Half Title
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Illustrations
 Biographical sketch of Daniel...
 Section I: Robinson's family, etc....
 Section II: First adventures at...
 Section III: Robinson's captivity...
 Section IV: He settles in the Brazils...
 Section V: Robinson finds himself...
 Section VI: Carries all his riches,...
 Section VII: Mode of reckoning...
 Section VIII: Robinson's journal...
 Section IX: Robinson obtains more...
 Section X: His recovery - his comfort...
 Section XI: Robinson makes a tour...
 Section XII: He returns to his...
 Section XIII: His manufacture of...
 Section XIV: Meditates his escape...
 Section XV: He makes a smaller...
 Section XVI: He rears a flock of...
 Section XVII: Unexpected alarm...
 Section XVIII: Precautions against...
 Section XIX: Robinson discovers...
 Section XX: Another visit of the...
 Section XXI: He visits the wreck...
 Section XXII: Robinson rescues...
 Section XXIII: Robinson instructs...
 Section XXIV: Robinson and Friday...
 Section XXV: Robinson releases...
 Section XXVI: Robinson discovers...
 Section XXVII: Atkins entreats...
 Section XXVIII: Robinson goes to...
 Section XXIX: Friday's encounter...
 Section XXX: He is seized with...
 Section XXXI: Robinson's ship relieves...
 Section XXXII: Relieves the crew...
 Section XXXIII: Robinson and Friday...
 Section XXXIV: The account continued...
 Section XXXV: The mutinous Englishmen...
 Section XXXVI: Several savages...
 Section XXXVII: Robinson learns...
 Section XXXVIII: Robinson's discourse...
 Section XXXIX: Atkins relates his...
 Section XL: Encounter with savages...
 Section XLI: The vessel touches...
 Section XLII: Meets with an English...
 Section XLIII: Journey to Peking...
 Section XLIV: Route through Muscovy...

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072817/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and surprising adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, mariner with a biographical account of Defoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: viii, <2>, <ix>-xxiv, 442, 48 p., <12> leaves of plates : ill. ; 19 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Harvey, William, 1796-1866
Stothard, Thomas, 1755-1834
Bohn, Henry George, 1796-1884 ( Publisher )
Clay, Richard, 1789-1877 ( Printer )
Stephenson, James, 1828-1886 ( Engraver )
Bell and Daldy ( Publisher )
William Clowes and Sons ( Printer )
Publisher: Henry G. Bohn
Place of Publication: London (York Street Covent Garden)
Manufacturer: R. Clay
Publication Date: 1859
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1859   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues -- 1864   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
Publishers' catalogues   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
Citation/Reference: NUC pre-1956,
Statement of Responsibility: illustrated with seventy characteristic wood engravings, chiefly after designs by Harvey, and twelve engravings on steel, after Stothard.
General Note: "Bohn's illustrated library. Robinson Crusoe; illustrated by Stothard, Harvey, and others."--Half title p.
General Note: On spine: Robinson Crusoe. Illustrated by Stothard. Bohn's illustrated library.
General Note: Front. engraved by J. Stephenson.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072817
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 04971972

Table of Contents
    Half Title
        Page i
        Page ii
    Title Page
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    List of Illustrations
        Page ix
    Biographical sketch of Daniel DeFoe
        Page ix-a
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
        Page xvii
        Page xviii
        Page xix
        Page xx
        Page xxi
        Page xxii
        Page xxiii
        Page xxiv
    Section I: Robinson's family, etc. - his elopement from his parents
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Section II: First adventures at sea, and experience of a maritime life - voyage to Guinea
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Section III: Robinson's captivity at Sallee - escape with Xury - arrival at the Brazils
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Section IV: He settles in the Brazils as a planter - makes another voyage, and is shipwrecked
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 34a
        Page 35
    Section V: Robinson finds himself in a desolate island - procures a stock of articles from the wreck - constructs his habitation
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 42a
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Section VI: Carries all his riches, provisions, etc. into his habitation - dreariness of solitude - consolatory reflections
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Section VII: Mode of reckoning time - difficulties arising from want of tools - he arranges his habitation
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 52a
        Page 53
    Section VIII: Robinson's journal - details of his domestic economy and contrivances - shock of an earthquake
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Section IX: Robinson obtains more articles from the wreck - his illness and affliction
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Section X: His recovery - his comfort in reading the scriptures - make an excursion into the interior of the island - forms his "bower"
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
    Section XI: Robinson makes a tour to explore his island - employed in basket-making
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
    Section XII: He returns to his cave - his agricultural labours and success
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
    Section XIII: His manufacture of pottery, and contrivance for baking bread
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Section XIV: Meditates his escape from the island - builds a canoe - failure of his scheme - resignation to his condition - makes himself a new dress
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
    Section XV: He makes a smaller canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the island - his perilous situation at sea - he returns home
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
    Section XVI: He rears a flock of goats - his diary - his domestic habits and style of living - increasing prosperity
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 114a
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Section XVII: Unexpected alarm and cause for apprehension - he fortifies his abode
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
    Section XVIII: Precautions against surprise - Robinson discovers that his island has been visited by cannibals
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
    Section XIX: Robinson discovers a cave, which serves him as a retreat against the savages
        Page 134
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
    Section XX: Another visit of the savages - Robinson sees them dancing - perceives the wreck of a vessel
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
    Section XXI: He visits the wreck and obtains many stores from it - again thinks of quitting the inland - has a remarkable dream
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
    Section XXII: Robinson rescues one of their captives from the savages, whom he names Friday, and makes his servant
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 158a
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
    Section XXIII: Robinson instructs and civilian his man Friday - endeavours to give him an idea of Christianity
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
    Section XXIV: Robinson and Friday build a canoe to carry them to Friday’s country - their scheme prevented by the arrival of a party of savages
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 176a
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
    Section XXV: Robinson releases a Spaniard - Friday discovers his father - accommodation provided for these new guests - who are afterwards sent to liberate the other Spaniards - arrival of an English vessel
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 186a
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
    Section XXVI: Robinson discovers himself to the English captain - assists him in reducing his mutinous crew - who submit to him
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
    Section XXVII: Atkins entreats the captain to spare his life - the latter recovers his vessel from the mutineers - and Robinson leaves the island
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
    Section XXVIII: Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese captain, who renders him an account of his property in the Brazils - sets out on his return to England by land
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
        Page 223
    Section XXIX: Friday's encounter with a bear - Robinson and his fellow travellers attacked by a flock of wolves - his arrangement of his affairs, and marriage after his return to England
        Page 224
        Page 225
        Page 226
        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    Section XXX: He is seized with a desire to revisit his island - loses his wife - is tempted to go to sea again - takes out a cargo for his colony
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
    Section XXXI: Robinson's ship relieves the crew of a French vessel that had caught fire
        Page 242
        Page 243
        Page 244
        Page 245
        Page 246
        Page 247
        Page 248
    Section XXXII: Relieves the crew of a bristol ship, who are starving - arrive at his island
        Page 249
        Page 250
        Page 251
        Page 252
        Page 253
        Page 254
        Page 255
    Section XXXIII: Robinson and Friday go ashore - the latter meets with his father - account of what passed on the island after Robinson's quitting it
        Page 256
        Page 257
        Page 258
        Page 258a
        Page 259
        Page 260
        Page 261
        Page 262
    Section XXXIV: The account continued - quarrels between the Englishmen - a battle between two parties of savages who visit the island - fresh mutiny among the settlers
        Page 263
        Page 264
        Page 265
        Page 266
        Page 267
        Page 268
        Page 269
        Page 270
        Page 271
        Page 272
        Page 273
        Page 274
        Page 275
        Page 276
        Page 277
        Page 278
        Page 279
    Section XXXV: The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the island - return with several captive savages - take the females as wives
        Page 280
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 290a
    Section XXXVI: Several savages killed; the remainder leave the island - a fleet of them afterwards arrive - a general battle - the savages are overcome, and tranquillity restored
        Page 291
        Page 292
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 299
        Page 300
        Page 301
        Page 302
        Page 303
        Page 304
        Page 305
    Section XXXVII: Robinson learns from the Spaniards the difficulties they had to encounter - he furnishes the people with tools, etc. - the French ecclesiastic
        Page 306
        Page 307
        Page 308
        Page 309
        Page 310
        Page 311
        Page 312
        Page 313
        Page 314
        Page 315
    Section XXXVIII: Robinson's discourse with ecclesiastic as to introducing marriages among the people - marriages performed - Atkins converts his wife
        Page 316
        Page 317
        Page 318
        Page 319
        Page 320
        Page 321
        Page 322
        Page 322a
        Page 323
        Page 324
        Page 325
        Page 326
        Page 327
        Page 328
        Page 329
        Page 330
        Page 331
    Section XXXIX: Atkins relates his conversation with his wife - the latter baptized by the priest - account of the starving state of those on board the rescued vessel - Robinson's departure from the island
        Page 332
        Page 333
        Page 334
        Page 335
        Page 336
        Page 337
        Page 338
        Page 339
        Page 340
        Page 341
        Page 342
        Page 343
        Page 344
        Page 345
        Page 346
        Page 347
        Page 348
        Page 349
    Section XL: Encounter with savages at sea - Friday's death - Robinson finds his former partner in the Brazils - sails for the East Indies
        Page 350
        Page 351
        Page 352
        Page 353
        Page 354
        Page 355
        Page 356
        Page 357
    Section XLI: The vessel touches at Madagascar - affray with the natives - who are massacred by the crew - the sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinson, who is left by his nephew, the captain, in Bengal
        Page 358
        Page 359
        Page 360
        Page 361
        Page 362
        Page 363
        Page 364
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
        Page 372
    Section XLII: Meets with an English merchant with whom he makes some trading voyages - they are mistaken for pirates - vanquish their pursuer - voyage to China - rencontre with the Cochin Chinese - island of Formosa – gulf of Nanquin - apprehensions of falling into the hands of the Dutch
        Page 373
        Page 374
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
        Page 390
        Page 391
        Page 392
        Page 393
        Page 394
        Page 395
        Page 396
        Page 397
        Page 398
        Page 399
        Page 400
        Page 401
    Section XLIII: Journey to Peking - Robinson joins a caravan proceeding to Moscow - rencontrers with the Tartars
        Page 402
        Page 403
        Page 404
        Page 404a
        Page 405
        Page 406
        Page 407
        Page 408
        Page 409
        Page 410
        Page 411
        Page 412
        Page 413
        Page 414
        Page 415
        Page 416
    Section XLIV: Route through Muscovy - Robinson and a Scots merchant destroy an idol - the whole caravan in great peril from the pursuit of the Pagans – Tobolski-muscovite exiles - departure from Tobolski - encounter with a troop of robbers in the desert - Robinson reaches Archangel, and finally arrives in England
        Page 417
        Page 418
        Page 419
        Page 420
        Page 421
        Page 422
        Page 423
        Page 424
        Page 425
        Page 426
        Page 427
        Page 428
        Page 429
        Page 430
        Page 431
        Page 432
        Page 433
        Page 434
        Page 435
        Page 436
        Page 437
        Page 438
        Page 439
        Page 440
        Page 441
        Page 442
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
        A 9
        A 10
        A 11
        A 12
        A 13
        A 14
        A 15
        A 16
        A 17
        A 18
        A 19
        A 20
        A 21
        A 22
        A 23
        A 24
        A 25
        A 26
        A 27
        A 28
        A 29
        A 30
        A 31
        A 32
        A 33
        A 34
        A 35
        A 36
        A 37
        A 38
        A 39
        A 40
        A 41
        A 42
        A 43
        A 44
        A 45
        A 46
        A 47
        A 48
Full Text









T7 55 EI






Of gah, P~jiir.r,






BlOGoAPHICAL SXMTCH O DAmNI, Dioz .................... ....... in

Robinson's Family, &c.-His Elopement from his Parents ............. ...... 1

First Adventures at Sea, and Experience of a Maritime Life.-Voyage to
Guinea ............................ .................... ,_......................... ....

Robinson's Captivity at Sallee.-Escape with Xury.-Arrival at the Brazils... 13

He settles in the Brazils as a Planter.-Makes another Voyage, and is ship-
wrecked .........................................................................................

Robinson finds himself in a desolate Island.-Procures a Stock of Articles
from the Wreck.-Constucts his Habitation ................................. 36

Carries all his Riches, Provisions, k. into his Habitation.-Drearines of
Solitude.-Consolatory Reflections........................................................ 4

Robinson's Mode of reckoning Time.-Difficulties arising from want of Tools.
-He arranges his Habitation ............................ ................-.--.-. 49

Robinson's Journal.-Details of his Domestic Economy and Contriraae.-
Shock of a Eathquake ....... .............................*. 4

Robinson obtains more Articles from the Wreck.-H Illness ad Aictie.- 64

Hi Recoery.-Hls Comfort in Reading the Scriptures.-Makes an Excursion
nto the Interior of t Isla .-l irms his" Bower .....................


Robinson makes a Tour to explore his Island.-Employed in Basket-making 82

Ha returns to his Cave.-His Agricultural Labours and Success ................ 86

His Manufacture of Pottery, and Contrivance for baking Bread ................ 92

Meditates his Escape from the Island.-Builds a Canoe.-Failure of his
Scheme.-Resignation to his Condition.-Makes himself a new Dress ...... 96

He makes a smaller Canoe, in which he attempts to cruise round the Island.-
His perilous situation at Sea.-He returns home ................................... 105

He rears a Flock of Goats.-His Diary.-His Domestic Habits and Style of
Living.- Increasing Prosperity ........................................................... 112

Unexpected Alarm and Cause for Apprehension.-He fortifies his Abode...... 119

Precautions against Surprise.-Robinson discovers that his Island has been
visited by Cannibals .................................................................... 126

Robinson discovers a Cave, which serves him as a Retreat against the Savages 134

Another Visit of the Savages.-Robinson sees them dancing.-Perceives the
W reck of a Vessel ............................................................................ 140

He visits the Wreck and obtains many Stores from it.-Again thinks of quit-
ting the Island.-Has a remarkable Dream.......................... ................ 145

Robinson rescues one of their Captives from the Savages, whom he names
Friday, and makes his Servant ................................... 155

Robinson instructs and cviliss his Man Friday.-Endeavours to giv him an
Ids of Christianity ............................... ..................-.. 1U


Robinson and hr i sy build a Canoe to carry them to Priday's Country.-
Their Scheme prevented by the arrival of a Party of Savages........ 172

Robinson releases a Spaniard.-FPrday discovers his Father.-Accommoda-
tion provided for these new Guests-who are afterwards sent to liberate
the other Spaniards.-Arrival of an English Vessle......................... 181

Robinson discovers himself to the English Captain.-Assists Him in reducing
his mutinous Crew,-who submit to Him......................................... 19

Atkins entreats the Captain to spare his Life.-The latter recover his Vessel
from the Mutineers,-and Robinson leaves the Island........................ 206

Robinson goes to Lisbon, where he finds the Portuguese Captain, who renders
him an Account of his Property in the Brazils.-Sets out on his Return
to England by Land....................................................................... 214

Friday's Encounter with a Bear.- Robinson and his fellow Travellers
attacked by a Flock of Wolves.-His Arrangement of his Affairs, and
Marriage after his Return to England................................................ 224

He is seized with a Desire to revisit his Island.-Loses his Wil-Is tempted
to go to Sea again.-Takes out a Cargo for his Colony.............. ... 234


Robinson's Ship relieves the Crew of a French Vessel that had aught ire... 242

Relieves the Crew of a Bristol Ship, who are starving.-Ari at his Island 249

Robinson and Friday go ashore-The latter meets with his Fater.-Account
of what passed on the Island after Robinson's quitting it--.--- 25

Tim Account cotinued.-Ouarrels between the Englislh a.-A Battle
between two Parties of Savages who visit the Islad. Fresh Mdiny
amor the Settle .......... ....................... .- .


