frine 17 1900
Animal Husbandry Mimeograph December, 1954
Series No. 54-6
FLORIDA FEEDS FOR LIVESTOCK
T. J. Cunhal
Florida has been a very rapidly growing beef cattle state. During the
last 25 years, beef cattle numbers have more than tripled and on January 1, 1954,
Florida had 1,386,000 head of beef cattle. From 1940 to 1950, beef cattle num-
bers increased 64 percent which was the largest increase of any state in the
country. Since 1940, Florida has been the fastest growing state in America in
beef cattle numbers on a percentage increase basis. Florida has not only in-
creased the number of cattle but it has also proportionately increased the
quality of its animals. However, the quality of Florida cattle was so low 25
years ago that even though there has been considerable improvement, there is
much room for future improvement. In fact, in the future more emphasis should
be placed on improving quality rather than on increasing numbers of cattle.
Florida has some cattle that will compare in quality with beef cattle produced
anywhere, but there is a great deal of room for further improvement in the
majority of its cattle. Purebred herds have increased from 10 in 1929 to over
600 now. Florida ranks 13th in the United States in beef cattle numbers but
only Illinois has more beef cattle than Florida east of the Mississippi River,
The swine population of Florida increased 3 percent from 1940 to 1950.
Actually, there has been very little change in swine numbers in the state since
1940. There have been ups and downs in numbers depending on the price situation.
However, there has been a considerable increase in the quality of the animals
produced. Florida has been producing between 800,000 to 1,000,000 pigs yearly
and thus swine production is an important segment of the livestock industry.
Sheep numbers are very low approximatelyy 3,000 head) in Florida. However,
during the last few years there has been more interest in sheep production in
the state and undoubtedly, there will be an increase in numbers in the future.
Florida has a few outstanding thoroughbred horse breeders and the outlook
is for some expansion in future years. Horses raised in Florida do very well
during the racing season at Miami, in competition with horses raised elsewhere.
The growing livestock industry of Florida is in need of considerable ex-
pansion of its feed supply. The improved pasture acreage has increased a great
deal in the last 5 to 10 years and at the present time it is estimated that
Florida has approximately 2,000,000 acres of improved pasture. Improved pas-
tures have made it possible to increase the numbers and quality of beef cattle
in Florida. At the present, more and more emphasis needs to be placed on
planting clovers along with grasses. Clovers are needed to take over when
grasses are dormant and thus lengthen the pasture season. Corn and peanuts are
the main feeds for swine in Florida. Increased yields and some increase in
acreage will provide more feed for swine consumption in future years.
1Head, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition. Summary given at Nutrition
Conference, University of Florida, Gainesville, on November 11, 1954.
Research on Florida Feeds
Citrus molasses, citrus pulp and citrus seed meal have been shown to be
good livestock feeds. Baker 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 has shown that when citrus
molasses was used to replace one-half of the ground snapped corn in steer
fattening rations that feed consumption, gains, carcass grades and carcass
yields were higher. Gains were also less expensive when molasses was fed.
When molasses is cheap in relation to the price of corn, citrus molasses may
be used to replace as much as two-thirds of the ground snapped corn in the
ration for fattening steers. Kirk 6 has shown citrus molasses to have approx-
imately the same feeding value as cane molasses for fattening cattle.
Glasscock et al, 7 showed that citrus seed meal was just as valuable as
cottonseed meal in meeting the protein requirements of growing and fattening
steers. However, it was found that the citrus seed meal was unpalatable and
toxic for the pig, even when fed at only a 10 percent level in the ration.
It caused an increase in the amount of feed needed per pound of gain, decreased
rate of gain, caused rough hair coats and also caused the pigs to become very
unthrifty. It is not recommended that citrus seed meal be fed to swine. Citrus
seed meal is derived from citrus seeds and it is the residue after the oil has
been removed from the kernel by use of hydraulic presses. It contains approx-
imately 30 percent protein.
