character, of which all the efforts r
the Unholy Alliance have not yet deprived her
present to the North American Republic, Spain
and the dominions she once swayed, in an affect
ing attitude.
li he third Bureau would comprehend Spain
including Majorca, Minorca, and Iviga; th
Asiatic Philippine Islands, the Atlantic Spanisl
Islands, all the Republics of South America
Mexico, Guatimala, Colombia,.Chili, Peru, thr
United Provinces of La Plata; and' countries
using the Spanish language in general.
The rise' of a throne in America will be con
sidered a curiosity, and a moral phenomenon, at
tended with no ordinary interest; and whether
the new empire of Brazil, of so expansive a gep
graphy, and so numerous a population, is destin
ed to be permanent, ur onaf to present to its de
voted wea-r .r-aen-,phemeral cro-w, is-a problem
yet to be answered by the plume of history., HeI
constitution is methodical, minute, of ample vo
lume, and of chaste style ;. and the early and re
spectful approach she has made to us, enhanced it
its value by the learning, the talents, and the po
lish, of her distinguished envoy, gives her irme
diate claims on our' attention. The Brazilila
empire is a very important portion of the Ameri
can continent; and the new and splendid Bra
zilian constitution is a document, which, what
ever its, ultimate results maybe, will have effect
tuateid no disparagement to the cause of liberty'
and of mankind.
The fourth Bureau in the Department of Fo
reign Affairs, would superintend our existing and
'future relations with the kingdom of Portugal
the empire of Brazil, Pernambuco, Goa, Macao
Madeira, and the insular Atlantic dominions o
Portugal ; and, in general, all countries and places
using the Portuguese language.
Will the -interests of civilized mankind evei
again encounter such shock as that beneath which
the Roman empire fell ? The progressive settle-
ment'and refinement of Russia, and of the two
Amlericas, relieve the anxiety of the philanthro
pist, and enable him to respond to this startling
interrogatory a negative answer. But it is highly
important to mankind that Russia should advance
in refinement; nor can it be regarded as a bless-
ing f ordinary value that her destinies are con-
fided to the hands of a monarch so enlightened
as,.he who now holds her sceptre.
The Germanic ton;;ue and the cognate languag-
es occupy a vast population in the interior and
North of Europe, and our commerce with those
regions has not yet received all the attention it
I shall enumerate, as belonging to the fifth Bu-
reau, all our concei'ns(with Russia, Austria, Hant
over, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Hamburg,
Prussia, the Duchy of Mecklenburg Swerin, andt
the Russian Colonies io North America.
In like manner. I shall group, as the appur-
tenances of the sixth Bureau, the Netherlands,
Batavia, thie Miluccas, Switzerland, Tuscany,
Upper Italy, Naples, Sardinia, and Sicily.
The emancipation of Greece is pregnant with
consequences dear to the human race-peculiar-
ly dear to America. Our Mediterranean com-
merce will become highly interesting to us, as'
soon as the nations environing that sea sHall have
come to a state of repose. Our mediation be-
.tween the metropolis tofthe Bosphorus and that of
the Morea, might save the effusion of much blood.
The seventh Bureau would consolidate what-
ever muy appertain to Greece, to Turkey, to
Egypt, to Morocco, to Tunis, to T 'ripoli, to Al-
giers, to Africa in general, to Mahometan count
tries in general, accessible by the Mediterranean.
The solid zone of civilization is ready to re-
ceive ins closing cement from the hands of the

United States of America; and the grand, vener-
able, diluvian empire of Asia, is about to be touch-
ed, on her oriental confine, by the naval arm of
the republic, extended from Astoria. We should
be prompt to impress deeper the favorable senti-
ments already bestowed onus in advance by the
Court of Pekin, disregardin he vexatious scru-
ples of a vain and silly etiquette ;and our corn
mercial relations with Asia will soon deserve to
be considered under an aspect entirely, new.
The eighth Bureau would be-devoted to China,

to India ; so far as rezardred s.par',te!y from the ec. i. .7;,r b : it ac/led. "l'iat i'" f w' .i
first Bu',iut ; to l'ersia, to Arabia, and to Asia. shall be the salaries tof the evt ..' o' ,ffi er'Sr i4 h i
irt ue rl. D),'pirttncnts of i).mr's'ic aitli (Forlc'"i, Atiir ,

The existing commercial greatness of North : t whol!,tl pavile quarter ly at lhe Tn- -urv If
America is not vet well mlder.too'l evei in in t the United States: of t Secretr .,1 tI e ) -
country itself. It is a commerce which requirei- parhu,,tt of Domestic A thair:,, six thimis:and r ol-
: and deserves, from a ma.terlv hand, a. accur.it' lhar ; ,c the S-,cretarv of the Depart:rent of Ft-
e coiparisot riotonly with that of, the mos:lt l:1ur- r"ignr Atfirs, six thousand dollh's ; of the Comin
ishin(c nations -,f antiquity ; but mtOre particularly mnissi,,ner nf Science and Arts, four thousand tdl-
with that nf the greatest modern nation,. Tl'i lars ; ,f the Commissioiner of Publib-c Ecionm'.y,
result of such an investig-ititi 'votil:I satifat to- four tholiUs:ui;l dollars ; iof the Commllissionerl if
rily show, how eminent we already aie : how in- Poss, f ir thousand dollars ; of tIhe Commission-
calculably rowing are "ur resources; and what er of Public L ins, three tntousnd dollars: of
aire the nieans necessary to protect, anirl to adl* the Commissioner- of the Mint, two thousand live
vance our inter-sts. We would, then, perceive, hundred doilars ; of the Crimmnissimner of Paten-ts,
that if we hesitate to avail ourselves of the incin- two thousand, dollars ; of tihe CommTissiiner ofr
f ceivable advantages we possess, on account of Inditan Aillairs. two thousand dollars; ol the >'on-
any little expense attached to the initiatory and mirsioner of Justice, four thousand dollars ; of
preparatory measures ; if we neglect to secure the Under-Secretarvof British AF'iirs, two lthou
for our country the capacities ,vhich nature and sand 'five hundred dollars ; of the Uinder-',ecre-
Providence',have otffeiretd her; if, in short, we sa- tary f French Affairs, two thousand dollars ; of
crifice the permanent pre-eminence of the North tlhe Under-Secretary of Spanislh Affairs. twoi
American United States to. the prosp('itv of more thousand two hundred and fifty dollars ; of ithe
vigilant ard spirited nations ; we shall be guilty Undler.Secretary of Portuguese Afahirs, ine thou-
of a criminal abandonment of duty, which will sand five hundred dollars ; of the Under-Secre'-
not escape the censure of history, nor be unat- tary of Baltic and Germanic Aflairi, one thoin-
tended with bitter self-reproach, sand seven hundred and' fifty dollars ; of the
Whatever expense, therefore, is i dispensalbly 'Undor-Secret:iry of Belgic and Italic Affairs, one
requisite for the development, est;ahilishment, and thousand two hundred and fifty dollars ; of the
prosecution of a well organizeI aind active De- Under-Secretary of Ottoman Afthirs, one thou-
partiment of Domestic Afflairs ; of ain indlustrious sand dollars; and of the Under-Secretary of t
and well infor,ned )epurtment of Foreign. Affitirs; Oriental Aftfirs, eight hundred dollars.
and of a Diplomacy, so comprehensive and ex- Sec. 6. .nd be it enIacted, That, as soon as
tensive as to be csinmensurate only with the na- conveniently may be, the Mint shall be transfer- t
tions that inhabit our globe ; ought to be readily red to tle seat of the government of the United i
met and cheerfully sustained. States.
Yet the genuine principles of economy are not Sec. 7. And be it enacted, That, as soon as
to be immolated to the spirit of adventure and conveniently may be, the office of the Commis-
audlacity. sioner of Indian Affairs shall be established at the
Let, then, the expense of the Bureaux attached seat of th government of the United States.
to the Department of Foreign Affairs, be ap- Sec. 8. /Jnd be i' enacted, That, as soon as i
preached. convenient Ivu may be, after the establishment of
I shall propose for the under Secretary, or .the Mint Ut the seat of the' government of the I
Chief Clerk, or whatever other denomination United S rates, an improved coinae'e shall be 1
may be adopted, of the British Bureau, an' an- made, of o e hundred millions of half-cents. ten
nual *compensation of two thousands dollars; of millions of ralf-dismes,one million of half-dollars, I
the French Bureau, of one thousand six hundred and one hu dred thous.snd half-eagles.
dollars; of the Spanish Bureau, of one thousand Sec. 9. fn'I be it enacted, That all acts, and s
eight hundred dollars; of the Portuguese Bureau, parts of act coming within the provisions of this
of one thousand two hundred dollars ; of the act, be repealed. .
Baltic and Germanic Bureau, of one thousand Sec. 10. And be it enacted, That this act shall
four hundred dollars ; of the Batavian and Italian take effect \ora and after the first day of Janua-
Bureau, of one thousand dollars; of the Ottoman ry 'ext. i
Bureau, of eight hundred dollars ; and of the -'--
Oriental Bureau, of six hundred dollars, the to- FaROaU THE MOUNTAINS.]
tal, ten thousand four hundred dollars.,
But it is not fair to consider this total as clear MR. OWEN.
fresh expense. Of the existing expense of the TO THE EDITORS.
Department of State, regarded und-r this aspect,
fifteen thousand nine hundred dollars, a consi- Mr. Owir is certainly right, (and A Mem- e
derable proportionattaches to the foreign rela ber of Congress" wrong,) when he surmises that a
tions. the Punifa Fides" has numerous votaries in e
I should prefer the title of Under Secretary, this country, as well as others, at least, so faras c
or some other epithet, to that of Chief Clerk; relates to rdigious subjects ; arid that, notwith- f
because many of the Bureaux will require no sub- standing the boasted freedom of some of our in- r
ordinate clerks: because the situations will all stitutions, there is still a lack of mental liber- f
exact extraordinary attainment, and high res- iv," which influences our conduct, and restrains c
pectability ; and because it is probable that, the free extres,ion of all our doubts relative to o
in process of time,. as business accumulates, religion, the only subject, in fact. ,on which our t]
and affairs are methodtized, a wise, provi,ent, thoughts should be free as the air we breathe.
and liberal legislature, will increase the sala- As evidence of tis, how very few of our lead- t
ries, from the moderate sumns now proposed, ing statesmen and politicians in every state have. r,
to amounts adequate to the dignity of the sta' the courage or independence of mind to avow, b
tions. Let it be constantly remembered, that' publicly, their real sentiments on the subject of a
the in-gatherings of the Treasury, from a correct religion The dread of losing their popularity g
administration ot the public business, infinitely with the ignorant and sup rstitious multitude is a:
tatnscend all the out-layings, necessary to pro- the magic charm that enslaves their minds, d
(dlice that result. while the fear of losing profitable friends.or buti tr
Some minds.apprehend the corruption of pure ness ties up the tongues of our more enlightened sn
republican attachments, from tihe extension of lawyers, physicians, mn rchants, &c. and even a g
our diplomatic intercourse. What court is it, part of divines themselves. b
in the .world, that presents a spectacle more at- I am already more than half disgusted with a si
tractive, and more imposing ; better formed to world in which I find so little sincerity on a sub- se
invite affection, or command respect ; than the ject the most important to nran, and long since at
administration of this powerful, this b-autiful, have resolved to estimate man by his acts alone, ca
republic ? Exists there an instance of a citizen and notby his delusive professions. th
lost to hef-, by the meretricious charms of any Let us now look around to the numerous en- ei
foreign country'? lightened statesmen and politicians who have no in
May not the actual exhibition of the tivino objection to engage in duels-do not these gen- in
man, and the experience of his virtues, his tal' tlemen demonstrate, by their actions, that they so
ents, and his accomplishments, gain, from foreign disbelieve in the religious creed of our times ? st
nations, the love of North America, and the love ant yet, how fewrbf these enjoy sufficient mental hr
of republicanism ? liberty to acknowledge it publicly! i
A '" k M-1 And. whe to thpq weaid the offices of wv;.

f Washington, .April 22, 1824.

