| Material Information
||Effects of birth weight, time of first access to teats and location of teat suckled in preweaning performance of pigs
||Department of Animal Science research report
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Neufville, Mortimer Hugh, 1939-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Piglets -- Nutrition -- Florida ( lcsh )
Piglets -- Feeding and feeds -- Physiological effect ( lcsh )
Milk -- Nutritional aspects ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Includes bibliographical references (p. 2).
||Statement of Responsibility:
||M.H. Neufville, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
||Typescript on pink paper.
||Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
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||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 50674130
Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report No. AL-1974-13 Experiment Station
November, 1974 Gainesville, Florida
EFFECTS OF BIRTH WEIGHT, TIME OF FIRST ACCESS TO TEATS AND LOCATION
OF TEAT SUCKLED IN PREWEANING PERFORMANCE OF PIGSIV
M. H. Neufville, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs./
Birth weight of the pig is one of the most important determinants of
performance during the early stages of growth. There are other factors which
may interrelate with birth weight to determine preweaning growth. One such
factor is location of teat suckled. It is believed that teats located towards
the anterior end of the udder usually produce more milk. Heavier pigs tend to
suckle anterior teats. Birth weight may therefore affect locations of teat
suckled and conceivably the amount of milk obtained.
Ai et al. (1972) reported that nursing order of pigs within a litter was
firmly established during the first few hours or days of life. They also reported
that pigs nursing anterior teats were heavier at 5 weeks of age. Jelic, Crozdavic
and Durdevic (1972) reported that birth weight affected birth order and the first
born was usually the heaviest..-. Denying the first born pigs access to the udder
until completion of parturition may'enable the smaller pigs to better compete for
the fore teats and the- olosrrum and thus\improve overall litter survival.
\ Experigintal Procedure
A total of 12crossbred sows and theitr'Atters were randomly allotted to
the following treatments: 1) each pig was allowed to suckle immediately after
birth; and 2) pigs wire withheld.ftdom '-sow until farrowing was completed; then
all pigs were allowed to suckle`at-the same time. Teats were numbered in pairs
beginning at the anteAtor -nd-'nd progressing to the posterior end of the udder.
Pigs were checked on days 3, 10 and 17 to observe teat being suckled by each
individual pig. All pigs were weaned at 3 weeks.
Results and Discussion
Summaries of the responses measured are presented in tables 1 and 2.
1/ Data summarized in this report were from swine unit Experiment No. 219.
2/ Neufville, graduate assistant, Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists,
Department of Animal Science.
This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$69.89 or .07 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.
Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
The time at which pigs were first allowed access to teats had no statis-
tically significant effect on preweaning performance. However there was a
slight delcine in % mortality when pigs were withheld from the sow until after
the completion of farrowing (table 1).
Birth weight of pigs significantly (P < .05) affected the location of
teat suckled (table 2). Heavier pigs consistently suckled pairs of teats
numbered 1, 2 and 3 located towards the anterior end of the udder. Pigs that
suckled fore teats had significantly (P < .05) higher preweaning gains than
pigs that suckled teats 5, 6 and 7. As the location of teat suckled progressed
from the anterior to the posterior end of the udder there was an almost linear
decrease in preweaning gains of pigs.
The decline in the number of pigs that suckled teats 5, 6 and 7 (table 2)
indicated that in small litters where more than enough teats are available pigs
will first choose to suckle the anterior teats. The non significant effect of
time at which pigs were first allowed access to teats and the significant effect
of birth weight on location of teat suckled, tend to indicate that even if
smaller pigs are born during the early stage of parturition they would not have
continued access to anterior teats. Parturition was usually completed before
nursing order was established.
Twelve sows and litters were used to evaluate the effects of birth weight,
time of first access to teats and location of teat suckled on preweaning per-
formance of pigs.
Time at which pigs were first allowed access to teats had no significant
effect on preweaning performance. Heavier pigs at birth consistently suckled
teats at the anterior end of the udder. Pigs that suckled anterior teats had
significantly higher daily gains than pigs that suckled posterior teats. More
pigs suckled anterior teats than posterior teats.
Ai, C., W. T. Magee and E. R. Miller. 1972. Relationship of birth order and
nursing order of pigs to preweaning growth and other parameters. J. Anim.
Sci. 35:1100 (Abstr.).
Jelic, T., G. Crozdavic and N. Durdevic. 1972. Effect of time of the first
feed of colostrum on growth of suckling pigs. Nutr. Abstr. and Rev.
43:458. No. 6300.
- 3 -
Table 1. Effect of Time of First Access to Teats on
Performance From Birth to Weaning
All Pigs Began
Individual Pigs To Suckle
Dependent Suckled Immediately Together After
Variables After Birth Completion of Farrowing
Pigs born alive/litter 12.33 12.60
Pigs weaned/litter 10.00 10.80
% Mortality 18.26 14.16
Daily gain (kg)
Birth 14 days 0.18 0.16
Birth 21 days 0.18 0.16
14 21 days 0.17 0.18
Table 2. The Effect of Birth Weight and Location of Teat
Suckled on Preweaning Performance of Pigs
Location of No. of Pigs Daily Gain (kg)
Birth Weight, Kg. Teat Suckled* Suckled Birth-14 days Birth-21 days
1.32a 1 20 0.21a 0.21a
1.38a 2 22 0.19ab 0.19ab
1.36a 3 21 0.18ab 0.19ab
1.18b 4 20 0.15bc 0.15bc
1.07b 5 13 0.14cd 0.13cd
1.19b 6 12 0.14cd 0.14cd
1.l0b 7 6 0.10d 0.10d
* Numbers represent pairs of teat suckled beginning at (1) the anterior end
of the udder /and progressing to (7) the posterior end.
a,b,c,d Values in the same column with different superscript are signifi-
cantly different (P < .05).