Group Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series - University of Florida Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition ; 58-1
Title: Free choice feeding vs. a complete mixed ration for finishing market swine
Full Citation
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 Material Information
Title: Free choice feeding vs. a complete mixed ration for finishing market swine
Series Title: Animal husbandry mimeograph series
Physical Description: 3 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Haines, C. E
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Publisher: University of Florida, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1957
Subject: Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Growth -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace, G.E. Combs, Jr. and C.E. Haines.
General Note: Caption title.
General Note: "October, 1957."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072865
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 76951537

Full Text
Animal Husbandry Mimeograph October, 1957
Series No. 58-1


H. D. Wallace, G. E. Combs, Jr. and C. E. Hainesi

The swine producer is often faced with the problem of deciding on a feeding
method for finishing his market hogs. Usually the simplest is the free-choice
system, wherein grain is offered in one feeder and a supplemental mixture is offered
in another feeder. This method saves labor, since no mixing of ingredients is re-
quired. If corn is fed as the grain the expense of grinding may also be saved be-
cause it can be fed as shelled corn. We have long recognized the pig's ability to
do a good job of balancing his own ration if the necessary nutrients are available
to him. However, with the vast accumulation of information now available concerning
the nutrient requirements of swine it is quite conceivable that under certain con-
ditions we can do a better job of balancing rations than can the pig. This probably
explains why the complete mixed ration method of feeding is gaining in popularity,
and especially for pigs until they weigh about 70 pounds.

This study was undertaken to compare the two methods of feeding in regard to
effects on average daily gains, feed requirement per unit of gain, and production

Experimental Procedure

Thirty weanling pigs of mixed breeding averaging approximately 45 Ibs. initially
were divided into two similar groups according to initial weight, breed, and previous
treatment. Each group of 15 pigs was confined in a small wooded lot during the exper-
iment. Ample green forage was available to both lots of pigs. Water was supplied by
automatic watering devices. The experiment was begun on May II, 1957 and was ter-
minated on August 10, 1957. The two lots were fed as follows:

Lot I. Self Fed the Following Complete Mixture

Up to 125 Ibs. After 125 Ibs.
(16% protein) (12% protein)

Ground yellow corn 77.0 84.2
Soybean oil meal 20.2 13.0
Ground limestone 1.0 1.0
Steamed bone meal 1.0 1.0
Iodized salt 0.5 0.5
Trace minerals 0.1 0.1
Vitamin Supplement No. 2 (Pfizer) 0.1 0.1
Antibiotic Supplement TM-0O (Pfizer) 0.1 O0.
100.0 100.0

'Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman; Combs, Assistant Animal Husbandman; and
-Haines, Graduate Assistant; Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, University
,f Florida, Gainesville, Florida. The technical assistance of W. E. Colil
U. S. Taylor, Swine Herdsmen, is gratefully acknowledged.

Lot 2. Self Fed Ground Yellow Corn and the Following Supplemental Mixture

Soybean oil meal
Ground limestone
Steamed bone meal
Iodized salt
Trace minerals
Vitamin Supplement No. 2 (Pfizer)
Antibiotic Supplement TM-10 (Pfizer)


Results and Discussion

Results of the experiment are summarized in Table I.

Table I. Free-Choice Feeding vs. A Complete
Mixed Ration for Finishing Swine

c)tfty Complete Mixed Free
Treatment Ration Choice

Lot Number I 2
Number of Pigs 131 15
Av. Initial Weight, Ibs. 44.9 44.9
Av. Final Weight, Ibs. 199.9 182.7
Av. Daily Gain, Ibs. 1.70 1.51
Av. Daily Feed Consumed, Ibs:
Total 5.77 4.79
Ground Corn 4.04
Protein Supplement .75
Total Feed/lb. Gain 3.39 3.16
Feed Cost/100 Ibs. Gain2 $12.00 $10.24
Returns per pig over feed costs and
initial cost of weaned pig3 $ 8.89 $ 9.33

ITwo pigs died suddenly on the 45th day of the
been observed prior to death. Cause of death
had gained well up to that point.

trial. No signs of illness had
was not determined. The animals

2Corn -- $3.10/cwt.
Supplement -- $4.00/cwt.
Complete ration -- $3.54/cwt.

3Sale price -- $19.75/cwt. average for Lot I.
$19.40/cwt. average for Lot 2.
Cost of each weaned pig initially -- $12.00.

The pigs fed the complete mixed ration (Lot i) gained significantly faster
(P <.01) than the pigs fed free-choice (Lot 2). In so doing, they consumed an
average of almost one pound more feed per head daily and required .23 pound more
feed per pound gain. Normally, faster gaining hogs are the more efficient feed
converters. However, in this experiment such was not the case. It is quite

Apparent that the gains past 180 pounds made by the pigs in Lot I were fairly expen-
sive. This, of course, is more evidence in support of a well established principle
that the heavier a pig becomes the greater is the feed requirement per unit of gain.
In this experiment the pigs of Lot 2 which were sold at an average weight of 183
pounds returned 44 cents more per pig over and above feed costs than the pigs of
Lot I which were sold at an average weight of 200 pounds. This occurred in spite of
the fact that the lightweight group brought an average of 35 cents less per hundred-
weight. The results certainly stress the point that it would not pay to carry hogs
to an extra heavy weight. Seldom are hog prices and feed costs such that it is pro-
fitable to feed to final weights beyond 220 pounds. When hog prices and feed costs
are unfavorable marketing at lighter weights is indicated.

An experiment involving 30 weanling pigs was conducted to compare the feeding
of a complete mixed ration to a free-choice method of feeding.

Pigs fed the complete mixed ration gained significantly faster, ate more feed
per animal per day, but converted the feed to pork less efficiently than did pigs
fed free-choice.

A study of the costs and returns indicated that the free-choice method of feed-
ing was more economical. This was true because the feed costs per 100 pounds gain
averaged $1.76 less for this group of animals.



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