APprNDIX to the Discussions on the necessity and im-
r portance of a Department of Domestic Affairs in the
Government of the UTntiftd States, and on the Distri-
bution of the Bureaux in' the Depatrtment of Foreign
Affairs; being forms of Enactments calculated to
bring out results resembling those contemplated in
the discussion.
An Act to divide the Department of State into two se-
parate and distinct Departments, to br denominated,
respectively, the Department of Domestic Affairs, and
the Department of Foreign Affairs; and for other-
Be it enacted, 4'c. That the Department of
State shall be divided into two separate and dis-
tinct Departments, of whi, h the jirst shall be
denominated the Department of Domestic Affairs,
and the second shall be denominated the Depart-
ment of Foreign Affairs.
Sec. 5.' .nd be it enacted, That there be, in
the Department of Domestic Affairs, the follow-
officers : First, a Secretary ; second, a Commis-
sioner of Science and Arts ; third, a Commission-
er of Public Econonmv; fourth,- a Commissioner
of Posts ; fifth, a Commissioner of Public. Lands;
sixth, a Commissioner of the Mint ; seventh, a
Commissioner of Patents ; eighth, a Commission-
er of Indian Affairs ; and ninth, a Commission-
er of Justice.
Sec. 3. .rind be it enacted, Tlhat there shall be,
in the Department of Foreign Affairs, the follow-
ing officers : First, a Seeretary ; second, an Un-
der Secretary of British Affairs ; third, an Under
Secretary of French Affairs ; fourth, an Underr
Secretary of Spanish Affairs ; fifth, an Under
Secretary of Portuguese Affairs ; sixth, an Under
Secretary of Baltic and Germanic Affhirs ; se-
venth, an Under Secretary of Belgic and Italic
Affairs ; eighth, an Under Secretary of Ottomnian
Affairs ; and, ninth, an Under Secretary of Ori-
ental Affairs.
Sec. 4. .8nd be it enacted, That the Secretary
of the Department of D)omestic Affairs, and the
Secretary of the Department of Foreign Affltirs,
shall execute such duties as may, from time tom
time, be charged upon them by law, or, not being
contrary to law, by the President of the United
States ; and the several officers in the said D ,
apartments shall execute such duties as nmay, from
time to time, be charged upon them by latw, or,
not being contrary to law, by the Secretary ofthe
respective Department. -.

Aull*, ent ll l ese we a n vv 1 .11 Llil 1 cerU t out
late and present armies and navy, who approve
of the same practice, you will find a long list of
unbelievers in the'doctrines of the church. But,
how many, are theie among them who possess the
necessary mental liberty" to avow it ?
I do not belong to those whot are opposed to
the principles-of duelling, because I deem an ap-
peal to arms a salutary custom ; provided it is
confined to those nice and delicate cases, where
the lazo ceases to act, or afford a remedy to injured
merit or insulted innocence; for, without that
rod of terror, the barriers of our social inter-
course will be demolished, and such wretches as
genteel cowards, blackguards, and slanderers,
prey with impunity on whomsoever they fix their
remorseless fangs.
I might cite many other cases in favor of the
position taken by Mr. Owen, that we still lack
mental liberty," but, for the present, shall only
add one or two more.
Do not all those who partake of rational orirra-
tional amusements on Sunday, prove incontesta-
bly, by their conduct, that they do not believe in
the superior holin.ess'of that day ? And yet, how
few possess sufficient mental liberty" to pub-
lish such sentiments.
It is folly to contend for pure "mental liber-
ty," in any country, where there is a union of
church and state; for, wherever that exists, men-
tal bondage will still triumph, Anm' that there is
such a union in this country-nay, in every state
-I can readily prove; for which of the states is
it that has not stained its code of laws, by enact-
ing penal statutes infavor of religion?
Shall Iwe refer to the laws on Fasts or Thanks-
givings, in the Eastern states ? Or to those made
for preserving the Sabbath day, int all the states?,
Or to that still more preposterous union of church
& state, in the South, in all their laws relative to t
marriage, &c.? 0 ye blinded beam"-eyed mor-
tals when will ye learn to leave to GOD ALONE
the punishment of all imaginary oftfences against
Now, although all our penal laws have never, as I
yet, made one convert to the religion they were
intended to aid, yet they have made thousands of
hypocrites! and the consequence is, that scarcely
one out of a hundred of those who attend reli-
gious exercises as they are, ever experience or s
acknowledge any thing like a serious conviction n
of the truth of the religion they profess, while
the greater part of these communities remain-in-
volvetl in strong doubts, and which the want of a
due share of mental liberty" prevents them t
from acknowledging! NESTOR. r



I r






FOi- FARMERS.-OiiciAnnI GRAss.

FItO't Til'r I i.lRlCuAN FAintITRll.
A frie.l, 'who i k 1,0wlo to be a very l successful ci'l
vator of o lc'i:'. C l G'.Is, a:ld on l'hos :arm the e tdit
has rec intly sel. nI 1 t'I lt lot f gr' whicu' l ha attr:,t
ed his notice t:isspri,'.g, in's kin lv favoredl us with t
foll wingi infoirma'ti t'le atcuritcy of which may
fully rched on, .:s ooild be better known if he had co
sented to gi'iv' his ni;me
So munch has a!read]v been pul->shcdl in t
Amorican Farmer (pin the excellent qualities
Orc.lard Grass, that it vsouil be i.resumptuon
i'i a petly fiamer, like myself, lo give any add
tional iniforiimation thereon ; but from youriflattel
ing request, I cheerfully state the experience
have had, as to sowing and reaping upon na
small farm.
It will answer to sow orchard grass either i
the spring or ftll; and if the 'former season
found most convenient, it may be done upon an
growing crop of ,grain, and the earlier the better
if the ground be sufficiently dr-y; after which
harrow, wvith a very light harrow, or roll-either
or both operations, will rather benefit than injury
the grain crop. But if the ground is poor; a to
dressing of manure will be requisite inunediatel
after sowing. You cannot have a crop of gras
to motw the first year, if'sown in the spring; and
indeed, it will be better for the grass if not pas
tured during that year, except by calves, whicl
would not injure it.
If ground is prepared for sowing in the fall
the earlier this object is accomplished the better
for if it does not take good root and cover th
ground well before winter, the frost will be ver
apt to turn the plant out of the ground-which
one year experienced in sowing after potatoes il
the month of November; for, although the gras
came up handsomely, there was none left in the
spring, and I then sowed a second time.
Last year I had a poor field, which bore veri
eight crops of Englislh grass ; it wafs ploughed ii
the spring and sown in May with millet, which
came up very slightly, and was ploughed in, thn
ast of June, and the ground immediately sowt
with buckwheat, upon which, when in blossom,
spread a light coat of manure, and again plough
ed and harrowed : the soil was very finely pul
verized, and on the 4th August I sowed orchar
grass seed, which came up beautifully, without
veed appearing; before December it was six
i-ches high, and is now a very luxuriant crop
and will, I make no doubt, produce between two
ind three t. ns to the acre this summer.
Two years since, I'ploughed a field of mixed
worn out grasses in the month of November; I:c
t lay all winter, and in th- spring top-dressed
vith old stable manure, and without stirring thl
earth, sowed oats, which were well harrowed in
and then orchard grass sown, and the whole r- ,J
!d, making the surface very fine-the manui
caused the oats to grow so luxuriantly, I was
earful the grass would be smothered; but after
raping them 1 was agreeably surprised to find as
ine a coat of ,rass as could be desired, and which
continues to produce abundant crops, without any
f the previous mixed grasses appearing, although
he ground was only ploughed once.
Five years since I sowed orchard grass, with
urnips, in the month of August, and it cameup
emarkably well. The field has not since then
een manured, and the crops of bay are very good
nd clean. I always sow two bushels of orchard
rass seed to the acre, or as nearly so as can be
scertained ; this quantity is by some farmers
seemed too much, but I am satisfied of the con
rary, for it cannot well be too thick; and if a
mnailer quantity is sown it does nut cover the
round, but. grows into large tussucks, supposed
y many to be its natural propensity, but occa-
ioned in fact from being too thinly sown. The
eed being remarkably light, requires a ca)m day,
nd great nicety in laying off the ground. You
cannot well make a cast of more than four feet;
therefore I have three stakes made, four feet
ach, and plant them in a row. to guide the sow-
ig, and take aboy to remove the stakes, measur-
ig the distance by their own ler.gth ; and having
own the field in one direction, I always cross
ow it in the same manner. But Mr. Sinclair
as an excellent machine upon one wheel, and
loved by one man, which will sow twelve feet
i breadthlat one time, and very accurately, al
ough it. also requires a cross-sowing for two
uishels to the acre. If two quarts of red clover
eed is added to each acre, it makes an addition
o the hay which by many is much preferred, andt
think it an improvement, more particularly as
leyare in season to cut at the same time.
Orchard grass is a very early, as also a late
rass, and ought to be cut for hay while in blos-
im ; if suffered to grow longer, it becomes harsh
nd coarse. Last spring was rather a late one,
nd on reference to my diiary, I find we conm-
enced mowing on the 8th Juhe, and finished up-
ards of 40 tons on the 20th ; and from the same
,urce I find that we reaped with sickles that
which was left for seed on the 5th July, when it
as quite ripe. I particularly recommend every
inner to save his own seed, and by cutting off
e head with a sickle it is preserved pure and
ee from many noxious weeds, which will gene-
lly be found in that purchased indiscriminately
om the stores.
From experience, I am well satisfied that or-
ard grass, when cut in proper season, makes
e best of hay. It is easily produced, continues
its pure statelonger than any gi-ass with which
arm acquainted, and after producing a heavy
op of hay, it affords the best of pasture until
hristmas, without apparently injuring the suc-
eding crop; it also continues growing in our
iest seasons, when other grasses droop or die ;
nee I consider; myself justified in giving this
ttering description, and which I hope may be
eful to your readers.
April 10, 1825.

The English Game Laws.-It is in evidence,
at, in one year, the numbers imprisoned under
e operation of these horrid statutes, amounted
no less than one thousand two hundred indivi-
als Think on the amount of suffering from
e direct and indirect consequences of this ap-
lling fact ; think on the desolate wives, the

.rving children, the ruined, heart broken fami-
s ; the sons initiated by the contamination of
;aol, into all those degrees of yet unthought-of
ne, which is ultimately to bring them to a
ameful and premature end ; the fathers ba-
shed from their homes and their country; their
serable offspring thrown a burithen on the un-
lling parish ; and all, perhaps, for the destruc-
n of a-paltry partridge, or other wild animal,
which no person can absolutely establish a.
ght of ownership.-Kent Herald.

