Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 59-4 Experiment Station
CONTINUOUS FEEDING OF PIPERAZINE PHOSPHATE
TO PIGS TWO WEEKS OF AGE UNTIL MARKET WEIGHTI
G. E. Combs, Jr., H. D. Wallace and R. B. Christmas2
The ability of piperazine phosphate to stimulate rate of gain when
continuously fed to growing-finishing swine has been previously demonstrated by
Wallace et al. (1) (2). The relatively small number of ascarids counted at the
termination of these studies indicated that the growth promoting action of
piperazine phosphate may not be entirely attributed to its anthelmintic proper-
The experiments reported here were undertaken to determine if continuous
low level feeding of piperazine phosphate stimulated growth with "worm-free" pigs.
Thirty pigs that had been confined on concrete since birth were weaned
at two weeks of age and divided into six groups on the basis of weight and breed.
Each group of five pigs was maintained in concrete pens until they were eight
weeks of age and were fed either the basal ration or the basal ration containing
40 grams of piperazine phosphate per 100 pounds. At this time four of the six
groups were combined on a treatment basis to form two groups of 10 pigs each and
placed on pasture. The remaining two groups were kept on concrete. At the termi-
nation of the experiment each pig was slaughtered and large roundworms present in
the intestine were counted. Livers from the animals were examined for possible
IThe piperazine phosphate was supplied by Chemo.Puro Manufacturing Corporation,
Newark, New Jersey.
Combs, Wallace and Christmas, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Associate Animal
Husbandman, and Graduate Assistant, respectively, Department of Animal Husbandry
and Nutrition. The assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen,
is gratefully acknowledged.
The composition of the basal rations
is presented in Table I.
S .. Table 1. Composition of
Ground yellow corn 44.10
Soybean oil meal 18.70
Dried sklmmilk 20.00
Sugar 1 0.00
Ground limestone 0.60
Steamed bone meal I.00
Iodized salt 0.50
Trace minerals (Calcium Carbonate
Vitamin and antibiotic premix-1 2.00
Vitamin supplement (2-490C Lederle) -
Antibiotic supplement (Aurofac-lO
of age to
125 Ibs. body
and antibiotic premix consisted of the following
Vitamin A (10,000 I.U./gm.) 14.00
Vitamin D (9,000 1.U,/gm) 4.54
Vitamin E (20 gm./lb.) 19.97
Calcium pantothenate 0.38
Choline chloride (98 gm./lb.) 6.90
Folic acid 8.58
Vitamin B12 (9 mg./lb.) 100.00
Pfizer vitamin supplement #2 6.81
Penicillin (Pfizer P-80) .60
Streptomycin (467 mg./lb.) 2.14
Soybean oil meal 740.32
After 125 Ibs.
= I I I
- 3 -
The dietary treatments for the various lots were as follows:
Lots I, 2 and 3 Basal rations
Lots 4, 5 and 6 Basal rations + 40 gm. piperazine
phosphate per 100 Ibs. of feed.
Lots I, 2, 4..end 5 were combined according to treatment
and placed on pasture when the pigs were eight weeks of age.
Lots 3 and 5 were kept on concrete throughout the experiment.
Results and Discussion
Performance data are presented in Tables 2 and 3. The roundworm counts
and observations on -liver damage are presented in Table 4.
During the first period (2-8 weeks) of this experiment there was only
a small difference between the average daily gains of the basal and piperazine-
fed lots. The daily gains of lots 1, 2 and 3 averaged 0.71 compared to an
average of 0.69 for lots 4, 5 and 6. The average feed consumption and feed
efficiency for the control and treated lots were also comparable.
The figures obtained during the last period (8 weeks-market weight)
of the experiment for average daily gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency
show only small and insignificant differences between the basal and piperazine-
The presence of roundworms in only three of the pigs that were
slaughtered showed that the animals were essentially "worm-free". Therefore,
a beneficial response in the treated lots would have indicated that piperazine
possessed growth-promoting properties in addition to and irrespective of its--
anthelmintic ability. However, since the pigs In the control and treated lots
gained approximately at the same rate and with similar efficiency throughout
the experiment it appears that an unidentified growth factor is not associated
Thirty pigs weaned at two weeks of age were used to test the value of
continuous piperazine feeding to "worm-free" pigs.
In both periods of this experiment the difference between the basal
and piperazine fed lots for both rate and efficiency of gain were insignificant,
which indicates that the growth-stimulating effect of piperazine may be mainly
attributed to its anthelmintic properties.
I. Wallace, H. D., W. F. Davis, G. E. Combs, Jr. and L. E. Swanson. 1958.
Low level continuous feeding of piperazine phosphate and hygromycin feed
supplement to growing-finishing pigs. An. Husb. and Nutr. Mimeo. Series
No. 58-6. Fla. Ag. Exp. Sta., Gainesville.
2. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs, Jr., R. B. Christmas and L. E. Swanson. 1958.
Swine feeding studies. An. Husb. and Nutr. Mimeo, Series No. 59-1. Fla.
Ag. Exp, Sta., Gainesville.
Table 2. Performance of Pigs Fed Piperazine Phosphate
From 2 to 8 Weeks of Age
No. pigs per lot
Av. Initial wt., Ibs.
Av. final wt., Ibs..
Av. daily gain, lbs.
Av. daily feed, Ibs.
Feed per lb. gain, Ibs.
Days on test
Basa! + Piperazine
4 5 6
5* 5 5
9.1 9.1 10.1
37.2 39.5 39.8
0,67 0.68 0.71
1.45 1.45 1.55
2.16 2.13 2.19
42 42 42
One pig died on 25th day of test.
Table 3. Performance of Pigs Fed Piperazine Phosphate
From 8 Weeks of Age to Market Weight
Tj9eatnent Basal Basal +
Lot. No. I 2
No. pigs per lot 10 9
Av. Initial wt., Ibs. 40.9 37.3
Av. final wt., Ibs. 189.6 184.4
Av. daily gain, Ibs. 1.33 1.31
Av. daily feed, Ibs. 4.60 4.53
Feed per lb. gain, Ibs. 3.46 3.45:
Days on test 112 112
L/ One pig died in lots I and 2 of undetermined cause.
Basal Basal +
Table 4. Influence of Continuous Piperazine Feeding
on Worm Counts and Liver Damage
Ascarids in intestine
Basal on pasture
Piperazine on pasture
Basal on concrete
Piperazine on concrete
Animal Husbandry & Nutr.
1/23/59 400 copies