The mutinous Englishmen are dismissed from the Island.-Return with
several captive Savages. Take the Females as Wives.................. ....... 2

Several Savages killed; the Remainder leave the Island.-A Fleet of them
afterwards arrive.-A general Battle.-The Savages are overcome, and
Tranquillity restored......................................................................... 291


Robinson learns from the Spaniards the Difficulties they had to encounter.
-He furnishes the People with Tools, &c.-The French Ecclesiastic.... 806

Robinson's Discourse with the Ecclesiastic as to introducing Marriages
among the People.-Marriages performed.-Atkins converts his Wife...... 316

Atkins relates his Conversation with his Wife.-The latter baptized by the
Priest.-Account of the starving State of those on board the rescued Vessel.
-Robinson's Departure from the Island....................................... 332

Encounter with Savages at Sea.-Friday's Death.-Robinson finds his former
Partner in the Brazils.-Sails for the East Indies................................ 350

The Vessel touches at Madagascar.-Affray with the Natives,-who are mas-
sacred by the Crew.- The Sailors afterwards refuse to sail with Robinson,
who is left by his Nephew, the Captain, in Bengal............................... 355

Meets with an Englih Merchant with whom he makes some trading Voyages.
-They are mistaken for Pirates.-Vanquish their Pursuers.-Voyage to
China.-Rencontre with the Cochin-Chinese.-Island of Formoea.-Gulf
of Nanquin.-Apprehensions of falling into the Hands of the Dutch......... 373

Journey to Peking.-Robinson joins a Caravan proceeding to Moscow.-Ren-
contras with the Tartars ................................................. ............ 402

Route through Muscovy.-Robinson and a Scots Merchant detroy an Idol.
-The whole Caravan in great Peril from the Pursuit of the Pagans.-
Tobolskt.-Museovite Ezile-Departure from Tobolskl-Encounter with
a Troop of Robbers in the Deert. Robinson reahes Archanel, and
finally arrives in England.......................... ...... .................... 411


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TnH author of Robinson Crusoe would be entitled to a prominent
place in the history of our literature, even had he never given to
the world that truly admirable production; and yet we may
reasonably question whether the name of Defoe would not long
ago have sunk into oblivion, or at least have been known, like
those of most of his contemporaries, only to the curious student,
were it not attached to a work whose popularity has been rarely
equalled-never, perhaps, excelled. Even as it is, the reputation
due to the writer has been nearly altogether absorbed in that of
his hero, and in the all-engrossing interest of his adventures:
thousands who have read Robinson Crusoe with delight, and
derived from it a satisfaction in no wise diminished by repeated
perusal, have never bestowed a thought on its author, or, indeed,
regarded it in the light of a literary performance. While its
fascination has been universally felt, the genius that conceived it,
the talent that perfected it, have been generally overlooked,
merely because it is so full of nature and reality as to exhibit no
invention or exertion on the part of the author, inasmuch as he
appears simply to have recorded what actually happened, and
consequently only to have committed to paper plain matter of
fact, without study or embellishment. We wonder at and are
struck with admiration by the powers of Shakspeare or Cervantes;
with regard to Defoe we experience no similar feelings: it is not
the skill of the artist that enchants us, but.the perfect naturalness
of the picture, which is such that we mistake it for a mirror so


that every reader persuades himself that he could write as well,
perhaps better, were he but furnished with the materials for an
equally interesting narrative.
There are many circumstances in Defoe's own history that
would recommend it to the notice of the biographer, indepen-
dently of his claims as the author of Robinson: among which
are the variety and extraordinary number of his literary per-
formances, amounting to no fewer than two hundred and nine
different publications; and the no less singular fact that the
masterpiece of his genius was not only his first essay in that
species of composition, but was not produced till he was far
advanced in years, he having then arrived at a period of life when
the generality of authors close their literary career, and when the
powers of imagination either lose much of their vigour, or become
altogether torpid. Nor will our surprise at Defoe's industry, and
the almost unprecedented fertility of his pen, be at all diminished
by considering that he was not a recluse student or professed
scholar, but was engaged in trade and various other speculations.
In one respect, however, his mercantile occupations contributed
to lay the foundation of his excellence as a novel-writer, since
there can be little doubt that it is to his actual experience of the
sea, and his acquaintance with other countries, we are indebted
for that truth and spirit which animate the more interesting parts
of Robinson Crusoe; while his manly good sense, unaffected
earnestness, and fund of native intelligence, have placed him
very far above those who presume to undervalue his literary
According to the latest and most copious of all his biographers,
Daniel Defoe was born in 1661, two years earlier than the
generally assigned date of his birth. His father was a butcher
in the parish of St. Giles, Cripplegate; and appears to have been
a citizen in easy circumstances, although his trade was one that
confers no particular lustre on a pedigree. It is usual to affect
some degree of astonishment when we read of men whose after
fame presents a striking contrast to the humility of their origin:
yet we must recollect that it is not ancestry and splendid descent,
but education and circumstances which form the man; and in
this respect the middling classes possess a decided advantage over
those either below or above them: for if the former are precluded
from cultivating their talents and abilities, the latter generally
consider themselves exempt from the necessity of doing so, and


accordingly content themselves with cultivating mere external
accomplishments, in preference to exercising their mental ener-
gies. Those on the contrary who are placed in a middle station,
while they are not debarred from the means of application, feel
that stimulus to exertion which arises from the desire of acquiring
fortune or fame. The history of such men as Ximenes, Wolsey,
Alberoni, and Napoleon, may, indeed, justly excite our wonder;
-when, too, we behold unlettered genius emerging, in spite
of every obstacle, from the obscurity to which it seemed con-
demned, as in a Fergusson, a Duval, a Burns, and an Opie, we
may be permitted to express our astonishment; but as regards
his origin, the history of Defoe is that of thousands who have
afterwards raised themselves into comparative elevation by the
display of their powers. The solicitude, therefore, so generally
displayed by biographers, on similar occasions, to trace some
consanguinity with a more dignified branch of their families, for
those whose native obscurity seems to demand some apology,
betrays a rather mistaken policy. However this may be, it is
certain that it is quite as honourable for Defoe to have ascended
from a butcher as it would have been to have descended from the
Conqueror himself.
One undoubted and very great advantage, for which Defoe
was indebted to his parents, who were Nonconformists, was an
education superior to what it was then usual for persons in their
station to bestow upon their children; and they were careful
also to implant in his youthful mind that regard for religion, and
that strict moral integrity, which afterwards displayed themselves
not only in his writings, but his conduct through life. And this
rectitude of principle he most unequivocally evinced when his
misfortunes put it so severely to the proof. At about the age of
fourteen, he was placed under the tuition of the Rev. Charles
Morton, of Newington Green, who was afterwards vice-president
of Harvard College, New England; and from various incidental
remarks in his own works, it appears that young Defoe now
entered upon an extensive course of studies, and made consider-
able proficiency in languages, mathematics, philosophy, history,
and theology; although the natural liveliness of his disposition
unfitted him for that severe application which is necessary to form
a profound scholar in any one of those pursuits.
It was the intention of his parents that he should embrace
the clerical profession, which their religious feelings, and pro-


bably a very pardonable ambition, induced them to select for
him: yet, notwithstanding his regard for the sacred office, he
was unwilling to embrace it himself; or events, at least, diverted
his talents into another channel. The political and religious
excitements of that period were contagious for one of Defoe's
temper: he assumed the character of the patriot as soon as he
cast off that of the boy, and espoused the side of the popular
party with all the ardour of youth; nor was it long before he
had opportunities of distinguishing himself. He was a warm
advocate for the Bill of Exclusion, passed by the Commons to
prevent the succession of the Duke of York to the throne; and
regarded with abhorrence that spirit of despotism which sen-
tenced Sydney and so many others to the scaffold. At the age
of twenty-one he commenced author, which employment he con-
tinued for nearly half a century, and that, too, almost uninter-
ruptedly, notwithstanding his various speculations of a different
nature. It cannot be expected that in a sketch of this nature
we should attempt to give anything like a connected account of
Defoe's various literary performances, they being too numerous
and multifarious for us to advert to them separately, even if we
conceived that by so doing we should greatly interest the readers
of this-the most distinguished of them all. But the truth is,
the majority of them are of that class which it is rather the
province of the bibliographer than the critic to describe. We
may, however, here mention the first production of his pen,
which, under the singular title of Speculum Crape-gownorum,"
was a reply to a publication of Roger L'Estrange's, a noted party
writer of that day. In this work Defoe indulged in rather in-
temperate language, and while vindicating the dissenters, re-
flected in too hostile and indiscriminate a manner upon the
established clergy. This was succeeded by a Treatise against
the Turks," occasioned by the war between them and the Im-
perialists; and was penned by Defoe for the purpose of showing
his countrymen that, if it was the interest of Protestantism not
to increase the influence of a Catholic power, it was infinitely
more so to oppose a Mahommedan one; which, however debate-
able it might appear to politicians, was almost too obvious a
truism to be entitled to any merit for its sagacity. It is the fate
of political publications quickly to fall into oblivion after the
events which call them forth have passed away. the reputation
derived from them is as transitory as the events themselves, or if


the fame of the writer occasionally descends to posterity, it is
more than can be affirmed of his writings.
Shortly after this, Defoe proved that he was as ready to
support the doctrines he advocated by the sword as by the pen:
he accordingly joined the standard of the Duke of Monmouth,
when the latter landed in England with the view of expelling a
Catholic prince from the throne, and seating himself upon it as
the defender of protestantism. The issue of that adventure, and
the subsequent fate of the unfortunate, if not perfectly innocent,
Monmouth are well known. Happier than the leader of the
enterprise, it was Defoe's better luck to escape : he returned to
the metropolis in safety; and, abandoning politics and warfare,
was content for a while to turn his attention to the more humble
but less stormy pursuits of trade.
He now became a hosier, or rather a hose-factor, that is, a kind
of agent between the manufacturer and retailer; and, according to
Mr. Chalmers, he continued to carry on this concern from 1685 to
1695. It was about two years after he had thus established him-
self, that he was admitted a liveryman of London, on the 26th of
January, 1687-8. Business, however, did not so entirely absorb
his attention but that he found time to engage in the various
controversies that agitated the public mind, and which were
occasioned by the arbitrary measures of James, who, feeling himself
secure after the removal of so dangerous an enemy as Monmouth,
began more openly to favour the Catholics, and to dispense with
the tests intended to prevent their accepting commissions in the
army. This of course excited both the alarm and indignation
of the Protestants, which were by no means allayed by the
temporizing servility of their own clergy, who exerted their elo-
quence in favour of the king's prerogative. Among those who
attacked the doctrine of the dispensing power was Defoe; nor, as
may well be imagined, was he afterwards an unconcerned spectator
of the Revolution, whose progress he had minutely watched, and
whose anniversary he continued yearly to celebrate as a day
marked by the deliverance of his country from political and
religious tyranny. His attachment to the new sovereign was con-
firmed by the personal notice shown him both by that prince and
his consort; for the butcher's son had had the honour of an
early introduction to the royal presence.
At this period Defoe resided at Tooting in Surrey, and he had
now launched out into more extensive commercial speculations,


having embarked in the Spanish and Portuguese trade, so that he
might fairly claim the title of merchant. The precise time of his
going to Spain, whether before or after the Revolution, cannot be
ascertained; but he not only made a voyage thither, but stayed
some time in the country, and acquired a knowledge of the
language. Sincere as was his attachment to the purer tenets of
protestantism, it did not degenerate into blind prejudice, nor pre-
vent him from doing justice to catholics: he has accordingly, in
his Robinson Crusoe, represented the Spanish character under its
most amiable traits, and in a tone that may almost pass for
panegyric. This voyage, as we have already remarked, doubt-
lessly contributed to store his observant mind with many materials
for those descriptions of the perils and adventures common to a
seafaring life, that so strongly excite the sympathy of those who
follow his hero across the trackless deep. Nor was he without
some experience of shipwreck, if not actually in his own person,
by the loss of a vessel in which he was a shareholder, and which
was wrecked in a violent storm off the coast of Biscay. It was
about this period also that he traded with Holland; probably for
civet, as one of his enemies has sneeringly styled him a civet-
cat merchant." Besides this he visited some other parts of the
continent, particularly Germany: he did not, however, relinquish
his hose-agency business in consequence of his other engagements.
But commercial enterprise did not prove for him the road to
wealth: on the contrary, his speculations involved him in such
embarrassments, that, in 1692, he was obliged to abscond from
his creditors. A commission of bankruptcy was taken out against
him, yet it was afterwards superseded, those to whom he was most
in debt agreeing to accept a composition on his own bond; and
he not only punctually discharged these claims, but, after he had
somewhat retrieved his circumstances, voluntarily repaid the
remainder. This is so much the more to his honour, since so far
from having met with many precedents of similar probity in
others, his misfortunes had been in some degree occasioned by
the knavery of unprincipled men, who, availing themselves of the
impunity held out to them by the supineness or the impotency of
the law, were then accustomed to set their creditors at defiance in
the most barefaced manner.
It was Defoe himself who first called the attention of the
legislature to the intolerable abuses which arose from those
sanctuaries, as they were termed, for criminals and debtors, which


then existed in the metropolis; and to him, consequently, may
we be said to be indebted for the abatement of a nuisance as dis-
graceful to the national character, as it was injurious to the indus-
trious and honest portion of the community.
With the view of assisting him in his distress, some of his
friends now came forward and offered to settle him as a factor
at Cadiz: yet, advantageous as the proposal was, he declined it,
preferring to endeavour to retrieve his finances by his pen. The
country being then engaged in an expensive war with France,
Defoe proposed a scheme to assist the government in raising
" the ways and means;" and some time afterwards he received
the appointment of accountant to the commissioners of the glass
duty; but it proved only a temporary one, as the duty was
repealed in August, 1609. Probably it was also about the same
period that he became secretary to the tile-works at Tilbury, in
which concern he embarked some money, and was again a suf-
ferer. His Essay on Projects," published in January, 1696-7,
shows him to have been, if not a very successful speculator him-
self, at least a very ingenious and fertile deviser of theoretical
plans, most of which must be allowed to have the welfare of
society in view; nor have they been without influence in leading
to many improvements of later times: among those which have
been practically adopted, we may mention his scheme for Friendly
Societies and Savings Banks. Were any testimony requited in
favour of this work, it would be sufficient to quote that of the
celebrated Franklin, who confesses that the impressions he received
from it gave a strong bias to his own pursuits.
If not invariably employed in the active defence of public
morals, Defoe's pen was too honest to betray their interests on
any occasion: it was not always that his topics called for, or even
admitted, any direct inculcations of virtue, but whenever they
did, he displayed his earnestness in its behalf. His publication
entitled The Poor Man's Plea" is a very keen piece of satire,
with a considerable touch of humour, levelled against the vices of
the upper classes of society, in which he urges them to discoun-
tenance by their own conduct, the immorality they deem so
reprehensible in the vulgar. The stage too did not escape his
castigation; and really its transgressions were at that period so
barefaced and audacious, so offensive even to common decency,
that, whatever infamy there may have been in either tolerating
or in attempting to defend such a system of lewdness, there could


be no great triumph in exposing that which did not even attempt
to conceal itself.
We have now to notice our author in a somewhat different
character-namely, as a candidate for poetical fame. His satire,
entitled the Trueborn Englishman," which was written for
the purpose of averting from the king the abusive reflections cast
upon him as a foreigner, had indeed a very great run at the time
-more, however, on account of the matter than of the manner
-since both that and all Defoe's other attempts of the kind
convince us, that, like the great Roman orator, he was an intole-
rably bad poet, and not even a decent versifier. Yet could
gratitude and enthusiastic devotion to his prince have supplied
that inspiration which the muses denied him, Defoe's poetry
would have been of first-rate excellence, so sincere was his
admiration of, so zealous was his devotion to, William III. The
various effusions in rhyme, and the numerous political pamphlets
and tracts which he published at this interval, we must pass by,
and come directly to an event that obtained for our author a
rather unenviable species of distinction. The reign of Anne
commenced with much violence and with cabals between the
respective church parties, leading to controversies that rather
fanned than allayed the public ferment. On such an occasion,
it was not to be expected that Defoe would remain passive:
assuming the furious tone of the high-churchmen of the day
against the dissenters, he published a small pamphlet, which was
in reality a satire upon the writings which that party had issued
from the press, but the irony was so fine, and the imitation so
exact, that while it was supposed by them to utter the real senti-
ments of the writer, it was also interpreted by those whom it
was intended to serve as coming from a violent enemy. The
" Shortest Way with the Dissenters"-such was its title-created
an amazing sensation; and on its real object being exposed,
the high-church party became as fierce in their indignation, as
they had before been warm in their applause. The author
was detected, a reward offered for his apprehension, and he
himself sentenced to be imprisoned in Newgate, and to stand
in the pillory; but the attendance of his friends, and the enthu-
siasm of the populace in favour of the champion of religious
liberty, converted an ignominious punishment into a triumph,
so that his enemies had as little reason to exult in their victory,
as to be proud of the sagacity they had displayed. If, however,


this event rather increased than diminished Defoe's reputation,
it had a different effect upon his pecuniary affairs: his confine-
ment in Newgate prevented his attending any longer to his con-
cern at Tilbury, the consequence of which was that it was obliged
to be given up; and thus Defoe saw himself deprived at once of
what had been the source of a handsome income, for before this
affair he was in such thriving circumstances as to be able to keep
his coach. According to his own statement, he lost three thousand
five hundred pounds, a far more considerable sum at that period
than it would be now. There was indeed one way of both speedily
and safely repairing his finances, namely, by accepting the over-
tures made him by the ministry, who would gladly have enlisted
in their own cause that pen which had proved so powerful against
them: but Defoe was too independent of soul, and too high-prin-
cipled, to purchase his release upon terms that would inflict upon
him the disgrace the pillory had failed to effect.
Although a prison is not the most congenial place for literary
pursuits, our author availed himself of the time which the loss of
his liberty afforded him, of occupying his unwelcome leisure from
all other business in writing both in verse and prose. It was here
that he published his poem on the "Reformation of Manners," a
sufficiently copious theme in every age, and afterwards continued
the subject in another, entitled More Reformation;" in which he
alludes to his own situation in the following nervous lines, de-
scribing himself as
A modern tool,
To wit, to parties and himself a fool;
Embroil'd with states to do himself no good,
And by his friends themselves misunderstood;
Misconstrued first in every word he said,-
By these unpitied, and by those unpaid."
Here we may truly say fact indignatio ersus, for the caustic tone
and antithesis are not unworthy of Pope himself. The political
controversial pieces which he sent forth to the world from his
" place of durance vile" were too numerous for us to specify
them: we therefore prefer speaking of a work of more permanent
interest, one in which he may be regarded as the immediate pre-
decessor of two of the most popular and admired of our classic
writers in the days of Anne-namely, Steele and Addison. Defoe's
" Review," which commenced Feb. 19, 1704, deserves to be con-
sidered as the prototype of our Tatlers and Spectators; and may
earn for its author the appellation of the Father of English


