Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. AN67-8
Title: High level copper for pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
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 Material Information
Title: High level copper for pigs fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Science
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1967
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Copper in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Corn as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 4).
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace ... et al..
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "June, 1967."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072986
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 78611933

Full Text

SDepartment of Animal Science
-.- Mimeograph Series No. AN67-8
June, 1967


Florida Agricultural
Experiment Station

JUL 3 1967

H. D. Wallace, B. R. Cannon, A. Z. Pal~r
J. W. Carpenter and G. E. Combs/i .F.A.S. Univ. of Florida

It has been demonstrated by numerous feeding experiments in this country and
abroad that growing pigs respond favorably to high level copper feeding. Most of
these experiments involved complete meal mixtures with copper added at levels from
125 to 250 ppm. Many pigs in the United States are fed on the free-choice system,
wherein shelled corn and a complete supplement are offered in separate feeders. It
seemed important to determine how high level copper feeding could be handled advan-
tageously in this system of feeding. A balanced intake of corn and supplement is of
primary importance. Copper sulfate, being a very bitter-tasting substance, is dis-
liked when added to feed at levels of 500 ppm and above (2). In the present experi-
ment, the first objective was to determine how pigs would react to a supplement con-
taining 1000 ppm copper as copper sulfate. Secondly, pigs were given a chance to
select supplement from four feeders containing 0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm copper. It
was hoped that data from the latter observation would help to pinpoint a level in
keeping with proper supplement intake.


Forty-two crossbred pigs (Landrace-Duroc x Hampshire and Duroc x Landrace) were
divided into 6 lots according to breed, sex and weight. Two lots of seven pigs each
were group-fed in concrete confinement on each dietary treatment. All pigs were self-
fed shelled corn and supplement free-choice. Composition of the protein supplement
is presented in Table 1. Levels of copper added to supplement as copper sulfate
(CuSO4) are indicated in Table 2. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of
the experiment and dressing percent, carcass length and backfat thickness were deter-
mined according to standard procedures. Liver tissue samples and supplement samples
were analyzed according to the method described by Houser (1).

Results and Discussion

Information on feed consumption, feedlot performance, carcass
copper analyses for liver tissue and feed is presented in Table 2.
4 weeks of the trial control pigs (Lots 1 and 2) balanced corn and
in a fairly commendable manner, eating less than 3 parts corn to 1

measurements and
During the first
supplement intake
part supplement.

1/ Supported in part by a grant from International Copper Research Association,
Inc., New York, New York.

2/ Wallace, Animal Nutritionist; Cannon, Graduate Assistant; Palmer, Meat Scien-
tist; Carpenter, Associate Meat Scientist; and Combs, Associate Animal Nutri-
tionist, Department of Animal Science.

-2 -

Table 1. Composition of protein supplement offered free-choice
to all lots. '

Soybean oilmeal (50%) 47.40
Meat scraps (50%) 25.00
Alfalfa meal (17%) 25.00
Iodized salt 2.00
Trace minerals 0.20-
Vitamin supplement 0.40-

a Contained 11% calcium,-10% manganese, 10% iron, 10% zinc, 1% copper,
0.3%,iodine and 0.1% cobalt. -

b Contained 8,000; 14,720, 36,000 and 40,000 mg. per lb., respect-
ively, of riboflavin,.pantothenic acid, niacin and choline chloride.

As the experiment progressed, supplement intake relative to corn consumption decreased
as expected. The overall average consumption.for these two lots showed an intake
ratio of 4.4 corn to 1.0 of supplement. This represents a total protein intake of
about 17 percent of the feed consumed, which is probably somewhat above overall min-
imum protein requirements. Pigs in Lots 3 and 4, which were offered a supplement
containing 1000 ppm copper, followed a much different feed intake pattern. During
the first four weeks, supplement intake was quite low and this was reflected in slow-
er gains during this period. However, during the remainder of the experiment, con-
sumption of supplement-relative to corn increased and was not.greatly different from
that which would be considered normal. The initial adjustment to the high level cop-
per supplement appeared to-be difficult for the pigs. In the lots in which a choice
of supplements was available (Lots 5 and 6), the intake pattern was quite good for
Lot 5, but total supplement intake was below the desired level in Lot 6. A summary
of supplement consumption for these two lots is presented in Table 3. It is inter-
esting to note that the pigs seemed to prefer the copper-free supplement. But, of
the supplements containing copper, that with 1000 ppm was consumed in greatest quan-

The overall daily gains of pigs were not greatly different for the various lots
(Table 2). The slightly poorer performance of pigs in Lots 5 and 6 was due to slow-
er gains during the first 4-week period of the experiment, when supplement intake
was inadequate.

