Introduction and experimental
 Results and discussion
 List of Tables

Group Title: Animal science research report - University of Florida Department of Animal Science ; AL73-1
Title: Utilization of high dietary levels of cane molasses by young and by growing-finishing swine
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00073045/00001
 Material Information
Title: Utilization of high dietary levels of cane molasses by young and by growing-finishing swine
Series Title: Animal science research report
Physical Description: 4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1973
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Molasses as feed   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "February, 1973."
Funding: Animal science research report (University of Florida. Dept. of Animal Science) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00073045
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 80015388

Table of Contents
    Introduction and experimental
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
    List of Tables
        Page 4
Full Text

F 63(crr\
animal Science Research Report AL73-1 Florida Agricultural
February, 1973 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida


G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace /

Molasses produced from sugar cane grown on organic soils will analyze in
3 '
excess of 6% protein. Previous studies -' at Florida utilized molasses only as

an energy feed and ignored protein content in diet formulation.

The present study was conducted to evaluate high levels of cane molasses

when the protein in molasses was used in the formulation to meet part of the

dietary requirement.


Two experiments were conducted with pigs housed in concrete-floored pens.

Feed containing 0, 20 and 40% molasses was provided in self-feeders and the

60% molasses diet was available in open troughs. Diets containing 20, 40 and 60%

molasses were mixed in a horizontal mixer modified to mix high-density diets,

Water was supplied by automatic waterers. During the last week of each experiment

chromic oxide was added to all diets for determination of nutrient digestibility.

The composition of diets used in both experiments is presented in Table 1.

1/ Data in this article came from Experiment 174F
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department, University
of Florid.
3/ An. Sci. Mimeo Series 69-13, 70-10 and 72-6.

This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$148.98 or .14898cents per copy to inform county agricul-
tural directors, ranchers and growers of research results
in swine management and nutrition.

Department of Animal Science
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences

- 2-

Experiment 1 Forty pigs weighing an average of 43 lbs. were allotted to

4 dietary treatments consisting of 0, 20, 40 and 60% molasses. The experiment

was terminated after 42 days.

Experiment 2 Twenty-eight pigs having an initial weight of about 149 lbs.

were fed diets containing 0, 20, 40 and 60% molasses for a period of 46 days.

Results and Discussion

The results of experiments 1 and 2 are summarized in Table 2.

In experiment 1 pigs fed 0 and 20% molasses gained significantly (P < .05)

faster than pigs fed 40 and 60% molasses diets. Pigs fed the two higher levels of

molasses also required about 25% more feed per unit of gain than those fed the

diets containing 0 and 20% molasses. Digestibility of the dry matter in the 0 and

20% molasses diets was significantly (P < .05) higher than the 40 and 60% molasses

treatments. Protein digestibility was highest (P < .05) with 20% molasses group but

in general digestibility decreased with increasing levels of dietary molasses. Sig-

nificant differences (P < .05) were also found with digestibility of fat but a molasses

level-fat digestibility trend was not evident.

The pigs in experiment 2 performed similar to those in experiment 1. Daily

gain decreased with the 40 and 60% molasses groups but the magnitude of the decrease

was not as great as found with the lighter weight pigs. Feed per pound of gain

was again about 25% more for the 40 and 60% molasses diets. Dry matter and protein

digestibility followed the same trend as in experiment 1 in that digestibility

of both items decreased with the 40 and 60% treatments. Fat digestibility again did

not appear to be associated with dietary molasses level.

A comparison of the results of this study with previous reports (Ani. Sci. Mimeo

Rept. 70-10 and 72-6) indicates that including the protein present in molasses as

part of the calculated amount present did not seriously affect performance of pigs


fed the 40% molasses diet. With 28 lb. pigs daily gain of the 40% molasses group

was reduced 18% when compared to the 0% molasses and in the present study the reduction

was only 13% for the 43 lb. pigs. With the heavier weight pigs in this study the reduc-

tion was 67. as compared to a 2% reduction and a 7% increase in previous studies where

0 and 40% molasses diets were fed.

With the 60% molasses diet the reduction for both light and heavy weight pigs was

about 20% in this study as compared to 10% for previous work. This is probably a re-

flection of the methionine and lysine deficiency present in this diet.

In certain economic situations the price of molasses may be such that it would

offset the reduction in rate and efficiency of gain found with 40 and 60% molasses



Two experiments involving 40 light weight pigs (43 lb.) and 28 finishing pigs

pigs (149 Ib) were conducted to evaluate performance when the protein in molasses

was considered in diet formulations.

Daily gain, feed efficiency and dry matter digestibility was comparable for

both weight groups when the 0 and 20% molasses diets were compared. Protein diges-

tibility was higher with 20% molasses diet for both young and finishing pigs.

Increasing the molasses to 40 and 60% of the diet resulted in significant de-

creases in rate and efficiency of gain. Also digestibility of dry matter and protein

was less than either the 0 or 20% molasses groups. In all instances the depression

was more severe for the 60% group than with the 40% group. This would indicate that

the major factor contributing to this decrease with the 60% molasses group was a

deficiency of lysine and methionine brought about by substituting molasses protein for

corn protein.



Item Ibs.

Cane molasses 0 20.00 40.00 60.00
Ground yellow corn 79.50 58.50 37.50 16.55
Soybean meal (50%) 15.70 16.70 17.70 18.65
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Salt 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral mix 2/ 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Vitamin-Antibiotic mix 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80
1/ All diets calculated to contain 15% protein. Methionine
calculated deficient in all diets and magnitude of deficiency
increased with increasing levels of molasses. Lysine also
calculated deficient in 60% molasses diet.
2/ Provided the following (ppm); Mn, 57; Fed, 70; Cu, 48; Co,
1.6; K, 7.5 and Zn, 100.
3/ Contained 800, 1470, 3600, 4000 and 1 (mg) respectively of
riboflavin, pantothenic acid, niacin, choline chloride and
vitamin B12; 138,000 I. U. vitamin A and 50,000 I.U. vitamin
D ; 5 gm procaine penicillin and 15 gm streptomycin for all


Dietary Molasses % 0 20 40 60

Experiment 1

Av. initial weight, lb. 43.2 43.5 43.4 43.8
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.42 1.43 1.24 1.17
Av. feed consumption, lb. 4.90 4.83 5.54 5.51
Av. feed/gain, lb. 3.45 3.38 4.47 4.71

Digestibility % a a b b
Dry Matter 76.5b 76.4 73.0 71.3b
Protein 63.6 68.2 62.2 60.3
Fat 47.1b 49.1 32.0 68.6

Experiment 2

Av. initial weight, lb. 149.6 149.4 148.4 149.3
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.53 1.51 1.43 1.22
Av. feed consumption, lb. 6.36 6.78 7.83 6.91
Av. feed/gain, lb. 4.17 4.49 5.48 5.66

Digestibility %
Dry Matter 78.8a 80.5a 74.6 73.
Protein 69.7b 74.6ab 66.0 64.9
Fat 51.9 59.9 30.6 68.7

abc Means on same line bearing different superscript letters differ
significantly (P < .05).

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