Group Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 63-7
Title: Fish meal in pig starter rations
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 Material Information
Title: Fish meal in pig starter rations
Series Title: Department of Animal Science mimeograph series
Physical Description: 4 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
University of Florida -- Agricultural Experiment Station
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1962
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Fish meal as feed -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: G.E. Combs and H.D Wallace.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "August, 1962."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072929
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 77225131

Full Text

Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 63-7 Experiment Station
August, 1962 Gainesville, Florida


G. E. Combs and H. D, Wallace 1/

Previous studies have demonstrated that satisfactory performance may
be obtained with swine when soybean meal serves as the source of supplementary
protein. Occasionally other sources of protein become economically competi-
tive with soybean meal. In these instances information concerning the
feeding value of these meals will permit the formulation of a more economical

The study reported herein was conducted to determine the level of fish
meal that could be incorporated into starter rations without impairing either
rate or efficiency of gain.


Two experiments were conducted with pigs weaned at two weeks of age.
In both experiments the pigs were self-fed for 42 days and water supplied
by automatic waterers.

The Menhaden fish meal contained 60% protein and was prepared by the
Nassau Fertilizer and Oil Company, Inc., Fernandina Beach, Florida. To
aid in overcoming anticipated palatability problems, fish solubles were
added to the meal at the level of 10 percent.

Experiment I Fifty pigs were allotted to five ration treatments;
these treatments were as follows:

Treatment I soybean meal basal
Treatment 2- basal + 5 fish meal
Treatment 2 basal + 0% fish meal
Treatment 3 basal + 10% fish meal

Treatment 4 basal + 15% fish meal SEP 181962

Treatment 5 basal + 20% fish meal

The composition of the basal ration is presented in table I. All
were calculated to contain 18% protein and bone meal was added as required
to maintain a constant calcium and phosphorus content of 1.0 and 0.80%,

Experiment 2 Ration treatments in this experiment consisted of 5
levels of fish meal fed with two levels of calcium and phosphorus. Levels

I/ Combs and Wallace, Associate Animal Nutritionist and Animal Nutritionist,
respectively, Department of Animal Science. The assistance of W. E.
Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen, is acknowledged.


of fish meal fed were 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10, with calcium and phosphorus
levels of .52 and .54 or .70 and .60% respectively. Five pigs were used
with each of the ration treatments. The composition of the basal ration was
essentially that used in experiment I.


The results of this study are summarized in table 2. It is clear from
Experiment I that rations which contained 15% or 20% fish meal did not per-
mit as rapid or efficient gains as the other ration treatments. A small but
definite decrease in performance was also observed as the quantity of fish
meal increased from 0 to 10% of the ration.

A more critical evaluation of levels of fish meal (experiment 2) indicated
that with the low calcium and phosphorus levels comparable results were ob-
tained with the rations containing 0, 2.5 and 5% fish meal. The reduction
in gain and feed efficiency observed with the 7.5 and 10% levels of fish
meal was relatively small. Consequently, in the instances where fish meal
could be purchased more economically than soybean meal, this slight reduc-
tion in performance would probably be economically insignificant.

The performance of pigs fed the high calcium and phosphorus rations was
inferior to that obtained with the low-mineral rations at all levels of fish
meal. This was particularly evident with the group fed the soybean meal
basal ration. With these high-mineral rations 2.5% fish meal appeared to be
the most desirable level.


Two experiments involving 100 pigs weaned at 2 weeks of age were con-
ducted to study the effects of including various levels of fish meal in
starter rations.

A marked reduction in rate and efficiency of gain was observed with
rations containing either 15 or 20% fish meal. Consideration ot all experi-
ments indicated that a maximum of 5% fish meal could be included without
impairing performance.



Ingredient I/ Percent

Ground yellow corn 57.60
Soybean meal 26.20
Sugar 10.00
Stabilized fat 3.00
Salt .50
Trace minerals .10
Vitamin supplement #1 2/ .20
Vitamin B supplement (9+) 2/ .10
Aurofac T 4/ .30
Vitamin A and D mix.~/ 2.00

I/ Calcium and phosphorus added at the expense of yellow corn and
the quantity varied with the ration treatment.

2/ Supplied by Chas. Pfizer and Co. Contained 2,000 mg. riboflavin,
4,000 mg. pantothenic acid, 9,000 mg. niacin, and 10,000 mg.
choline chloride per pound.

3/ Supplied by Chas. Pfizer and Co. Contained 9 mg. vitamin B12
per pound.

4/ Supplied by American Cyanamid Co. Contained 10 gm. chlortetracycline
per pound.

5/ Contained 14 gm. vitamin A (10,000 l.U./gm.), 2 gm. vitamin D
(9,000 l.U./gm.) and 892 gm. yellow corn.



Experiment I
Treatment No. I 2 3 4 5
Ration Soybean 5% Fish 10% Fish 15% Fish 20% Fish
Meal Meal Meal Meal Meal

No. of pigs 10 10 10 10 10
Av. initial weight, lb. 8.8 8.9 8.9 8.8 8.9
Av. final weight, lb. 40.3 39.7 37.8 31.4 25.7
Av. daily gain, lb. .751/ .73 I/ .691/ .54 2/ .40
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.47 1.44 1.41 1.15 .96
Feed/lb. gain, lb. 1.95 1.97 2.04 2.13 2.39

Experiment II
Treatment No. I 2 3 4 5
Ration Soybean 2.5% Fish 5% Fish 7.5% Fish 105 Fish
Meal Meal Meal Meal Meal

.52% Ca and .54% Phos.
No. of pigs 5 5 5 5 5
Av. initial weight, lb. 10.3 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.3
Av. final weight, lb. 36.8 37.8 36.5 34.4 33.5
Av. daily gain, lb. .63 .66 .63 .58 .55
Av. daily feed, lb. 1.36 1.39 1.23 1.29 1.25
Feed/lb. gain, lb. 2.16 2.11 1.95 2.22 2.27

.70% Ca and .60% Phos.
No. of pigs 5 5 5 5 5
Av. initial weight, lb. 7.7 7.7 7.6 7.7 7.7
Av. final weight, lb. 26.0 33.4 28.5 25.8 27.8
Av. daily gain, lb. .43 .61 .50 .43 .48
Av. daily feed, Ib. 1.02 1.18 1.09 1.04 1.13
Feed/lb. gain, lb. 2.37 1.93 2.18 2.42 2.35

I/ Treatments I, 2 and
4 and 5.

3 significantly different (P = .01) from treatments

2/ Treatment 4 significantly different (P = .01) from treatment 5.

1000 copies

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