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Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL-1974-12
Title: Iodinated casein as a lactation stimulant for sows
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073063/00001
 Material Information
Title: Iodinated casein as a lactation stimulant for sows
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Neufville, Mortimer Hugh, 1939-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1974
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Casein   ( lcsh )
Lactation -- Nutritional aspects   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 3).
Statement of Responsibility: M.H. Neufville, H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1974."
General Note: Typescript.
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073063
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 50673844

Table of Contents
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        Page 2
    List of Tables
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Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report No. AL-1974-12 Experiment Station
October, 1974 Gainesville, Florida


M. H. Neufville, H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs!/

Preweaning growth rate and within litter variation in pig weights may be
influenced considerably by the milk production flow of the sow. In an attempt
to increase milk production iodinated casein and other thyroidally active com-
pounds have been fed to sows. Aherne,.Kleinwort and Speer (1974), Hitchcock
et al. (1972) and Aherne and Speer (1974) fed varying levels of thyroprotein to
lactating sows and found that 3-week and 5-week pig weights were heaviest when
pigs suckled sows that received 220 ppm iodinated casein. Milk yield estimates
taken at weekly intervals were higher for thyroprotein fed sows, but, sow weight
loss, heart beat, respiration rate and rectal temperature were also significantly
increased. Johnson et al. (1959) demonstrated that the addition of 220 ppm
iodinated casein improved pig gains and decreased pig mortality. In contrast
Becker (1960) found no advantage in feeding iodinated casein to lactating sows.

This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary iodinated
casein on lactation performance of sows.


Twenty-seven sows were randomly allotted to the 4 dietary treaItmentts listed
below: --

1. Basal diet
2. Basal diet + iodinated casein (220 mg/kg of diet)
3. Low bulk diet 3 % (
4. Low bulk diet + iodinated casein (220 mg/kg of diet)

lodinated casein was fed from the 109th day of gestation to the ;4#h Of 1
lactation. Sows were fed 1.82 kg of the low bulk diet and. 181g~o thlf asal
diet per head per day during gestation and full fed during"lactation. Respec-
tive diets are shown in table 1. Rectal temperatures were taken at the 109th
day of gestation, at parturition and at 14 days post partum. Subjective

1/ Data summarized in this report were from swine unit Experiment No. 234.
2/ Neufville, graduate assistant, Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists,
Department of Animal Science.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$ 91.00, or .09 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

- 2-

measurements of respiration rate, sow consumption and sow condition were recorded
at 14 days post partum. Pigs were weighed at birth and at 14 and 21 days of age.
All pigs were weaned at 21 days.

Results and Discussion

Results are shown in tables 2 and 3.

At 14 days post partum there was a significant (P < .01) increase in rectal
temperatures of sows fed iodinated casein. Increased metabolic rate was reflected
by significant (P < .01) increases in respiration rate, subjective scores and body
weight loss (table 2). Sows fed treated diets did not consume enough feed to
meet increased body needs and as such became extremely thin. Extremely high day-
time temperatures appeared to have caused more stress on treated than on untreated
sows. During lactation, rectal temperature, respiration rate scores and weight
loss of.sows fed the low bulk diet did not differ significantly from that of sows
fed the basal diet.

The number of pigs born per litter, pigs weaned or mortality rate was not
significantly affected by dietary treatments (table 3). The weight gain of the
litter from birth to weaning was used to evaluate the milk production of sows.
Litters from sows fed the low bulk diet had significantly (P < .01) lower daily
gains to 14 days than litters from sows fed the basal diet. Gains were lowest
when pigs suckled sows fed the low bulk diet treated with iodinated casein.
Iodinated casein while being fed had no significant effect on milk production.
After removal of dietary iodinated casein sows previously fed treated diets had
a significant (P < .01) decline in milk production as evidenced by the 14-21 day
gains of pigs (table 3). Thomas and Moore (1948) reported that the reduction in
milk production of dairy cows resulted from the sudden removal of iodinated
casein which left the thyroid gland nonfunctional.


Twenty-seven sows and litters were used to study the effect of 220 mg
iodinated casein per kg of sow diet on farrowing and lactation performance.
Treated sows were extremely thin and had significantly (P < .01) increased
respiration rate scores, rectal temperatures and weight loss at 14 days post
partum. Litters from treated sows had significantly reduced 21 day gains
compared to litters from untreated sows. Iodinated casein at a dietary level
of 220 mg/kg diet is not recommended for sows under conditions comparable to
this experiment.