Citrus pulp has been used in many of the feeding trials conducted by Kirk
and Davis 13 and Chapman et al. It has proven to be an excellent feed for
cattle. Urea has been used in citrus molasses with excellent results by Glass-
cock et al. 9$' and Kirk et al 10 It is added at a level of approximately 60
pounds per ton of citrus molasses. This results in each 5 pounds of citrus
molasses containing the equivalent of one pound of cottonseed meal nitrogen
as urea. Many of the Florida citrus molasses processors are adding urea to the
molasses. In the 1953-54 season there were produced in Florida 287,832 tons
of citrus pulp (includes citrus meal) 52,690 tons of citrus molasses and approx-
imately 50,000 tons of cane molasses. These feeds have been very valuable in
supplying needed nutrients for livestock in Florida.
According to studies by Kirk and Davis, 13 cattle eat grapefruit readily
but do not like oranges and tangerines as well, because of the bitterness im-
parted by the large amount of bitter oil in the peel. The fresh fruit con-
tains approximately 15 percent dry matter, a large part of which is sugar.
Cull grapefruit can be used as a winter supplemental feed for beef cattle on
pastures and can be used to supply from 1/3 1/2 of the energy nutrients in
fattening rations for yearling and two-year old steers. Removal of oil from
the peel of fresh oranges increased palatability, consumption and gains, but,
as yet, there is no practical method of grating oranges.
Citrus pulp has been combined with anhydrous ammonia to produce a feed
with approximately a 12 percent protein equivalent. Preliminary trials by Kirk
and Davis 13 showed the ammoniated citrus pulp to be not as palatable as citrus
Dried citrus meal is obtained by screening the fine particles from citrus
pulp. Citrus meal is comparable to citrus pulp in total digestable nutrients.13
Cattle do not eat the meal as readily as dried citrus pulp because of the fine-
ness and because it sometimes gets scorched a little in the drying process.
However, it has been incorporated at low levels into many feed mixtures, es-
pecially those which are pelleted, with excellent results.
A limited amount of tangerine pulp is produced in Florida. It is bright
orange in color, slightly bulkier and less palatable than mixed grapefruit and
Becker et al. 14 showed that fresh citrus pulp contains too much water to
produce a high grade silage when used alone. However, ensiling natal grass
hay or fresh sugar cane with the fresh pulp or using pressed citrus pulp
resulted in good silage. Such silage was palatable and handled easily.
Cunha et al. 11 showed that there was very little difference in the
feeding value between citrus and cane molasses for swine. Citrus molasses has
a bitter taste and it requires from 3-7 days for pigs to get used to the taste
of citrus molasses in the feed mixture. After that the pigs eat the mixed
ration containing citrus molasses readily. Because of the bitter taste it has
been found necessary to mix citrus molasses with other feeds in order for pigs
to eat it readily.
Cull tangerines are available at packing sheds in Florida. Studies by
Cunha et al. I2 showed that cull tangerines served as a fattening feed far swine
when supplemented with minerals and a protein supplement. Approximately a ton
of cull tangerines plus 159 pounds of a protein supplement mixture and 1.32
pounds of minerals produced 100 pounds of pork. Pigs which had been on a full
feed took around five days before they began to eat the tangerines readily.
Pigs which had not been given much to eat previously, started eating tangerines
soon after they were offered them.
During the past four years the Florida Station has been evaluating low
gossypol cottonseed meals (some of them produced by the Southern Regional Re-
search Laboratory) as sources of dietary protein for the pig.15 Based upon this
work the following statements can be made.
1. Meals containing not more than .04% free gossypol have been
fed to young pigs, at levels necessary to meet the protein
requirement, without evidence of gossypol poisoning.
2. Gains have not been quite as good on cottonseed meal rations
as on soybean meal rations. Mixtures (50-50) of cottonseed
meal and soybean meal have given excellent results.
