Animal Husbandry and Nutrition Florida Agricultural
Mimeograph Series No. 59-1 Experiment Station
SWIN6 FEEDING STUDIES
A. Free-Choice Vs. Complete Mixed Rations
B. Effect of Low Level Continuous Piperazine
H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr., R. B. Christmas and L. E. Swanson2
In previous reports by Wallace et al. (2) and Hunt et al. (I) it
was observed that pigs fed a complete mixed ration gained significantly faster
than pigs fed yellow corn and a protein supplement free-choice. This was
particularly true when the corn was fed on the cob. However, the complete
mixed ration method of feeding did not, in all cases, prove to be the most
In another report by Wallace et al. (3) it has been demonstrated
that the continuous feeding of low level piperazine phosphate improved rate
of gain. This improved gain was probably not due to control of large round-
worms since worm counts at the termination of the experiment showed little
difference between treated and untreated pigs.
The present report is concerned with further investigation of these
two, gederat 'rAibtlems.
Forty-two weanling pigs of mixed breeding, averaging approximately
50 lb. initially, were divided into six similar groups on the basis of initial
weight, breed, and previous treatment. Each group of seven pigs was confined
in a small pasture plot of approximately one acre. Only limited forage was
available during the early part of the experiment. However, during the last
four weeks of the test ample grazing (native grasses) was available to all lots.
Water was supplied by automatic watering devices and feed was supplied by self-
feeders. The experiment was begun on January 4, 1958 and was terminated on
April 27, 1958. At the termination of the experiment representative animals
from each lot were slaughtered and large roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoider var
suum) present in the intestine were counted.
IThe piperazine phosphate (Anhydrous piperazine base, 42% minimum) was supplied
by Chemo Puro Manufacturing Corp., Newark, N. J.
2 Wallace, Combs, and Christmas, Associate Animal Husbandman, Assistant Animal
Husbandman and Graduate Assistant, respectively, Department of Animal Husbandry
and Nutrition; Swanson, Parasitologist, Department of Veterinary Science. The
assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen, is gratefully
The dietary treatments for the various lots were as follows:
Lot I Complete mixed ration.
Lot 2 Complete mixed ration containing 20 gm.
piperazine phosphate per 100 lb.
Lot 3 Complete mixed ration containing 40 gm.
piperazine phosphate per 100 Ib.
Lot 4 Ear corn and supplement free-choice
Lot 5 Ear corn and supplement containing 80 gm.
piperazine phosphate per 100 lb., free-choice,
Lot 6 Ear corn and supplement containing 160 gm.
piperazine phosphate per 100 Ib., free-choice.
Composition of Complete Mixed Ration
Up to 125 lb. After 125 Ib.
body weight body weight
((4%.crude ppo*ein)'(12% crude protein)
Ground yellow corn 77.0 84.3
Soybean oil meal 20.3 13.0
Ground limestone 1.0 1.0
Steamed bone meal 1.0 1.0
Iodized salt 0.5 0.5
(Calcium Carbonate Co.) 0.1 0.1
(2-49C-American Cyanamid) 0.1 0.1
(Aurofac IO-A American
Cyanamid) 0.1 0.1
Composition of Supplement
Soybean oil meal 91.6
Ground limestone 3.0
Steamed bone meal 3.0
Iodized salt 1.5
Trace minerals* 0.3
Vitamin supplement* 0.3
Antibiotic supplement* 0.3
*Same as used in complete mixed ration.
Results and Discussion
Results of the experiment are summarized in Tables I and 2.
Table I. The Influence of Method of Feeding and Low Level Continuous Feeding
of Piperazine Phosphate on the Performance of Growing Pigs.
Method of Feeding Complete Mixed Ration Ear Corn and Supplement Free-Choice
Lot Number 1 2. 3 4 5 6
Level of piperazine, gm. per 100 Ib.
complete feed (Lots I, 2 and 3)
or supplement (Lots 4, 5 and 6) 0 20 40 0 803/ 1601/
Number of pigs per lot finishing
experiment L- 7 6 6 6 7 7
Av. initial wt., Ib. 49.0 47.3 50.8 47.2 49.1 48.9
Av. final wt., lb. 174.5 167.8 191.5 154.8 162.0 174.1
Av. daily gain, lb. 1.53 1.47 1.72 1.31 1.38 1.53
Av. daily feed intake/pig, lb.
Total 4.45 4.50 4.98 5.80 5.67 5.98
Ground corn equivalent -- ---- ---- 3.73 3.69 4.22
Supplement --- -- 2.07 1.98 1.76
Total feed required/lb. gain, lb. 2.91 3.13 2.90 4.43 4.11 3.91
Feed cost/100 lb. gain2/ 11.20 12.05 11.17 16.30 15.10 14.26
Days on experiment 82 82 82 82 82 82
1/ One pig died suddenly in Lot 2 during 4th week of experiment, cause of death undetermined. One pig died
suddenly,in Lot 3 during ist week of experiment, cause of death undetermined. One pig removed from Lot 4
during 4th week of experiment because of anal prolapse.
/ Feed prices per cwt.: Corn $3.50; Supplement $4.00; Complete ration (including grinding and mixing charges) -
$3.85. Cost of piperazine phosphate not included.