- 3-

Literature Cited

Aherne, F. X., E. J. Kleinwort and V. C. Speer. 1972. Effect of thyroprotein
on sow lactation performance. J. Anim. Sci. 35:1100. (Abstr.).
Aherne, F. X. and V. C. Speer. 1974. Energy and nitrogen metabolism and per-
formance responses of lactating sows fed thyroprotein. J. Anim. Sci. 38:
Becker, D. E. 1960. Recent advances in swine nutrition. Proc. Ann. Pfizer
Res. Conf. 8:35.
Hitchcock, J. P., C. Ai, D. E. Orr and E. R. Miller. 1972. Thyroprotein for
lactating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 35:1106. (Abstr.).
Johnson, C. W., V. W. Hays, V. C. Speer and D. V. Catron. 1959. Thyroprotein
for lactating sows. J. Anim. Sci. 18:1224.
Thomas, J. W. and L. A. Moore. 1948. Effects of feeding thyroprotein during
successive lactations. J. Dairy Sci. 31:661.

Table 1. Composition of Diets1

Ingredients Basal Low Bulk

Yellow corn meal 58.55 75.25
Soybean oil meal 18.00 21.30
Ground oats 20.00
Biophos2 1.50 1.50
Limestone 1.30 1.30
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral premix (CCC)3 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (U.F.)4 0.05 0.05

Calculated Composition
Digestible energy/kg (Cal) 3225 3384
Protein (%) 16.49 17.21

1 Diets were fed with or without iodinated casein 220 mg/kg
of diet from 109th day of gestation to the 14th day of
2 Purchased from International Minerals and Chemical Cor-
poration, Libertyville, Ill. Contained monocalcium and
dicalcium phosphates; not less than 21% phosphorus,
15-18% calcium and not more than 0.21% fluorine.
3 Contained 20% zinc; 10% iron; 5.5% manganese; 1.1% copper;
0.15% iodine; 0.1% cobalt and 2% calcium.
Contained 6,000 mg riboflavin; 20,000 mg niacin; 12,000 mg
pantothenic acid; 80,000 mg choline chloride; 10,000 mcg
vitamin B ; 2,500,000 IU vitamin A; 400,000 ICU vitamin
D3 and 10,000 IU vitamin E per pound of premix.


Table 2. The Effect of lodinated Casein
of Diet on Sow Performance

and Bulkiness

Dependent Without lodinated Casein With lodinated Casein
Variables Basal Low Bulk Avg. Basal Low Bulk Avg.

Rectal temperature oC
109th day of gestation 38.94c 39.40d 39.06 38.93c 39.42d 39.15
at parturition 38.95 39.80 39.58 39.67 40.22 39.92
14th day postpartum 40.62 39.67 40.38a 41.37 40.72 41.07b
Respiration rate1 3.56b 4.00b 3.67b 2.17a 2.80a 2.45a
Sow condition2 3.00b 3.67b 3.17b 1.67a 1.40a 1.55a
Feed consumption3 244b 3.00b 2.58b 1.50a 1.80a 1.64a
Sow wt. loss (kg)
109th day of gestation to
14 day post partum 28.80 28.60 28.75a 50.77 42.02 46.79
14-21 day post partum 5.71 2.60 4.93 1.43 8.72 4.75
1 Score codes were: very high = 1; high = 2; fairly high = 3; normal = 4.
2 Score codes were: off feed = 1, slightly reduced = 2, normal = 3, above
normal = 4.
3 Score codes were: thin = 1, fairly thin = 2, good or average = 3, fairly
fat = 4, fat = 5.
ab Values in the same line with different superscripts are significantly
different (P < .01).
cd Values in the same line with different superscripts are significantly
different (P < .05).

Table 3. The Effect of lodinated Casein on
Performance of the Litter

Dependent Without lodinated Casein With lodinated Casein
Variables Basal Low Bulk Avg. Basal Low Bulk Avg.

Pigs born/litter 12.33 9.67 11.66 10.50 11.40 10.91
Pigs weaned/litter 10.56 9.00 10.17 9.83 10.20 10.00
Mortality rate % 13.67 5.81 11.70 5.75 10.48 7.90
Averaged daily gain/pig (kg)
Birth 14 days 0.17a 0.16a 0.17 0.17a 0.13b 0.15
14 21 days 0.19a 0.19a 0.19a 0.10b 0.13b 0.14b

ab Values in the same line with different supercripts are significantly
different (P < .01).

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