| Material Information
||A Comparison of pelleted and flaked or cracked corn in beef calf creep feeds
||Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series
||4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Hentges, J. F ( James Franklin ), 1925-
Alexander, Robert Allen, 1932-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Place of Publication:
||Beef cattle -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
||government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||"April - 1959."
||Animal husbandry and nutrition mimeograph series - UF Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; no. 59-7
||Statement of Responsibility:
||J.F. Hentges, Jr. and R.A. Alexander.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76965151
Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Mimeograph Series No. 59-7
A COMPARISON OF PELLETED AND FLAKED OR CRACKED CORN
IN BEEF CALF CREEP FEEDS*
J. F. Hentges, Jr. and R. A. Alexander
Creep feeding of beef calves is practiced for two major reasons. One
is to efficiently utilize the limited concentrate feed supply in the Gulf
Coast states to fatten crossbred calves to supply the demand for leaner,
more tender beef by diet-conscious consumers. Most crossbred calves in
Florida are out of large cows with good milk production but mediocre beef
conformation; therefore, many of these calves must be marketed at an early
age as heavy slaughter calves or beef-dressed calves before their faults
in beef conformation become pronounced enough to penalize their market
grade. A second reason for creep feeding is to facilitate performance
testing of purebred calves. To get a measure of their dam's milking
ability, it is important to record the weight of calves at about 100 days
of age before they have had access to creep feed. Weight gains by calves
from about 100 days of age to weaning while having free access to creep
feed affords a measure of the calf's gaining ability.
To answer the question, "Are pelleted creep feeds superior", these
experiments were conducted.
Calves i.n lot I were offered a feed mixture consisting of 80% pelleted
corn meal and 20% non-pelleted supplement. The mixture fed to lot 2 dif-
fered only in that the corn was fed as cracked corn. The composition of
these two feed mixtures is shown in table I.
*The cooperation of the Florida Feed Mills,
.and pelleting these feeds is acknowledged.
Table I. COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL FEED MIXTURES FOR BEEF CALVES, 1957
Ingredients Lot I (pelleted) Lot 2 (cracked)
Pelleted yellow corn 80 --
Cracked yellow corn -- 80
Supplement: 20% 20%
Cottonseed meal, 41% 35 Ibs.
Soybean meal, 44% 35
Cane molasses 10
Alfalfa meal, 17% 10
Stabilized fat 5
Mineral mixI 5
Total 100 Ibs.
IMineral mixture contained sources of phosphorus and the trace elements:
cobalt, copper, iron, zinc, manganese and iodine.
The corn pellets were i" cubes of corn meal. Alyce clover hay was
available to the calves free choice in addition to the Pangolagrass and
Bermudagrass pastures being grazed by their dams.
The results of this experiment are shown in table 2.
Lot I (pelleted) Lot 2 (cracked)
No. calves 15 15
Av. daily gain 1.5 Ibs. 1.8 Ibs.
Av. daily concentrates consumption 5.2 Ibs. 6.7 Ibs.
Concentrates required per cwt. gain 400 Ibs. 400 Ibs.
Concentrate.cost per cwt. gain $13.28 $13.16
These results may be interpreted as follows:
I. There was little difference in feed utilization or feed cost
per hundred pounds of gain.
2. Larger gains were obtained in the cracked corn lot, apparently
due to a 1.5 pound per day larger average daily consumption of
3. The lower consumption of pelleted corn may have been due partly
to easier separation of pelleted corn and non-pelleted supple-
ment in the Lot I ration. Also, it was observed that the calves
ate cracked corn more readily than pelleted corn at the beginning
of the experiment.
4. Both feeds returned profits when the steers were sold to a packer;
however, they were priced higher by feeder buyers than by packer
buyers due to the Western demand for feeders.
5. The packer buyer dressed all calves as beef and most were federally
graded and rolled U.S. Good beef. Hot carcass weights averaged
Calves in lot I were offered a pelleted feed mixture consisting of
70% yellow corn meal and 30% supplement. The pellets were 3/8" in diameter.
The feed offered lot 2 differed only in that it was not pelleted and the
corn was steamed rolled (flaked). The composition of these mixtures is
shown in table 3.
Table 3. COMPOSITION OF EXPERIMENTAL FEED MIXTURES FOR BEEF CALVES, 1958
Ingredients Lot I (pelleted) Lot 2 (flaked)
Corn meal 70 --
Flaked corn -- 70
Cottonseed meal, 41% 10 10
Soybean meal, 44% 10 10
Alfalfa meal, dehydrated, 17% 3 3
Cane molasses 4 4
Mineral mixture 3 3
100 Ibs. 100 Ibs.
Total protein, % 15.9 15.2
Digestibility of protein, % 89.3 91.1
Gross energy, calories/lb. 7,619 7,769
Digestibility of calories, % 82.4 82.3
The results of this experiment are shown in table 4.
Lot I (pelleted) Lot 2 (flaked)
No. of calves 23 24
Av. daily gain 1.9 Ibs. 2.1 Ibs.
Av. daily creep feed consumption 4.2 Ibs. 4.0 Ibs.
Creep feed required per cwt. gain 220 Ibs. 189 lbs.
Creep feed cost per cwt. gain $8.32 $6.96
These results may be interpreted as follows:
1. Calves fed flaked corn gained faster and required less feed per
hundred pounds of gain.
2. Calves fed flaked corn graded higher on slaughter grade at the
end of the experiment and returned $10 per head more than Lot I
3. The comparatively small amount of feed required per hundredweight
of gain in this experiment is probably due to the excellence of
pasture forage which was available to both lots of calves.
4. As in 1957, both lots of calves were priced higher as feeders than
as slaughter animals.
April 13, 1959