/ Calculated to provide approximately the same level as for pigs in Lot 2.
!/ Calculated to provide approximately the same level as for pigs in Lot 3.
Table 2. Combined Performance Data as to Method of Feeding
Sand Piperazine Supplementation
Complete Free Piperazine
Comparisons Ration Choice Control Added
Number of pigs 19 20 13 26
Daily gain, Ibs. 1.57** 1.41 1.43 1.52
Daily feed intake
per pig, Ibs. 4.63 8.82 5.07 5.32
Feed per Ib. gain, Ibs. 2.98 4.14 3.61 3.55
Feed cost per 100 Ib.
gain $11.46 $15.17 $13.55 $13.26
H* Pigs on complete mixed ration gained significantly faster than pigs fed free-
choice (P< 0.01)
Daily gain. The method of feeding exerted a highly significant influence
on rate of gain in this experiment. The nineteen pigs fed in Lots I, 2 and 3
(complete mixed ration) gained at an average rate of 1.57 Ib. per head per day
compared to a gain of 1.41 for the 20 pigs fed in Lots 4, 5 and 6 (ear corn and
supplement free-choice). The 20 gm. level of piperazine phosphate supplementation
(Lots 2 and 5) did not improve rate of gain as was observed in previous work (3).
However, the 40 gm. level of piperazine supplementation (Lots 3 and 6) improved
gain significantly p<.05).
Feed consumption and feed efficiency Pigs fed free-choice consumed
considerably more feed per head per day. The consumption of supplement was
particularly heavy and represented an amount considerably greater than needed to
provide required protein. This was also observed in a previous test (I). It is
quite probable that the heavy consumption of protein supplement was due to the
hard, flinty character of the ear corn. Because of this the pigs may have tended
to consume more supplement than actually needed. It should also be pointed out
that because of this heavy consumption the pigs in Lots 5 and 6 were consuming
considerably more piperazine phosphate than originally intended. In spite of
the greater daily feed consumption the free-choice fed pigs utilized their feed
much less efficiently (4.14 Vs. 2.98 lb. feed per lb. gain) and produced pork much
less economically ($15.17 Vs. $11.46 feed costs per 100 Ib. gain) than the pigs
fed a complete mixed ration.
All animals supplemented with piperazine phosphate consumed an average
of 5.32 lbs. feed per day compared to 5.07 for the controls. The treated animals
were slightly more efficient in feed conversion. Differences in feed costs per 100
pounds gain were negligible between the piperazine supplemented and control pigs.
Ascarld counts The numbers of mature roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoider
var suum) present in representative animals of the various lots are shown in Table
3. These data indicate first that the infestation was generally low as shown by
the numbers found in control pigs. Secondly, it seems clear that the low level
continuous piperazine supplementation at either level studied had little effect on
the number of roundworms present in the pigs at the termination of the experiment.
Table 3. Ascarid Counts at Termination of the
Lot No. and Treatment No. Pigs No. Ascarids found Average no.
in individual pigs ascarids per
I- Mixed ration (control) 3 5, I, 7 4.3
2- Mixed ration (20 gm. piperazine
phosphate/100 Ib. feed) 4 0, 0, I, I 0.5
3- Mixed ration (40 gm. piperazine
phosphate/100 lb. feed) 4 0, 0, 2, 16 4.5
4- Free-choice (control) 6 I, 0, 6, 0, 0, I 1.3
5- Free-choice (80 gm. piperazine
phosphate/100 Ib. supplement) 5 0, 3, 0, I, 3 1.4
6- Free-choice (160 gm. piperazine
phosphate/100 Ib. supplement) 4 3, 0, 19, 1 5.7
Pigs fed a complete mixed ration gained significantly faster
and converted feed to weight gains much more efficiently and economical
did similar pigs fed ear corn and supplement free-choice.
Pigs supplemented continuously with 40 gm. of piperazine phosphate per
100 Ibs. feed gained significantly faster (P< .05) than control pigs. They
also consumed more feed and converted it to gain more efficiently. A level of
20 gm. of piperazine phosphate, however, proved ineffective in improving either
rate or efficiency of gain.
The piperazine supplementation did not appear to exert an anthelmintic
effect as judged by worm counts made at the termination of the trial.
I. Hunt, J. W., H. D. Wallace and G. E. Combs, Jr. 1958.
Vs. a complete mixed ration for finishing market swine.
Series No. 58-8. Fla. Ag. Expt. Sta., Gainesville.
An. Husb. Mimeo.
2. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs, Jr., and C. E. Haines. 1957. Free-choice feeding
Vs. a complete mixed ration for finishing market swine. An. Husb. Mimeo.
Series No. 58-1. Fla. Ag. Expt. Sta., Gainesville.
3. Wallace, H. D., W. F. Davis, G. E. Combs, Jr., and L. E. Swanson. 1958. Low
level continuous feeding of piperazine phosphate and hygromycin feed supple-
ment to growing-finishing pigs. An. Husb. Mimeo Series, No. 58-6. Fla. Ag.
Expt. Sta., Gainesville.
Animal Husb. & Nutr.
8/13/58 300 copies