Essayists: since notwithstanding that political intelligence and
discussion constituted a great portion of its contents, it touched
upon a variety of other topics bearing upon literature, manners,
and morals; while it was itself hardly in any degree indebted for
this part of its plan to preceding or contemporary publications.
Uniformly assailing vice, or exposing to just ridicule the follies
and foibles of society, Defoe varied his mode of attack, at one
time employing grave reasoning and serious remonstrance; at
another, substituting sarcasm, humour, wit, and pleasantry, for
monitory reproof. To a modern reader, indeed, many of the topics
might seem to lack invention, and to be rather commonplace,
merely because they have been so repeatedly handled by later
writers, that both the wit and argument displayed in them have'
lost their freshness. This circumstance, however, does not detract
from Defoe's intrinsic merit, or from the praise due to him as an
originator: on the contrary, he, in this respect, only shares the
fate common to all those who open a new path in literature or art,
inviting imitators whose numbers oppress, if they do not over-
whelm them: that Defoe has not since been surpassed in this
species of writing is far more than we can venture to assert; yet
it should be recollected that it is the first navigator of the Atlantic,
not those who cross it in a modern steam-boat, who claims the
homage of our admiration.
Those who are unacquainted with Defoe the essayist, as well
as Defoe the novelist, will not be able to appreciate the extent of
our author's powers, and the variety of his information. But we
have already dwelt upon the Review "at greater length than is
consistentt with the brevity we must perforce observe: it is time,
therefore, to proceed with our narrative. Mr. Harley, afterwards
earl of Oxford, happened, by a change in the ministry, to come
into power, after Defoe had been about two years in confinement,
and being able to appreciate his abilities-perhaps anxious to
secure them in his own support, he represented his case to the
queen, who generously sent a sum of money to his wife and
family, and another to discharge his fine and prison expenses.
Immediately upon his liberation Defoe retired to Bury St. Ed-
mund's. It was there that he wrote his masterly treatise, entitled
" Giving Alms no Charity," in which he displays great practical
knowledge, with enlarged and sound views on the causes of po-
verty, and on the employment of the poor.. In the intervals of
these and other occupations, for it should be observed that he


had been sent in 1705 by Harley on a secret mission to the con-
tinent, the express object of which has not transpired,-he found
leisure to employ his pen on other subjects, and anticipating his
future character of a romance writer, he invented the "true
narrative" of Mrs. Veal's apparition, which was prefixed to a
translation of Drelincourt on Death. The supposed stranger
from the other world is made to recommend that performance;
and, as such supernatural testimony was irresistible, the whole
impression, which had before lain on the bookseller's shelves, was
quickly sold, and was succeeded by many others, the work having
since passed through forty different editions. This stratagem
certainly does honour to Defoe's ingenuity and penetration; yet
whether it be entirely justifiable, considering the tendency of the
deception, may be doubted.
Leaving for awhile the account of his literary career, we must
now briefly notice a very important national subject, namely, the
Union with Scotland, in which, besides warmly advocating the
measure with his pen, Defoe was personally employed. At the
recommendation of Harley and Lord Godolphin, by whom he
had been recommended to the queen, he was sent on a mission to
Edinburgh, in which city he arrived in October, 1700. Here, it
should seem, he was chiefly employed in making calculations re-
lating to trade and taxes, for the information of the committees of
parliament; he also occupied himself in collecting those docu-
ments relative to the Union which he afterwards published.
Besides this, he proposed several plans for encouraging the
manufactures, and for promoting the trade, wealth, and maritime
resources of Scotland. After an absence of about sixteen months,
he returned to England in 1708, when his services obtained for him,
from the ministry, an appointment with a fixed salary; and as it
does not appear what was the nature of the office he held, we
may conclude it to have been merely a sinecure. Almost imme-
diately afterwards, his patron Harley was dismissed from office,
through the persevering intrigues of the duchess of Marlborough,
whom he had supplanted in the queen's favour, an event that
suddenly overclouded Defoe's political prospects. Without com-
promising his principles, however, he espoused the interest of the
succeeding ministry; but although Godolphin treated him.with
consideration, he suffered his pension to fall into arrears, perhaps
in consequence of Defoe's long absence in Scotland, whither he
was again despatched a few months afterwards, upon some secret


business. In the following year, 1709, Defoe published a work
which, to use the.words of an eminent living critic, places him
amongst the soundest historians of the day;" and which, accord-
ing to the testimony of another, would have handed down his
name to posterity, even had he not immortalized himself by
Robinson Crusoe. This was his History of the Union," which
is as interesting for the minute descriptions it gives of the actors
and incidents in that important event, as for the documents it
Still engaged in politics, Defoe's continued and severe attacks
against the Tories and high-church party so exasperated them,
that they attempted to suppress his writings, and even threatened
him with prosecutions: their animosity, however, did not procure
for him, from those whose cause he defended, a degree of favour
and support at all commensurate with his long and able services.
He had also to contend with fresh pecuniary losses in some con-
cern in which he was engaged (1712) with Mr. Wood, a mercer
of Coleshill in Warwickshire, and with the personal abuse with
which his character was assailed by writers who reflected upon
him as being a knavish bankrupt. But his political career was
now drawing to its close: having carried on his "Review"
for more than nine years, he finally relinquished it in May, 1713,
when he was again a prisoner in Newgate upon an indictment
preferred against him by his friends the Whigs, as the author of
three treasonable Jacobitical pamphlets; whereas the publications
in question were of a directly opposite tendency. The queen
once more bestowed a free pardon on him, and the malice of his
numerous enemies was defeated. From this time he employed
his pen only occasionally on political subjects. By the accession
of George I. to the throne, Defoe gained nothing, although his
writings had strenuously pleaded the cause of the House of
Hanover during the late reign; and although he had superior
claims upon public gratitude for the zeal with which, during
nearly thirty years, he had not only advocated religious and
political independence, but endeavoured to call attention to sub-
jects of paramount importance to the national prosperity. That
this neglect should, in spite of all his philosophy, have occasioned
him considerable mortification, is not much to be wondered at;
and to the effect it had upon his health was attributed an
apoplectic attack in the year 1715, from which he continued to
suffer for six months.

After so serious a blow to his constitution, and at his advanced
period of life, it might have been expected that he would now
lay aside his pen,-at least remit in his exertions. Yet it was
subsequently to this apparently cloudy epoch of his career that
the brightest and most durable of his literary wreaths was won.
Great versatility of talent is not often accompanied by an equal
degree of vigour and raciness of intellect; when, however, such
does happen to be the case, it should seem that the former is
rather beneficial than otherwise to its possessor, and that change
of subject serves to recruit the men&l energies. Defoe at least
may be quoted as an extraordinary instance of rejuvenecency
of mind in the decline of years. We do not here allude to his
"Family Instructor," although that performance is one of the
most valuable and useful systems of practical morality in our lan-
guage, and has, doubtless, been far more beneficial to society
than many works of even splendid celebrity. It is the series
of novels which now appear in quick succession from his pen,
that have won for him an imperishable reputation among the
worthies of English literature: nor will his claims upon our
admiration be diminished by considering the extravagant, unna-
tural system of romance-writing which had till then prevailed,
where every thing was either so, artificial or so shadowy, that not
a glimpse of real life was to be discerned. In Defoe's narratives,
on the contrary, there is such an air of downright matter-of-fact
and unadorned truth, as to amount to actual deception; thereby
preventing us from crediting the author with any merit on the
score of imagination, contrivance, or invention. Of this the
reader will be amply convinced by the perusal of the present
work, on which it is not necessary that we should expatiate, and
we shall therefore merely advert to the circumstances connected
with its origin and publication. The History of Robinson Crusoe
was first published in the year 1719, and its popularity may be
said to have been established immediately, since four editions
were called for in about as many months, a circumstance at that
time almost unprecedented in the annals of literature. It rarely
happens that an author's expectations are surpassed by the success
of his work, however astonishing it may seem to others: yet per-
haps even Defoe himself did not venture to look forward to such
a welcome on the part of the public, after the repulses he had
experienced on that of the booksellers; for incredible as it now
appears, the manuscript of the work had been offered to, aad


rejected by, every one in the trade, in which respect its destiny
was not only similar to that of Paradise Lost, but of two of the
most celebrated literary productions of the present day, namely,
Waverley and Childe Harold; the former of which remained in
manuscript ten years, without any probability of ever seeing the
light, although its fame has since extended itself wherever the
English language is known-nay more, has even penetrated the
wilds of Siberia.
Astonishing as was the success of Defoe's romance, it did not
deter the envious from attempting to disparage it. The materials,
it was said, were either furnished by, or surreptitiously obtained
from, Alexander Selkirk, a mariner who had resided for four years
in the desert island of Juan Fernandez, and returned to England
in 1711. Very probably, his story, which then excited consider-
able interest and attention, did suggest to Defoe the idea of
writing his romance; but all the details and incidents are entirely
his own. Most certainly Defoe had obtained no papers or written
documents from Selkirk, as the latter had none to communicate.
So far, however, have others been from taxing our author with pla-
giarism, that they have, on the contrary, charged him with putting
on paper a heap of chimraras, to impose upon public credulity.
Thus these two contradictory charges reciprocally destroy each
other. An attempt has also been made to rob him entirely of the
brightest jewel in his literary crown, by denying him to have
been the author of Robinson Crusoe, which has been ascribed, by
some, to Arbuthnot; by others, to Defoe's patron, the first earl
of Oxford. Those who have wished to gain credit for the latter
opinion, assert that it was composed by that nobleman during his
imprisonment in the Tower, in 1715, on a charge of high treason;
and they have argued that the whole tone of the work, especially
of that part towards the conclusion where an account is given of
the exiled nobles of Muscovy, is what would naturally be sug-
gested by the solitude of a prison. Yet as far as internal evidence
is concerned, that is, indisputably, much stronger in favour of
Defoe ; for he had not only been familiar with imprisonment, but
was also by his acquaintance with foreign countries, and his
experience in business and traffic, much better qualified to pro-
duce a work which displays so much practical knowledge of things,
as well as of man. Indeed, nothing short of the most conclusive
and undeniable testimony of facts to the contrary can at all
invalidate his claims to be consiered as the real author. Had

Robinson Crusoe been the only production of the kind that
proceeded from his pen, there might be better reason for doubting
whether he wrote it; but the various other novels, or rather
pieces of fictitious biography, which he produced, form an addi-
tional reason for attributing it to him.
Of these latter we must here speak far more briefly than they
deserve: the "History of Moll Flanders," which was published
in 1721, is an admirably drawn picture of life, and contains an
excellent moral lesson, although many of the scenes it necessarily
discloses are coarse and revolting. The Life of Colonel Jaque "
contains also much able delineation of real life; and in that part
of the narrative which gives an account of the hero's residence
in Virginia, Defoe has humanely advocated the cause of the
negro slaves. His Memoirs of a Cavalier," which work is sup-
posed to have been written about the same time, is rather history
attired in the form of an iamginary piece of biography, than a
romance. Indeed, all the details are so circumstantial and accu-
rate, that it has been mistaken for a genuine narrative of the
events of the civil wars in England and Germany; and it was
actually recommended as the very best account of them
by the great Lord Chatham, with whom it was a favourite book.
In like manner our author's History of the Plague imposed
upon Dr. Mead, and since upon others, who have referred to it as
an authentic document, and a true recital of that great national
calamity. Here he is the rival of Thucydides and Boccaccio;
and depicts the horrors of pestilence as vividly and as masterly
as Poussin. It may, however, be imagined by some that this is
rather suspicious praise, and that the work of fiction which can
pass as true history must be cold, matter-of-fact, and tame-repul-
sive and dry. It is not, however, in the formal gravity of style
that these works resemble history; but they imitate and reflect
the features of the past in their most interesting, if not their most
engaging aspect.
Besides the preceding, and one or two other productions of a
similar cast, Defoe produced that very excellent and popular
work entitled "Religious Courtship," which was first published
in 1722, and afterwards went through numerous editions. This
and his "Family Instructor" are replete with lessons of the
soundest practical wisdom, and place their author among the
most extensively useful of our English moralists.
Here, however, we must terminate our sketch, having barely




left ourselves room to mention a few particulars relative to the
close of his life. Although the profits accruing from his publica-
tions had of late been considerable, and he had been able to give
a portion to his daughter Sophia, who married Mr. Baker, the
celebrated natural philosopher, in 1729, yet he was still doomed
to contend with misfortune. In addition to the affliction of bodily
infirmity and severe pain, he again fell into great pecuniary
difficulties, and was even arrested. He appears, however, to
have recovered his liberty within a short time : but the unnatural
conduct of his son, who refused to give up the property that had
been entrusted to him, with the view of securing a provision to
his mother and two unmarried sisters, was a heavier blow than
any he had before experienced; and the mental anguish it
occasioned doubtless accelerated his death, which occurred on the
24th of April, 1731. Since that period more than a century has
elapsed; and in that interval many names of considerable emi-
nence in their day have sunk into irretrievable oblivion; Defoe,
also, has lost some portion of the celebrity he enjoyed with his
contemporaries: yet, after every deduction, enough remains to
entitle him to a place among the Worthies of English literature,
for should all his other productions be forgotten, his Robinson
Crusoe must remain imperishable.




I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a good
family, though not of that country, :.. 1L. 1 ing a foreigner
of Bremen, named Kreutznaer, who I at Hull. He
S 1 -to by merchandise, and leaving off his trade,
i. at York; from whence he had married my
mother, whose relations were named Robinson, a very good
family in that country, and after whom I was so called, that is
to say, Robinson Kreutznaer; but, by the usual corruption of
words in England, we are now called, nay, we call ourselves,
and write our name, Crusoe; and so my companions always
called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colonel
I .-. V.. 1.. .. ..of foot in Flanders, formerly commanded
S .... .. ... Lockhart, and was killed at the battle
near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of my
second brother, I never knew, any more than my father and
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts.
My father, who was very aged, had given me a competent share

of learning, as far as house education and a country free school
generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would be
satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination to
this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands of
my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of my
mother and other friends, that there seemed to be something
fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the life of
misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and excellent
counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He called me
one morning into his chamber, where he was confined by the
gout, and expostulated very warmly with me upon this subject:
he asked me what reasons, more than a mere wandering incli-
nation, I had for leaving his house, and nay native country, where
I might be well introduced, and had a prospect of raising my
fortune, by application and industry, with a life of ease and
pleasure. He told me it was men of desperate fortunes, on one
and, or of superior fortunes, on the other, who went abroad
upon adventures, aspiring to rise by enterprise, and make them-
selves famous in undertakings of a nature out of the common
road; that these things were all either too far above me, or too
far below me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had found, by long
experience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness; not exposed to the miseries and hardships,
the labour and sufferings, of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy of
the upper part of mankind: he told me, I might judge of the
happiness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was the state
of life which all other people envied; that kings have frequently
lamented the miserable consequences of being born to great
things, and wished they had been placed in the middle of two
extremes, between the mean and the great; that the wise man
gave his testimony to this as the just standard of true felicity,
when he prayed to have neither poverty nor riches."
He bade me observe it, and I should always find, that the
calamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part of
mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disasters,
and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher or
lower part of mankind: nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind, as those
were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and extravagancies, on one
hand, or, by hard labour, want of necessaries, and mean and
insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring distempers upon them-
selves by the natural consequences ol' their way of living; that
the middle station of life was calculated for all kind of virtues,
and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and plenty were the
handmaids of a middle fortune; that temperance, moderation,

quietness, health, society, all agreeable diversions, and all desir-
able pleasures were the blessings attending the middle station of
life; that this way men went silently and smoothly through the
world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed with the
labours of the hands or of the head, not sold to the life of slavery
for daily bread, or harassed with perplexed circumstances, which
rob the soul of peace, and the body of rest; not enraged with
the passion of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but, in easy circumstances, sliding gently through the
world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living, without the
bitter; feeling that they are happy, and learning by every day's
experience, to know it more sensibly
After this he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affectionate
manner, not to play the young man, nor to precipitate myself
into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was born in,
seemed to have provided against; that I was under no necessity
of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me, and endea-
vour to enter me fairly into the station of life which he had been
just recommending to me; and that if I was not very easy and
happy in the world, it must be my mere fate, or fault, that must
hinder it; and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against measures which
he knew would be to my hurt: in a word, that as he would do
very kind things for me if I would stay and settle at home as he
directed; so he would not have so much hand in my misfortunes
as to give me any encouragement to go away: and, to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example, to whom he
had used the same earnest persuasions to keep him from going
into the Low Country wars; but could not prevail, his young
desires prompting him to run into the army, where he was killed;
and though, he said, he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this foolish step,
God would not bless me; and I would have leisure, hereafter, to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might be
none to assist in my recovery.
I observed, in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic, though, I suppose, my father did not know it to be so
himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, especially when he spoke of my brother who was
killed; and that, when he spoke of my having leisure to repent,
and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke off the
discourse, and told me his heart was so full, he could say no
more to me.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse; as, indeed, who
could be otherwise? and I resolved not to think of going abroad
any more, but to settle at home, according to my father's desire.
But alas! a few days wore it all off: and, in short, to prevent
any of my father's further importunities, in a few weeks after I

resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did not act
so hastily, neither, as my first heat of resolution prompted; but
I took my mother, at a time when I thought her a little plea-
santer than ordinary, and told her that my thoughts were so
entirely bent upon seeing the world, that I should never settle
to anything with resolution enough to go through with it, and
my father had better give me his consent than force me to go
without it; that I was now eighteen years old, which was too
late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk to an attorney;
that I was sure, if I did, I should never serve out my time, and
I should certainly run away from my master before my time was
out, and go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let
me make but one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and did
not like it, I would go no more; and I would promise by a
double diligence, to recover the time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon any
such a subject; that he knew too well what was my interest to
give his consent to anything so much for my hurt; and that she
wondered how I could think of any such thing, after such a
discourse as I had from my father, and such kind and tender
expressions as she knew my father had used to me; and that,
in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no help for me; but
I might depend I should never have their consent to it: that for
her part, she would not have so much hand in my destruction;
and I should never have it to say, that my mother was willing
when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as I
have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him;
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said to
her with a sigh, That boy might be happy if he would stay at
home; but if he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable
wretch that ever was born: I can give no consent to it.
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose;
though iL the mean time I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively deter-
mined against what they knew my inclinations prompted me to.
But being one day at Hull, whither I went casually, and without
any purpose of making an elopement at that time, and one of
my companions then going to London by sea in his father's ship,
and prompting me to go with them by the common allurement
of seafaring men, viz. that it should cost me nothing for my
passage, I consulted neither father nor mother anymore, nor so
much as sent them word of it; but left them to hear of it as
they might, without asking God's blessing, or my father's,
without any consideration of circumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows.




