Introduction and experimental
 Results, discussion, and summa...
 List of Tables

Group Title: Department of Animal Science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; no. AL-1974-3
Title: Source and level of non-protein nitrogen for starter and finishing swine diets
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073054/00001
 Material Information
Title: Source and level of non-protein nitrogen for starter and finishing swine diets
Series Title: Department of Animal Science research report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1974
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Nitrogen in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "May, 1974."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073054
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80017664

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results, discussion, and summary
        Page 2
    List of Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
Full Text

S'tDepartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Research Report No. AL-1974-3 Experiment Station
May, 1974 Gainesville, Florida
Rsea 'R A 2


G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallacel/' '

Non-protein nitrogen (NPN) studies with swine have generally showntthkt .,-j
weight gains and feed efficiency are not enhanced by dietary addit-ons -of-NPN
compounds. However the economic aspects of protein nutrition dictate continued
research be conducted in this area.

These studies were initiated to evaluate diammonium citrate and phosphate
(Duophosi~3) in starter diets and to investigate the utilization of Duophos with
low protein diets in which corn and soybean meal supplied equal amounts of
dietary protein.


Experiment 1. Fifty early weaned pigs having an initial weight of 11.9
pounds were fed diets containing either 2 or 3% protein as NPN from ammonium
citrate or Duophos for 38 days.

Experiment 2. Thirty pigs weighing an average of 124 pounds were given
diets containing 2 or 3% protein as NPN from Duophos for an 8 week period. Blood
samples were obtained at the beginning and end of the experiment for blood urea
nitrogen (BUN) and plasma protein determination.

In both experiments the pigs were self-fed in concrete-floored pens with
water furnished by automatic watering devices.

The dietary treatments and composition of diets fed are presented in
Table 1.

1/ Experiments 179D and 179E. Other related articles include Animal Science
Research Reports 70-12 and 73-2.
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists.
3/ Duophos (diammonium phosphate) supplied by International Minerals and
Chemical Corporation.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$81.00 or .08 cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

- 2 -

Results and Discussion

The results of experiments 1 and 2 are summarized in Tables 2 and 3,

The daily gain of young pigs fed diets containing 2% protein from ammonium
citrate or either 2 and 3% protein from Duophos was not significantly (P < .05)
less than pigs given the basal diet. Gains were significantly (P < .05) depressed
when 3% protein from ammonium citrate was provided. However when compared to the
basal diet all NPN additions resulted in lower gains; the range was 8% with the
2% citrate group to 19% with the 3% Duophos group. Feed consumption was signifi-
cantly (P < .05) decreased when 3% NPN was supplied by either ammonium citrate or

In experiment 2 the gains were not significantly different among the 3
dietary treatments. Feed intake and feed efficiency data were not suitable for
statistical analysis but both parameters were similar for all treatments. Blood
urea nitrogen (BUN) and total plasma protein values were also not significantly
(P < .05) different among treatments. These data indicate that with a low protein
diet (11.5%) additions of either 2 or 3% protein from NPN were ineffective in
increasing either rate or efficiency of gain.

Performance data from both experiments confirm previous studies (Research
Reports 70-12 and 73-2) that show NPN additions to swine diets to be of limited,
if any, value.


Two experiments, one with young pigs and the other with finishing pigs were
conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of NPN from either ammonium citrate
or phosphate (Duophos).

With the young pigs 2 and 3% protein from both NPN sources were fed for
56 days. Performance was significantly (P < .05) decreased by 3% ammonium
citrate protein and was depressed by any level or source of NPN studied.

Utilization of NPN (Duophos) with low protein diets in which corn-soybean
meal provided equal amounts of protein was limited with finishing pigs. Rate
and efficiency of gain, blood urea nitrogen and plasma protein were similar for
all treatment groups.

The data indicate that NPN should not be added to starter or finisher diets.


Table 1. Treatments and Diet Composition

Experiment 1
Treatments Basal Ammon. Ammon. Duophos Duophos
Citratel/ Citrate
Corn-Soy Protein % 17 15 14 15 14
NPN protein % 0 2 3 2 3

Ingredient, lb.
Yellow corn 74.90 76.60 77.40 77.60 78.90
Soybean meal 20.90 16.60 14.50 16.40 14.20
Diammonium citrate 2.60 3.90 -
Duophos 1.80 2.70
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals2/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin mix (UF)3/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
TM-50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Experiment 2
Treatments Basal Duophos Duophos
Corn-Soy Protein % 11.5 11.5 11.5
NPN protein % 0 2.0 3.0

Ingredient, lb.
Yellow corn 65.70 65.70 65.70
Soybean meal 11.10 11.10 11.10
Duophos 1.78 2.67
Sugar 20.63 18.85 17.96
Defluorinated phosphate 1.50 1.50 1.50
Limestone 0.12 0.12 0.12
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals/ 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin supplement (UF)2/ 0.10 0.10 0.10
Aureo-SP 250 0.25 0.25 0.25

1/ Ammonium Citrate dibasic.
2/ Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Illinois. Contains 20% zinc, 10% iron,
5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper, 0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
3/ Contains 6000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin; 12,000 mg. pantothenic
acid; 80,000 mg. choline chloride; 10,000 mcg. vitamin B12; 2,500,000
I.U. vitamin A; 400,000 I.C.U. vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. vitamin E
per pound of premix.
4/ Cane sugar used to maintain constant and equal quantity of dietary
protein contributed by yellow corn and soybean meal.


Table 2. Influence of Source and Level
of Young Pigs (Experiment 1)

of NPN On Performance

Treatment Basal Ammon. Amon. Duophos Duophos
Citrate Citrate
NPN protein % 0 2 3 2 3

Av. initial weight, lb. 11.90 11.90 11.90 11.90 11.90
Av. final weight, lb. 39.10 37.00 25.20 35.50 33.80
Av. daily gain, lb. 0.72a 0.66ab 0.35c 0.62ab 0.58ab
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.47a 1.41a 0.98bc 1.47a 1.35b
Av. feed/gain, lb. 2.05bc 2.12abc 2.79a 2.36abc 2.37ab

abc/ Means on same line not having a common superscript differ signifi-
cantly (P < .05).

Table 3. Performance of Finishing Pigs Fed Diets
Containing Two Levels of NPN (Experiment 2)

Treatment Basal Duophos Duophos
. Protein as NPN 0 2 3

Av. initial weight, lb. 123.90 124.00 123.70
Av. final weight, lb.- 235.80 232.70 229.60
Av. daily gain, lb. 2.04a 1.98a 1.93a
Av. daily feed, lb. 6.42 6.23 6.32
Av. feed/gain, lb. 3.16 3.15 3.27
BUN, mg %
Initial 16.76a 14.12a 15.33a
Final 12.89a 13.13a 14.30a
Plasma protein, mg %
Initial 6.81a 6.86a 7.16a
Final 7.43a 7.94a 6.99a

a/ Means on same line not having a common superscript differ signifi-
cantly (P < .05).

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