The use of mineral supplements to regulate the consumption of soybean oilmeal by pigs hogging-off corn

Material Information

The use of mineral supplements to regulate the consumption of soybean oilmeal by pigs hogging-off corn
Series Title:
Animal husbandry mimeograph series
Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
University of Florida -- Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Place of Publication:
Gainesville Fla
University of Florida, Dept. of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition
Publication Date:
Physical Description:
5 leaves : ; 28 cm.


Subjects / Keywords:
Minerals in animal nutrition -- Florida ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds -- Florida ( lcsh )
Soybeans ( jstor )
Minerals ( jstor )
Swine ( jstor )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent) ( marcgt )
bibliography ( marcgt )
non-fiction ( marcgt )


Includes bibliographical references (leaf 5).
General Note:
Caption title.
General Note:
"January, 1957."
Statement of Responsibility:
H.D. Wallace and G.E. Combs.

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Rights Management:
All applicable rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier:
76951336 ( OCLC )


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Full Text

Animal Husbandry Mimeograph
Series No. 57-5 Jandary, 1957


H. D. Wallace and G, E. Combs, Jr.

Soybean oilmeal is an excellent protein supplement for swine. It is

palatable, nutritious and is generally more uniform in quality than most other

commonly used protein supplements. The anticipated increase in the production

of soybeans in Florida as well as in certain other sections of the country

suggests that soybean oilmeal may become even more important as a supplemental

protein feed for swine than at present.

Soybean oilmeal has the disadvantage of being extremely palatable to pigs

and when fed free-choice with grain, they consume too much for an economically

balanced ration. Wallace et al. (I) demonstrated that a mixture of 2/3 ground

whole oats and 1/3 soybean oilmeal was a more economical supplement for pigs

hogging-off corn than either all soybean oilmeal or a mixture of 1/2 ground

whole oats and 1/2 soybean oilmeal.

This experiment was designed to study the value of certain mineral sup-

plements as diluents in soybean oilmeal, for the purpose of regulating its

consumption by pigs hogging-off corn.

Experimental Procedure
Eighty pigs of purebred Duroc, purebred Hampshire, purebred Spotted

Polant China, and Duroc X Yorkshire breeding were divided into four similar

experimental groups according to weight, breed, and previous history. Each

I %T
Wallace, Associate Animal Husbandman and Combs, Assistant Animal n dma
Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, University of Flor Gaines-
ville. The technical assistance of W. E. Collins and L. S. Taylf is grate-5'
fully acknowledged. \r 2'-

group was placed in a 2 acre plot of Dixiel8crn starting on September I, 1956.

An additional 2 acre plot of similar corn was harvested and a yield estimate

of 45 bu. per acre was established. This yield figure was used for the

estimation of corn consumed by the four experimental groups of pigs. Admit-

tedly, some error could be involved. Careful inspection of the 5 plots before

the start of the experiment indicated no noticeable differences in the amount

of corn present.

Water was provided the experimental animals by the use of automatic

watering devices and shade was provided by portable shades covered with

aluminum sheeting.

Supplemental mineral and protein were provided according to the following


Lot I (1) Soybean oilmeal self-fed.
(2) Mineral supplement (I part limestone, I part iodized
salt, I part steamed bonemeal) self-fed.

Lot 2 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 8 percent of the mineral
supplement in Lot I self-fed.

Lot 3 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 8 percent ground limestone
(2) Mineral supplement as in Lot I self-fed.

Lot 4 (I) Soybean oilmeal containing 16 percent ground limestone
(2) Mineral supplement as in Lot I self-fed.

Results and Discussion

The results of the experiment are summarized in Table I. All lots of

pigs performed satisfactorily. Pigs in Lot 2 gained slightly faster than any

of the other lots; however, the main difference in favor of this lot over all

others was the lower cost of gains. Pigs in Lot 1, which were fed soybean oilmeal

and the mineral supplement separately and free choice, ate an average of 1.39

Ibs. of soybean oilmeal per head per day. This is considerably more than re-

quired to balance the ration and is the chief reason for the high feed costs

__-------------- j ^
I 2 3 4
Lot No. (1) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal (I) Soybean oilmeal
and containing 8% containing 8% containing 16,
Supplements I/ mineral supplement limestone limestone
(2) Mineral supplement (2) Mineral supplement (2) Mineral supplement

No, pigs per lot 20 20 20 20
Av. initial wt., Ibs. 87.2 86.9 86.5 86.9
Av. final wt., Ibs. 175.9 176.7 172.1 171.1
Av. daily gain, Ibs. 1.45 1.49 1,41 1.43
Feed consumed per pig
per day, lbs.
Soybean ollmeal 1.39 .94 .86 .54
Mineral supplement .022 .081 .013 .020
Ground limestone -- .075 .102
Shelled corn 4.23 3.91 4.23 4.90
Feed costs per 100 lb. $1
gain~/ $11.61 $9.80 $10.69 $11.10

&All supplements were self-fed

/Corn- $2.80/cwt.
Soybean oilmeal $3.55/cwt.
Mineral supplement $4.00/cwt.
Ground limestone $1.O0/cwt.

in Lot 1. This lot consumed an inadequate amount of mineral for a properly

balanced intake, which may also&haveadversely affected overall feed costs.

The pigs in Lot 2 (fed soybean oilmeal containing 8% mineral supplement) ate

0.94 Ibs.soybean oilmeal per head per day. This is very close to the calcu-

lated daily protein requirements. The correct level of protein intake along

with a properly regulated balanced mineral consumption probably accounts for

-the better gains of this lot on considerably less feed. Lot 3, which was fed

8% of ground limestone mixed jn the soybean oilmeal plus the mineral supplement,

consumed about the correct revel-of soybean oilmeal but was much less efficient

than Lot 2, possibly because of a less balanced mineral intake. Lot 4, which

was fed 16% of ground limestone mixed in soybean oilmeal plus the mineral

supplement, consumed the least amount of soybean oilmeal. The consumption

of corn by Lot 4 was very heavy which accounts for the high cost of production

for this lot.

Eighty pigs, fed in four treatment groups, were used to demonstrate that

soybean oilmeal can be satisfactorily self-fed to swine hogging-off corn if

diluted with 8 percent of a mineral mixture (I part ground limestone, I part

steamed bonemeal, I part iodized salt).

The use of ground limestone as a diluent at 8 and 16 percent levels in

soybean meal proved less satisfactory. The 16 percent level of limestone was

particularly undesirable because it induced very heavy and uneconomical con-

sumption of corn.

The most costly treatment of the four studied, was a free choice feeding

of undiluted soybean oilmeal. Pigs ate considerably more than

meet their protein needs and thus increased total feed costs.


Literature Cited

I. Wallace, H. D., Larry Gillespie and John McKigney. 1954. Preliminary
observations on method of self-feeding soybean oilmeal to growing-fattening
pigs hogging-off corn. An. Husb. Mimeo. Series No. 5

200 copies