In Fredercic County, i 'rg:nia, for Sale.
;'"IIE estate, gencr:dlly ki;(wn as CLOVER DAIE,
ia l a'c te l),' iop.r oft II tl,)toitble, ugh H lo nl es.
16- dh,;'c :d'1i, eonlai)i!Il I V1ur1hnndrd :Ind I ifty acres, wit hin
tot' fol)( ii.les ofth tIC t m of W'inchestl-r, is lor sale. There
ct is probably no estat- in Virginia, in market, of the same
;i size, presenting as many inducements, or possessing as
be a;nt advantages, as the Clover Dale tract of land. The
nI- soil Is of the first quality of li mestone land, now in a slate
ofhigh Cithiv..tion, with an abundant supp ly of (e best
(imb.r ,or all rmlrpo'ses. Thle improvements consist of
lie a comwi-nient Fiiame cdw selling house, of sufficient size for
of a large' family, with all necessary out iouises-a barn
us built o li e must dIiurable materials, updn the most mo-
i- dern and appr(,ed plan., tjheoriginal cost oftwhich, when
complidid, about five 3ars ago, exceeded fomr thou-
rsand dollars In the harn there is a threshing machine
iupoli an improved construction, calculated to get out
>y one hundred and fifty Ihuhiels of wheat per day. The
laiil is well watered, near the dwelling house is a large
in never failing linicstone spring, spring-house, &c. and a
is bol I sir am oivrater runninpgirom the spiingthrough the
farm, sufficient tfor adistillery and chopping-mill. T'lh-rt
iy is also upon thie premises, a large apple orchard, bearing'
r, fin- fruit. In truth, the property thus offered for sale,
Ch would command the entire approbation, upon examina-
r, tion, of any person desirous of purchasing. The terms
upon which ,hiis property is offered sor sale, are of the
re most accommodatingr description: three thousand dol-
)P lars of the purchase money, only, will be required in
r hand, the balance in ten annual payments, with interest,
ss to be secured bi deed of trust upon the property. Per-
sons destroys of making offers for tihe land, or requiring
further infror tatitn, will address themselves to the sub-
s scriber until the 15th of May next, and no longer.
Cashier of thlie Ollice of Discount and Deposite of the
I. Farmers' Bank of Va. at Winchester.
r, Winchester, feb 18, 1825. 22-tlst May.
In L Frederib County, Vi'ginia,for Sale.
S 'S lE subscriber, Trustee named in a deed of trust,
executed by the Honorable Hugh iolmes, deceased,
e and recorded in the Court of Frederick county, for the
purposes in said deed mentioned, will sell at public sale,
y before thie door of the court-house, in the town of Win-
o chester, on Mllonday, the second day IfM .fay next, a tract
Sof Land, situated within three miles of Winchester, gen-
,rally known as the STRIBLING TRACT- -containing'
e four hundred and fifty acres. This tract of land possesses
n many advantages. The soil is limestone, of the first
I quality, in a state of high cultivation. There is a large
portion of timber, also, of the best description. The
improvements consist of a good dwelling house, calculat-
ed fior a large family, a good bar,, a fine apple orchard
d of the best fruit, and a never failing well of good lime-
a stone water. And, although, by :ire terms of the deed,
x .the Trustee is empowered to sel! t, c land for cash, still,
those interested, with a view t6 procure the best price
that can be had, upon the r' ost accoitmodatinig terms,
0 will substitute for cash thi ftillowig t-rins if preferred
by til' purchaser:- two thousand dollars ofthe purchase
1 money in hand, and the balance divided into o-n annual
t payments, with interest -the credit payments to be se-
d e nred by deed of trust upon the land, and ti.e three first
payments to be further secured by personal security, or
Sr i.'rritv upon other property, approved by the Trustee.
AV further information desired in relation to.this land,
.,ay be had by application to the subscriber.
e feb 22-ts ISAAC BAKER, Triistee.
s Tvo be drawn on the 18th day of May, and by an im-
h1 proved mode of Drawing, secured by Letters Patent
y under the seal of the United States.
Baltimore, p' iI 7, 1825.
We have the pleasure to present to the Public
P the FOUR"-'H SCHEME of the
Grand State Lottery of Muaryland,
I The node. of drawing on an r-nirely new plan, approv-
ed by- the Commisszoners of Lotteries, appointed by the
Governor andr; iuncil of State, and brought out under
S special act of th, Legislature.

1 prize of $2,000 is $20 000
1 100oo 10,000
1 5,000 s. 5.,QO
5 1,000 5,l;00
4 500 2,000
S 2o l 2,000
30 50 1,500
50 20 10O,0
200 10 2,000
S 300 5 1,500
.10 000 S 20,000

10,612 Prizes. $70,000
20,000 Tickets.-Not ONE blank to a Prize !
Every Prize payable in Cash, sixty days after the
t drawing-subject to a deduction of fifteen per cent.
0:).fode qf Dravoinrg.-The numbers will be put into
orte wheel as tsual-ard in the other wheel will be put,
the prizes above the denomination of Two Dollars, and
lie drawing to progress in the usual manner. The
10,000 prizes of $2 will be awarded to the odd or even
numbers of the Lottery (as the case may he) depenfiant
on the drawing of the Capital Prize of Twenty Thousand
Dollar' that is to say, if the 20,000 dollar prize -hould
coie out to an Odd Number, then every odd number in
the scheme will be entitled to a $2 prize. If the $20,000
prize should come out to an Even Niumber, then all the
Even JVX mbers in the Scheme will be each entitled to a
prize. of S2.
Odd Ms. are those ending with 1, 3,5, 7, or 9.
Even .Ms. are those ending with 2, 4, 6, 8, or 0.
This mode of Drawing not only enables the Commis.
sionners to complete the whole Lottery in ONE DJIAW-
ING, but has the great advantage of distributing,the
small prizes regularly to every alternate number in the
scheme, so that the holder of two shares of tickets, (one
odd and one even number) will be c, rtain3fl obtaining
at least one prize, and in the same rati fol'i) greater
quantity. '
A Ticket drawing a superior prize in tbs scheme, ia.
not restricted from drawing an inferior one also.
The Drawing will take place in thIe city of Baltimore,.
on Wednesday thie 18th of May, and will finish on the
same day. A very short period, therefore, intervening
before the time ofdrawing. will arrive-adventurers at a
distance should avail themselves of tire very superior
advantages offered by tIe scheme, and send on their
orders without delay-they will remark thie low rat,- of
tickets-the very trifling risk to be rur, (there not being
one Blank to a Prize) and that the capital prize of
hitherto unprecedented for so small a stun invested.
Above all, however, is the certainty of at least obtaining
one prize by thie purchase of twvo tickets, or two shares
-(one odd and one even number,) and in thie same ra-
tio of certainty in the purchase of a greater number of
tickets or shares.
Thie limits of an advertisement.do not admit a detail
of the various and many advantages in this improved.
mode of Lot :ry; they will naturally present them-
selves to the adventurer on examination of the scheme,
to a scrutiny of which we invite their attention.
Whole Tickets, $4 00
halves, -. 2 00
Quarters, 1 00
To be had, in thie greatest variety of Numbers, (odd ani
even,) at

Lottery and 'xChange Olkee,
No. 114, Market Street, Baltimore,

Where, in the four last State Lotteries, were sold the
Great Capitals of $100,000 $40,000, 2 of$20,U000, 2 of
$10,000, besides no less than Ten Capitals of $5,000, &c.
&c And where more Capitals have been sold than at
any other office in America.
Go Orders from any part of the United States or Ter-
ritories, enclosing the Cash or Prizes in any of the Lot-
teries, (post paid) will meet our accustomed prompt at-
tention. Address to
spril 9-ifeptMl Baltimore.


We shall be glad if the publication of the
Strictures on the organization of one of the great
Departments ofthe Govern mentconcluded to-day,
shall be the means of drawing the attention of
the Public, and particularly of those who have
the subject specially in charge, to a more distinct
and direct consideration of the expediency of
the establishment of a Home Department. It
has been recommended, heretofore, by the vir-
tuous MADIsoN, and others of our eminent men,
and we have no doubt such a Department
will, sooner or later, be established. It would
have been established, probably, long ago, but for
the apprehension that the establishment of the
Department would become an argument for en-
larging the sphere of domestic legislation by the
General Government.

By a letter from an officer on board the Unit-
ed States' Schooner'PoRpoisE, to a friend of his
in this City, it appears that vessel arrived at
Norfolk, Va. on the 23d, having left New York
on the 21st inst. three days passage-crew all

The Boston Centinel states, that a Pediment
for the Eastern Front of the Capitol in Washing
ton, (an original design by J. R. PENNIMAN,) was
exhibited at Boston, previous to its transmission
to this city, where it is to be in the competition
for the premium of five hundred dollars, for the
best design, which is now soon to be decided.

LArAYETTE.-Again we hear of the Nation's
Guest. He left Montgomery, (Alabama,) on the
4th inst. for Cabawba, and was expected to reach
Mobile on the 6thl, and New Orleans on the 9th
or 10th inst. Of his reception by the Governor
of ALABAMA, and all the attentions paid to him by
his affectionate friends and admirers there, we
have copious accounts.
The steam boat Natchez arrived at Mobile on
the 14th, from New Orleans, having on board
Committees deputed on the part of the State of
LOUISIANA, and City of NEw ORLEANS, to receive
Gen. LAFAYETTE at Mobile Point.
Capt. R. E. De Russey, Commandantat Mobile
-Point, (th. Mobile papers state,) has made ar-
rangements to receive the Nation's Guest, in an
appropriate style, at that place.

Captures.-The Colombian brig Bolivar has
.captured two Spanish brigs, one of 16 and.the
other of 10 guns. A Spanish frigate has taken
and carried into St. Jago de Cuba, a Colombian
privateer, on board of which there were three
Americans, who are confined in the Moro.

Interesting from Peru.-Since our last we have
received.some few items of informatiori from
i South America, by a gentleman who arrived this
morning from the Pacific, via Kingston. It ap-
pears that the Patriot Squadron had completed
its repairs at Guayaquil, and was on the eve of
sailing for the close blockade of Callao, and to
assist at the storming of the Castles, for which
purpose a quantity of heavy .ordnance had been
taken on board for the use of the army. The
reinforcements from'Colombia, consisting of two
thousand men, had been put in transports at
Guayaquil, and had gone up to Lima to take part
in the reduction of the Castle of Callao. In a
conversation which our informant had had with
General BOLIVAR, it Was understood that a de-
termination existed to force the surrender of the
Castles at all hazards. We regret to learn that
a most distressing mortality had prevailed among
the Colombian troops, on their passage across the
isthmus, and the loss estimated to have taken
place by those destructive fevers incident to the
,climate in that quarter, was estimated at nearly
two thousand men. Every part of Peru, except
'Callao, was in a state of tranquillity, the inhabi-
tants generally resuming their former occupa-
tions., and preparing for the enjoyment of the
;peace and liberty won by patriot courage.
[Fed Gazette.
A panther was killed in the town of Seneca,
Ontario county, (New York,) on Wednesday,
13th instant. He weighed 94 Ibs. and measured
6 feet 4 inches, from the top of the nose to the
end of the tail.

Iron Rigging.-The new ship Washi',gton, of'
750 tops, which sailed from New York for Can-
ton, has all her lbiwer shrotids, all her topsail and
topgallant ties, topsail and topgallant sheets,
bobstays, &c of iron chains.

James Hardie, of New York, has published a
'pamphlet, .in which he has stated from his own
personal knowledge, the fact of the building of
sixteen hundred and twenty-four houses in that
city in the course of last year. Of this number,
five hundred and three were erected with brick
fronts-four hundred and one of wood-forty-nine
of one story, and twelve hundred and ninety-eight
of two; and two hundred and twenty-eight of
. three.

Blue Stocking.-It was the fashion in London,
about 178 ,for ladies to have evening assemblies,
where they might participate in conversation with
literary and ingenious men. These societies ac-
.quired the name of Blue.-Stocking Clubs-an ap-
-pellation which has been applied to pedantic fe-
males ever since. -It arose from the custom of

*Mr. Stillingfleet; one of the most eminent mem-
:bers, wearing Blue Stockings. Such was the ex-
cellence of his conversation, that his absence was
.so great a loss, that it used to be said-we can
xlo nothing without the Blue Stockings-and thus
thetitle was gradually established. It Hannah
Motie's poem Bas bleu, many of -the most con-
spicuous members are mentioned.