ON the 1st September, 1651, I went (.. 1 .. 1 1., 1 ......1 i..r
London. Never any young adventure *.... .. 1 I I,
began younger, or continhMd Inhn,, +han mine. The ship had
no sooner got out of the I ,.,.*I ., rI ... the wind began to blow,
and the waves to rise, in :.... i'.. il..i.. .... Ihad
never been at sea before, i .. ... .1.1 ... body,
and terrified in mind: I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by the judg-
ment of Heaven, for wickedly leaving my father's house. All
the good counsels of my parents, my father's tears, and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and my con-
science, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness to
which it has been since, reproached me with the coAtenipt of
advice, and the abandonment of my duty.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor what I saw a few
days after; but, such as ;i -. ...... .lect me then, who
was but a young sailor, .1 .I I. .. .. .. anything of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in
this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if it
would please God to spare my life this voyage, if ever I got my
foot once on dry land, I would go directly home to my father,
and never set it into a ship again while I lived; that I would
take his advice, and never run myself into such miseries as these

any more. Now I saw plainly the goodness of his observations
about the middle station of life; how easy, how comfortable, he
had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to tempests
at sea or troubles on shore; and I resolved that I would, like a
true repenting prodigal, go home to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and indeed some time after; but the next day, as the wind was
abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured to it.
However, I was very grave that day, being also a little sea-sick
still: but towards night the weather cleared up, the wind was
quite over, and a charming fine evening followed; the sun went
down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morning; and having
little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon it, the
sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea that was so
rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm and
pleasant in a little time after.
And now, lest my good resolutions should continue, my com-
panion, who had indeed enticed me away, came to me, and said,
Well, Bob, clapping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it?
I warrant you you were frightened, wa'n't you, last night, when
it blew but a cap-full of wind?-A cap-full, do you call it? said
I; 'twas a terrible storm.-A storm, you fool! replies he, do you
call ...at a storm? Why, it was nothing at all; give us but a
good ship, and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
of wind as that: you are but a fresh-water sailor, Bob; come,
let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget all that. D'ye see
what charming weather 'tis now? To make short this sad part
of my story, we went the way of all sailors; the punch was
made, and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my reflections upon
my past conduct, and all my resolutions for the future. In a
word, as the sea was returned to its smoothness of surface and
settled calmness by the abatement of the storm, so the hurry of
my thoughts being over, my fears and apprehensions of being
swallowed up by the sea forgotten, and the current of my former
desires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises I had
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of reflec-
tion; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I shook them off and roused myself from
them, as it were from a distemper, and, applying myself to drink
and company, soon mastered the return of those fits-for so I
called them; and I had in five or six days got as complete a
victory over conscience as any young sinner, that resolved not to
be troubled with it, could desire. But I was to have another
trial for it still; and Providence, as in such cases generally it
does, resolved to leave me entirely without excuse: for if I would

not take this fora deliverance, the next was to be such a one as
the worst and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy of. The sixth day of our being
at sea we came into Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been
contrary and the weather calm, we had made but little way since
the storm. Here we were obliged to come to an anchor, and
here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz. at south-west,
for seven or eight days, during which time a great many ships
from Newcastle came into the same roads, as the common har-
bour where the ships might wait for a wind for the river Thames.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but we should have tided
up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and, after we
had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However, the roads
being reckoned as good as a harbour, the anchorage good, and
our ground tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent the time in
rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea. But the eighth day,
m the morning, the wind increased, and we had all hands at
work to strike our topmasts, and make everything snug and
close, that the ship might ride as easy as possible. By noon the
sea went very high indeed, and our ship rode forecastle in,
shipped several seas, knd we thought, once or twice, our anchor
had come home; upon which our master ordered out the sheet
anchor; so that we rode with two anchors ahead, and the cables
veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I began
to see terror and amazement in the faces of even the seamen
themselves. The master was vigilant in the business of preserv-
ing the ship; but, as he went in and out of his cabin by me, I
could hear him softly say to himself several times, Lord, be
merciful to us I we shall be all lost; we shall be all undone! and
the like. During these first hurries I was stupid, lying still in
my cabin, which was in the steerage, and cannot describe my
temper. I could ill reassume the first penitence, which I had
so apparently trampled upon, and hardened myself against;
I thought that the bitterness of death had been past, and that
this would be nothing too, like the first: but when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we should be
all lost, I was dreadfully frightened. I got up out of my cabin,
and looked out; but such a dismal sight I never saw; the sea
went mountains high, and broke upon us every three or four
minutes. When I could look about, I could see nothing but
distress around us; two ships, that rid near us, we found had
cut their masts by the board being deeply laden; and our men
cried out that a ship, which rid about a mile ahead of us, was
foundered. Two more ships being driven from their anchors,
were run out of the roads to sea, at all adventures, and that with
not a mast standing. The light ships fared the best, as not so

much labouring in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away, with only their spritsails out,
before the wind. Toward evening, the mate and boatswain
begged the master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-
mast, which he was very loath to do; but the boatswain pro-
testing to him, that if he did not, the'ship would founder, he
consented; and when they had cut away the foremast, the
mainmast stood so loose, and shook the ship so much, they
were obliged to cut it away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all this,
who was but a young sailor, and who had been in such a fright
before at but a little. But if I can express, at this distance, the
thoughts I had about me at that time, I was in tenfold more
horror of mind upon account of my former convictions, and the
having returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these, added to the
terror of the storm, put me into such a condition, that I can by
no words describe it; but the worst was not come yet; the storm
continued with such fury, that the seamen themselves acknow-
ledged they had never known a worse. We had a good ship, but
she was deep laden, and so wallowed in the sea, that the seamen
every now and then cried out she would founder. It was my
advantage, in one respect, that I did not know what they meant
by founder, till I inquired. However, the storm was so violent,
that I saw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswain,
and some others, more sensible than the rest, at their prayers,
and expecting every moment the ship would go to the bottom.
In the middle of the night, and under all the rest of our dis-
tresses, one of the men, that had been down on purpose to see,
cried out, we had sprung a leak; another said there was four
feet water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word my heart, as I thought, died within me, and
I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sat in the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me that I, who
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another: at which I stirred up and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master seeing -
some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm, were
obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come near
us, ordered us to fire a gun, as a signal of distress. I, who knew
nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I thought the
ship had broke, or some dreadful thing had happened. In a
word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As this
was a time when everybody had his own life to think of, no one
minded me, or what was become of me: but another man
stepped up to the pump, and thrusting me aside with his foot,
let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and it was a great while
before I came to myself.

We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could swim
till we might run into a port, so the master continued firing
guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the utmost
hazard the boat came near us, but it was impossible for us to
get on board, or for the boat to lie near the ship's side; till at
last the men rowing very heartily, and venturing their lives to
save ours, our men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy
to it, and then veered it out a great length, which they, after
great labour and hazard, took hold of, and we hauled them close
under our stern, and got all into their boat. It was to no pur-
pose for them or us, after we were in the boat, to think of reach-
ing their own ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to
pull her in towards shore as much as we could: and our master
promised them, that if the boat was staved upon shore, he would
make it good to their master; so partly rowing, and partly
driving, our boat went away to the northward, sloping towards
the shore almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour out of our
ship when we saw her sink; and then I understood, for the first
time, what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I must
acknowledge, I had hardly eyes to look up when the seamen
told me she was sinking; for, from that moment, they rather
put me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in. My
heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly with fright, partly
with horror of mind, and the thoughts of what was yet before
While we were in this condition, the men yet labouring at the
oar to bring the boat near the shore, we could see (when, our
boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shore) a
great many people running along the strand, to assist us when
we should come near; but we made slow way towards the
shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, being past the light-
house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the westward, towards
Cromer, and so the land broke off a little the violence of the
wind. Here we got in, and, though not without much difficulty,
got all safe on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yar-
mouth; where, aV unfortunate men, we were used with great
humanity, as well by the magistrates of the town, who assigned
us good quarters, as by the particular merchants and owners of
ships: and had money given us sufficient to carry us either to
London or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy: and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Saviour's parable, had even killed the fatted
calf for me; for, hearing the ship I went in was cast away in

Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any
assurance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on with an obstinacy that nothing
could resist; and though I had several times loud calls from my
reason, and my more composed judgment, to go home, yet I had
no power to do it.-I know not what to call this, nor will I urge
that it is a secret, overruling decree, that hurries us on to be the
instruments of our own destruction, even though it be before us,
and that we rush upon it with our eyes open. Certainly, nothing
but some such decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which
it was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed me for-
ward against the calm reasoning and persuasions of my most
retired thoughts, and against two such visible instructions as
I had met with in my first attempt.
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master's son, was now less forward than I: the first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was not
till two or three days, for we were separated in the town to
several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared
his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and shaking
his head, he asked me how I did; telling his father who I was,
and how I had come this voyage only for a trial, in order to go
farther abroad. His father, turning to me, with a grave and
concerned tone, Young man, says he, you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and visible
token, that you are not to be a seafaring man.-Why, sir ? said
I; will you go to sea no more?-That is another case, said he;
it is my calling, and therefore my duty; but as you made this
voyage for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you
of what you are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has
all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tar-
shish.-Pray, continues he, what are you, and on what account
did you go to sea? Upon that I told him some of my story;
at the end of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion.
What had I done, said he, that such an unhappy wretch should
come into my ship ? I would not set my foot in the same ship
with thee again for a thousand pounds. This indeed was, as I
said, an excursion of his spirits, which were yet agitated by the
sense of his loss, and was farther than he could have authority
to go.-However, he afterwards talked very gravely to me;
exhorted me to go back to my father, and not tempt Providence
to my ruin; told me, I might see a visible hand of Heaven
against me; and, young man, said he, depend upon it, if you do
not go back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing but
disasters and disappointments, till your father's words are ful-
filled upon you.
We parted soon after, for I made him little answer, and I saw
him no more: which way he went, I know not: as for me

having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London by
land; and there, as well as on the road, had many struggles with
myself wnat course of life I should take, and whether I should
go home or go to sea. As to going home, shame opposed the
best motions that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately
occurred to me how I should be laughed at among the neigh-
bours, and should be ashamed to see, not my father and mother
only, but even everybody else. From whence I have often since
observed, how incongruous and irrational the common temper
of mankind is, especially of youth, to that reason which ought
to guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not ashamed to
sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; not ashamed of the action,
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools; but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make them be esteemed
wise men
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncertain
what measures to take, and what course of life to lead. An
irresistible reluctance continued to going home; and as I stayed
awhile, the remembrance of the distress I had been in wore off;
and as that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside the thoughts
of it, and looked out for a voyage. That evil influence w;ich
carried me first away from my father's house, that hurried mn
into the wild and indigested notion of raising my fortune, and
that impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me, as to make
me deaf to all good advice, and to the entreaties, and even the
commands of my father; I say, the same influence, whatever it
was, presented the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my
view; and I went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Africa;
or, as our sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune, that in all these adventures I did
not ship myself as a sailor; whereby, though I might indeed
have worked a little harder than ordinary, yet, at the same time,
I had learned the duty and office of a foremast-man, and in time
might have qualified myself for a mate or lieutenant, if not a
master: but as it was always my fate to choose for the worse,
so I did here; for having money in my pocket, and good clothes
upon my back, I would always go on board in the habit of a
gentleman; and so I neither had any business in the ship, nor
learned to do any. It was my lot, first of all, to fall into pretty
good company in London; which does nbt always happen to
such loose and misguided young fellows as I then was; the devil,
generally, not omitting to lay some snare for them very early.
But it was not so with me: I first fell acquainted with the
master of a ship, who had been on the coast of Guinea, and who,
having had very good success there, was resolved to go again.
He, taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at all dis-
agreeable at that time, and hearing me say I had a mind to see

the work, told me, that if I would go the voyage with him, I
shouldbe at no expense; I should be his messmate and his com-
panion; and if I could carry anything with me, 1 should have
all the advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement. I embraced the offer, and,
entering into a strict friendship with this captain, who was an
honest and plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me; which, by the disinterested
honesty of my friend the captain, I increased very considerably;
for I carried about forty pounds in such toys and trifles as the
captain directed me to buy. This forty pounds 1 had mustered
I. :. i. i ... .. of some of my relations whom I cor-
i .I ..1, ....i I believe, got my father, or, at least,
my mother, to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was successful in all
my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and honesty of
my friend the captain; under whom also I got a ce.npetent
knowledge of mathematics and the rules of navigation, learned
how to keep an account of the ship's course, take an observa-
tion, and, in short, to understand some things that were needful
to be understood by a sailor; for, as he took delight to instruct
me, I took delight to learn; and, in a word, this voyage made
me both a sailor and a merchant: for I brought home five
pounds nine ounces of gold dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London, at my return, almost three hundred pounds, and
this filled me with those aspiring thoughts which have since so
completed my ruin. Yet even in this voyage I had my mis-
fortunes too; particularly, that I was continually sick, being
thrown into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of tha
climate; our principal trading being upon the coast, from the
latitude of fifteen degrees north, even to the Line itself.




. h ,iI ..... I .. l .
voyage again; and I embarked m the san. .I .... i
was his mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com-
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage that ever
man made; for though I did not carry quite a hundred pounds
of m: Li.* i 1 i hundred pounds left,
and .. i. i ,. i..I... ... who was very just
to mi, .i .. .i ..... this voyage: and the
first was this, viz.-our ship, making her course towards the
Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the African
shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning, by a Turkish
rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she could
make. We crowded also as much canvass as our yards would
spread, or our masts carry, to get clear; but :.-. .. ii : I -'
gained upon us, and would certainly come up .,- I ..: ,
hours, we prepared to fight, our ship having twelve guns and
the rover eighteen. About three in the afternoon he came up
with us; and bringing to, by mistake, just athwart our quarter,
instead of athwart our stern, as he intended, we brought eight
of our guns to bear on that side, and poured in a broadside upon
him, which made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also nis small shot from near two hundred men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man touched,

all our men keeping close He prepared to attack us again, and
we to defend ourselves; but laying us on board the next time
upon our other quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks,
who immediately fell to cutting and hacking the sails and rig-
ging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes, powder-chests,
and such like, and cleared our deck of them twice. However,
to cut short this melancholy part of our story, our ship being
disabled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into Sallee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first I appre-
hended: nor was I carried up the country to the emperor's
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the captain
of the rover as his proper prize, and made his slave, being young
and nimble, and fit for his business. At this surprising change
of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable slave, I
was perfectly overwhelmed; and now looked back upon my
father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be miserable,
and have none to relieve me; which I thought was now so
effectually brought to pass, that it could not be worse; that now
the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone, with-
out redemption. But, alas! this was but a taste of the misery
I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his house,
so I was in hopes he would take me with him when he went to
sea again, believing that it would, some time or other, be his
fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war, and
that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away, for when he went to sea he left me on shore
to look after his little garden, and do the common drudgery of
slaves about his house; and when he came home again from his
cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin, to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it. Nothing presented to make the supposition
of it rational; for I had nobody to communicate it to that would
embark with me; no fellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman, or
Scotchman there but myself; so that for two years, though I
often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had the
least encouraging prospect of putting it in practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making some attempt for my liberty
again in my head. My patron lying at home longer than usual,
without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was for want of
money, he used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's pinnacle, and
go out into the road a fishing; and as he always took me and a
young Moresco with him to row the boat, we made him very

merry, and I proved very dexterous in catching fish, insomuch
that sometimes he would send me with a Moor, one of his kins-
men, and the youth, the Moresco, as they called him, to catch
a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we were not half a
league from the shore, we lost sight of it; and rowing, we knew
not whither, or which way, we laboured all day, and all the
next night, and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea, instead of pulling in for the shore, and that we were
at least two leagues fiom the shore: however, we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labour, and some danger, for
the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but par-
ticularly we were all very hungry.
But our patron, warned by this disaster. resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him the
longboat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a fishing any more without a compass and some
provision; so he ordered the carpenter of the ship, who was an
English slave, to build a little state-room or cabin in the middle
of the longboat, like that of a barge, with a place to stand behind
it, to steer and haul home the main sheet, and room before for
a hand or two to stand and work the sails. She sailed with what
we called a shoulder-of-mutton sail, and the boom jibbed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low, and had in it
room for him to lie, with a slave or two, and a table to eat on,
with some small lockers to put in some bottles of such liquor as he
thought fit to drink, and particularly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a fishing, and as I was
most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went without me.
It happened that he had appointed to go out in this boat, either
for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors of some dis-
tinction in that place, and for whom he had provided extraordi-
narily, and had therefore sent on board the boat, overnight,
a larger store of provisions than ordinary, and had ordered me
to get ready three fusees, with powder and shot, which were on
board his ship, for that they designed some sport of fowling as
well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he directed, and waited the next
morning with the boat washed clean, her ensign and pendants
out, and everything to accommodate his guests: when, by and
by, my patron came on board alone, and told me his guests had
put off going, upon some business that fell out, and ordered me
with a man and boy, as usual, to go out with the boat, and
catch them some fish, for that his friends were to sup at his
house; and commanded, that as soon as I had got some fish, I
should bring it home to his house: all which I prepared to do.
Thin moment my former notions of deliverance darted into my

thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a little ship at my
command; and my master being gone, I prepared to furnish
myself, not for a fishing business, but for a voyage; though I
knew not, neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for any where, to get out of that place, was my way.
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to this
Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for I told
him we must not presume to eat of our patron's bread: he said,
that was true; so he brought a large basket of rusk or biscuit,
of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat. 1
knew where my patron's case of bottles stood, which it was
evident, by the make, were taken out of some English prize, and
I conveyed them into the boat while the Moor was on shore, as
if they had been there before for our master. I conveyed also
a great lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above
half a hundred-weight, with a parcel of twine or thread, a
hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which were of great use to us
afterwards, especially the wax, to make candles. Another trick
I tried upon him, which he innocently came into also: his name
was Ismael, whom they call Muley, or Moley: so I called to
him; Moley, said I, our patron's guns are on board the boat,
can you not get a little powder and shot? it may be we may kill
some alcamies (fowls like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know
he keeps the gunner's stores in the ship.-Yes, says he, I will
bring some; and accordingly he brought a great leather pouch,
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather more,
and another with shot, that had five or six pounds, with some
bullets, and put all into the boat: at the same time I found some
powder of my master's in the great cabin, with which I filled
one of the large bottles in the case, which was almost empty,
pouring what was in it into another; and thus furnished with
every thing needful, we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle,
which is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were, and
took no notice of us; and we were not above a mile out of the
port, before we hauled in our sail, and set us down to fish. The
wind blew from NN. E., which was contrary to my desire; for,
had it blown southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast
of Spain, and at last reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my reso-
lutions were, blow which way it would, I would be gone from
the horrid place where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that
he might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do;
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off.
He, thinking no harm, agreed; and being at the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat near
a league farther, and then brought to, as if I would fish. Then
giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to where the Moor

was, and I took him by surprise, with my arm under his waist,
and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose imme-
diately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to be
taken in, and told me he would go all the world over with me.
He swam so strong after the boat, that he would have reached
me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces, I
presented it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt, and
if he would be quiet, I would do him none: But, said I, you swim
well enough to reach the shore, and the sea is calm; make the
best of your way to shore, and I will do you no harm: but if you
come near the boat, I will shoot you through the head; for I am
resolved to have my liberty. So he turned himself about, and
swam for the shore ; and I make no doubt but he reached it with
ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to trust
him. When he was gone I turned to the boy, whom they called
Xury, and said to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I will
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke your face to
be true to me (that is, swear by Mahomet and his father's beard),
I must throw you into the sea too. The boy smiled in my face,
and spoke so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, I stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to windward,
that they might think me gone towards the Strait's mouth (as
indeed any one that had been in their wits must have been sup-
posed to do); for who would have supposed we were sailing on
to the southward, to the truly Barbarian coast, where whole
nations of negroes were sure to surround us with their canoes,
and destroy us; where we could never once go on shore but we
shouldd be devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind?
But as soon as it grew dusk m tne evening, I changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my course
a little towards the east, that I might keep in with the shore;
and having a fair fresh gale of wind, and a smooth quiet sea, I
made such sail, that I believe by the next day, at three o'clock
in the afternoon, when I made the land, I could not be less than
one hundred and fifty miles south of Salee, quite beyond the
Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other king
thereabout; for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that I
would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor, the wind
continuing fair, till I had sailed in that manner five days; and
then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that if

any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would now
give over: so I ventured to make to the coast, and came to an
anchor in the mouth of a little river; I knew not what or where,
neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or what river.
I neither saw, nor desired to see, any people; the principal thing
I wanted was fresh water. We came into this creek in the
evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it was daRk, and
discover the country : but as soon as it was quite dark, we heard
such dreadful noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
creatures, of we knew not what kinds, that the poor boy was
ready to die with fear, and begged of me not to go on shore till
day. Well, Xury, said I, then I will not; but it may be, we may
see men by day, who will be as bad to us as those lions. Then
we may give them the shoot-gun, says Xury, laughing; make
them run away. Such English Xury spoke by conversing among
us slaves. However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and
I gave him a dram out of our patron's case of bottles to cheer
him up. After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it. We
dropped our little anchor, and lay still all night: I say still, for
we slept none; for in two or three hours we saw vast creatures
(we knew not what to call them), of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves, for the pleasure of cooling themselves, and they
made such hideous howlings and yelling, that I never indeed
heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too; but
we were both more frightened when we heard one of these mighty
creatures swimming towards our boat: we could not see him,
but we might hear him, by his blowing, to be a monstrous, huge
and furious beast. Xury said it was a lion, and it might be so,
for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me to weigh the
anchor and row away. No, says I, Xury; we can slip our cable
with a buoy to it, and go off to sea: they cannOe follow us far.
I had no sooner said so, but I perceived the creature (whatever
it was) within two oars' length, which something surprised me;
however, I immediately stepped to the cabin door, and taking up
my gun, fired at him; upon which he immediately turned about,
and swam to the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hideous
cries and howlings that were raised, as well upon the edge of the
shore as higher within the country, upon the noise or report of
the gun; a thing, I believe, those creatures had never heard
before. This convinced me there was no going on shore for us
in the night upon that coast: and how to venture on shore in the
day, was another question too; for to have fallen into the hands
of any of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the
paws of lions and tigers; at least, we were equally apprehensive
of the danger of it.

Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore somewhere
or other for water, for we had not a pint left in the boat: when
and where to get it was the point. Xury said, if I would let hun
go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there was any
water, and bring some to me. I asked him why he would go;
why I should not go, and he stay in the boat. The boy answered
with so much affection, that he made me love him ever after.
Says he, If wild mans come, they eat me, you go away.-Weil,
Xury, said I, we will both go; and if the wild mans come, we will
kill them; they shall eat neither of us. So I gave Xury a pieceof
rusk bread to eat, and a dram out of our patron's case of bottles,
which I mentioned before; and we hauled in the boat as near the
shore as we thought was proper, and so waded to shore, carrying
nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the coming
of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy, seeing a low
place about a mile up the country, rambled to it; and, by and by,
I saw him come running towards me. I thought he was pursued
by some savage, or frightened by some wild beast, and I therefore
ran forwards to help him; but when I came nearer to him, I saw
something hanging over his shoulders, which was a creature that
he had shot, like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs:
however, we were very glad of it, and it was very good meat:
but the great joy that poor Xury came with, was to tell me he
had found good water, and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take such pains for
water; for a little higher up the creek where we were, we found
the water fresh when the tide was out, which flowed but a little
way up; so we filled our jars, and having a fire, feasted on the
hare we had killed; and prepared to go on our way, having seen
no footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
Islands also, lay not far from the coast. But as I had no instru-
ments to take an observation, to find what latitude we were in,
and did not exactly know, or at least remember, what latitude
they were in, I knew not where to look for them, or when to
stand off to sea towards them, otherwise I might now have easily
found some of these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood
along this coast till I came to the part where the English traded,
I should find some of their vessels upon their usual design of
trade, that would relieve and take us in.
By the best of my calculation, the place where I now was, must
be that country which, lying between the Emperor of Morocco's
dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and uninhabited, except
by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned it, and gone
farther south, for fear of the Moors, and the Moors not thinking
it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness; and, indeed

both forsaking it because of the prodigious numbers of tigers,
hons, leopards, and other furious creatures which harbour there:
so that the Moors use it for their hunting only, where they go
like an army, two or three thousand men at a time: and, indeed,
for near a hundred miles together upon this coast, we saw nothing
but a waste, uninhabited country by day, and heard nothing but
howlings and roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice, in the day-time, I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the top of the mountain Teneriffe, in the Cana-
ries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes of reaching
thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in again by con-
trary winds ; the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so
I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once, in particular, being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land which
was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still, to
go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him than, it
seems, mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me, that we had
best go farther off the shore; for, says he, Look, yonder lies a
dreadful monster on the side of that hillock, fast asleep. I looked
where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it was a
terrible great lion, that lay on the side of the shore, under the
shade of a piece of the hill, that hung, as it were, over him.
Xury, says I, you shall go on shore and kill him. Xury looked
frightened, and said, Me kill! he eat me at one mouth: one
mouthful he meant. However, I said no more to the boy but
bade him be still; and I took our biggest gun, which was almost
musket bore, and loaded it with a good charge of powder, and
with two slugs, and laid it down; then I loaded another gun
with two bullets: and a third, for we had three pieces, I loaded
with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim I could with the
first piece, to have shot him in the head; but he lay so, with his
leg raised a little above his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about
the knee, and broke the bone: he started up, growling at first,
but finding his leg broke, fell down again, and then got up upon
three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I
was a little surprised that I had not hit him on the head; how-
ever, I took up the second piece immediately, and though he
began to move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had
the pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have me
let him go on shore. Well, go, said I; so the boy jumped into
the water, and taking a little gun in one hand, swam to shore
with the other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle 9f the piece to his ear, and shot him in the head again,
which despatched him quite.
This was game, indeed, to us, but it was no food; and I was

very sorry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon a
creature that was good for nothing to us. However, Xury said
he would have some of him; so he comes on board, and asked
me to give him the hatchet: For what, Xuryf said I. Me cut
off his head, said he. However, Xury could not cut off his
head; but he cut off a foot, and brought it with him, and it was
a monstrous great one. I bethought myself, however, that per-
haps the skin of him might, one way or other, be of some value
to us; and I resolved to take off his skin, if I could. So Xury
and I went to work with him: but Xury was much the better
workman at it, for I knew very ill how to do it. Indeed, it took
us both up the whole day; but at last we got off the hide of
him, and spreading it on the top of our cabin, the sun effectually
dried it in two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie
After this stop we made on to the southward continually, for
ten or twelve days, living very sparingly on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no oftener into the
shore than we were obliged to for fresh water. My design in
this, was to make the river Gambia, or Senegal: that is to say,
anywhere about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes to
meet with some European ship; and if I did not, I knew not
what course I had to take, but to seek for the islands or perish
among the Negroes. I knew that all the ships from Europe,
which sailed either to the coast of Guinea, or to Brazil, or to
the East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands: and in a
word I put the whole of my fortune upon this single point, either
that I must meet with some ship, or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer, as
I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited; and in
two or three places, as we sailed by, we saw people stand upon
the shore to look at us: we could also perceive they were quite
black and stark naked. I was once inclined to have gone on
shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor, and said to
me, No go, no go. However, I hauled in nearer the shore, that
I might talk to them; and I found they ran along the shore by
me a good way. I observed they had no weapons m their hands,
except one, who had a long slender stick, which Xury said was
a lance, and that they would throw them a great way with good
aim; so I kept at a distance, but talked to them by signs, as
well as I could, and particularly made signs for something to
eat. They beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they would
fetch me some meat: upon this I lowered the top of my sail,
and lay by, and two of them ran up into the country; and in
less than half an hour came back, and brought with them twr.
pieces of dry flesh and some corn, such as the produce of thar
country; but we neither knew what the one or the other was;
however, we were willing to accept it. But how to come at it

was our next dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to
them, and they were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe
way for us all, for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down,
and went and stood a great way off till we fetched it on board,
and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very instant
to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by the
shore, came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as
we took it) with great fury, from the mountains towaids the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or whether
they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell, any more than
we could tell whether it was usual or strange; but I believe it
was the latter, because, in the first place, those ravenous crea-
tures seldom appear but in the night; and, in the second place
we found the people terribly frightened, especially the women.
The man that had the lance, or dart, did not fly from them, but
the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran directly into
the water, they did not seem to offer to fall upon any of the
Negroes, but plunged themselves into the sea, and swam about,
as if they had come for their diversion; at last, one of them
began to come nearer our boat than I at first expected; but I
lay ready fur him, for I had loaded my gun with all possible
expedition, and bade Xury load both the others. As soon as
he came fairly within my reach, I fired, and shot him directly in
the head: immediately he sunk down into the water, but rose
instantly, and plunged up and down, as if he was struggling for
life, and so indeed he was: he immediately made to the shore;
but between the wound which was his mortal hurt, and the
strangling of the water, he died just before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures, at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore, they
took heart and came to the shore, and began to search for the
creature. I found him by his blood staining the water; and by
the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the
Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it
was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable
degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with admiration, to
think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire, and the
noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to the
mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that distance,
know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes were for eating
the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it
as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that

they might take him, they were very thankful for. Immediately
they fell to work with him; and though they had no knife, yet
with a sharpened piece of wood, they took off his skin as
readily, and much more readily, than we could have done with
a knife. They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made signs for the skin,
which they gave me very freely, and brought me a great deal
more of their provisions, which, though I did not understand,
yet I accepted. I then made signs to them for some water, and
held out one of my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it filled.
They called immediately to some of their friends, and there came
two women, and brought a great vessel made of earth, and
burnt, as I suppose, in the sun; this they set down to me, as
before, and I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and
water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward for
about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore,
till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about
the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this point. At length,
doubling the point, at about two leagues from the land, I saw
plainly land on the other side, to seaward: then I concluded, as
it was most certain indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and
those the islands, called, from thence, Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they were at a great distance, and I could not well
tell what I had best to do; for if I should be taken with a gale
of wind, I might neither reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, Master, master, a ship with a sail I
and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits, thinking it
must needs be some of his master's ships sent to pursue us,
when I knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach. I
jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the
ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a Portuguese ship, and,
as I thought, was bound to the Coast of Guinea, for Negroes.
But, when I observed the course she steered, I was soon con-
vinced they were bound some other way, and did not design to
come any nearer to the shore; upon which, I stretched out to
sea as much as I could, resolving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should not be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before 1
could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded to the
utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me, by the
help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some European
boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some ship that was

lost: so they shortened sail, to let me come up. I was en-
couraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign on board,
I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress, and fired a
gun, both which they saw; for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun. Upon these signals, they
very kindly brought to, and lay by for me; and in about three
hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish,
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a
Scotch sailor who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an 7,.7 1i...... that I had made my
escape out of slavery from I.. I at Sallee: they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all my
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will believe,
that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a miserable,
and almost hopeless, condition as I was in; and I immediately
offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a return for my
deliverance 1.., .. .. -. 1, told me, he would take nothing
from me, ..,, i. .r .1! I I '...ld be delivered safe to me, when
I came to the Brazils. For, says he, I have saved your life on
no other terms than I would be glad toe .- ...i J i
it may, one time or other, be my lot to be .! .. 1 1 .
condition. Besides, said he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so
great a way from your own country, if I should take from you
what you have, you will be starved there, and then I only take
away that life I bhd Ti'-n No, no, Senhor Ingles (Mr. English
man), says he, .II ... you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your pas-
sage home again.


As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle: for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch anything 1 had: then he took everything
into his own possession, and gave me back an exact inventory
of them, that I might have them, even so much as my three
earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw, and
told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and asked me
what I would have for it? I told him, he had been so generous
to me in everything, that I could not offer to make any price of
the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon which, he told me he
would give me a note of hand to pay mn ih"t- pieces of eight
for it at Brazil; and when it came tl .. ... one offered to
give more, he would make it up. IH IT .. .
of 1. ..... .... oy Xury, w i I .
thea I .. to let the captain have him, but I was
"'" ", II i poor boy's liberty, who had assisted me
i .,r,, ,*.. procuring my own. However, when I let him
know my reason, he owned it to be just, ard offered me this
medium, that he would give the soy an obligation to set him
free in ten years, if he turned Christian; upon this, and Xury
saying he was willing to go to him, I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in the
Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about twenty-
two days after. And now I was once more delivered from the
most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to do next
with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never

enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my passage,
gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty for the
lion's skin, which I had in my boat, and caused everything I had
in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and what I was
willing to sell, he bought of me; such as the case of bottles, two
of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-wax,-for I had
made candles of the rest: in a word, I made about two hundred
and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo; and with this stock,
I went on shore in the Brazils.
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good honest man, like himself, who had an ingenio
as they call it (that is, a plantation and a sugar-house). I lived
with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that means, with
the manner of planting and of making sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they got rich suddenly, I re-
solved, if I could get a license to settle there, I would turn
planter among them: endeavouring, in the meantime, to find
out some way to get my money, which I had left in London,
remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind of letter of
naturalization, I purchased as much land that was uncured as
my money would reach, and formed a plan for my plantation
and settlement; such a one as might be suitable to the stock
which I proposed to myself to receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but born of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and in much such
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbour, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably
together. My stock was but low, as well as his; and we rather
planted for food than anything else, for about two years. How-
ever, we began to increase, and our land began to come into
order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco, and made
each of us a large piece of ground ready for planting canes in the
year to come; but we both wanted help; and now I found more
than before, 1 had done wrong in parting with my boy Xury.
But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
great wonder. I had no remedy, but to go on: I had got into
an employment quite remote to my genius, and directly contrary
to the life I delighted in, and for which I forsook my father's
house, and broke through all his good advice: nay, I was com-
ing into the very middle station, or upper degree of low life,
which my father advised me to before; and which, if I resolved
to go on with, I might as well have staid at home, and never
have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done: and I used
often to say to myself, I could have done this as well in England,
among my friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it
among strangers and savages, in a wilderness, and at such a
distance as never to hear from any part of the world that had
the least knowledge of me.

In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbour; no work to be done, but by the labour of
my hands:.and I used to say, I lived just like a man cast away
upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but himself.
But how just has it been! and how should all men reflect, that
when they compare their present conditions with others that are
worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the exchange, and be
convinced of their former felicity by their experience: I say,
how just has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on,
in an island of mere desolation, should be my lot, who had so
often unjustly compared it with the life which I then led, in
which, had I continued, I had, in all probability, been exceeding
prosperous and rich!
I was, in some degree, settled in my measures for carrying on
the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain of the ship
that took me up at sea, went back; for the ship remained there,
in providing his lading, and preparing for his voyage, near three
months; when telling him what little stock I had left behind
me in London, he gave me this friendly and sincere advice:
Senhor Inglez, says he (for so he always called me), if you will
give me letters, and a procuration here in form to me, with
orders to the person who has your money in London, to send
your effects to Lisbon, to such persons as 1 shall direct, and in
such goods as are proper for this country, I will bring you the
produce of them, God willing, at my return: but since human
affairs are all subject to changes and disasters, I would have
you give orders for but one hundred pounds sterling, which, you
say, is half your stock, and let the hazard be'run for the first, so
that if it come safe, you may order the rest the same way; and,
if it miscarry, you may have the other half to have recourse to
for your supply. This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the best course
I could take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentle-
woman with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the
Portuguese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behaviour, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary directions
for my supply; and when this honest captain came to Lisbon,
he found means, by some of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the order only, but a full account of my story to
a merchant at London, who represented it effectually to her:
whereupon she not only delivered the money, but, out of her
own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very handsome
present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in

English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me at
the Brazils: among which, without my direction (for I was too
young in my business to think of them), he had taken care to
have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me. When this
cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I was surprised
with the joy of it; and my good steward, the captain, had laid
out the five pounds, which my friend had sent him as a present
for himself, to purchase and bring me over a servant, under
bond for six years' service, and would not accept of any con-
sideration, except a little tobacco, which I would have him
accept, being of my own produce. Neither was this all: but
my goods being all English manufactures, such as cloths, stuffs,
baize, and things particularly valuable and desirable in the
country, I found means to sell them to a very great advantage;
so that I might say, I had more than four times the value of
my first cargo, and was now infinitely beyond my poor neigh-
bour, I mean in the advancement of my plantation: for the first
thing I did, I bought me a Negro slave, and a European servant
also; I mean another besides that which the captain brought
me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours: and these fifty rolls, being
each of above one hundred pounds weight, were well cured, and
laid by against the return of the fleet from Lisbon: and now,
increasing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full
of projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are,
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station I was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet, retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of: but
other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful agent
of all my own miseries; and, particularly, to increase my fault,
and double the reflections upon myself, which in my future
sorrows I should have leisure to make, all these miscarriages
were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish
inclination, oe wandering about, and pursuing that inclination,
in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself good in a
fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and those measures of
life, which nature and Providence concurred to present me with,
and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the

happy view I had of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of rising
faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus I cast
myself down again into the deepest gulf of human misery that
ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent with life, and
a state of health in the world.
To come then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this part
of my story.-You may suppose, that having now lived almost
four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and prosper
very well upon my plantation, I had not only learned the lan-
guage, but had contracted an acquaintance and friendship among
my fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St. Salva-
dor, which was our port: and that, in my discourses among them,
I had frequently given them an account of my two voyages to the
coast of Guinea, the manner of trading with the Negroes there,
and how easy it was to purchase on the coast for trifles-such as
beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like
-nbt only gold dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but
Negroes, for the service of the Brazils, in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by the
assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes were bought,
and those excessively dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and told
me they had been musing very much upon what I had discoursed
with them of the last night, and they came to make a secret pro-
posal to me: and, after enjoining me to secrecy, they told me
that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to Guinea; that they
had all plantations as well as I, and were straitened for nothing
so much as servants; that as it was a trade that could not be
carried on, because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but one voyage, to
bring the Negroes on shore privately, and divide them among
their own plantations; and, in a word, the question was, whether
I would go their supercargo in the ship, to manage the trading
part upon the coast of Guinea; and they offered me that I should
have an equal share of the Negroes, without providing any part
of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been made
to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of his own
to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be very con-
siderable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do but go on as

