| Material Information
||Further studies on the use of soybean oil meal for pigs hogging off corn
||4 leaves : ; 28 cm.
||Wallace, H. D. ( Harold Dean )
Davis, W. F.
Combs, G. E. ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
||Place of Publication:
||Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida ( lcsh )
||bibliography ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )
||Includes bibliographical references (leaf 4).
||Animal husbandry & nutrition mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Husbandry adn Nutrition ; 58-4
||Statement of Responsibility:
||H.D. Wallace, W.F. Davis, and G.E. Combs.
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 76951784
Animal Husbandry & Nutrition Mimeograph Florida Agricultural
Series No. 58-4 Experiment Station
FURTHER STUDIES ON THE USE OF
SOYBEAN OIL MEAL FOR PIGS HOGGING OFF CORN
H. D. Wallace, W. F. Davis, and G. E. Combs, Jr.l
In two previous reports Wallace et. al. (1, 2) have demonstrated that soybean
oil meal is too palatable for self feeding purposes unless diluted with some less
palatable feed ingredient. The most economically useful material for this purpose
was found to be a mineral mixture consisting of I part ground limestone, I part
steamed bonemeal and I part iodized salt mixed with the soybean oil meal at the
level of 8 percent.
The study summarized in this report had three objectives:
1. To compare a protein supplement soybean oil meal diluted with 8
percent mineral as described above) containing no vitamin forti-
fication to the same supplement with vitamin fortification.
2. To compare the relative efficiency of handfeeding the supplement
vs. self feeding the supplement.
3o To compare the relative efficiency of hand feeding the supplement
once per day vs, hand feeding the supplement once every two days.
Sixty pigs of mixed breeding averaging approximately 82 pounds initially
were divided into four similar experimental groups according to weight, breed, and
previous history. Each group was placed in a 2 acre plot of Dixie 18 corn starting
on August 31, 1957.
Yield estimates of the corn plots were made by hand picking three rows through
each plot, one row near each edge and one row through the center. The total corn
in each plot was then estimated by multiplying the yield per row by the number of
rows. When the corn in one of the lots was all consumed the experiment was termi-
nated. Pigs were then removed from the lots and the corn remaining in the other
three lots was harvested and the total consumption of corn was thus calculated for
the various lots. It is recognized that at best this type of consumption estimate
may not be entirely correct. However, it was thought that the data would e.,,,of
some value and certainly better than no estimate at all. -'xE
Water was provided the pigs by automatic watering devices and es provided,
FES 14 ,958"
-Wallace, Davis, and Combs, Associate Professor, Graduate Assistan.!!and ,,i
Assistant Professor respectively, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition.
The assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen is gratefully
Supplemental protein and minerals were offered according to the following plan:
Lot I. Self fed the following mixture:
Soybean oil meal 91.5
Ground limestone 2.7
Steamed bonemeal 2.7
Iodized salt 2.7
Trace minerals 0.4
Lot 2. Self fed same mixture as Lot I plus 0.4-:Ledente Fortafeed 249-C.
(The Fortafeed contained not less than 2 gm. riboflavin, 4 gm.
pantothenic acid, 9 gm. niacin, 10 gm. choline chloride and
60 mg. folic acid per pound).
Lot 3. Hand fed same mixture fed Lot I once per day.
Lot 4. Hand fed same mixture fed Lot I once every two days.
The amounts fed in Lots 3 and 4 were in general regulated to the appetites of
the pigs. An effort was made to give the two lots of pigs a similar total amount
over the course of the experiment.
Results and Discussion
Results of the experiment are summarized in Table I. One of the most
striking observations in the experiment was the difference in average daily gain
for pigs self fed the supplement (Lots I and 2) as compared to the pigs hand fed
the supplement (Lots 3 and 4). The difference in gains would appear to be the
direct result of a marked difference in the amount of protein supplement consumed.
The self fed lots consumed almost twice as much supplement even though an effort
was made to supply the hand fed groups with about all that they seemed to want.
Pigs in Lots I and 2 ate a feed mixture containing approximately 15 percent crude
protein while those in Lots 3 and 4 ate a feed mixture containing approximately
11.5 percent protein.
The pigs in Lot 2, which were given certain B-complex vitamins in the
supplement did not respond to this fortification. There were limited quantities of
green materials (volunteer grass, etc.) in all lots throughout the test. It is
quite probable that pigs of this weight were able to obtain their requirements
from this source in addition to the vitamin content of the corn and supplement.
For some reason the pigs in Lot 2 were charged with consuming a very high level of
qorn almost a pound per head per day more than Lot 1. It would seen unreasonable
to assume that the vitamin fortification was responsible for this increased con-
sumption, particularly since the gains were not materially affected and the
efficiency of the ration was not improved. We would rather believe that an error
in yield estimate and hence an error in consumption of corn by this lot was
responsible for this discrepancy.
Pigs hand fed supplement once per day (Lot 3) did not perform significantly
different from pigs hand fed supplement once every two days (Lot 4).
Table 1. The Use of Soybean Oilmeal as a Supplementary Protein for Pigs Hogging Off Corn
Lot Number I. 2. 3. 4.
Feeding Treatment Soybean oilmeal Same as Lot I Hand fed same Hand fed same
containing 8 percent with vitamins supplement as Lot I supplement as Lot I
mineral self fed. added to supplement once per day. once very two days.
Number pigs per lot 15 15 15 15
Number days on test 56 56 56 56
Av. initial wt., Ibs. 82.5 82.2 82.5 82.1
Av. final wt., Ibs. 175.9 177.3 165.7 166.5
Av. daily gain, Ibs.-/ 1.67 1.70 1.49 1:51
Av. daily supplement/pig, lbs. 1.22 1.22 0.68 0.65
Av. daily corn/pig, Ibs. 4.88 5.73 5.28 5.29
Av. daily total feed/pig, Ibs. 6.10 6.95 5.96 5.94
Feed required/lb. gain, Ibs. 3.66 4.08 4.00 3.93
Feed costs/100 Ibs. gain -7 $9.70 $10.92 $10.34 $10.15
I/ Lots I and 2 significantly different from Lot 3 (P <
Lot 2 significantly different from Lot 4 (P < .01).
.01). Lot I significantly different from Lot 4 (P < .05).
2/ Shelled corn equivalent.
V/ Prices used = corn $2.50 cwt, supplement without vitamins $3.25 cwt., supplement with vitamins $3.50 cwt.
Feed costs per 100 pounds gain were calculated using current feed prices and
showed that pigs in Lot I made the most economical gains. Pigs in Lot 2 made the
most costly gains due to the heavy corn consumption charged against them as
An experiment, involving 45 feeder pigs, has been conducted to investigate
methods of feeding soybean oil meal to pigs hogging off corn.
Animals self fed a protein supplement consisting of soybean oil meal diluted
with a mineral supplement gained more rapidly and efficiently than pigs hand fed
the same mixture.
Vitamin supplementation did not result in more rapid or more efficient gains.
Hand feeding the protein supplement once every 2 days produced essentially
the same results as hand feeding the supplement once daily.
1. Wallace, H. D. and G. E. Combs, Jr. 1957. The use of mineral
supplements to regulate the consumption of soybean oil meal by
pigs hogging-off corn. An. Husb. Mimeo. Series 57-5.
2. Wallace, H. D., Larry Gillespie and John McKigney. 1954.
Preliminary observations on method of self feeding soybean oil meal
to growing-fattening pigs hogging off corn. An. Husb. Mimeo
Series No. 5.