TIHE LOTTERY PRIZE CAUSE. The iiints conta'n in i .e ,: a- modest'
-and unobtrusive coi;,inu!'i.i :,;i!-",. I.' ,i ia
Somebody or other appears to be very much ver well cot'ueted .:iiv, pto b-
disturbed in his, her. or their mind, by a certain lisherl in the City of New Yok, are oapt and
statement of tlie recent decision, in the Circuit
Coert for Al exadria count i the cse f Mr,. judicious, that we are a-lad to b- thie mean.rof dif
-CLARKE ag;gtin thei (0 OPOR.TION, OF WASHI- 'G- fusing their circulation :t
Tro, recently published in the National Intelli- i enot rti;t.i rIS.t-, iNits;inr..
gencer, which statement is called imperfect, in- Ma. BATES: Soine articles in your paper have
accurate, and so forth. Upon which we have to" occasione' a few r':fl.ections, wh:ch, if you think
remark, that we could have no inducement to uof sufficient value, you will oblige a subscriber by
publish any statement on the subject, which o'iving then a lace.
should operate to the prejudice of either party, I have seen, with sone satisfaction, in the
and that, if we have done so, it has been involun- Christian Inquirer, an evidence of continued, if
tarily. .We had no inducement of interest, cer- not an increased zeal, inbehalf of enslaved blacks;
tainly ; and, as' to feeling, our wish is, most sin- the keeping alive the question must eventually
cerely, that Mr. C. would gain his hundred thou- end, like all questions of truth and right, in esta-
sand dollars, without the Corporation. losing it. blishing that which is true and right on this sub-
Personally, we would cheerfully pay twice told ject. But while I join issue with your corres-
the portion of the loss which, as inhabitants of pondents, and that zealous female writer noticed
Washingtona, might have fallen upon us, never in a late number, as to the abstract question, I
to hear of the disgusting subject again. But, must demur to the plan I understand them to
being journalists, and not parties s in the case, we wish adopted for their immediate and universal
must state things as they are; and the account emancipation. For, in addition to the objection
which we published the other day, was from the which is always urged against that, and which I
best authority, and, we cannot but believe, irre- think has some weight, viz. the doubtful benefit
fragab'ly true. However, audi alteram partern be to the blacks themselves, there is another, which
our motto in all questions affecting property or enlightened philanthropists ought to take into
character. The following account, per contrd, is consideration, and that is, the effect such a plan
taken from the Alexandria Herald of yesterday; would have upon many who are entangled in this
upon which we will only remark, that the refer- unhappy system. I mean those who are depend-
ence therein to one of the editors of this paper, ent on their slaves, not for superfluities, but for'
by name, is unjust, ungenerous, and wholly for- the necessaries of life; persons with large fami-
eign to the purpose.' The Board of Aldermen" lies, widows with families, and orphans: fior such
,had not the least concern in the drawing of the to give up their accustomed support, thie most
Lottery, and the Lottery was authorized by the zealous advocate for immediate- emancipation
City Council, and approved by the President of must own, if he has had personal experience of
the United States long before Mr. S. became a the weakness of human nature, is a trial of faith
Member of the Board of Aldermen. First or and virtue he deeply commiserates, and the ex-
last, he had not the smallest concern with the ercise of which is rarely to be met with.
Lottery, until its explosion, in the hands of Mr. Christians have the example of their Master,
Gillespie, made it necessary for the City Coun- who went about doing good, and we have the ex-
cilsto look after tlhe interests oftheir constituents, ample ofa Howard, who, not content with decla-
mniation, and exciting his own and others' feelings,
rno3M THE ALEXANxRIA HERAI.D, APRIL 27. visited the very abodes of wretchedness, and was
Clarke vs. The Corporation of Washington-.pril thereby enabled to apply efficient remedies to the
Term, 1825. evils hie deplored. Now I, would briefly suggest
In, the National Intelligencer of Thursday, a statement is to those who feel themselves particularly moved
made of this case, with the decision of the court upon it, in a on this subject, that they should, visit those places
manner calculated, it is believed, to create erroneous impres- where slavery exists, and take a serious, delibe-
sions of the real state of the case. The reader is left under where
the impression that this cause, during the present term of rate, and liberal view of the evil, as it actually
the court, had undergone a full and regular trial, and that Mr. exists, in all its relations, and that they should set
Clarke had lost his cause in the very place which he had him- the example of making large appropriations from
self selected for the trial of it. r t r ie n l
It is true that Mr. Clarke removed his cause from the court- their incomes for the relief, not only of the blacks,
ty of Washington to the county of Alexandria. But it is pro- but for those who should make serious sacrifices
per to state that this was a measure of necessity on his part. from princile.
He was obliged to institute his suit in the county of Washing- T c t p
ton, where the members of the Corporation resided, but it I hope to receive credit for sincerity in making
would have been very iumhstreet to have tried the cause in the these suggestions, when I assure you I am llOt a
very heart of thie society who were parties to it. The cause slave-holder, and have always been deeply iram-
was removed to Alexandria, not for the purpose of g.Mring any
wadIatage of the Corporation, but to orbtaIa fair and impartial pressed with the magnitude of the evil in every
trial, among. persons totally unconcerned in the issue of the point of view. E.

suit, and entirely unacquainted with the circumstances ot the
As to the facts of the case, a detailed statement cannot be
here made ; but it may be safely averred that this Lottery was
made for the purpose of raising money for the Corporation of
Washington-that the Corporation appointed managers to
form the scheme-to issue tickets-to sell the lottery, and to
do every thing which might be necessary to give effect to it.
These managers, in conjunction, it is admitted, with Gillespie ,
formed the scheme for the Lottery. They issued the tickets
in their own names as managers, and sold out the Lottery to
Gillespie, for the sum of $10,000. which was paid and applied
to tle use of the Corporation. Gillespie was to have all the
profit he could make from the Lottery. He received from ithe
manage's the greater part of the tickets-the residue remain-
ing unsigned by the President of the Board of Managers; but
ready to be signed and delivered out as he might be able to
s-cu-re the paylnent.- trhe sale to. Gillespie- was a inatier, of
public notoriety in Washington, but whether elsewhere the
case does not state. Mr. Clarke resided at iclhmonid, itn
Virginia, near 200 miles from Washington, and wrote from
Richmondufor thie ticket which drew thie prize. Tlihe draw-
ing of the lottery was conducted under the direction of tihe
managers, and regular books, containing each da 's state-
ment of the drawing, were kept by the managers, and were
called by them The Managers' Official List of Prizes
in the Fifth class of the Grand National Lottery of the City of
Washington." The scheme of the lottery, as well as tihe
drawings. were announced in different newspapers in the
names of the managers ; and in that of the National Intelli-
gencer, Gillespie stiled himself the Agent of the Managers. It
is proper to state that Mr. Seaton, one of the editors of this
paper, was, at'that very time, a member of the Board of Al-
dermen of Washington. The ticket in question wa signed
by the President of the Board of Managers for the very pur-
pose of being sent to Mr. Clarke. It passed through the,
hands of Gillespie's clerk, and the money for the ticket was re-
ceived by the Clerk and applied to Gitlespie's use.
The case was fully argued at the last term of this court, and
the counsel for the corporation submitted to the court several
questions of law, and asked instructions t the jury. upon these
questions. The court gave several opinions and instructions,
and among others. decided, and so instructed the jury, thatt
if, from the evidence, they should find that Gillespie purchased
the said Lottery of the sani Managers, as stated by the witness,
and sold the said lottery ticket t to the plaintiff, and received
the price of that and all thie other tickets sold in tie said Lot-
tery to his own use and benefit, that he Corporation of Wash-
ington were not liable, upon the evidence aforesaid, for the
pa) meant of thIe prizi money claimed by the plaintiff."
The Jury did not yield to the instruction of the Court, but
returned a verdict for the plaintiff, which the Court set aside,
and awarded-a new trial.
The cause came on again at thie present term, and the anxi-
ety of tire co,'sel, on both sides, to place it in a situation for a
final decision, b3 the Supreme Court, at as early a period as
possible, induced an arrangement, by which it was agreed that
a verdi't should be taken for the amount claimed, to be sub-
ject to the opinion of the Court upon the evidence stated.
When this arrangement was made, it was well understoodthat
the Conut would decide against the plaintiff; and such was their
decision-and pronounced, at once, without argument. This
is the trjl which is stated to have taken place at this term.
The question may now be considered to be fairly before the
Supreme Court ; and it will be for that Court to say whether
llke Corporation of Washington are liable for the payment of
that prize.

Newspaper Market.-It must be marvellously
gratifying to newspaper editors to be informed,
that in the recent rage for speculation, and the
consequent rise.of articles, which have extended
from cotton to cow's horns, and even affected the
price of CANDY, (which, we learn, has experienced
an advance in our market of nearly half a centt
per stick) the article in which they are most in-
terested has niot been overlooked. It is stated
that the London newspapers have advanced a
half-penny a day for three days, and the demand
greatly increased We do not see why thile rise
of newspapers in England should not affect the
market here as well as the rise of other stock ar-
ticles, and we can assure the public they may run
the risk of many a worse speculation than be-
coming subscribers to ounr-ournal.-Providence

Proofs of Fulgarity.-'rhere is no surer sign of
vulgarity than a jactitation of gentility. An anxi-
ety to appear particularly knowing in such rules
of good -breeding as Mr. Dilworth expounded and
governantes inculcate, betrays the miserable
ambition of a vulgar mind. Under-bred pretend-
ers to fashion are perpetually talking of what is,
and what is not the thing: they have always a
part to learn, and are, consequently, like the
bourgeois gentilhomnre, ever running over on the
subject of their studies : they are wonderfullyy
shrewd observers of glaring, solecisms, and are
bitterly severe oni any departure from those es-
tablished canons laid down in the Primer of Po-
liteness. What little they ostentatiously para'lye, and most vehemently
do they insist on its laws.-London Examiner.

CHE AW, APmIL 15.-Speculation is on tiptoe.-
The recent news from England of the rapid rise
-of cotton, has set the country in great commotion.
Three expresses within the last two days have
passed through this place, from the North, bound
Southwardly. One express rode from Fayette-
ville to this place in 8 hours, a distance of 68
miles: in doing this, we understand he killed a
valuable horse. The merchants of this place
have sent their purchasers in every direction
through the country, and nothing is now talked
of but cotton, cotton, cotton j where shall I
buy ?' what will you take P' 'what will you give?'
I might easily have made a fortune,' says one,
'if I had purchased as I intended'-' d-n it'
says another, what a blockhead I was for sell
ing at 16 cents, when I could now get 0SO cents'
-' all the prudent men,' cries a third, declined
purchasing, while the hairbrained fellows lay hold
of all they could get'-' that proves the old adage'
says a fourth, the greater the fool, the greater
the luck'-' there is a tide in the affairs of men,
when taken at the flood leads on to fortune,' says
a liftlf, with an important air,-' its a d--:'d in-
sidious article,' roars a sixth, with evident vexa-
tion-'Oh that I had received the news a little
sooner,' sighs a seventh-' I've just hit it,' ex-
claims another, with exultation, five thousand
dollars made this morning !' Thus you will hear
self reproach and felicitation in every quarter,
as the parties have succeeded or failed in their
speculations in cotton. A rapid rise truly On
Tuesday last 19 cents was thie highest price, to-
day 30 cents was paid. So we go.-Int.

HALIFAX, (N. S.) APRIL 12.-On Monday
night last, young Harrison's house in Macan Co.
Cnmberland,.near the Methodist Meeting House,
was burnt to the ground, and himself and three
children were burnt in it. The woman who lived
with him was the only one who escaped, and she
was alarmed by hearing Harrison cry out fire.
She got out of the window in the room where she
slept, leaving behind her the infant who slept in
thq same bed with her. The other two children
slipt with Harrisori, and there was no window in
his room. The bones of the three sufferers were
found togeth r in the cellar near the door, and it
is supposed he was making his way to the door,
with. the children in his arms, when the .cellar
floor fell in.