I had begun, for three or four years more, and to have sent for
the other hundred pounds from England; and who, in that time
and with that little addition, could scarce have failed of being
worth three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that in-
creasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was the most
preposterous thing that ever man, in such circumstances, could
be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first rambling designs.
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I
told them I would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would dispose of
it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This they all
engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants to do so:
and I made a formal will, disposing of my plantation and effects,
in case of my death; making the captain of the ship that had
saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but obliging him to
dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will; one-half ofthe
produce being to himself, and the other to be shipped to England.
In short, I took all possible caution to preserve my effects, and
to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much prudence to
have looked into my own interest, and have made a judgment of
what I ought to have done and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking, leaving all
the probable views of a thriving circumstance, and gone a voyage
to sea, attended with all its common hazards, to say nothing of
the reasons I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of my
fancy, rather than my reason: and accordingly, the ship, being
fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done as by
agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on board in an
evil hour again, the first of September, 1659, being the same day
eight years that I went from my parents at Hull, in order to act
the rebel to their authority, and the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns and fourteen men, besides the master, his boy,
and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods, except of
such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes, such as
beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little look-
ing-glasses, knives, scissars, hatchets, and the like.
The very same day I went on board we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coaEst, with design to stretch
over for the African coast. When they came about ten or twelve
degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the manner of
their course in those days, we had very good weather, only
excessively hot all the way upon our own coast, till we came to
the height of Cape St. Augustino; from whence, keeping farther
off at sea, we lost sight of land, and steered as if we were bound

ior the isle Fernando de Noronha, holding our course N. E. by N.
and leaving those isles on the east. In this course we passed
the Line in about twelve days' time, and were, by our last
observation, in seven degrees twenty-two minutes northern lati-
tude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took us quite out of
our knowledge: it began from the south-east, came about to the
north-west, and then settled in the north-east; from whence it
blew in such a terrible manner, that for twelve days together we
could do nothing but drive, and, scudding away before it, let it
carry us whithersoever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and, during these twelve days, I need not say that I expected
every day to be swallowed up; nor, indeed, did any in the ship
expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one of
our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy washed
overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abating a little,
the master made an observation as well as he could, and found
that he was in about eleven degrees north latitude, but that he
was twenty-two degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oronoco, commonly called the Great
River; and began to consult with me what course he should
take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and he was
for going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts of
the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was no
inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came within
the circle of the Carribee islands, and therefore resolved to stand
away for Barbadoes; which by keeping off to sea, to avoid the
indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might easily perform, as
we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; whereas we could not
possibly make our voyage to the coast of Africa without some
assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design, we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W. in order to reach some of our English islands, where
I hoped for relief: but our voyage was otherwise determined;
for being in the latitude of twelve degrees eighteen minutes a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same impetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very way
of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved, as to
the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by savages
than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning, cried out, Land! and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, than the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the sea

broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we should all
have perished immediately; and we were immediately driven
into our close quarters, to shelter us from the very foam and
spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one who has not been in the like con-
dition to describe or conceive the consternation of men in such
circumstances: we knew nothing where we were, or upon what
land it was we were driven, whether an island or the main,
whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wind
was still great, though rather less than at first, we could not so
much as hope to have the ship hold many minutes without
breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a kind of miracle, should
immediately turn about. In a word we sat looking upon one
another, and expecting death every moment, and every man
acting accordingly, as preparing for another world; for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this: that which was
our present comfort, and all the comfort we had, was, that, con
trary to our expectation, the ship did not break yet, and that
the master said the wind began to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate, yet
the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking too fast
for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful condition
indeed, and had nothing to do, but to think of saving our lives
as well as we could. We had a boat at our stern just before the
storm, but she was first staved by dashing against the ship's
rudder, and, in the next place, she broke away, and either sunk,
or was driven off to sea; so there was no hope from her: we
had another boat on board, but how to get her off into the sea
was a doubtful thing; however, there was no room to debate,
for we fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute, and
some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung over
the ship's side; and getting all into her, we let her go, and com-
mitted ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy, and
the wild sea: for though the storm was abated considerably, yet
the sea went dreadfully high upon the shore, and might be
well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high, that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done anything with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, though with heavy
hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew that when
the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be dashed in a
thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. However, we com-
mitted our souls to God in the most earnest manner, and the
wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened our destruc-

tion with our own hands, pulling as well as we could towards
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep or
shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally give
us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might happen
into some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where by
great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under the
lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But nothing
of this appeared; and as we made nearer and nearer the shore,
the land looked more frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mountain-like, came rolling
astern of us, and plainly bade us expect the coup de grace. In
a word, it took us with such fury, that it overset the boat at
once; and separating us, as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!" for we were
all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
I could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me, a
vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well as
breath left, that seeing myself nearer the main land than I ex-
pected, I got upon my feet, and endeavoured to make on towards
the land as fast as I could, before another wave should return
and take me up again; but I soon found it was impossible to
avoid it; for I saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill,
and as furious as an enemy which I had no means or strength to
contend with: my business was to hold my breath, and raise
myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swimming, to pre-
serve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the shore, ifpos-
sible; my greatest concern now being, that the wave, as it would
carry me a great way towards the shore when it came on, might
not carry me back again with it when it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once twenty
or thirty feet deep in its own body; and I could feel myself car-
ried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the shore, a very
great way; but I held my breath, and assisted myself to swim
still forward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up, so, to my
immediate relief, I found my head and hands shoot out above
the surface of the water; and though it was not two seconds of
time that I could keep myself so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave
me breath and new courage. I was covered again with water a
good while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding the
water had spent itself, and began to return, I struck forward
against the return of the waves, and felt ground again with my

feet. I stood still a few moments, to recover breath, and till the
water wentfrom me, and then tookto my heels, and ran with what
strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither would this
deliver me from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after
me again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and
carried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for
the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashedme, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force, that
it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance;
for the blow, taking my side and breast, beat the breath, as it
were, quite out of my body; and had it returned again imme-
diately, I must have been strangledin the water: but I recovered
a.little before the return of the waves, and, seeing I should again
be covered with the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of
the rock, and. so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now as the waves were not so high as the first,
being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave abated, and then
fetched another run, which brought me so near the shore, that
the next wave, though it went over me, yet did not so swallow
me up as to carry me away; and the next run I took, I got to
the main land; where, to my great comfort, I clambered up the
cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the grass, free from
danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore; and began to look up
and thank God that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
were, some minutes before, scarcely any room to hope. I be-
lieve it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say,
out of the grave: and I did not wonder now at the custom, viz.,
that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his neck, is
tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a reprieve
brought to him ; I say, I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon
with it, to let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from the
heart, and overwhelm him.
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions, which
I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that were
drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved but my-
self; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any sign
of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two shoes that
were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far off-
and considered, Lord how was it possible I could get on shore ?


After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of my
condition, I began to look around me, to see what kind ofa place
I was in, and what was next to be done; and I soon found my
comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful deliverance:
for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor anything either to
eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see any prospect be-
fore me, but that of pifiulin with hunge. 1. ... 1. hiredd
by wild beasts: and I 1.. I. was particu' .1. i. 1... me
was, that I had no weapon either to hunt i. I I .., mnre
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any other crea-
ture that might desire to kill me for theirs. In a word, I had
.. i. .. 1 .t a knife, a tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco
scI h. *. : i.l .. I .. and this threw me into
such rble '"nnino I ...... I., r i L while, I ran about like
a mac .r ... ... I began, with a heavy heart,
to consider what would be my lot if there were any ravenous
beasts in that country, seeing at night they always come abroad
for their prey.
All the remedy that offered- I *. ... .1 that time, was,
to get up into a thick bushy i 1.1 .. I. thorny-which
S ... and where I resolved to .r .*i ...' s-and con-
S. r. .-.. i what death I should ,i .t I saw no
I '' I walked about a furlong from the shore, to
see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did, to my
great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobacco into my
mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and .
into it, endeavoured to place myself so as that, if I i I
;.i T .;l ir + fall; and having cut me a short stick, like a
-. I .. I -If -e, I took up my lodging; and having
been .. ., I fell fast asleep, and slept as com-
foAtalr .i I I. I n could have done in my condition; and
found myself the most refreshed with it that I think I ever as
on such an occasion.

ci .i -



WHE, I waked it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, ii .r ii. 1. 1ited
off in the night from the sand where she !. i rI II ... of
the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I at
first mentioned, where I had been so bruisedby the wave dashing
me against it. This being within about a mile from the shore
where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright still, I
wished myself on board, that at least I might save some neces-
sary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat; which
lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the land,
about two miles on my right hand. I walked as fhr as I could
upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or inlet,
of water, between me and the boat, which was about half a mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent upon
getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for my
present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
ebbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile of
the ship: and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief; for I
saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been all safe;
that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all comfort and
company, as I now was. This forced tears from my eyes again;
but as their was little relief in that, I resolved, if possible, to get

to the ship: so I pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot
to extremity, and took the water: but when I came to the ship,
my difficulty was still greater to know how to get on board; for
as she lay aground, and high out of the water, there was nothing
within my reach to lay hold of. I swam round her twice, and
the second time I spied a small piece of rope, which I wondered
I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains so low, as
that with great difficulty I got hold of it, and by the help of that
rope got into the forecastle of the ship. Here I found that the
ship was bulged, and had a great deal of water in her hold; but
that she lay so on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, that her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head
low, almost to the water. By this means all her quarter was
free, and all that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure
my first work was to search and to see what was spoiled and
what was free: and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions
were dry and untouched by the water; and, being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room, and filled my pockets
with biscuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had
no time to lose. I also found some rum in the great cabin, of
which I took a large dram, and which I had indeed need enough
of, to spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing
hut a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not to be had,
and this extremity roused my application: we had several spare
yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a spare top-
mast or two in the ship; I resolved to fall to work with these,
and flung as many overboard as I could manage for their weight,
tying every one with a rope, that they might not drive away.
When this was done, I went down the ship's side, and pulling
them to me, I tied four of them fast together at both ends, as
well as I could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them, crossways, I found I could
walk upon it very well, but that it was not able to bear any
great weight, the pieces being too light: so I went to work, and
with the carpenter's saw I cut a spare topmast into three
lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great deal of labour
and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself with necessaries,
encouraged me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what*to load it with, and how to .
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but I was
not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or boards
upon it that I could get, and having considered well what I most
wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which I had broken
open and emptied, and lowered them down upon my raft; these

I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five
pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we lived much upon), and a
little remainder of European corn, which had been laid by for
some fowls which we had brought to sea with us, but the fowls
were killed. There had been some barley and wheat together,
but, to my great disappointment, I found afterwards that the
rats had eaten or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several
cases of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were some
cordial waters; and, in all, about five or six gallons of rack.
These I stowed by themselves, there being no need to put them
into the chests, nor any room for them. While I was doing this,
I found the tide began to flow, though very calm; and I had the
mortification to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,
which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in
them, and my stockings. However, this put me upon rummag-
ing for clothes, of which I found enough, but took no more than
I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my eye
was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore: and it
was after long searching that I found the carpenter's chest,
which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much more
valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at that time.
I got it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without losing
time to look into it, for I knew in general what it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two very good fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these I secured first, with some powder-horns and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there were
three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where our
gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found them,
two of them dry and good, the third had taken water. Those
two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought my-
self pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should get
to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder; and
the least capful of wind would have overset all my navigation.
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore; 3dly, What
little wind there was blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two saws,
an axe, and a hammer; and with this cargo I put to sea. For
a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only that I found
Sit drive a little distant from the place where I had landed before;
by which I perceived that there was some indraft of the water,
and consequently I hoped to find some creek or river there, which
I might make use of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide set

into it; so I guided my raft, as well as I could, to get into the
middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered a
second shipwreck, which, if I had, I think it verily would have
broken my heart; for, knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and, not being aground
at the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had
slipped off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into
the water. I did my utmost, by setting my. back against the
chests, to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off the
raft with all my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture
I was in, but holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in
that manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the
water brought me a little more upon a level; and a little after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off
with the oar I had into the channel, and then driving up higher,
I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river, with land
on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up. I looked
on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for 1 was not
willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in time, to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place myself as
near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty, I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, I could
thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have dipped all my
cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep, that
is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but where one
end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high, and the
other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger my cargo
again. All that I could do was to wait till the tide was at the
highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor, to hold
the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of ground, which
I expected the water would flow over; and so it did As soon
as I found water enough, for my raft drew about a foot of water,
I thrust her upon that flat piece of ground, and there fastened
or moored her, by sticking my two broken oars into the ground,
one on one side, near one end, and one on the other side, near
the other end: and thus I lay till the water ebbed away, and left
my raft and all my cargo safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was 1 yet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether inha-
bited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts, or not.
There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose up very
steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some other hills,
which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took out one of
the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a horn of powder;

and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up to the top of that
hill; where, after I had, with great labour and difficulty, got up
to the top, I saw my fate, to my great affliction, viz. that I was
in an island, environed every way with the sea, no land to be
seen, except some rocks, which lay a great way off, and two small
islands, less than this, which lay about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island I was in was barren, and, as I
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,
of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back,
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree, on the
side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that had
been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no sooner
fired, hut from all the parts of the wood there arose an innu-
merable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a confused
screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual note;
but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the crea-
ture I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its colour and beak
resembling it, but it had no talons or claws more than common.
Its flesh was carrion and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day: what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest: for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for those
fears. However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of hut for that night's lodging. As for food, I yet
saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had seen two
or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
I now began to consider that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things as
might come to land; and I resolved to make another voyage on
board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I resolved to
set all other things apart, till I got everything out of the ship
that I could get. Then I called a council, that is to say, in my
thoughts, whether I should take back the raft; but this appeared
impracticable: so I resolved to go as before, when the tide was
down; and I did so, only that I stripped before I went from my
but; having nothing on but a chequered shirt, a pair of linen
drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second raft;
and having had experience of the first, I neither made this so

unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought away several
things very useful to me; as, first, in the carpenter's stores, I
found two or three bags of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack,
a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all, that most useful
thing called a grindstone. All these I secured together, with
several things belonging to the gunner; particularly, two or
three iron crows, and two barrels of musket bullets, seven mus-
kets, and another fowling-piece, with some small quantity of
powder more; a large bag full of small shot, and a great roll of
sheet lead; but this last was so heavy, I could not hoist it up
to get it over the ship's side. Besides these things, I took all
the men's clothes that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, a
hammock, and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on shore, to my very great
I was under some apprehensions lest, during my absence from
the land, my provisions might be devoured on shore: but when
I came back, I found no sign of any visitor; only there sat a
creature like a wild cat, upon one of the chests, which, when I
came towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood still.
She sat very composed and unconcerned, and looked full in my
face, as if she had a mind to be acquainted with me. I presented
my gun to her, but, as she did not understand it, she was per-
fectly unconcerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though, by the way, I was
not very free of it, for my store was not great; however, I spared
her a bit, I say, and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and
looked (as pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare
no more: so she marched off
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain to
open the barrels of powder, and bring them by parcels, for they
were too heavy, being large casks-I went to work to make me
a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which I cut for that
purpose; and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would'spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled all the empty
chests and casks up in a circle round the tent, to fortify it from
any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end without;
and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying my two
pistols just at my head, and my gun at length by me, I went to
bed for the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I was
very weary and heavy; for the night before I had slept little, and
had laboured very hard all day, as well to fetch all those things
from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that ever was laid
up, I believe, for one man: but I was not satisfied still; for
while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought I ought to

get every thing out of her that I could; so every day, at low
water, I went on board, and brought away something or other:
but particularly the third time I went, I brought away as much
of the rigging as I could, as also all the small ropes and rope-
twine I could get, with a piece of spare canvass, which was to
mend the sails upon occasion, and the barrel of wet gunpowder.
In a word, I brought away all the sails first and last; only that
I was fain to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a.time as
I could; for they were no more useful to be sails, but as mere
canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more was, that, last of all,
after 1 had made five or six such voyages as these, and thought
I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was worth my
meddling with; I say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of
bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box of
sugar, and a barrel of fine flour; this was surprising to me, be-
cause I had given over expecting any more provisions, except
what was spoiled by the water. I soon emptied the hogshead
of that bread, and wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of
the sails, which I cut out; and, in a word, I got all this safe on
shore also.
The next day I made another voyage, and now having plun-
dered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I began
with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces such as
I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore, with all
the iron work I could get; and having cut down the spritsail-
yard, and the mizen-yard, and everything I could, to make a
large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and came
away: but my good luck began now to leave me; for this raft
was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was entered the
little cove, where I had landed the rest of my goods, not being
able to guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me and all my cargo into the water; as for myself, it was
no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to my cargo,
it was a great part of it lost, especially the iron, which I ex-
pected would have been of great use to me: however, when the
tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some
of the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain to dip
for it into the water, a work which fatigued me very much.
After this I went every day on board, and brought away what
I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven
times on board the ship; in which time I had brought away all
that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to bring;
though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, I should
have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece, but preparing,
the twelfth time, to go on board, I found the wind began to rise:
however, at low water, I went on board; and though I thought

', /


I had rummaged the cabin so effectually, as that nothing could
be found, yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one of
which I found two or three razors, and one pair of large scissars,
with some ten or a dozen of good knives and forks; in another
I found about thirty-six pounds in money, some European coin,
some Brazil, some pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money; O drug! I
exclaimed, what art thou good for? Thou art not worth to me,
no, not the taking off the ground; one of those knives is worth
all this heap: I have no manner of use for thee; e'en remain
where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature whose life
is not worth saving. However, upon second thoughts, I took
it away; and wrapping all this in a piece of canvass, I began to
think of making another raft; but while I was preparing this, I
found the sky overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quar-
ter of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It presently
occurred to me, that it was in vain to pretend to make a raft with
the wind off shore; and that it was my business to be gone
before the tide of flood began, or otherwise I might not be able
to reach the ahore at all. Accordingly I let myself down into
the water, and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty enough, partly
with the weight of the things I had about me, and partly the
roughnarC of the water; for the wind rose very hastily, and be-
fore it wat q-iite high water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out, behold no more
ship was to be seen! I was a little surprised, but recovered my-
self with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no time,
nor abated no diligence, to get everything out of her, that could
be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was little left in her that
I was able to bring away, if I had had more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any-
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
"reck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did ;but those
things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing myself
against either savages, if any should appear, or wild beasts, if
any were in the island; and I had many thoughts of the method
how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make, whether I
should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earth;
and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and description
of which, it may not be improper to give an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it: so I

resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me; first, air and fresh water, I just now
mentioned: secondly, shelter from the heat of the sun: thirdly,
security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
fourthly, a view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliverance, of which I was
not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain was
steep as a house-side, so that nothing could come down upon
me from the top. On the side of this rock, there was a hollow
place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door of a cave;
but there was not really any cave, or way into the rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I re-
solved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hundred
yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green be-
fore my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly every
way down into the;low ground by the seaside. It was on the
N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from the heat
every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts,
which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hollow
place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter from
the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its beginning
and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong stakes, driving
them into the ground till they stood very firm like piles, the
biggest end being out of the ground, about five feet and a half,
and sharpened on the top The two rows did not stand above
six inches from one-another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, between
these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other stakes in
the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and a half high,
like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that neither
man nor beast could get into it or over it. This cost me a great
deal of time and labour, especially to cut the piles in the woods,
bring them to the place, and drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a door, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when I was
in, I lifted over after me; and so I was completely fenced in and
fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and consequently slept
secure in the night, which otherwise I could not have done;
though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no need of all this
caution against the enemies that I apprehended danger from.




