Group Title: Animal Science Department mimeo report - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; no. AN 64-4
Title: The effects of supplementing starter rations with high levels of copper, zinc and iron
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 Material Information
Title: The effects of supplementing starter rations with high levels of copper, zinc and iron
Series Title: Animal Science Department mimeo report
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1963
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Minerals in animal nutrition -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D. Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "July, 1963."
Funding: Animal Science Department mimeograph report ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072946
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77527666

Full Text

Animal Science Department Florida Agricultural
Mimeo Report AN 64-4 Experiment Station
Gainesville, Florida
July, 1963


G. E. Combs and H. D. Wallace1/

With the growing-finishing pig high levels of copper have been
shown to stimulate rate of gain and have also proven to be toxic in
certain instances (Fla. Ani. Sci. Mimeo Series 63-17). The mechanism
of this stimulatory effect is presently unknown but the response was
of such magnitude that it became desirable to know if high levels of
other less toxic minerals produced the same beneficial effect as

The trials reported herein were designed to study the effect of
supplementing pig starter rations with high levels of copper, zinc
and iron.

Three trials were conducted with pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age.
In all trials the pigs were allotted to treatment from outcome groups
formed on the basis of weight and litter. The pigs were self-fed in
concrete floor pens and water was supplied by automatic waterers.

The composition of the basal rations is shown in table 1. In all
instances the minerals were added in the sulfate form,

Trial I Fifty pigs were allotted to 5 replicated pens of 5 pigs
each. Using basal ration 1 the treatments formed were as follows:

Treatment 1 Basal
Treatment 2 Basal + 67 gm. aureomycin per ton.
Treatment 3 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper
Treatment 4 Basal + 500 p.p.m. zinc.
Treatment 5 Basal + 500 p.p.m. iron.

The pigs on the basal and copper rations were continued on treatment
until market weight was reached.

1/ Combs and Wallace, Associate Animal Nutritionist and Animal
S Nutritionist, respectively, Department of Animal Science. The
assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen
is acknowledged.


Trial 2 Forty-five pigs were divided into 5 treatment groups
of 9 pigs each. The ration treatments formed with basal ration II
were as follows:

Treatment 1 Basal
Treatment 2 Basal + 67 gm. aureomycin per ton
Treatment 3 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper
Treatment 4 Basal + 500 p.p.m. zinc
Treatment 5 Basal + 500 p.p.m. iron

Trial 3 Eighty pigs were allotted to 10 treatment groups con-
sisting of pigs each. Both basal rations I and II were used in this
trial to form the following treatments:

Treatment 1 Basal
Treatment 2 Basal + 67 gm. aureomycin per ton
Treatment 3 Basal + 250 p.p.m. copper
Treatment 4 Basal + 250 p.p.m. zinc
Treatment 5 Basal + 250 p.p.m. iron

Results and Discussion

The average performance data for pigs in all trials are sumirarized
in table 2.

Trial 1 The pigs fed the high level copper ration gained signifi-
cantly faster than those pigs fed the unsupplemented ration or the rations
supplemented with either zinc or iron. The gains of this group were also
slightly higher than the aureomycin-fed pias but the difference was not
statistically significant. The pigs fed the aureomycin containing ration
required significantly more feed per pound of gain than pigs on the other
ration treatments,

The data indicate that while the high levels of zinc and iron were
not toxic neither were they of any benefit in stimulating rate of gain.

The pigs in the basal and copper groups which were continued on ex-
periment until market weight averaged 198.1 and 203.7 pounds respectively
after a 98 day feeding period. Hemoglobin levels obtained on the last
day of the trial were 11,5 and 10.5 gm./100 ml. respectively for the
basal and copper groups. Apparently the early growth promoting response
obtained with copper was not sustained throughout the finishing period.
A similar effect has been reported for lower levels of copper (Fla. An.
Sci, Mimeo. Series 63-17).

Trial 2 As shown in table 1 the principle difference between trial
1 and tri- ~2 was the addition of 20% dried skim milk to basal ration II.
The response to copper was similar to that obtained in trial 1; the pigs
fed the basal, zinc and iron rations gained significantly less than those
fed copper. The copper-fed pigs also gained slightly faster than the
pigs that received aureomycin but again the difference was not significant.
Feed efficiency was similar for all treatment groups.


Although the differences between the gains of the basal and of the
zinc and iron groups were not different statistically, the data indicate
more of a depressing action attributable to the high levels of zihc and
iron with the died skim milk rations.