In this City, on Thursday the 14th inst. by the Rev
Mr. McCan, Mr. SAMUEL DITTY, of Georgetown, to
Miss CECILIA COOK, of Gloucestershire, England.

In Georgetown, on the 25th instant, at the residence
of her grandmother Mrs. E. P. Custis, HIARRIET MUR-
RAY ROGERS, aged 6 years, one of the lovely and inter-
estinsg children of Lloyd N. Rogers, Esquire, of Bal-
The branch, from which the rose-buds sprung,
Was early torn away,
But to the parent tree they clung,
And grafted there the cluster hung
More beauteous everyday.
Shelter'd from every withering blast,
Shaded from scorching rays,
Their tender leaves are opening fast,
Their fragrance on the breeze is cast,
As through their cells it plays.
But one, in all its richest bloom,
Is gathered from the stem,
To deck the garlands of the tomb,
And share the cold and withering doomn
That ever waits for then)m.
But ev'n from that cold withering doom,
Those garlands shall revive :
The breath of Heaven pervades the tomb,
To raise them in immortal bloom,
Where they shall ever live.


The Legislature of this state adjourned on the
21st imtttitt, after a session of 108 days, during
which 326 bills were passed amnitg which were
those for the incorporation of three banks and
eighteen insurance companies.
Thlie appropriations, during the present session,
for purposes of local and general improvement,
independently of tny small sums for the con-
struction of roads, but including the final appro-
priations for the Northern andl Western canals,
amioutnt to about one million of dollars. Among
the important works upon which these sums are
authorized to be expended, are the following :-
The Cayuga and Seneca canal, by which the na-
vigation between the Seneca lake and the Erie
canal will be rendered perfect, 150 000 dollars.
The improvement of the navigation of thei Oswe
go river, 160,000 dollars. Draining the Cayuga
Marshes, &c. 80,000 dollars. 'lhe complete n of
the feeder at Glen's Falls, 40,000 dollars. The
survey of seventeen Canal routes, 12,500 dollars.
And an appropriation for the survey of a -tate
road from Lake Erie to the Hudson.
Other laws and recommendations of a general
and important nature have been adopted during
the present session. Among these, the reader
will recollect the act providing for the choice of
Presidential Electors by districts ; the proposi-
tion for the extension of the elective franchise;
another for the election of Justices of the Peace;
the amended mode of a revision of the laws ; the
amendment of the general tax law; the extension
of the time of sale of lands for quit rents ; and
for the appointment of appraisers of damages
arising from the canals.
This has been a session of able and long re
ports. Of these, the annual report of the Canal
Commissioners ; the annual report of the Com-
missioners of the Canal Fund, and their report
ofa digested system fori the regulation of the ca-
nals ; the annual report of the Comptroller ;
several able reports from the Attorney General
and the State Prison report; are conspicuous;
as are, also, many reports from the various stand-
ing and select committees.
Of the subjects which, from the pressure of
other applications, and the late period of the ses-
sion at which they were acted upon, were laid
over, there are none the failure of which we re-
gret more than the appropriation of the Several
Academies, and the proposed endowment of Ge-
neva College. A reasonable application of the
public funds for purposes connected with the
public education and morals, may be expected, if
it may not be said to be a characteristic, of free

Illustrations of Lying.-It has pleased Mrs.
OPIE, since she has turned a Quakeress, to read
a lecture to the world, in two volumes, under the
title of Illustrations of Lying. The world has
been notoriously given to this vice; and, like a
true lover of truth, she does not flatter it, but
tells mankind pretty roundly that they are a ge-
neration of liars. Sir W. Scott, the romancer,
Tom Cribb, the fibber, Major Longbow, and all
other conscious dealers in falsehood, i will plead
guilty to her charges; but it will shock a great
many very worthy people besides, to discover
that they have been in a daily habit of lying
without knowing it. They have never indulged,
perhaps, in the lie of flattery, and bestowed high
praises on a young friend's poetry; nor in the lie
of convenience, and denied themselves to Mrs.
Beverley; nor even in the lie of benevolence,
and given a tender character of a discharged
coachman. But let them just take a glance at
the mirror which Mrs. Opie holds up to the.mi in
her chapter on lies practical. These are the lies
not uttered but acted, and are Satan's own stuti-
bling blocks, no doubt, for the deaf and dumb;
such are wearing paste for diamonds, purchas-
ing broaches, pins, and rings of mock jewels;"
and passing off gooseberry wine, at dinner, for
champagnee" The man that hides baldness by
gluing a piece of false hair to his head," is a prac-
tical liar ; and so is the lady with an artificial
front. A wig, if it be well made, is a lie; the
Devil is the father of lies, and so is an old scratch.
How many pious, and otherwise moral, old gen-
tlemen are walking into eternity with their lies
upon their heads But their case is not despe-
rate,-for Mrs. Opie says-" ,f the false hair be
so worn that no one can fancy it natural, if the
bloom on the cheek is such that it cannot be mis-
taken for nature, then is thle deception annihilat-
ed." Let the woman of sin prefer rouge, but the
lover of truth will use ruddle; let the man of
fashion and the world still glue on his false cox-
comb, the consciencious will betake himself to a
Welsh wig; and the gallant Marquis, who has a
make-believe leg, will walk about, if lie is.in-
genuous, with a corkscrew in his calf!
[London Globe and Traveller.

The trial of Samuel Fields for the murder of Rlobert
Murphy, a constable of Franklin county, came on at
Brookville, in (he state of Indiana, on the 24th ultimo
The prisoner on being ri'raigned plead not guilty. Atf-
ter the examination of witnesses and pleadings of coun-
sel, the jury retired, and after the space of about an
hour' returned with a verdict of guilty. On the next
morning thie Judge pronounced the sentence of the
law upon the prisoner. He is to be executed on Friday
the 27th of May next. The culprit is eighty-five years

6C* A semni-annual communication of the
Grand Lodge of the District of Columbia will be held at
the Western Masonic Hall in thie city of Washington oni
Tuesday next, the 3d of May, at 10 o'clock A. M.
April 28. Grand Secretarrv.

g" COLUMnBIAN YBGE s.-Cornpanuy Or'ders.
T'hn Companyy .ti', parade, t011 Satod,,y neXt, at milie
o'clock, A. M. in front of the Captain's Quarters, fully
armed and equipped; ach member will furnish him-
self with twelve rounds of blank Cartridges.
As this is on-e of the legal parades, all delinquencies
will be noticed, and fines levied according to law.
By order:
april 28 E. GUTTSCHILICII, 0. S.

g;C' WASHINGTON GUARDS! Assemble, coin-
pleely equipped, fin' inspection and drill, accordingly
to law, on Saturday text, 30th inst., 9 o'clock, A. M,
Post Office Ground. By order:
.1. P. FONDE, 1st Sergeant.
N. B. Roll will be called at half past 9 o'clock pre.-
cisely, according to the new constitution.
april 26-33t

FAliI price, in cash, cant, be had 'for a servant who
is a good Blacksmith. Ilqnliie of lNlCHAll) BAll-
RY, at the Naval Store, Nay) Yard, Washington.
Ten or twelve thousand acres of LAND, in the Stale
of Illinois, could be had. at a very reduced price, in
Exchange for Slaves. Inquire as abmve,
apTit 7-3w NI

VARNUM & ,aWEii. ,nv cciied by the Java,
A del'U, awld Cha. icci an. assortment of SPRING
a",d SUMAV?, (;l (6,Ol), vz:
C' tt.- Ialic, Gti;eadiere,ric.: figured black, whi and
colored Silbk ; 5.4 .1 ack India Litisti i s, Imitation Ital-
.an; black Itlaiin i.usiring, blick an;i. drab Sens'law,
i, c ba ar, ct, green Se shaw for covering (.m-
bre:l!as bl!ckand colored Le.'a.it irs, wide and narrow
lack M'oed; black, white, pi,,k, green, bhie and straw
Fire c's; olac.. white, pink, blue, anr d blac- -at;ns;
black, white, pink, bin;, straw, aid- green Crape; Cr.'pe
i.isse, Nankeen a:.d Canton Ciape, dato Robes. colored
Frenci, M'slhns, su;jrior Lo ndtii Printi. Jackonett
Camtrics, G sgbams andi Gini,-iam Robes, Ladies' and
Ghildre,'s Miiuslin Robe ., Ins.-rtUiigs, E -ttings and
"'louiccinii.;', Mu, lm .IB tis, Barieye stil; lrtenadiere
Scarfi, Phi.1 Le.a;nti:5 e Sea; k; Barege. Gauz and
.Silk IHdk!s, Bbbinett d Gtze Veis, ca and
Bobbiiiett l.aces and Eldg'.ig, Scio Gauze, anrd oiliher
rilch figU:'ed ldibho'.s, li;,,i; Mluslin Poir;ts, plain and
figured Swass, Mull, nd Bun)k Musimns, L'nn' Cam-
0bics aind lldkfs, old style Bandanna; Flagg, English,
Spittaifield, German, anld 5-4 black italian 'ilk tidkfs
f'lr Cravats; C(orsetis mads by Madam Cantaliou, Silk.
a-d lT,itn 'Jo Urs-.t Laces, Jeans f(.r Corseis, India Mts.
lin Long Shawls, ve'ry low; Camb c, Furniture, and
other Dimit es, Silk, Ma.seilles, Valentia, and other
Vcstings; Flowers and Wreaths, elegant embroidcr.-d
and ribbed Silk Hose, Ladies' and Gentlemen's CttolL
Hosiery of aill kids, Gloves ditto, Orrc!l's Ball and
,p.'1) l otton, Clirk'., Floss ditto, Sewing ';ilk all co-
'*ir., Needles, 1 cte Irish Lieinsa and Slet-eeting, I Caut
L.egtiihos f-onm 3 50 up, I case Boys' Hats, I1 cas
Straw and Gimp, I case Umbrellas, I case Parasols.
Their assortment comprises all the articles usually
kept in a Dry Good Store.
.pril 28-4t

Y virtue of two writs ji i'ri facia;, issued by Johrn
S Chalmers, a Justice of ithe Peace for the Co.-n:v of
Washington, and to me directed, I shall expose t, pub-
lic sale, for Cash, on Wednesday, thie 4th day of May
next, at 11 o'clock, A. M. a Frame House, situs ed on
Pennsylvania Avenue,near to Mr. Barnard Parson.--and
also the Garden and Fence around. A!so, one Bureau,
I barrel of Flour, 1 barrel of Shad, nIl 1 of Hlerring,
and, also, several small .rticles.
Seized and taken as the property of Michael Carroll,
and will be sol91 to satisfy debts due James E'.vLil and
Sarah Spratt.
april 28-3t Conistable;

TtHE subscriber wishes to purchase from forty to fifty
T Negroes'of either sex, for %hom Cash will be im-
mediately given.
april 28-eolM WASHINGTON IOBY.

r'HE country seat near Rock Creek, on the height,
SWest of Major M. Nourse's residence, within
a mile of the Presdent's house. The situation is one
of the handsomest in the District; there is a great varie-
ty of the best fruit; the buildings consist in a two story
house, part stone and part frame, with five good rooms,
a Kitchen, Stable, and Carriage House, which will all be
in good order in two weeks, when possession may be
had. The rent will be moderate to a good tenant.
april 28-4t