3. A rather high incidence of skin trouble (dermatitis) has
been observed on the cottonseed meal rations fed under dry-
lot conditions. The dermatitis is not peculiar to cottonseed
meal alone. It has been observed on peanut meal rations and
occasionally on soybean meal and animal protein rations. The
exact cause remains unknown.
4. Amino acid supplementation (lysine and methionine) of the low
gossypol cottonseed meal rations has not been conclusive. In
one experiment lysine at .08% level appeared to be beneficial,
5. Antibiotic additions have generally been effective in improving
gains on the cottonseed meal,
6. The recent advent of adding acidulated soapstock back to solvent
extracted meals has improved the physical nature of the meal by
reducing dustiness. Recent experiments indicate that the
feeding value of the meal is likewise improved.
7. A study presently underway at Gainesville should give information
on the efficiency of using cottonseed meal in gestation-lactation
rations for sows.
Davis 16 has shown that the phosphorus in defluorinated rock phosphate
(which contained 17% phosphorus) is as available as that in bone meal, in trials
with beef cattle and rats.
Glasscock et al. 17 showed that sweet blue lupine seed meal is as valuable
as cottonseed meal for meeting the protein requirements of growing and fattening
steers. If the time comes when sweet blue lupine seed is produced in excess
of requirements for planting, it will offer a possibility as a protein con-
centrate feed for cattle. It contains approximately 30 percent protein.
Glasscock et al. 18 showed that alyce clover gave better results than
prairie hay, but not as good as alfalfa hay for fattening steers. There is
considerable alyce clover hay produced in Florida and this preliminary trial
indicates it has good feeding value.
Waste beef fat has been shown by Kropf et al. 19 to have approximately 115
percent the feeding value of corn for fattening pigs. Levels of 10 and 15 per-
cent fat were successfully fed in the ration. Added fat increased the effic-
iency of gains but there was no consistent increase in average daily gains.
Carcass grade, backfat thickness, dressing percentage, and firmness was not
affected by the two levels of waste fat in the ration. A preliminary trial
with cattle by Hentges et al. 20 has shown that fattening steers did well with
5 percent of waste beef fat in the ration. However, the animals fed 10 percent
waste beef fat did not gain as well as the controls.
Pearson et al. 21 and Kirk and Hodges showed that sunflower-seed meal was
equal to cottonseed meal as a protein supplement for fattening steers. However,
studies by Wallace et al. 23 showed that both peanut meal and soybean meal were
superior to sunflower-seed meal as a protein supplement for growing-fattening
In a preliminary trial, Kirk and Davis 24 showed that bagasse pith had
about the same feeding value as grass hay when used as a carrier for molasses
for fattening steers.
Improved pastures consisting of grasses and clovers are supplying more
and more feed for Florida livestock. Temporary pastures such as oats, rye,
wheat, sweet yellow lupine, alyce clover, cattail millet, and hairy indigo
also have a place in supplementing the permanent pastures and thus making close
to year-around grazing a possibility. Considerable information is needed on
the relative feeding value of the various forages in Florida as well as data
on means whereby yields and quality can be increased. Moreover, data are needed
on the supplemental feeds needed to fatten steers on pasture. Studies by
Kidder 25 have shown that because of the high protein content of pasture grasses
grown on peat soil in the Everglades area that protein supplementation was un-
necessary when the concentrates given to fattening cattle was limited to
approximately-6 pounds per head daily.
Work by Wallace and Gillespie 26 showed that dried citrus distillers
solubles (residue from alcohol production from citrus molasses) was unpalatable
to the pig when fed at a level of 10 or 20% in the ration. Methods of pro-
ducing this product are being modified and possibly a more palatable product
may be produced in the future.
Wallace, Combs and Cunha 27 showed that growing-fattening pigs can be fed
up to 5 percent of citrus meal in the ration with good results. Citrus -
meal is now being used as a carrier for aureomycin and vitamin Bl2 (Aurofac).
1. Baker, F. S., Jr., 1950. Citrus molasses in a steer-fattening ration.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-22.