INTO this fence, or fortress, with infinite labour, I carried all my
riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which vou
have the account above; and I made a large tent, which, to
preserve me from the rains, that in one I I
violent there, I made double, viz. one ... .1....
onelarger tent abo ... .r;, i ..
tarpaulin, which I l .... r
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into-i i ,i r i ..I .. ... --1.. i 1 1.
wouldsl, .1... I 1,11
Made up the entrance, 1.. 1. 1.11 .. I i I 'r I ,,, I
passed and repassed, as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the rock,
and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down out
i.. ...i. ... tent, I laid them up within my fence in the nature
S .... so that it raised the ground within about a foot and
a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me much labour
.and many days, before all these things were brought to perfec-
tion; and therefore I must go back to some other things which
took up some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened,

after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my tent, and
making the cave, that a storm of rain falling from a thick, dark
cloud, a sudden flash of lightning happened, and after that, a
great clap of thunder, as is naturally the effect of it. I was not
so much surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought,
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my
powder! My very heart sunk within me when I thought, that
at one blast, all my powder might be destroyed; on which, not
my defence only, but the providing me food, as I thought, en-
tirely depended. I was nothing near so anxious about my own
danger, though, had the powder taken fire, I should never have
known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the storm
was over, I laid aside all my works, my building and fortifying,
and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate the
powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope
that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at once;
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible to make
one part fire another. I finished this work in about a fortnight;
and I think my powder, which in all was about two hundred
and forty pounds weight, was divided into not less than a hun-
dred parcels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave,
which, in my fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up
and down in holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come
to it, marking very carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill anything fit for food; and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced. The
first time I went out, I presently discovered that there were
goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to me; but
then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz. that they
were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that it was the most
difficult thing in the world to come at them: but I was not dis-
couraged at this, not doubting but I might now and then shoot
one, as it soon happened; for after I had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them; I observed, if they
saw me in the valleys, though they were upon the rocks, they
would run away as in a terrible fright; but if they were feeding
in the valleys, and I was upon the rocks, they took no notice of
me; from whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight was so directed downward, that they did not
readily see objects that were above them: so afterwards, I took
this method-I always climbed the rocks first, to get above
them, and then had frequently a fair mark. The first shot I made
among these creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her, which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily; but

when the old one fell, the kid stood stock still by her, till I came
and took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old
one with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to
my enclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the
kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so I was forced to kill it,
and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a great
while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions (my
bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely neces-
sary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn; and
what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and what
conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of it in its proper
place: but I must first give some little account of myself, and
of my thoughts about living, which, it may well be supposed,
were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by a
violent storm quite out of the course of our intended voyage;
and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to
consider it as a determination of Heaven, that in this desolate
place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life. The
tears would run plentifully down my face when I made these
reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with myself why
Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures, and render
them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned without help, so
entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational to be thank-
ful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day walking
with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very pensive
upon the subject of my present condition, when reason, as it
were, expostulated with me the other way, thus: Well, you are
in a desolate condition it is true; but, pray remember, where
are the rest of you? Did not you come eleven of you into the
boat? Where are the ten? Why were not they saved, and you
lost? Why were you singled out? Is it better to be here or
there? And then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be ccn-
sidered with the good that is in them, and with what worse
attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had not
happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the ship
floated from the place where she first struck, and was driven so
near to the shore, that I had time to get all these things out of
her; what would have been my case, if I had been to have lived
in the condition in which I at first came on shore, without

necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and procure them?
Particularly, said I aloud (though to myself), what should I
have done without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make anything, or to work with, without clothes, bedding,
a tent, or any manner of covering ? and that now I had all these
to a sufficient quantity, and was in a fair way to provide myself
in such a manner as to live without my gun, when my ammu-
nition was spent: so that I had a tolerable view of subsisting,
without any want, as long as [ lived; for I considered, from the
beginning, how I would provide for the accidents that might
happen, and for the time that was to come, not only after my
ammunition should be spent, but even after my health or
S. entertained any notion of my ammunition
being destroyed at one blast, I me .. I .. 1.1
up by lightning; and this made the I. ..
to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now being to enter into a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life, such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this horrid island;
when the sun 1.. :.. i .. its autumnal equinox, was almost
just over my :koned myself, by observation, to be
in the latitude of nine degrees twenty-two minutes north of the






AFTER I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and shc..1 I .. ..
days from the working days: but,- I .. (..
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz., I came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square post I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the rest,
and every first day of the month as long again as that long one:
and thus I kept my calendar, or m weekly, monthly, and yearly
reckoning of time.
r.,i i. .i I .. I 1. .... I.. i a many things which I brought
out I ". ... '.. oyages which, as above men-
tioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but not
at all less useful to me, which I found, some time after, in rum-
maging the chests: as, in particular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenter's
keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical instru-
ments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of navigation; all


of which I huddled together, whether I might want them or no:
also I found three very good Bibles, which came to me in my
cargo from England, and which I had packed up among my
things; some Portuguese books also, and, among them, two or
three popish prayer-books, and several other books, all which I
carefully secured. And I must not forget, that we had in the
ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent-history I may have
occasion to say something, in its place: for I carried both the
cats with me; and as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship
himself, and swam on shore to me the day after I went on shore
with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to me for many
years: I wanted nothing that he could fetch me. nor any com-
pany that he could make up to me, I only wanted to have him
talk to me, but that would not do. As I observed before, I
found pens, ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the
utmost; and I shall show that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact, but after that was gone, I could not; for I
could not make any ink, by any means that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, notwith-
standing all that I had amassed together; and of these, this of
ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to dig or
remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread; as for linen, I soon
learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily: and
it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my little
pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes, which
were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in cutting
and preparing in the woods, and more by far, in bringing home;
so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting and bringing
home one of those posts, and a third day in driving it into the
ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece of wood at
first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron crows;
which, however, though I found it answer, made driving these
posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But what need
I have been concerned at the tediousness of anything I had to
do, seeing I had time enough to do it in? nor had I any other
employment, if that had been over, at least that I could foresee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food; which I did, more
or less, every day
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the cir-
cumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of my
affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that were
to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs), as to
deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind: and as my reason began now to master my despon-
dency, I began to comfort myself as well as I could, and to set
the good against the evil, that I might have something to dis-
tinguish my case from worse; and I stated very impartially, like

debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed against the miseries
I s'lffered, thus:
I am cast upon a horrible, desolate But I am alive; and not drowned, as
island, void of all hope of recovery. all my ship's company were.
I am singled out and separated, as it But I am singled out too from all the
were, from all the world, to be miserable. ship's crew, tobe spared from death; and
He that miraculously saved me from
death, can deliver me from this condition.
I am divided from mankind, a soli- But I am not starved, and perishing in
taire; one banished from human society. a barren place, affording no sustenance.
I have no clothes to cover me. But I am in a hot climate, where, If I
had clothes, I could hardly wear them.
I am without any defence, or means to But I am cast on an island where I see
resist any violence of man or beast. no wild beast to hurt me, as I saw on the
coast of Africa: and what if I had been
shipwrecked there ?
I have no soul to speak to, or relieve But God wonderfully sent the ship in
me. near enough to the shore, that I have got
out so many necessary things, as will
either supply my wants, or enable me to
supply myself, even as long as I live.
Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that there
was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but there
was something negative, or something positive, to be thankful
for in it: and let this stand as a direction, from the experience
of the most miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from, and to
set, in the description of good and evil on the credit side of the
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship; I
say, given over these things, I began to apply myself to accom-
modate my way of living, and to make things as easy to me as
I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the out-
side: and after some time (I think it was a year and a half) I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees, and such things as I could get,
to keep out the rain; which I found, at some times of the year,
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into this
pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me. But I
must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap of goods,
which, as they lay in no order, so they took up all my place; I
had no room to turn myself: so I set myself to enlarge my cave,

and work further into the earth; for it was a loose sandy rock,
which vielded easily to the labour I bestowed on it: and when
I found I was pretty safe as to the beasts of prey, I worked side-
ways, to the right hand, into the rock, and then turning to the
right again, worked quite out, and made me a door to come out in
the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these I was not able to enjoy the few comforts
I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several things
with so much pleasure, without a table: so I went to work.
And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the substance
and original of the mathematics, so by stating and squaring
everything by reason, and by making the most rational judg-
ment of things, every man may be, in time, master of every
mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life; and yet,
in time, by labour, application, and contrivance I found at last,
that I w anted nothing but I could have made, especially if I had
had tools. However, I made abundance of things, even without
tools; and some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and that with
infinite labour. For example, if I wanted a board, I had no
other way but to cut down a tree, set it on an edge before me,
and hew it flat on either side with my axe, till I had brought it
to be as thin as a plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze.
It is true, by this method, I could make but one board of a whole
tree; but this I had no remedy for but patience, any more than
I had for a prodigious deal of time and labour which it took me
up to make a plank or board: but my time or labour was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed above,
in the first place; and this I did out of the short pieces of boards
that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when I wrought
out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of the breadth
of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one side of my
cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron work on; and, in a word,
to separate every thing at large in their places, that I might
easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the wall of the rock,
to hang my guns, and all things that would hang up: so that
had my cave been seen, it looked like a general magazine of all
necessary things; and I had every thing so ready at my hand,
that it was a great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such
order, and especially to find my stock of all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every day's
employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much hurry, and


not only as to labour, but in much discomposure of mind; and
my journal would, too, have been full of many dull things: for
example, I must have said thus-" Sept. 30th. After I had got
to shore, and had escaped drowning, instead of being thankful
to God for my deliverance, having first vomited, with the great
quantity of salt water which was gotten into my stomach, and
iI. I. I ran about the shore, wringing my
1. ... I .,.. ..., I. -ad and face, exclaiming at my misery,
;. ;.. .. .... 1 ... ..-done! till, tired and faint, I was
: I I I... i ... I to repose; but durst not sleep.

...- l iad after I had been on board the ship
and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear getting
up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to sea, in
1. r .:._ 1.' .. r.... I. .. at a vast distance, I
S I, .. ,. 1r. I. ofit, and, afterlook-
.'i ,... r ii... i it quite, and sit down
.. l I i.i i..i i ....1 ... ... ..7 misery by m y folly.
But, having gotten over th( .: ii... in some measure, and
having settled my household -.uI ... habitation, made me a
table and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, I
began to keep my journal: of which I shall here give you the
cop, ,, ..i... ;I, ;ii ie told all these particulars over again)
as .. r 1..r J .. having no more ink, I was forced to
lea .'





SEPTEMBER 30th, 1659. I, poor miserable Robinson Crusoe,
being shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in I II,.. ame
on shore on this dismal unfortunate island, wh '. I .1I I the
ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's company being
drowned, and myself almost dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflictin. ,... .-f .' 'i
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I 1. i .. .i i
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to: and, in despair of
any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I should either
be devoured by wild beasts, murd 1 1 r starved to
death for want of food. At the i **' ** .I' I slept in a
tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly, though it
rained all night.
OCTOBER 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort
on i ..i .- .... ,-. ~.- ...l. i i.. 1 ..... pieces,
I h j 1 i .-~. r i I i Ii, I et som e
food and necessaries out of I. r ... I. -I- ..' so, on the other
hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my comrades, who, I
imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have saved the
ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all drowned,
as they were: and that, had the men been saved, we might per-
haps have built us a boat, out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent great part

of this day in perplexing myself on these things; but. at length,
seeing the ship almost dry, I went upon the sand as near as I
could, and then swam on board. This day also it continued
raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the ship;
which I brought on shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much
rain also in these days, though with some intervals of fair
weather: but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
OCT. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the things being chiefly heavy
I recovered many of them when the tide was out.
OcT. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts o0
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder than before) and was no more to be seen,
except the wreck of her, and that only at low water. I spent
this day in covering and securing the goods which I had saved,
that the rain might not spoil them.
OcT. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find out
a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure myself
from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or men.
Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a rock, and
marked out a semicircle for my encampment; which 1 resolved
to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification, made of double
piles lined within with cables, and without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th, I worked very hard in carrying all
my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the time
it rained exceedingly hard.
The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with my
gun, to see for some food, and discover the country; when I
killed a she-goat, and her kid followed me home, which I after-
wards killed also, because it would not feed.
NOVEMBER 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces of
timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place I had marked out for my
Nov. 3. I went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I went to
work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work, of
going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diversion:
viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two o' three
hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself to work till about
eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live on; and from twelve
to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being excessive hot; and

then, in the evening, to work again. The working part of this
day and the next was wholly employed in making my table, for
I was yet but a very sorry workman: though time and neces-
sity made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as I
believe they would any one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins, and
preserved them. Coming back by the seashore, I saw many
sorts of seafowl which I -did not understand: but was surprised,
and almost frightened, with two or three seals; which while I
was gazing at them (not well knowing what they were) got into
the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking: nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the llth was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), I took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even in the making, I pulled it in pieces
several times.
NOTE. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for, omitting
my mark for them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained; which refreshed me exceedingly,
and cooled the earth: but it was accompanied with terrible
thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully, for fear
of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to separate
my stock of powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes, which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder: and so, putting the powder in,
I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one another
as possible. On one of these three days I killed a large bird that
was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
NOTE. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work, viz.
a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow. or basket; so I desisted
from my work, and began to consider how to supply these wants,
and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though heavy: but the
next thing was a shovel or spade; this was so absolutely neces-
sary, that, indeed, I could do nothing effectually without it; but
what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call the

iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great labour,
and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece; and brought it home,
too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy. The
excessive hardness of the wood, and my having no other way,
made me a long while upon this machine: for I worked it effec-
tually, by little and little, into the form of a shovel or spade;
the handle exactly shaped like ours in England, only that the
broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long: however, it served well enough for the uses
which I had occasion to put it to; but never was a shovel, I
believe, made after that fashion, or so long in making.
I was still deficient; for I wanted a basket, or a wheelbarrow.
A basket I could not make by any means, having no such things
as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware; at least, none
yet found out: and as to the wheelbarrow, I fancied I could
make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of; neither did
I know how to go about it: besides, I had no possible way to
make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of the wheel to run
in; so I gave it over: and, for carrying away the earth which
I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like a hod, which the
labourers carry mortar in for the bricklayers. This was not so
difficult to me as the making the shovel: and yet this and the
shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain to make a wheel-
barrow, took me up no less than four days; I mean, always
excepting my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing home something
fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on; and
working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I spent
eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my cave, that
it might hold my goods commodiously.
NOTE. During all this time, I worked to make this room or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse, or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a lodg-
ing, I kept to the tent: except that sometimes, in the wet season
of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry;
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place within my
pale with long poles, and in the form of rafters, leaning against
the rock, and load them with flags and large leaves of trees, like
a thatch.
DECEMBER 10. I began now to think my cave or vault
finished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large)
a great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side;
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without reason
too; for if I had been under it, I should never have wanted a
grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of work to
do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out; and, which

was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that 1
might be sure no more would come down.
DEc. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly; and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each post: this I finished the next
day; and setting more posts up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the posts, standing in rows,
served me for partitions to part off my house.
DEC. 17. From this day to the 30th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the posts, to hang everything up that could
be hung up: and now I began to be in some order within doors.
DEC. 20. I carried everything into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser, to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be very
scarce with me: also I made me another table.
DEC. 24. Much rain all night and all day: no stirring out.
DEC. 25. Rain all day.
DEC. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
DEC. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that
I catched it, and led it home in a string: when I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever: but, by nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food when
my powder and shot was all spent.
DEC. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that there
was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food; this
time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
JANUARY 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and late
with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This even-
ing, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the centre
of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though exceed-
ing shy, and hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accordingly, the
next day, I went out with my dog, and set him upon the goats:
but I was mistaken, for they all faced about upon the dog: and
he knew his danger too well, for he would not come near them.
JAN. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being still jealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal; it is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the 3rd of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall; though it
was no more than about twenty-five yards in length, being a

half circle, from one place in the rock to another place, about
twelve yards from it, the door of the cave being in the centre,
behind it
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure till this wall was finished; and
it is scarce credible what inexpressible labour everything was
done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods, and
driving them into the ground; for I made them much bigger
than I needed to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double fenced,
with a turf wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that if
any people were to come on shore there they would not perceive
anything like a habitation: and it was very well I did so, as
may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for game
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequent dis-
coveries, in these walks, of something or other to my advantage;
particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who build, not as
wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in the
holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I endeavoured
to breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew older,
they flew all away; which, perhaps, was, at first, for want of
feeding them, for I had nothing to give them; however, I fre-
quently found their nests, and got their young ones, which were
very good meat. And now, in the managing my household
affairs, I found myself wanting in many things, which I thought
at first it was impossible for me to make; as indeed, as to some
of them, it was: for instance, I could never make a cask to be
hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I observed before; but
I could never arrive at the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it: I could neither put in the
heads, nor join the staves so true to one another as to make
them hold water; so I gave that also over. In the next place,
I was at a great loss for candle; so that as soon as it was dark,
which was generally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to
bed. I remember the lump of bees-wax with which I made
candles in my African adventure; but I had none of that now:
the only remedy I had was, that when I had killed a goat, I
saved the tallow; and with a little dish made of clay, which
I baked in the sun, to which I added a wick of some oakum,
I made me a lamp; and this gave me light, though not a clear
steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my labours it
happened, that in rummaging my things, I found a little bag;
which, as I hinted before, had been filled with corn, for the
feeding of poultry; not for this voyage, but before, as I sup-
pose, when the ship came from Lisbon. What little remainder
of corn had been in the bag was all devoured by the rats, and