New Series,
'ro be drawn in Philadeltphia on the 11th of .ay, 1825,
and finished in a few minutes.
The Capital Prizes are:
50,000 DOLLARS,
20,000 DOLLARS,
10,000 DOLLARS,
2 of 5,000 DOLLARS,
1 of 4,720 DOLLARS,
20 of 1000 DOLLARS,
Besides 30 of 500,&c &c.
0:'Certificate package of 20 whole tickets, $132-
20 halves, g66-20 quarters, $33.
Whole Tickets $10 00 Quarters $2 5'
Halves 5 00 o Eighths 1 25
For sale in a great variety of numbers at
Lottery and Exchange Office,
Pennsylvania Avenue, Wishiangtou City.
0('Orders by mail (post paid) will receive immediate
spri; 28-3t

tifs THE subscriber oilers for rent that large
.iJjI~ and commodious Hous: on the theigihts of
Georgetown, which she at present occupies. f'lheIe
are five rooms and a very large passage on the first
floor, and three excellent roim oil tile secoril floor,
aid the garret and basement are both li iisomt ly
finished Attached to the house are two txiensivc
Green HouseF, containing several kinds of' orange.
Lime, Lemon, and Citrot Trees; and a very extensive
falling Garden, laid off in the most tasteful imiainwer, con-
taiing all the descriptions of Shrubs, Herbs, &c. com-
mronly found in GardenE; also a great variety o: choice
Fruit Trets, consisting of Apricots, reaches, Pears,
Cherries, P;ums, &c. From this situation there is a litre
view of Georgetown, Washington, and Alexandria. No
situation in the District affords a finer view. 1. is with-
in ten titutes' wylk of tie centre of' Georgetut.i n. A
furtherr description is deemed unnecessary, as any pet'.
son wishing to rent will first view the preni.s s.
april 28 -S3awtf MARY T. 'IUtNER.
.6nd Preservative I'egetable Cerate.
S I'ILL nittre pret of' le uondeiful el'..i:,s of thle
Presr. r alive Vegetable li.-l CEiIA'E. which
will app :ar by the subsequent certificate wi.ich I have
received frdm the proprietor this morrniln oi in New
York, to be published at the particular request of the
patient for the benefit ol th; public,
Niw YouiK, Eldridge street, Oct. 12, 18'4.
Sin: Your Vegetable Cerate ihavinig pinc neid 'my
hair froim c ming out. 1 recommended i to Devine,
',hi was nearly bald; he had not used it more than four
wrecks when a vigorous vegetation of young Iar made
its appearance. Fromni a motive of curiosity I late paid
iuchli attention to its action for fifteen montlis, and
from actual observations 1 an safely say I lihae seen as
mauy as fifty persons whose hair has been re prtoduf-
ed, in this city. I am induced to be iece from tire
above that it is thie only thing yet ever discovered that
re produces the hair. With respect,
N B A fresh supply of the above mentioned Gerate
is received, accompanied with certificates identity ing
its wonderul effects, to be had only at my l)rung andt
Patent Medicine Store, No. 22, Centre Market space,
Ilaltimnre, and of the following Agents by my appoint-
ment, viz:
Mr. 'ITomas Welib, sole agent for City of Washing.-
Mr. Otho M. Lnthicum, do for Georyetorwn
Messrs. Sliaw & GU ubril do for Aniiapolis
Mr. Fisciher, do for Fredericktown
Messrs Fred'k Miller and Sen, do for HIagcrstown
Messrs. Scott & Co. do for Cambridge, E. S.
l)r. Thomas II. tawson, do for Eastun
Mr. Thomas lhucle.al, do Ior Greernsborough.
Sole agent for the tatae o'f Maryland.
ar"il 9R-St

SILL be given by tire siuOseriber, at Abraham Mlay.
V her's ITavern, High Street, Georgetown, for a
10OLD WATCH, Chain, and pair of Gold Seals;'which
he supposes to have losL, or some person has taken
,bent for amusement. If so, I should be glad they would
return them, and receive the thanks of
april 23-3t JAMES HF. M'COY.
Of every drscripfion, executed at this Office.




Mcssrs. GALES & SEASON :
Gerdlemen: You complain that "I drag in the
names of Mr. Carter, Mr. Ga'nett,&c. in a poli-
tico-economical discussion," which you regard as
?' personality," and of course improper.
*I cannot admit, that, for the purpose of prov-
ing important positions, there is any ''personuli-
/y" in tole mere quotation of the declarations of
public Inin, delivered in the Hall of Congress,
and published with the sanction of their names.
For this procedure, these are rmy reasons. I sin-
c-rely bulieeie that our policy is radically un-
sound, that it withers the energies and paralyzes
the resources of the nation, and that it has pro-
duced intense distress, at different periods,
among all classes. For the existence of this dis-
tress, in a very large portion of the Union, more
than one-haif of its ancient territory, I quoted
Mr. Carter's words, as the best evidence that
can be desired,and as completely overwhelming.
Can this be styled personality ?"I
The consideration of the subject opens.a wide
and expansive view of the past and present si-
tuation,of this country, to which I invite your
attention and that of your readers. From this in-
vestigation we are not to be deterred by the ac-
tual state of affairs, which, i6 most parts of the
country, I admit to be highly gratifying. But,
even now, I stand prepared to prove, that certain
important portions of the Union furnish strong
exceptions, and suffer intensely. A wise systern
would, render all the nation flourishing and pros-
perous together.-
I might rest the merits of tie question of our
policy, for the first twenty-three years of the ex-
istence,.of our government, on.our destitution of
almost all the cotton and woollen manufactures
requisite for our clothing or comfort, as well as
of a large portion of the manufactures of iron,
steel, copper, brass, lead, &c. &c. at the cero-
mencement of the late war ; on the inability of
the government, previous to its commencement,
to supply the Indians with 86,000 worth of
blankets, dueto them by treaty; on the suffer-
ings of, and mortality among, our armies on the
Northwestern frontier, during the early part of
the war, when more of them perished by sickness,
produced by want of proper clothing, than by the
muskets of the enemy ; on the bankruptcy of our-
Treasury in the second year of the war ; and!
finally, on our inability, during the tlirtymonths
which it continued, to raise, by every species of
'taxation, direct aind indirect, more than 36,642,-
448 dollars, being obliged to taise the residue of
the war expenditure, by grievous and usurious
oIans! If these strong.and indisputable facts do;
not prove "something rotten" fn the policy of'
the country, during that-period, then I am at a
loss to tell what is proof.
But I.pass over these awful blots in the escut-
cheon of our statesmen, and confine 'my examin-
ativ)i to the ten years which have elapsed since
the' close of the war, and shall extend my observ-
ations to the various interests existing in our
common country. In judging of the state of na-
tions, it would be absurd to confine our views to
particular sections, or to very short periods of
time. XWere this plan admissible, there never
was a. country .which might not be made to ap-
pear prosperous. Calamitous as has been for
centuries the situation of Spain and Ireland,
there never was a period in which portions of
'both countries did not enjoy prosperity. In the
deserts of Arabia there are oases as exhilarating
to the eye as the most delightful spots of France
or Italy.
As a preliminary to the investigation, I assume
as postulata- ...
I. That experience" is the test of theory inr
every science ; and that, however plausible a
theory may appear, if it be not only not confirm-
ed, but absolutely condemned by fact and expe-
rience, it is untenable, and ought to be abandon-
fld by all rational-men. '
II; That the great end of government is to
promote tlie happiness of the governed, and that,
so far-as it fails to effect this purpose, it fails of
its paramount duty.
III. Tlhat this country enjoys advantages, na-
tural, moral, and political, certainly never ex-
ceeded; perhaps never, at all events very rarely,
IV. That our citizens are hardy, energetic,
enterprizing, and industrious ; that they are al-
together free from tithes, and almost from taxes;
that, all circumstances considered, our govern-
ment is inexpensive; that the country affords
almost'every variety of soil and climate; that of
cotton, one of the most -valuable raw materials
in the world, it produces about half the quantity.
consumed in Europe and America, and is capa
ble of producing enough to supply the consump-
tion of the whole world ; that its capacity for sup-
plying wool in abundance, not merely for its own
consumption, but for exportation on a large scale,
cannot be doubted ; that its stores of iron, coal,
lead, copper, and various other minerals, and
likewise of timber, are inexhaustible ; that it is
intersected by some of the most magnificent ri-
vers in the world, which afford as great facilities
for internal trade 'as any nation ever enjoyed;
that its extensive sea-coast affords equal facilities
for foreign commerce; that nine-tenths, perhaps
more, of the cultivators, are owners of the soil;
that lands may be purchased here for less than
the rents, poor rates, or tithes in various parts of
Great Britain, so that the wages of a common
laborer for two or three weekn, would suffice to
purchase'three, four, or five acres of land; in a
word, that this country possesses every requisite
to secure as high a degree of happiness as ever
fell to the lot of any nation.
V. That with these advantages, ifit has stiffer-
ed, or does suffer distress, it must arise from un-
sounl policy-or, in other words, from not avail-
itg itself of the blessings bestowed on it by
Suspend your ire and indignation while I at-
iifpt to proye--
I. That our policy, how plausible soever in
theory, is radically unsound and pernicious in
II. That it has not, during the period embrac-
edti.in'iis essay,'promoted the prosperity of the
nation to an extent by any means commensurate

wit its means : on the contrary,
III. Notwithstanding the immense advantages
aboveitenumerated, every division of the country,
north and south, east and west-and every des-
cription -of industry,, has, during the ten years
herein contemplated, suffered intense distress.
At one time it was the north-at another, the
south--at another, the east-and at another, the,

wes.t; at one time farm1in;,--at another, cotton,
at another tobacco planting-at another, mnaiml'.tc-
turcs; at anoIlher, cunmmetce, and sometimes, as inm
1819 and 1820, every description o! the pursuits of
industry. All have partaken of the distress
arising fromn a system discarded by all the na-
tions of the civilized world, except the United
States and Holland. There is no other coun-
try in which there are not eitherabsolute prohibi-
tions or prohibitory duties, on articles, time great
staples of the country, or produced out of those
staples. There is no nation in Europe, which
does not prohibit the importation of bread stufls,
except in cases of danger of famine. The duties
on manufactures ins Great Britain are from 40 to
172 per cent. There are at least 50 articles pro-
hibited in France. Russia prohibits nbove 500.
Austria prohibits every kind of cottons, linens,
and woollens. Prussia has a variety of prohibi-
tions and prohibitory duties. The commercial
system of Sweden," says Rordanz, is foutided
on the most rigorous prohibition of almost every
article of foreign produce or manufacture."
Mexico prohibits raw cotton, tobacco in the leaf,
wax, lace, cotton, thread, &c. &c. The govern-
ment of the isthmius of Panama prohibits every
species of manufactured cloths, white, or color-
ed. Boots, shoes, chairs, tables, sofas, bureaus,
and all kinds of cabinet ware, pay double duties.
Peru imposes double duties on all articles that
directly prejudice the industry/ of the country."
To this enumeration I might make large addi-
tions-but it is, I presume, unnecessary.
While nearly the whole civilized world exhi-
bits this system in full operation, every attempt
to copy it in the smallest degree-not to pro-
hibit foreign manufactures-nor even to impose
prohibitory duties, but to increase the duties
5, 10, or 15 per cent. is resisted here with as
mntch zeal and ardor, and as high-handed threats,
as if the civil and religiouss liberties of the coun-
try were about to be destroyed root and branch.
Holland keeps us in countenance. She has
neither. prohibitions nor prohibitory duties. She
holds out an awful warning" to the world,
and has been gradually decaying ever since her
fataltariff of 1816 was enacted.
But this is somewhat of a digression-not, how-
ever, I hope, wholly irrelevant. I return to the
state of the country, and commence with a view.
of the southern section. During the -first session
of the late Congress, April 5, 1824, Mr. Carter,
one .of the Representatives of South Carolina, in
the Congress of the United States, drew a most
gloomy picture of this portion of the country,
strong and striking, which I quoted in my former
number, and which, in order to place the subject'
at once fairly and fully before the public eye, I
beg leave to repeat-
"The prostration of their foreign markets has spr'eadc
" over the face of the South a general pervading gloom.
" TO THE GULPtH OF MEXICO, where all the arts of
"civilized life once triumphed, TfHE ARM OF INI)U
"TRY.IS NOW PARALYZED. Large and ample es
" states, once the seats of. opudence, which" supported their
"proprietors in afluence 'and comfort, ARE NOW
This frightful picture is true or false. False
it cannot be, without' implicating the honor of a
respectable and high-minded citizen, who would
scorn the attempt at any thing that bore the sem-
blance ofhdeception. It must therefore be true.
"Then, gentlemen, I appeal to you as men of hon-
or, and to the nation at large, whether it does not
bear on its front a volume of reprobation of a sys-
tem which has produced such hideous scenes in a
country so supremely blessed by heaven as that
embraced within the declaration of Mr. Carter !
This single statement, unless destitute offounda-
tion, would be sufficient to decide the charac--
ter of our policy.
Does any part of the worst-governed country
in Europe exhibit much more frightful scenes ?
What, in fact, can be worse than "paralyzing the
" arm of industry," and throwing out large and
ample estates to decay ?"
Let us see what portion of this rising empire
has, so recently as April, 1824, been pervaded
by this awful desolation

Virgiinia, -
North Carolina,
South Carolina,,
Georgia, -
Alabama, -
Mississippi, -


Square miles.

