'46qpartment of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
SMimeograph Report No. AL-1972-5 Experiment Statio
July, 1972 i e "L
V2 "f AN EVALUATION OF UNIDENTIFIED GROWTH HU
FACTOR SOURCES FOR SWINE i/
AUG 4 1972
H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs 2/
In 1948 vitamin B,2 was isolated from raw beef liver. | it^ relto idi
sents the last nutritional factor to be isolated and reach
classification. However, studies have continued to further evaluate food and
feed .sources for the presence of unidentified nutritional factors.
The experiment reported here was undertaken to evaluate two commercial
products as sources of unidentified nutritional factors for growing pigs. A
non-medicated basal diet and the same diet supplemented with aureomycin,
penicillin and sulfamethazine (ASP-250) served as control diets. The products
studied as supplements to these control diets were UNF-40 by Diamond Shamrock
Chemical Co. and Fermacto 500 by Borden Chemical Co. Supplementation levels
for the products are provided in Table 2.
Ninety-six early weaned pigs weighing 16-20 pounds were divided into outcome
,groupsof twelve pigs each according to-sex and weight and assigned as randomly
as possible, maintaining comparable total pen weights, to twelve pens with the
stipulation that barrows and gilts be fed separately. Thus the final pen
allotment consisted of 6 pens of 3 barrows and 6 pens of 8 females each.
Basal diets are shown in Table 1. Pigs were fed on the starter diets for
S.,Table 1. Basal Dietsa
Yellow corn meal 68.80 74.30
Soybean oilmeal 28.00 23.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.50 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace mineral premix (C.C.C.)b 0.10 0.10
Vitamin premix (UF)c .0.10 0.10
a Basal I as shown here. Basal II as shown here with
5 lb./ton ASP-250 added.
b Calcium Carbonate Co., Quincy, Ill. Formula 35Z-95. Con-
tains 20% zinc, 10% iron, 5.5% manganese, 1.1% copper,
0.15% iodine, 0.10% cobalt and 2% calcium.
c Contains 6,000 mg. riboflavin; 20,000 mg. niacin; 12,000
mg. pantothenic acid; 80,000-mg. choline chloride; 10,000
mcg. Vitamin B12; 2,500,000 I.U. of Vitamin A; 400,000
I.C.U. Vitamin D3 and 10,000 I.U. of Vitamin E per pound
1/ The data presented in this paper were from swine unit experiment No. 206.
The work was supported in part by a grant from Diamond Shamrock Chemical Co.,
Harrison, New Jersey. Other Fla. An. Sci. Reports on this subject include
Mimeo Series Nos. 69-3, 69-14 and 70-13.
2/ Wallace and Combs, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Dept., University
a period of 6 weeks and then on the grower-finisher diets for the remaining 10
weeks of the experiment. All feeding was by self-feeders with water supplied
by automatic watering devices. The pigs were housed in an open shed type
building (Swine barn No. 5) on concrete floors. All pigs were weighed and feed
consumption determined at two week intervals. The experiment was initiated
August 12, 1971 and terminated December 12, 1971.
Results and Discussion
Bi-weekly summaries of daily gains and feed conversion were made throughout
the trial. There were no indications that the unidentified growth factor sources
stimulated performance during any phase of the trial. The response to ASP-250
(Basal II vs. Basal I) was somewhat more pronounced during the early phase of the
experiment.; 'Data on gain and feed conversion for the entire 16-week experimental
period are summarized in Table 2 and a summary of means for the main experimental
comparisons are presented in Table 3. There were no statistically significant
effects on daily gain induced by the unidentified nutrient sources. Feed conver-
sion values were also quite similar for the basal, basal + UNF-40 and basal +
Barrowsf'gained significantly faster than gilts (P < .01) but required more
feed per unit of gain (2.81 vs. 2.73).
Pigs fed the Basal II ration which was fortified with ASP-250 gained
significantly faster (P < .05) than pigs fed the non-medicated Basal I diet.
Feed conversions were similar.
SNinety-six...early weaned pigs were utilized to evaluate two products as
sources of'unidentified nutritional factors when added to either a non-
medicated: or medicated basal feed mixture. :
The test products did not elicit a significant response in either gain
or feed conversion.
Barrows gained significantly faster than gilts (P < .01) and the medicated
diet (Aureomycin, penicillin, sulfamethazine) produced significantly faster
gains (P < .05) than the non-medicated diet.
Table 2. Influence of Unidentified Growth Factor
Sources on Swine Performance
Number Initial wt. Final Daily Feed/lb.
Treatment of pigs Sex lb. wt. gain, lb. gain, lb.
BasalI 1/ 8 M 18.5 193.5 1.56 2.88
Basal I 8 F 17.3 185.9 1.51 2.73
Basal I + UNF-40 2/ 8 M 18.6 207.9 1.69 2.85
Basal I + UNF-40 8 F 17.3 187.0 1.52 2.74
Basal I + Fermacto-500 3/ 8 M 18.6 196.9 1.59 2.69
Basal I + Fermacto-500 8 F 17.2 188.9 1.53 2.79
Basal II 4l 8 M 18.6 211.4 1.72 2.73
Basal II 8 F 17.6 196.1 1.59 2.69
Basal II + UNF-40 8 M 18.7 210.4 1.71 2.90
Basal II + UNF-40 8 F 17.7 199.9 1.63 2.68
Basal II + Fermacto-500 8 M 18.6 211.9 1.73 2.83
Basal II + Fermacto-500 8 F 17.3 189.4 1.54 2.76
2/ UNF-40 3 lb. per ton initially. When pigs were shifted to grower-finisher diet
level was reduced to 2 lb. per ton.
3/ Fermacto-500 2.5 lb. per ton throughout experiment.
4/ Supplemented with 5 lb. ASP-250 per ton.
Table 3. Summary of Daily Gain and Feed Conversion Means
for Main Variables and Statistical Considera-
tion of Differences in Rate of Gain
Experimental Daily Feed/lb.
Variable gain, lb. gain, lb.
Basal 1.59 2.76
Basal + UNF-40 1.64 2.79
Basal + Fermacto 500 1.60 2.77
Barrows 1.67* 2.81
Gilts 1.55 2.73
Basal I 1.57 '2.77
Basal II (ASP-250) 1.65** 2.78
(* P < .01; **'P < .05). '