Trial 3 The levels of both zinc and iron were reduced in this
trialfrom i500 to 250 pp.m. With basal ration I the reduction pro-
duced results similar to those in trials 1 and 2 in that rate of gain
was similar in the basal, zinc and iron groups but less than that of
the copper and aureomycin groups. Efficiency of gain was similar
with all groups.

With the basal II ration no significant differences in daily gain
or feed efficiency were found among treatments. This similarity may
probably be attributed to a lack of response to aureomycin and copper
rather than an increased response to the reduced levels of zinc and

Pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were used to study the effects of
adding high levels of copper, zinc and iron to starter rations.

Copper at the level of 250 p.p.m. stimulated rate of gain in all
but one instance, Copper toxicity was not evidenced during the compar-
atively short feeding trials, nor with pigs fed 250 p.p.m, copper from
2 weeks of age to market weight. Neither zinc nor iron at the levels
of 500 or 250 p.p.m. were effective in stimulating rate and efficiency
of gain.

Table 1, Composition of Basal Rations

Ingredient Basal I Basal II
lbs. lbs.

Ground yellow corn 56.40 54.65
Soybean meal 25.70 8.50
Dried skim milk 0.00 20,00
Sugar 10.00 10.00
Fat 3.00 3.00
Bonemeal 2.00 1.00
Salt .50 .50
Trace minerals/ .10 .10
Vitamin supplement/ .20 .20
Vitamin B12 supplement (12+)3/ .10 .10
Vitamin A and D premixZ/ 2.00 2,00
1/ Adds in p,p.m.:. anganese (59.2), iron (73.0), copper (5.0), cobalt
(1.7), zinc (84.0) and potassium (7.8).
2/ Contained.the following per pound: riboflavin, 2000 mg.; panthothenic
acid, 4000 mg.; niacin, 9000 mg. and choline chloride, 10,000 mg.
3/ Contained 12 mg. vitamin B12 per pound.
W/ Contained vitamin A (10,000 I.U./gm.), 12 gm.; vitamin D (9000 I,U./
gm.), 4 gm. and corn 890 gm.

- 4 -

Table 2, Performance of Pigs Fed High Levels
of Copper, Zinc and Iron (Trials 1, 2 and 3)

Trial I
Aureomycin Copper Zinc Iron
Treatment Basal (67 gm,/ton) (250 pp.m.) (500 p.p.m.) (500 p.p.m.)

Initial weight 8,1 8.2 8.1 8.1 8.1
Final weight 39.0 43,6 47.7 40.3 39.3
Daily gain .74 .84 .94i .77 .74
Daily feed 1,52 1.98 1.81 1.56 1.54
Feed/gain 2.07 2.35** 1.92 2.03 2.08
* Significantly different from basal, zinc and iron (P <.01).
' Significantly different from all other treatments (P<,05).

Trial 2
Aureomycin Copper Zinc Iron
Treatment Basal (67 gm./ton) (250 pp.m.) (500 p.p.m.) (500 p.p.m.)

Initial weight 8,7 8.7 8,9 8.8 8.8
Final weight 41,3 43,9 48,0 36,1 37.7
Daily gain .78 .84* ,93** .65 .69
Daily feed 1.64 1,60 2,01 1,34 1.34
Feed/gain 2.10 1.90 2.16 2.06 1,94
--- Significantly greater than zinc and iron (P < .05).
* Significantly greater than basal, zinc and iron (P < .05).

Trial 3
Aureomycin Copper Zinc Iron
Treatment Basal (67 gm,/ton) (250 p.p.m.) (250 p.p.m.) (250
Basal I

Initial weight 8.5 8,6 8.6 8.5 8.6
Final weight 53.7 61.2 63.1 53.2 55.4
Daily gain .79 .92* .95** .78 .82
Daily feed 1.71 2,04 2.13 1.86 1.92
Feed/gain 2.16 2,22 2,24 2.38 2.34
Basal II

Initial weight 8.1 8,2 8.1 8.1 8.2
Final weight 46.8 49,2 50,5 48.7 47.4
Daily gain .74 .79 .81 ,78 .75
Daily feed 1.64 1,71 1.89 1,71 1.67
Feed/gain 2.21 2,16 2.12 2.19 2.23
------ ---- ----------------------------------------------------------------
* Aureomycin significantly greater than basal and zinc (P < .05).
* Copper significantly greater than basal and zinc (P < .01) and iron (P < .05).

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