| Material Information
||Zinc bacitracin and neomycin for prevention and control of pig scours
||Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
||3 p. : ; 28 cm.
||Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
||Place of Publication:
||Piglets -- Diseases and pests -- Florida ( lcsh )
Antibiotics in animal nutrition ( lcsh )
Escherichia coli infections in swine ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Statement of Responsibility:
||G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 78916465
Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No, AN69-10 Experiment Station
June 1969 Gainesville, Florida
ZINC BACITRACIN AND NEOMYCIN FOR PREVENTION
AND CONTROL OF PIG SCOURS 1
G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace 2/
Baby pig scours is one of several enteric disorders which contributes to the
high mortality rate of pigs from birth to weaning. Presently we are not effective-
ly protecting the young pig against a large number of the bacterial, viral, and
fungal organisms found in many farrowing and nursery houses. Although there are
many antibacterial compounds which are used widely in swine feeds there is a defi-
nite need for antibiotics or antibiotic combinations that have a broader spectrum
This study was initiated to determine the effectiveness of high levels of
zinc-bacitracin, neomycin or a zinc bacitracin-neomycin combination in controlling
scours when added to lactation and starter diets.
The period of study for this experiment was such that all seasonal climatic
variations were experienced. Sows from five consecutive farrowings were given
the following dietary treatments on the 110th day of gestation and continued on
treatment until 14 days post-farrowing.
Treatment 1 No antibiotic
Treatment 2 Zn bacitracin (200 gm./ton)
Treatment 3 Neomycin (200 gm./ton)
Treatment 4 Zn bacitracin + Neomycin (100 gm. each/ton)
From birth until 14 days of age the pigs in each litter received a starter diet
that contained 500 gm./ton of the antibiotics) present in the diet of their dam.
On tthe day of birth pigs were weighed and ear notched for individual identifica-
tion. Navel cords were clipped and tied off and the navel stub was treated with
a tii.cture of iodine. Injectable iron was administered to all pigs between 3 and
5 days of age and male pigs were castrated at one week of age. Heat lamps were
used as needed to provide warmth for the baby pigs. Pens were cleaned each morn-
ing. A special effort was made to provide a dry environment for the pigs at all
time Wood shavings served as bedding. Automatic drinking cups provided fresh
water for the sows and litters. All litters were weaned at two weeks of age.
The composition of the lactation and starter diets is presented in Table 1.
1/ S..pported in part by grant-in-aid from Commercial Solvents Corp., Terre Haute,
2/ Combs and Wallace, Animal Nutritionists, Animal Science Department.
Table 1. Composition of Lactation and Starter Diets
Ingredients Lactation Starter
Ground yellow corn 65.09 67.20
Ground whole oats 10.00
Soybean meal (50%) 20.30 25.70
Ground limestone 0.75
Steamed bonemeal 1.00
Defluorinated phosphate 2.00
Iodized salt 0.50 0.50
Trace minerals 1/ 0.06 0.10
B-vitamin supplement 2/ 0.30 0.50
Vitamin A and D supplement 3/ 2.00 2.00
1/ Calcium Carbonate Co. swine mix; 1 lb. per ton adds
following ppm: manganese (50), iron (50), copper (5),
cobalt (0.5), iodine (1.5) and zinc (50).
2/ Contains 2,000 mg. riboflavin, 4,000 mg. pantothenic
acid, 9,000 mg. niacin, 10,000 mg. choline chloride
and 9 mg. B12 per pound of supplement.
3/ Contains 14 gm. vitamin A supplement (10,000 I.U./
gm.), 4 gm. vitamin D supplement (9,000 I.U./gm.)
and 890 gm. yellow corn.
Results and Discussion
A summary of the data obtained for each of the treatments is presented in
Table 2. Influence of Antibiotic(s) On Sow and Pig Performance
No Zinc +
Treatment Antibiotic Bacitracin Neomycin Neomycin
Number of litters 21 21 20 20
Number live pigs/litter 10.9 10.4 10.2 10.4
Number pigs weaned/litter
(2 weeks of age) 9.3 9.1 9.2 8.8
Percent survival 85.3 87.5 90.2 84.6
Av. birth wt., lb. 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.0
Av. weaning wt., lb. 7.5 7.3 7.8 8.1
Percentage pigs scouting 12.0 3.0 7.0 11.0
Severity of scours 1' 3.0 2.6 3.0 2.5
1/ Scour index: 1 = severe; 2 = moderate and 3 = slight.
All groups which received antibiotics in their diets farrowed and weaned a
similar number of pigs. The slight increase in number farrowed by the no-anti-
biotij group indicated that the disease level was in general quite low. The
similarity in birth weights, weaning weights and severity of scours among the
treatment groups tends to confirm the existence of a low disease level.
Other studies have shown that the major benefits from antibiotics are derived
from the disease control ability and that the degree of response is greater in
contaminated environments. Our sanitation and management programs at the Univer-
sity Swine Unit were designed to provide maximum disease control with both the
animals and housing. This undoubtedly influenced the general lack of response to
Eighty two sows and their litters were used in a study designed to control
scours in young pigs by including high levels of antibiotics in lactation and
starter diets. Either zinc bacitracin, neomycin or a combination of zinc bacitra-
cin plus neomycin was added to provide a total of 200 or 500 grams per ton in the
lactation and starter diets, respectively.
As measured by number of live pigs born, percent survival, birth and weaning
weight, and severity of scours the data showed an overall lack of response to
antibiotics. The relatively low incidence and severity of scours suggest the
presence of a low disease level in both animals and farrowing house which minimizes
the response to antibiotics.