Department of Animal Science Florida Agricultural
Mineograph Series No. 62-6 Experiment Station
November, 1961 Gainesville, Florida
A COMPARISON OF METHODS OF FEEDING SWINE
DURING HOLD-OVER PERIODS BEFORE SLAUGHTER-I
A. Z. Palmer, H. D. Wallace, J. W. Carpenter,
R. "L. Reddi-sh'and D. L. Huffman
Increased feed consumption, Ii.ver weight, yield of the .four lean
cuts and improved tenderness and sweetness of the livers have been
reported (Palmer et al., 1961a) from a study which compared the hold-
over feeding of a 60% ground corn, 40%.sugar ration with the feeding
of shelled corn. However, a further study of the effects of pre-slaugh-
ter feeding of sugar to swine (Palmer et al., 1961b) showed increased
consumption in one trial but not in a second trial. Barrows fed sugar
had larger livers than barrows fed ground corn whereas liver weights
did not differ between gilts on the two treatments. In the second trial
of the latter study, pigs fed ground corn plus sugar had slightly larger
livers than the pigs fed ground corn. Differences in yields of ham,
loin, picnic and butt were rot significant and liver palatability was
not affected'by feeding treatment.
The purpose of this study was to obtain further information on the
effects of pre-slaughter feeding on dressing percent, liver percent,
cooler shrink and yield of the four lean cuts.
Forty-eight crossbred barrows and gilts were weighed off a feeding
study upon reaching slaughter weight and allotted to the hold-over study
according to previous treatment, weight, sex and litter. The pigs were
self-fed in groups with the exception of the Lot 5 pigs which were not
fed during the 48-hour period before slaughter. Lot I was given free
choice of shelled corn, ground corn'and a 700 ground corn, 305 sugar
mixture. Lot 2 was fed the 70% ground corn, 30% sugar mixture, Lot 3
received ground corn and Lot 4, shelled corn.
After a '48-hour pre-slaughter feeding period, the pigs were slaugh-
tered and the carcasses dressed packer style. Dressing percent and liver
percent were calculated on initial weight rather than the laughter
weight obtained immediately before slaughter. This was done to minimize
the effect of "fill", 'as influenced by consumption' during hold-over
1/ The assistance of Earl Collins and Jeff Jeter, Swine Herdsman and
Meats Laboratory Manager, respectively, Mrs. Norma Bowles and
Richard Newman, Laboratory'Assistants, Animal Science Department,
University of Florida is acknowledged. : -.
2/ Palmer, Associate Meat Scientist; Wallace, Animal Nutritidni'st; ;
Carpenter, Assistant Meat Scientist; Reddi-sh, Associate Extention \
Meats Specialist and Huffman, Research Assistant, Animal science Qec J,
Department, University of Florida, Gainesville. i,,.
The cooler shrink of carcasses was not influenced by pre-slaughter
Feeding treatments had a highly significant (P<0.01) effect on
liver percentage. The.pigs which received some sugar, Lots I and 2,
had larger livers than those pigs which did not receive sugar, Lots 3,
4 and 5.
Feeding treatments did not effect yields of ham, loin,,picnic and
Barrows and gilts had similar size livers in this study; this result
does not agree with previous data (Palmer et al., 1961a) which showed
somewhat larger livers for gilts.
Sugar in the feeds fed free choice improved palatability as indi-
cated by increased consumption. The increased feed consumption resulted
in increased live weights and higher dressing percentages. Sugar feed-
ing increased liver percentage but had no effect on the yields of ham,
loin, picnic and butt. Cooler shrink of carcasses was not influenced
by the pre-slaughter feeding treatment of this study.
Kline, E. A. and L. N. Hazel. 1955. Loin area at tenth and last rib
as related to leanness of pork carcasses. J. Animal Sci. 14:659.
Palmer, A. Z., H. D. Wallace and J. W. Carpenter. 1961a. The effect
of pre-slaughter feeding of sucrose to swine on slaughter, carcass
and quality characteristics. Ani. Husb. and Nutr. Mimeo Series
No. 61-6. Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta., Gainesville.
Palmer, A. Z., H. D. Wallace and J. W. Carpenter. 1961b. Further
observations on the effect of pre-slaughter feeding of sucrose
to swine. Animal Science Mimeo Series No. 62-1. Fla. Agr.. Expt.
Reciprocal Meat Conference, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual. 1951.
Snedecor, G. W. 1956. Statistical Methods (5th Ed.) The Iowa State
-College Press. Ames, Iowa.