I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust: and being willing
to have the bag for some other use (I think it was to put pow-
der in, when I divided it for fear of the lightning, or some such
use), I shook the husks of corn out of it, on one side of my
fortification, under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of anything, and not
so much as remembering that I had thrown anything there:
when, about a month after, I saw some few stalks of something
green, shooting out of the ground, which I fancied might be
some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and perfectly
astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw about ten or
twelve ears come out, which were perfect green barley, of the
same kind as our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion of
my thoughts on this occasion. I had hitherto acted upon no
religious foundation at all: indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any things
that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as we lightly
say, what pleases God; without so much as inquiring into the
end of Providence in these things, or his order in governing
events in the world. But after I saw barley grow there, in a
climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and especially
as I knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely; and
I began to suggest, that God had miraculously caused this grain
to grow without any help of seed sown, and that it was so
directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of nature
should happen upon my account: and this was the more strange
to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side of the
rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be stalks of
rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow in Africa,
when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but I could not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-meat in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what
was common; though I ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been miracu-
lous: for it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as

if it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade of a
high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had thrown
it anywhere else, at that time, it would have been burned up
and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread. But
it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself the least
grain of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I shall
show afterwards in its order; for I lost all that I sowed the first
season, by not observing the proper time; as I sowed just
before the dry season, so that it never came up at all, at least
not as it would have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and whose
use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz., to make
me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it up without
baking, though I did that also after some time.-But to return
to my Journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriving
to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder, that
there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
APRIL 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the ladder
to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it down in the
inside: this was a complete enclosure to me; for within I had
room enough, and nothing could come at me from without,
unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I had almost
all my labour overthrown at once, and myself killed; the case
was thus :-As I was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly frightened with
a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, all on a sudden, I
found the earth come crumbling down from the roof of my cave,
and from the edge of the hill over my head, and two of the posts
I had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful manner. I was
heartily scared; but thought nothing of what really was the
cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was falling in, as
some of it had done before: and for fear I should be buried in
it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking myself safe there
neither, I got over my wall for fear of the pieces of the hill which
I expected might roll down upon me. I had no sooner stepped
down upon the firm ground, than I plainly saw it was a terrible
earthquake: for the ground I stood on shook three times at
about eight minutes' distance, with three such shocks as would
have overturned the strongest building that could be supposed

to have stood on the earth; and a great piece of the top of a
rock, which stood about half a mile from me, next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in all my life.
I perceived also that the very sea was put into a violent motion
by it; and I believe the shocks were stronger under the water
than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never felt
the like, nor discoursed with any one that had) that I was like
one dead or stupified; and the motion of the earth made my
stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise of
the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and rousing me
from the stupified condition I was in, filled me with horror, and
I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and my
household goods, and burying all at once; this sunk my very
soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to go
over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive; but sat still
upon the ground greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not know-
ing what to do. All this while I had not the least serious reli-
gious thought; nothing but the common Lord, have mercy upon
me and when it was over that went away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow cloudy, as
if it would rain; and soon after the wind rose by little and little,
so that in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful hurri-
cane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam and froth;
the shore was covered with a breach of the water; the trees were
torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it was. This held
about three hours, and then began to abate; and in two hours
more it was quite calm, and began to rain very hard. All this
while I sat upon the ground, very much terrified and dejected;
when, on a sudden, it came into my thoughts that these winds
and rain being the consequence of the earthquake, the earthquake
itself was spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again. With this thought my spirits began to revive; and the
rain also helping to persuade me, I went in, and sat down in my
tent; but the rain was so violent, that my tent was ready to be
beaten down with it; and I was forced to get into my cave,
though very much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on
my head. This violent rain forced me to a new work, viz., to cut
a hole through my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water
go out, which would else have drowned my cave. After I had
been in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now, to
support my spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went to
my little store, and took a small cup of rum; which, however,
I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I could have no
more when that was gone. It continued raining all that night

and great part of the next day, so that I could not stir abroad:
but my mind being more composed, I began to think of what I
had best do; concluding, that if the island was subject to these
earthquakes, there would be no living for me in a cave, but I
must consider of building me some little hut in an open place,
which I might surround with a wall, as I had done here, and so
make myself secure from wild beasts or men: forif I staid where
I was, I should certainly, one time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it now stood, being just under the hanging precipice
of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would cer-
tainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next days, being the
19th and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to remove
my habitation. The fear of being swallowed alive affected me
so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the apprehension of lying
abroad, without any fence, was almost equal to it: but still, when
I looked about, and saw how every thing was put in order, how
pleasantly I was concealed, and how safe from danger, it made
me very loath to remove. In the mean time, it occurred to me
that it would require a vast deal of time for me to do this; and
that I must be contented to run the risk where I was, till I had
formed a convenient camp, and secured it so as to remove to it.
With this conclusion I composed myself for a time; and resolved
that I would go to work with all speed to build me a wall with
piles and cables, &c., in a circle as before, and set up my tent in
it when it was finished; but that I would venture to stay where
I was till it was ready, and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
APRIL 22. The next morning I began to consider of means to
put this measure into execution; but I was at a great loss about
the tools. I had three large axes, and abundance of hatchets
(for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the Indians); but
with much chopping and cutting knotty hard wood, they were
all full of notches, and dull: and though I had a grindstone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools too. This caused me as
much thought as a statesman would have bestowed upon a grand
point of politics, or a judge upon the life and death of a man. At
length I contrived a wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot,
that I might have both my hands at liberty.
NorE. I had never seen any such thing n England, or at least
not to take notice how it was done, though since I have observed
it is very common there: besides that, my grindstone was very
large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's work to bring
it to perfection.
APRIL 28,29. These two whole days I took up in grinding my
tools, mymachine forturning mygrindstone performingverywell.
APRIL 30. Having perceived that my bread had been low a
great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself to one
biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.




MAY 1. In the morning, looking towards the seaside, the tide
,I.,, I.. i...,.;. ...ii.. I i. ;.,
,,-, ,, I i .1 I hi,. ,,,. I
barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which
were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking towards
the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie higher out of the water
than it used to do. I examined the barrel that was driven on
shore, and soon found it was a barrel of gunpowder; but it had
taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone: how-
ever, I rolled it farther on the shore for the present, and went on
upon the sands, as near as I could to the wreck of the ship, to
look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely removed.
The forecastle, which lay before buried in the sand, was heaved
up at least six feet: and the stern (which was broke to pieces,
and parted from the rest, bythe force of the sea, soon after I had
left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on
one side: and the sand was thrown so high on that side next her
stern, that I could now walk quite up to her when the tide was
out; whereas there was a great piece of water before, so that I
could not come within a quarter of a.mile of the wreck without
swimming. I was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded
it must be done by the earthquake; and as by this violence the
ship was more broken open than formerly, so many things came
daily on shore, which the sea had loosened, and which the winds
and water rolled by degrees to the land.

This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of removing
my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day especially,
in searching whether I could make any way into the ship: but
I found nothing was to be expected of that kind, for all the inside
of the ship was choked up with sand. However, as I had learned
not to despair of anything, I resolved to pull every thing to pieces
that I could of the ship, concluding that every thing I could get
from her would be of some use or other to me.
MAY 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quar-
ter-deck together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay highest;
but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
MAY 4. I went a fishing, but caught not one fish that I durst
eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to leave
off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long line of
some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks; yet I frequently caught
fish enough, as much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the
sun, and ate them dry.
MAY 5. Worked on the wreck:. cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir planks off from the decks, which I
tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
MAY 6. Worked on the wreck: got several iron bolts out of
her, and other pieces of iron work: worked very hard, and came
home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving it over.
MAY 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to
work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself down,
the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship seemed to
lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so open that I could
see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
MAY 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to
wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water and
sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on shore
also with the tide. I left the iron crow in the wreck for next
MAY 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow, but could not break them up. I felt also a
roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too heavy to
MAY 10 to 14. Went every day to the wreck, and got a great
many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two or three
hundred weight of iron.
MAY 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if I could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet, and
driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a half
in the water, I could not make any blow to drive the hatchet

MAY 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck
appeared more broken by the force of the water; but I stayed
so long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
MAY 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what they
were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy for
me to bring away.
MAY 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck; and
with hard labour I loosened some things so much, with the crow,
that the first blowing tide several casks floated out, and two of
the seamen's chests: but the wind blowing from the shore,
nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a hogs-
head, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the salt water and
the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work every day to the
15th of June, except the time necessary to get food; which I
always appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it was ebbed
out: and by this time I had gotten timber, and plank, and iron
work, enough to have built a good boat, if I had known how:
and I also got, at several times, and in several pieces, near one
hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
JUNE 16. Going down to the seaside, I found a large tortoise,
or turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it seems, was
only my misfortune, not any defect of the place, or scarcity; for
had I happened to be on the other side of the island, I might
have had hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
JUNE 17. I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her three-
score eggs: and her flesh was to me, at that time, the most
savoury and pleasant that I ever tasted in my life: having had
no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this horrid place.
JUNE 18. Rained all that day, and I stayed within. I thought,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and I was somewhat chilly; which
I knew was not usual in that latitude.
JUNE 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had been
JUNE 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
JUNE 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the ap-
prehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help: prayed
to God, for the first time since the storm off Hull; but scarce
knew what I said, or why, my thoughts being all confused.
JUNE 22. A little better: but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
JUNE 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
JUNE 24. Much better.

JuNE 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
JuNE 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak: however, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it, and
ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth, but
had no pot.
JUNE 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst;
but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-headed:
and when I was not, I was so ignorant that I knew not what to
say: only lay and cried, Lord, look upon me! Lord, pity me!
Lord, have mercy upon me! I suppose 1 did nothing else for two
or three hours; till the fit wearing off, I fell asleep, and did not
wake till far in the night. When I awoke, I found myself much
refreshed, but weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I had
no water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till morning,
and went to sleep again. In this second sleep 1 had this terrible
dream: I thought that I was sittingon the ground, on the outside
of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all over
as bright as a flame, so that I could but just bear to look towards
him: his countenance was most inexpressibly dreadful, impos-
sible for words to describe: when he stepped upon the ground
with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as it had done
before in the earthquake; and all the air looked, to my appre-
hension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire. He had no
sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved forward towards
me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand, to kill me; and
when he came to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to
me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is impossible to express
the terror of it; all that I can say I understood, was this:
Seeing all these things have not brought thee to repentance,
now thou shalt die; at which words, I thought he lifted up the
spear that was in his hand, to kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean, that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by the
good instruction of my father was then worn out, by an uninter-
rupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness, and a
constant conversation with none but such as were, like myself
wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not remember that

I had, in all that time, one thought that so much as tended either
to looking upward towards God, or inward towards a reflection
upon my own ways; but a certain stupidity of soul, without
desire of good, or consciousness of evil, had entirely over-
whelmed me; and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors, can be supposed to
be; not having the least sense, either of the fear of God, in
danger, or of thankfulness to him, in deliverances.
In the relating what is already part of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never had
so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or that it
was a just punishment for my sin; either my rebellious behaviour
against my father, or my present sins, which were great; or even
as a punishment for the general course of my wicked life. When
I was on the desperate expedition on the desert shores of Africa,
I never had so much as one thought of what would become of
me; or one wish to God to direct me whither I should go, or to
keep me from the danger which apparently surrounded me, as
well from voracious creatures as cruel savages: but I was quite
thoughtless of a God or a Providence; acted like a mere brute,
from the principles of nature, and by the dictates of common
sense only; and indeed hardly that. When I was delivered and
taken up at sea by the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt
with justly and honourably, as well as charitably, I had not the
least thankfulness in my thoughts. When, again, I was ship-
wrecked, ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I
was as far from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I only
said to myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to
be always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, I was surprised with a
kind of ecstacy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankfulness:
but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight of joy;
or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand which
had preserved me, and had singled me out to be preserved
when all the rest were destroyed, or any inquiry why Provi-
dence had been thus merciful to me: just the same common
sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are got
safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in the next
bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over: and all
the rest of my life was like it. Even when I was, afterwards, on
due consideration, made sensible of my condition,-how I was
cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out
of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption,-as soon as I
saw but a prospect of living, and that I should not starve and

perish for hunger, all the sense of my affliction wore off, and I
began to be very easy, applied myself to the works proper for
my preservation and supply, and was far enough from being
afflicted at my condition, as a judgment from Heaven, or as the
hand of God against me: these were thoughts which very seldom
entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted in my Journal, had,
at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something nlira-
culous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was re-
moved, all the impression which was raised from it wore off also,
as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though nothing
could be more terrible in its nature, or more immediately direct-
ing to the invisible Power which alone directs such things, yet
no sooner was the fright over, but the impression it had made
went off also. I had no more sense of God, or his judgments,
much less of the present affliction of my circumstances being
from his hand, than if I had been in the most prosperous con-
dition of life. But now, when I began to be sick, and a leisure
view of the miseries of death came to place itself before me;
when my spirits began to sink under the burden of a strong
distemper, and nature was exhausted with the violence of the
fever; conscience, that had slept so long, began to awake; and
I reproached myself with my past life, in which I had so evi-
dently, by uncommon wickedness, provoked the justice of God
to lay me under uncommon strokes, and to deal with me in so
vindictive a manner. These reflections oppressed me for the
second or third day of my distemper; and, in the violence as
well of the fever as of the dreadful reproaches of my conscience,
extorted from me some words like praying to God: though I
cannot say it was a prayer attended either with desires or with
hopes; it was rather the voice of mere fight and distress. My
thoughts were confused; the convictions great upon my mind;
and the horror of dying in such a miserable condition, raised
vapours in my head with the mere apprehension: and, in these
hurries of my soul, I knew not what my tongue might express;
but it was rather exclamation, such as, Lord, what a miserable
creature am I! If I should be sick, I shall certainly die for want
of help; and what will become of me? Then the tears burst out
of my eyes, and I could say no more for a good while. In this
interval, the good advice of my father came to my mind, and
presently his prediction, which I mentioned at the beginning of
this story, viz., that if I did take this foolish step, God would
not bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to assist
in my recovery. Now, said I, aloud, my dear father's words are
come to pass: God's justice has overtaken me, and I have none
to help or hear me. I rejected the voice of Providence, which

had mercifully put me in a station of life herein I might have
been happy and easy; but I would neither see it myself, nor
learn from my parents to know the blessing of it. I left them
to mourn over my folly; and now I am left to mourn under the
consequences of it: I refused their help and assistance, who
would have pushed me in the world, and would have made
everything easy to me; and now I have difficulties to struggle
with, too great for even nature itself to support; and no assist-
ance, no comfort, no advice. Then I cried out, Lord, be my
help, for I am i .. 1. *, This was the first prayer, if I
may call it so, -.. 1 I., I .. I for many years. But I return
to my Journal.




JUNE 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep I had
had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though the
fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I considered
that the fit of the ague would return again the next day, and
now was my time to get something to refresh and support my-
self when I should be ill. The first thing I did was to fill a large
square case-bottle with water, and set it upon my table, in reach
of my bed: and to take off the chill or aguish disposition of the
water, I put about a quarter of a pint of rum into it, and mixed
them together. Then I got me a piece of the goat's flesh, and
broiled it on the coals, but could eat very little. I walked about;
but was very weak, and withal very sad and heavy-hearted in
the sense of my miserable condition, dreading the return of my
distemper the next day. At night, I made my supper of three
of the turtle's eggs, which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we
call it, in the shell: and this was the first bit of meat I had ever
asked God's blessing to, as I could remember, in my whole life.
After I had eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak,
that I could hardly carry the gun (for I never went out without
that); so I went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground,
looking out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very
calm and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these

occurred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have
seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I, and
all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?
Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by some secret power,
who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And who is
that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God that has made
all. Well, but then, it came on, if God has made all these things,
he guides and governs them all, and all things that concern
them; for the power that could make all things, must certainly
have power to guide and direct them: if so, nothing can happen
in the great circuit of his works, either without his knowledge
or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows
that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition: and if nothing
happens without his appointment, he has appointed all this to
befal me. Nothing occurred to my thought, to contradict any
of these conclusions; and therefore it rested upon me with the
greatest force, that it must needs be that God had appointed all
this to befal me; that I was brought to this miserable circum-
stance by his direction, he having the sole power, not of me only,
but of everything that happens in the world. Immediately it
followed, Why has God done this to me? What have I done to be
thus used ? My conscience presently checked me in that inquiry,
as if I had blasphemed: and methought it spoke to me like a
voice! Wretch, dost thou ask what thou hast done? Look back
upon a dreadful mispent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not
done? Ask, why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed?
Why wert thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the
fight when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; de-
voured by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned
here, when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask
what thou hast done? I was struck dumb with these reflections,
as one astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to answer
to myself; and, rising up pensive and sad, walked back to my
retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going to bed:
but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and I had no inclination
to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my lamp, for it
began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of the return of
my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred to my thought,
that the Brazilians take no physic but their tobacco for almost
all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll of tobacco in one of
the chests, which was quite cured; and some also that was green,
and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt: for in this chest I found
a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and found
what I looked for, viz., the tobacco; and as the few books I had
saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles which I men-
tioned before, and which, to this time, I had not found leisure or so

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