Population in 1820 2,767,686sq.ms. 283,000
With the testimony of Mr, Carter I might rest
fully satisfied-but "to make assurance doubly
sure," and because we hear the cry of the un-
paralleled advancement and prosperity of the
country re-echoed throughout the land, the belief
of which is calculated to prevent any attempt at
a change of our policy, I shall, add the declara-
tions of other gentlemen. Let me observe, how-
ever, en passant, that the worst form of govern-
ment ever devised, and the most grinding admi-
nistration, could not prevent the advancement of
a country where land is to be had in fee-simple
lor a do'llal and a quarter, a dollar and a half,
or two dollars per acre, and where there is no
hierarchy to claim one-tenth of the produce of the
coil-and no excise officer to sieze on the hard
earnings of the poor.
Mr. Tattnall declared, in Congress, at a pre-
ceding session, that-
S"Poverty was wearing Georgia to the bone."
Mr. Garnett, speaking of the situation of Vir-
ginia, stated, during the same session, that-
Its population was driven into distant lands-and re-
" duced to beg.aary-an..d that desolation was spread over
" tihe country."
Mr. Randolph re-echoed the same sentiments,
respecting the decay of the state of Virginia;
which were corroborated by declarations of other
Now, I hope and trust that the question of na-
tional prosperity, and ".the success of our poli-
cy," about which we have had so many "flourish-
es of trumpets," is settled forever, so far as re-
gards this section of the country, embracing
about one-fourth of our entire population. And,
let it be observed, that the awful state of affairs
here depicted, is not a sudden or transitory re-
sult. It commenced with the reduction of the
price of cotton and tobacco in 1819, and has
been growing worse, from year to year, ever
It may be said, that a beneficial change is nowu
taking place, by the rise of the price of cotton
and tobacco-and that therefore these retrospec-
tions might well be spared, as too gloomy for the
present order of things.*
A reply to this is easy. This melioration be-
longs wholly, to the chapter of accidents, on
which statesmen should never place any reliance.
A diminution, of constunption in, Eur.ope, or a*

great increase ofi supply, may produce as -rii(u.
a reduction o. price as tuok place ont the extra-
vagant importation of Vast India cotton nito
Great rit'a;in in 1818. But had the price of both
staples risen two hundred per c.ent. it would not
at all aff'ct the question. Our government, at
all events, cau claim no merit fr'iii the change.
The advance has not risen from any change in its
policy, nor from any sound or wive mei'a:,ure of
its adoption. (On the contrary, the inmpriivemnent
in the prices of cotton and tobacco affords thi
strongest condemnation of our system, the ob-
vious tendency of which has been to diminish the
customers and increase the rivals of our agri-
cultural population-thus increasing the produc-
tions of the earth-and of course dimiinishinw the
domestic, and glutting the foreign markets.
Whereas the principal cause of the rise of price
has been the decrease of exportation ; which, of
cotton, was reduced from 177,7S,370 lbs. in
1823, to 144,673,095 in 1824 ; and of tobacco,
from 99,009 hhds. in 1820, to 77,883, in 1824.
Thus, let it be repeated, and never for a moment
lost sight of, by our rulers, the more we export,
the less we receive for it-and the less we export,
the more it produces. Thisis the most important
lesson which our statesmen can study-but they
never deign to take into consideration the po-
licy of the Dutch respecting the spice trade-
which led to keep the markets constantly spar-
ingly supplied. Ours unfortunately produces a
diametrically opposite effect.
Philadelphia, 1pril 21, 1825.
P. S. Should any objection be offered to the
repetition of facts and arguments contained in
this essay, let it be borne jn mind that they are
adduced in refutation of assertions five hundred
times repeated.
(To be continued.)
Let it be observed, that the operation of this rise in
the price of cotton and tobacco is extremely limited, and
does not in the slightest degree affect the farming inte-
rest, above one-half of the population of the 'United
States, which groans under the exclusion of its bread-
stuffs from the European markets, the want of which, to
the discredit of iour government, has never been at-
tempted to be supplied by a domestic one. Adequate
encouragement to the woollen manufacture, would af-
ford a market for millions of pounds of wool, annually,
to the enrichment ofourfarmers, who would be thereby
enabled and encouraged to devote to the raising of
sheep, a portion of their time, talents, and capital, which
is now unproductively employed in cultivating graini.
This is but a slight view of the dereliction of duty ot
which our government has been guilty, towards that in-
teresting part ofithe nation employed in raising food for
our sustenance. It is not, therefore, to be wondered at,
that, from the above exclusion, the exportation of flour,
which, in 1817, produced $17,751,376, sunk down, in
1824, to $4,902,872. This calamitous result has never
awakened the sympathy, or called fur the interference
of our rulers. I 'shall enter fully into the state of the
farming interest in my next.

The beautiful 'thorough bred Horse
W ILL be let to Ma.tes this season, ait my Mil).Farm
in Montgomery County, about four" miles above
Georgetown, arid about a mile and a half above Tenally
I'own, tin the River Road at the price offiftien dollars
the season, for each mare, but which may be discharg-
ed by ten dpllars if paid by the first day of October
.ext;, twenty dollars to ensure a foal; five dollars clash
the single leap; and fifty cents in each case to the groom,
ROB, ROY is of a dark chesnut color, full fifteen and
i half hands high, and in point of blood, symmetry of
form, and elegance of figure and action, is not, it is be-
ieved, surpassed, by any bore in this country, He wais
tirel by the lion. John Randolph, of Roanoke, Virgi-
iia, and from his best stock, as will be seen by the fol.
owing !
Rob Rpy was got by Mr. Itandoluh's thorough bred
horse Gracchus;; hij damn (he imported mare Lady
Bunhury,) was got by Trumpator, out of Theopha, by
Ilighflyer; Plaything, by Matahem; Vixen, by Regu-
lus, &c.
Gracehus was got by the celebrated imported horse
Diomed-his dam. Cornulia, by Chanticleer;. Vanity, by
Celer; Mark A\ninr.% Jolly Roger, &c.
Rob Roy is an aged Horse, but has never been broke,
')r covered a marc.
Good pasturvge will be provided for mares coming a
considerable distance, at 50 cents each per week; and
ihcy will also be fed on grain, if required, at the market
;price. Care will :be taken o;f all such; but there will
be no liability for accidents or escapes in any case.
i Grain of all kinds, delivered at my mill, will be,
*received in payment, at the market price.
The season to comments the 1st of April, and end
thet 20th day of July next.
VI, S. R'; B ROY will have a stand at Geo. Semmes',
Esq. Prince George's County, near the Potomac River,
a short distance beloww Alexandria, on Mondays, Tues.
days, and Wednesdays, in each week, during the sea-
son, and the remainder ofthe week he will be at my
Mill Farm above mentioned. N. I
Y OR BILLY RU: KER, who absconded on Sunday
1C' last from, Mr. R. M. STROTHER, of Culpeper, to
vliomn he was hired. He is a very likely black fellow
about 26 years old;' lie is a fellow of a pleasant counte-
nance, and a coarse shoemaker. From what I can learn,
he has procured a free pass, and will aim to get to the
state of Pennsylvania. He has a variety of clothing, and
among them a blue surtout coat. I have every reason
to believe that a brother of this fellow Billy, by the name
ofeutiben, and belonging to Mr. John Graves, of' this
county, is with him.
Billy Rucker is about 5 feet 10 inches high.
Jl'adison Court House, Va. April 12, 1825 'w6w"NI
A TRACT containing upwards of one thousand eiglt
I. hundred acres, situtate in Richmond County, Vir
ginia, which will be divided to suit purchasers.' The'
quality and locality of this land is .equal to any forces'
land in the lo"'er part of the Northern Neck The
north fork of Tolasko 'Creek passing through it, af
fords an inexhaustible' supply of water for mills and
other machinery; and there is now an excellent dam.
and the remains of an extensive grist and saw mill, re
certly destroyed by fire.
The soil of the above tract is well adapted to thi
growth of Indian Corn,Wheat, Tobacco, and Cotton, (the
latter becoming largely cultivated in that section of Vir
giuia.) The 'Timber, of which there are several hun-
dred acres, is of the first quality, and suitable for ship-
building, afid other Marine purposes, besides a quanti-
ty of cedar, pine, &c. &c. all of which is easily come at,
being principally within a mile of navigation, and but
little more than three from the Rappahannock River;
hlie situation is healthy, the neighborhood reniarkably
pleasant and thriving.
Terms, a small proportion in cash, the balance, to suit
'he purchaser, by installments, bearing interest; stock
of approved banks of the District of Columbia or Balti-
more will be taken in part payment..
For further particulars, and a view of the land, cal!
on WILLIAM SETTLE, Esq. near Richmond Court
.louse, or the subscriber, who may be found at William
son's Hotel, Washington City, or at his country resi-
-lence, Sharon, Fairfax County, Va.
oct 12 eotfNI THOSE AP C. TnNF.R

? N compliance with the wishes of many stockholders
i in the Tontine Company of Washington, a general
meeting of all concerned is.requested at Williamson's
lHotel, on the first Monday of May next, at 10 o'clock
\. M. The meeting will then determine on the time
it which the whole estate shall be sold, of which timely
noticee will be given in the public prints.
march 30-NI4w JOSEPH FORREST, 'Agent.