Carcass data revealed no marked treatment effects. Copper in liver tissue was
increased four- to five-fold for pigs in Lots 3 and 4, and only very slightly for
pigs in Lots 5 and 6. These values reflect rather well the total copper intake of
the pigs.

Table 2'. Influence of copper level in supplement on feed consumption, feedlot performance and carcass
characteristics of growing-finishing swine.

Lot No.- 1 2 3 4 5 6
,,,,,,,,~------ ; ----------------
------- ----- ---------------- ------------------------- ------------------------------------------
Copper added to supplement, ppm 0 0 1000 1000 Choice Choice
0 0
250. 250
500 500
1000 .1000

Number of pigs per lot "-7 7 7 7 7 7
Average initial wt., lb. 58.3 58.6 58.7 58.4 58.3: 58.4
Average final wt. lb. .205.0 205.0 200.6 199.0 208.3 205.1
Feed consumption, lb.
1st 4 weeks
Corn 4 568 612 675 698 663 760
Supplement: 217 216 96 145 211 145
2nd 4 weeks
Corn 1002 1083 1024 1003 1007 1072
Supplement .286 223 210 208 204 185
3rd 4 weeks
Corn 1320 1408 1249 1214 1263 1313
Supplement 239 195 202 197 211. 181
Entire period
Corn 2890 3103 2948 2915 2933 3145
Supplement 742 634 508 550 626 511
Daily gain, entire period, lb. 1.65 1.65 1.59 1.58 1.69 1.65
Feed consumed per lb. gain, lb.:
Corn 2.81 3.03 2.97 2.96 2.79 3.06
Supplement .. 0.72 0.62 0.51 0.56 0.60 0.50
Dressing percent 70.6 70.6 70.5 70.8 70.1 71.7
Carcass length, in. 30.75 30.07 29.75 30.50 31.03 30.42
Backfat thickness, in. 1.38 1.50 1.50 1.42 1.34 1.46
Liver copper, ppm (dry matter basis) 19.6 18.8 96.6 70.5 33.3 26.0
Feed copper, ppm (in supplement) 26.5 26.5 1176.5 1176.5 ----- -----



The results of an experiment, designed to obtain information on the feasibility
of adding high levels of copper to the supplement for pigs in a free-choice feeding
system, are presented.

When 1000 ppm copper was added to the supplement, initial intake of supplement
was depressed below that necessary for good performance. However, the pigs gradually
adjusted and during the final phases of the experiment were consuming reasonable;
amounts of supplement relative to shelled corn. Liver tissue from these pigs showed
a four- to five-fold increase in copper content. Pigs given a choice of supplements
containing different levels of copper (0, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) preferred the supple-
ment with no copper added. Significant quantities of the supplement containing 1000
ppm were consumed, but the other two levels were largely ignored.

Further testing is necessary before definite recommendations can be offered.

Table 3. Supplement intake for Lots 5 and 6, lb.

Copper in supplement, ppm 0 250 500 1000


First 4 weeks 93 23 14 81
2nd 4 weeks* 151 5 5 43
3rd 4 weeks 103 5 9 94
Total 347 33 28 218


First 4 weeks 57 29 12 47
2nd 4 weeks 147 20 4 10
3rd 4 weeks i 116 11 10 44
Total 320 60 30 101

Literature Cited

1. Houser, R. H. 1966. Response of swine to high level copper feeding. Master
of Science Thesis. University of Florida.

2. Wallace, H. D., R. H. Houser and G. E. Combs. 1966. A high level copper pre-
ference study with growing pigs. Fla. Animal Sci. Mimeo. Series No. AN67-2.


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