2. Baker, F. S., Jr. 1953. Citrus molasses, solvent process cottonseed meal
and sugar in steer fattening rations. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. NFES-Mimeo.
3. Baker, F. S. Jr. 1953. Citrus molasses in steer fattening rations. North
Fla. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Report. March 26, 1953.
4. Baker, F. S. Jr. 1954. Citrus molasses and solvent process cottonseed
meal in steer fattening rations. No. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Report 54-5.
5. Baker, F. S. Jr. 1954. Citrus and blackstrap molasses in steer fattening
rations. North Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Report 54-6.
6. Kirk, W. G. 1954. Personal communication. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
7. Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Cunha, A. M. Pearson, J. E. Pace and D. M. Buschman.
1950. Preliminary observations on citrus seed meal as a protein supplement
for fattening steers and swine. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-12.
8. Chapman, H. L., R. W. Kidder and S. W. Plank. 1953. Comparative feeding
value of citrus molasses, cane molasses, ground snapped corn and dried citrus
pulp for fattening steers on pasture. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 531.
9. Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Ounha and H. E. Gulford. 1950. Urea supplementation
of citrus molasses. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Unpublished data.
10. Kirk, W. G., E. R. Felton, H. J. Fulford and E. M. Hodges. 1949. Citrus
products for fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 454.
11. Cunha, T. J., A. M. Pearson, R. S. Glasscock, D. M. Buschman and S. J. Fclks.
1950. Preliminary observations in the feeding value of citrus and cane
molasses for swine. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-10.
12. Cunha, T. J., G. A. LaMar, C, B. Shawver, A. M. Pearson, S. J. Folks and
R. S. Glasscock. 1950. Observations on cull tangerines for swine feeding.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-11.
13. Kirk, W. G. and G. K. Davis. 1954. Citrus products for beef cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538.
14. Becker, R. B., G. K. Davis, W. G. Kirk, P. T. Dix Arnold, and W. P. Hayman.
1946. Citrus pulp silage. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 423.
15. Wallace, H. D,, T, J. Cunha and G. E. Combs. 1954. Low-gossypol cottonseed
meal as a source of protein for swine. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin.
(Being submitted for publication).
16. Davis, G. K. Personal communication. 1954. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
17. Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson. 1950. Observations on
the value of sweet blue lupine seed meal as a feed for beef cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-8.
18. Glasscock, R. S., T. J. Cunha and A. M. Pearson. 1950. Preliminary ob-
servations on the comparative value of roughages for maintenance and
growth of beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circular S-9.
19. Kropf, D. H., A. M. Pearson and H. D. Wallace. 1954. Observations on the
use of waste beef fat in swine rations. J. An. Sci. 13: 630-37.
20. Hentges, J. F., Jr., A. M. Pearson and C. A. Tucker II. 1954. Waste beef
fat in steer fattening rations and its effect upon the carcass. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. (Paper to be presented at Amer, Soc. An. Prod. meetings. Nov. 26,
21. Pearson, A. M., J. F. Hentges and R. B. Sleeth. 1954. Sunflower-seed
oilmeal as a protein supplement for fattening steers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
(Has been submitted for publication).
22. Kirk, W. G. and E. M. Hodges. 1951. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Report
23. Wallace, H. D., M. Milicevic and D. Kropf. 1953. Sunflower seed meal as
a protein supplement for growing-fattening swine. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
A. H. Mimeo Series No. 4.
24. Kirk, W. G. and G. K. Davis. 1954. Personal communication. Fla. Agr.
25. Kidder, R. W. 1954. Personal communication. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
26. Wallace, H. D. and L. Gillespie. 1954. Personal communication. Fla. Agr.
27. Wallace, H. D., G. E. Combs and T. J. Cunha. 1953. The addition of low
levels of citrus meal to the rations of growing-fattening swine. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. A. H. Mimeo Series No. 2.
.' *. I *...C,-d,,,-