A powerful motive for mental acliio; in out.
pointai sy->i,.i:m, i;4 that, igruwing out of thie pec',-
liar liitulre (d oitir cuonfte.:racy. T'I'his ias cu01m -
ple,ely novel, as any otiler cl' atule in tile system.
It is Strictly a confederacy ol the people, as indi-
vidluals comip';sing one great nation, and, at the
same tiu', Ioining distinct governments amuion
themselves, each of which enjoys the rights and
privileges of sovereignty, wilhiu certaiiii defined
limits. Ouur transatlantic critics call this a wheel
within a heel ; so it is, but every movement is
regular, harmonious, and uniform, without clash-
ing or jarring. A confederacy like this has ne-
ver before existed. T'lhe Grecian republics were
bound together as States, but not as constituting
one people, not as forming a uniou in which eve-
ry inhabitant of the several states had an equal
interest. The Amphictyonic league was composed
of two representatives from each city ; hence the
people were not represented in any due propor-
tion; and it would seem to have been the chief
business of the Anlphictyons to superintend the
religious concerns of Delphi, to provide for mu-
tual resistance of a common enemy, and to settle
such differences as arose between states. The
confederacy of the Nttherlands was still more
defective in its organization, although it embrac-
ed a wider sphere of legislation and control. The
provinces and some of the towns had elective go-
vernments of their own. Each might send as
many representatives to the States General as it
chose, but when assembled they'could collective..
ly have only one vote in that body. The
resolution of the States General, in many cases,
could not be carried into effect, till approved by
the provincial legislatures, and even here a una-
nimous vote was sometimes required. The au-
thority of the Stadtholder, or President, was
greater than that possessed by the heads of some
monarchies. lhe principles of the Helvetic
confederacy are not less complicated and im-
To the peculiar nature of our confederacy,
therefore,,we may look for the action of new mo-
tives on the mind and character. As several
small states, united by the bond of common in-
terest, afford a barrier to the encroachment of
power, so in like manner they present facilities
for the progress of intellect. ,. Such a union ef-
fectually breaks down the despotism of authority,
which in all monarchical governments has as-
sumed a pernicious sway over the mind, and has
been the source of the superstitions, and false
opinions,which have kept whole nations in a state
of intellectual servitude for many ages. History.
exhibits curious examples of the influence of au-
thority over a nation, founded an the opinions of
a sovereign ; and every one knows, that the tone
of public sentiment, and too often of public mo-
rals, has been fixed by the fashion of a court. A
remarkable instance now occurs to us in the case
of witchcraft, in the reign of James the First.
'This prince early imbibed the notion of the agen-
cy of evil spirits, in controlling human affairs,
and, before he came to England, he had written
his dialogues on Demonalogie, in the Scottish di-
alect, and explained at large the practices of
these spirits, and the mannerin which they made
compacts with witch-s. He also laid down rules
for detecting witches, and urged the justice of
their being punished. Soon after James was
made King, his book was re-oublished, and lauded
by all, as Dr. Johnson said, who desired either
to gain preferment or not to lose it." Nothing
was so fashiboable as to believe in witchcraft,
and' admire the king's great wisdom and depth
of knowledge in discovering such wonders of the
invisible world. Evil spirits were seen daily,
Iwitches multiplied, and the contagion spread to
the Parliament, by which, in the first year of
James's reign, a law was passed against the in-
vocation of spirits, sorceries, charms, enchant-
snents, and the punishment of death was de-
nounced on all witches, who should be guilty of
these practices. The law, it is well known, was
frequently, and for many years put into execu-
tion. It was in the genuine spirit of the times,
that Shakspeare brought his witches on the stage.
And we doubt not, that all the absurdities and
cruelties growing out of the delusions about
witchcraft, both in Great- Britain and New Eng-
land, had their origin mainly in the diseased im-
agitation of this Scbttish prince, whose luck it
was afterwards to be a King, and to become an
object of servile flattery and imitation to his ob-
sequious subjects'.
Besides the tendency of separate governments
in small states to resist authority, and, secure
freedom of. thought, this system contributes int
the most direct manner to add incitements to
emulation. A proof of this is seen in the ancient
Grecian states; a spirit of rivalry sprang up
amopg them,-which brought out g&eat minds to
act with uncommon vigor for the honor of their
native city, or province, and which was exceed-
ingly favorable to the growth of the arts and sci-
ences ; whereas, in China, a country of immense
extent, and, inhabited by a people not less shrewd
and sagacious than the Greeks, but ruled by an
absolute monarch, scarcely a'step has been taken
in any branch of intellectual culture, from the
beginning of its history down to the present
hour. As the dominion ofauthority has been long
and stern, popular opinion has run in the same
smooth and undisturbed channel for thousands of
The motives to emulation, and the influence
of example, are peculiarly strong in small states,
united on the principles of our own, enjoying
republican institutions, and all the prerogatives
of liberty and independence. The wise laws
adopted by onie state will soon be understood
and received by its neighbors, and thus the whole
will profitby the deliberations and experience of
each. The spirit of enterprise and improvement,
which shall be kindled in one body of legislators,
will extend to others. This has already become
as true in practice as theory, and we are continu-
ally witnessing the influence of one state on ano-
ther in promoting a modification and judicious
revision of the laws, forming courts of justice on
the best models, raising up and supporting bene-
volent and literary institutions, providing for the
relief of the poor and the comfort of ie afflicted,
and in giving encouragement to all the arts of
life and means of intercourse, which answer, to
their fullest extent, the designs of the social

compact. Here is abundance of motives to intel-
lectual exertion, and no forms of government
have ever been so well calculated as our own, to
make them operative and successful.
Again, the novel form of our confederacy pre-
sents us with other advantages, conspiring to pro-
duce the same effect. The powers of the national
government reach to all our relations with fo-
reign countries, to the formation of treaties, the

regulation of commerce in all its branches, arnd
whatever else may be considered as touching
the mutual interests of great and distinct nations.
Thee au 1wers also embrace our internal con-
cerns, S t;ar as to provide for national defence,
tlie aupi;ort uf the national government, the exe-
cuLi,,n of the laws of the Union, and an equitable
conimercial intercourse between the several
States. Hence the State Legislatures are re-
lieved front tihe weightiest burdens of govern-
ment, and left to give all their attention to the
domestic and immediate interests of the people,
whom they represent ; and here their powers are
plenary. Each State, for instance, may pass such
laws, impose such taxes, and establish such re-
gulations as it pleases, for the encouragement of
education ; it can build up seminaries of learning
of the higher order, eidow colleges, institute
primary schools in every neighborhood, reward
discoveries in science, or skill in the arts, or
successful effort in any literary enterprise.
From the very first settlement of America,
says Mr. Everett, in his late Oration, to the
present day, the most prominent trait of our cha-
racter has been to cherish and diffuse the means
of education. The village school-house, and the
village church, are the monuments which the
American people have erected to their freedom ;
to read, and write, and think, are the licentious
practices which have characterized our democra-
cy.' Internal improvements of every sort, also,'
come under the cognisance of the tate legisla-
tures. Within their respective territories they
may intersect the whole country with canals, con-
struct roads, build bridges, afn graut corporate
powers for all purposes of public utility. The
same may be said of the encouragement ofindus-
try, agriculture, manufactures, useful inventions,
and whatever pertains to the elegant or substan-
tial arts of life. From these brief hints, it is ob-
vious, that the nature of our confederay supplies
new and efficient motives to intellectual -xertion,
both in quickening the powers of mind itself, and
in drawing out all its resources to devise and ex-
ecute the best schemes for every species of im-
provement, for social happiness, permanent free-
dom, and a wise government.
[North American Review.

A PREMIUM of Five Hundred Dollars will be given
for a design, which shall be approved, for orna-
nmenting the Tympanum of the Pediment of the East
Portico to the Capitol. The Pediment is supported by
eight Corinthian Columns, standing on an Arcade,
the Cornice about 70 feet above thie ground. The
base of the Tympanum is 64 feet, and the height, in the
centre, 12 feet. Drawings or Models, with the neces-
sary explanations, to be delivered to the subscriber, on or
before the 1st day of May next. J. ELGAR,
Commissioner Public Buildings.
Jan 24-N. I. lawMay 1.
Merchant Taylors, Pennsylvania avenue, Wash-
ington City,
AVE received their supply of SPRING GOODS,
of the latest fashions. Th.-y have, in addition to
.their usual stock, supplied themselves with an assort-
ment of
Stocks, Cravats, Gloves,
Silk Hosiery, black and white, English and French,
Black Silk Hdkfs. for the neck, and also a variety of
figured and colored, for the pocket.
april 27--St .
R AN away from the subscriber, living near Le.bourg,
Loudoun county, Virginia, on the 12th of August
last, a Negro man named NED, (who calls himself Ned
Thomson,) 28 years of age, abuti six feet high, remark-
alily straight, square built, and muscular, and of a cop-
per or yellow complexion ; and has, I am told, upo. the
right side, just below the breast, a small scar of about 11
inches in length, occasioned, lie says, by a btrn. Upon
each of his knees, he has a scat, it is however possible
they are both upon one knee, and, in that event, they
are, I think, upon the left knee, as one of them was pro-
duced by a cut with an axe, and the other from the cut
of a scythe. I think in walking he turns his toes a little
in, and I am also under an impression that he has corns
upon several of his toes, and a small scar upon each. of
his wrists. Ned isa Negro of fine countenance, 'very
polite and pleasant when spoken to, and, although na-
turally lazy, is brisk and lively at any kirid of light work
he goes about. Said Negro, when he eloped, took with
him 3 tow linen shirts, and 3 pair oftrowse'rs of the same;
a pail'r of coarse leather shoes, an old 'tfur hat, bought in
Leesburg, of a hatter by the name of Martin, whose
name may possibly be in the hat. This Negro was born
the property of a Mr. Peyton, who resided in Winches-
ter, Frederick county, Virginia, and, upon a division of
the property, at the death of Mr. Peyton, he fell to Dr.
Grayson, who married a Miss Peyton, and Dr. Grayson
afterwards sold him to one Strother Helm, who was also
raised in Frederick county, near Winchester, but was
at the time he purchased this Negro, living in I.oudoun
county, keeping public house, on the Little River Iurn-
p)ke road, and. the said Helmii sold him to Dr Lewis, of
Jefferson county, Virginia, of whom I got him. It is
probable said Negro is living with some farmer, as he is
most accustomed to that kind of work, having lived up-
on a plantation,and been accustomed to plantation work,
ever since he was sixteen years of age, and is a pretty
good wagoner, a first rate cradler, mower, ploughman,
and stacker. The fbove Negro went off with a
fellow, the property of Mr Thomas Gassaway, a
near neighbor of mine, who moved from Mont-
gomery county, Maryland, to Loudoun county, brought
with' him this Negro, whose name is HARRY or
HENRY OVER. This Negro, in color and stature, dif-
fers little front mine, he being of copper color, about 5
feet 7 inches in height, with yellowish grey eyes, so re-
markable as not to escape the notice or observation of
any personmeeting with him; is between 25 and 30
years of age, and a very heavy, square-built negro; has
upon hisa right knee a scar, and upon the same leg, just
above the ankle joint, another scar; plays on the violin;
.hlas rather a bad countenance, and is in the habit, when
slightly alarmed, andt asked a question, to say, No indeed,
sir. Said Negro took with him a greyish colored coat
and pantaloons, made of wool and cotton, fulled, new
Marseilles vest, half worn fur hat, made, it is most likely,
either in Leesburg or Frddericktown, two shirts of tow
and cotton, and one white, either of cotton or linen.
For Harry or Henry Over, I am authorized to offer a.
reward of One Hundred Dollars, to any person that will-
tak' him up and secure him in jail, so that his master
gets him again ; and for Ned, or Ned Thompson, 1 will
give a reward of One Hundred Dollars, for apprehend-
ing and securing him in any jail so that I get him agaiin.
april 27-
PETERt & GEOIiGE LORILI.ARD, No.. 42, Chat.-
ham street, New York, inform their customers amnd
ouiters, that they can now supply them with Snuff, and.
Fine Cut Tobacco, by wholesale, at the following low
prices, owing to the reduced price sbf materials, and .,
the improvements recently made in their manufactory.
Superior Maccoboy at 18 cents per bottle, or at 25 '
cents per lb. in jars and casks; Coarse French Rappee
and finue HIlolland RItappee at 30 cents per bottle, Natchi-
ioches and Curacoa Snuff at 1 dollar per bottle, Irish
Itgh Toast, such as is made by Lundy, Foot & Co.
Dublin, 40 cents per bottle;.Scotch 19 cents per bot-
tle; Tuberose, a coarse flavored' Snuff, Violet Stras-
burgh, German Saint Omare, Maltese, Sicily Rappee,

and Lorillard's Mixture, a coarse Snuff' of an agreeable
flavor, preferred by many to any other kind of Snuff;
ach of the last named at 50 cents per bottle; Su period
Cut Tobocco for chewing, at 1 dollar per ID., cut in
small papers 22 cents per dozen; likewise, Spanish
Cut, Mild Kitetfoot,, Canister, and common cut, for
smoking. All the above Snuff and Tobacco warranted
superior to any manufactured.
N.. They have stood unr-civa'cd for upwards oC.
orty years.
march 25-NI tlst.Tune