The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner


Material Information

The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, mariner including an account of his travels round three parts of the globe
Uniform Title:
Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description:
432 p. : ill. ; 20 cm.
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Bradley, Dayton & Co ( Publisher )
Bradley, Dayton & Co.
Place of Publication:
Boston (20 Washington Street)
Publication Date:


Subjects / Keywords:
Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1859   ( rbgenr )
Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
United States -- Massachusetts -- Boston


Statement of Responsibility:
written by himself.
General Note:
Spine title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note:
Complete in one volume, with illustrations from original designs.
General Note:
Date in form: M. DCCC. LIX.
General Note:
Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
oclc - 27943251
System ID:

Full Text















I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of York, of a gooa
family, though not of that country, my father being a foreign-
er of Bremen, who settled first at Hull: he got a good estate
by merchandise, and leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at
York; from whence he had married my mother, whose rela-
tions were named Robinson, a very good family in that coun-
try, and from whom I was called Robinson Kreutznaer; but,
by the usual corruption of words in England, we are now
called, nay we call ourselves, and write our name, Crusoe; and
so my companions always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of whom was lieutenant-colo-
nel to an English regiment of foot in Flanders, formerly com-
manded by the famous Colonel Lockhart, and was killed at the
battle near Dunkirk against the Spaniards. What became of
my second brother I never knew, any tore than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to any trade,
my head began to be filled very early with rambling thoughts:


my father, who was very ancient, had given me a competent
share of learning, as far as house-education and a country free-
school generally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my inclination
to this led me so strongly against the will, nay, the commands
of my father, and against all the entreaties and persuasions of
my mother and other friends, that there seemed to be some-
thing fatal in that propension of nature, tending directly to the
life of misery which was to befall me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious and ex-
cellent counsel against what he foresaw was my design. He
called me one morning into his chamber, where he was con-
fined by the gout, and expostulated very warmly with me
upon this subject: he asked me what reasons, more than a
mere wandering inclination, I had for leaving my father's
house and my native country, where I might be well intro-
duced, and had a prospect of raising my fortune by applica-
tion and industry, with a life of ease and pleasure. He told
me it was for men of desperate fortunes on one hand, or of as-
piring, superior fortunes on the other, who went abroad upon
adventures, to rise by enterprise, and make themselves famous
in undertakings of a nature out of the common road; that these
things were all either too far above me, or too far below me;
that mine was the middle state, or what might be called the
upper station of low life, which he had found, by long expe-
rience, was the best state in the world, the most suited to
human happiness, not exposed to the miseries and hardships
the labor and sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and
not embarrassed with the pride, luxury, ambition, and envy,
of the upper part of mankind. He told me 1 might judge of
the happiness of this state by one thing, viz. that this was the
state of life which all other people envied; that kings have
frequently lamented the miserable consequences of being born
to great things, and wish they had been placed in the middle
of the two extremes, between the mean and the great; that the
wise man gave his testimony to this, as the just standard of
true felicity, when he prayed to have neither poverty nor
He bid me observe it, and I should always find, that the ca-
lamities of life were shared among the upper and lower part
!ti mankind; but that the middle station had the fewest disas-
ters, and was not exposed to so many vicissitudes as the higher
or lower part of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to
so many distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind,
as those were, who, by vicious living, luxury, and" extrava-
gances, on one hand, or by hard labor, want of necessaries,
and mean and insufficient diet, on the other hand, bring dis-
tempers upon themselves by the natural consequences of their

way of giving that the middle station of life was calculated for
all kind of virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that tem-
perance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all agreeable
diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were the blessings at-
tending the middle station of life; that this way men went si-
lently and smoothly through the world, and comfortably out
of it not embarrassed with the labors of the hands or of the
head, not sold to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed
with perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion of envy, or
secret burning lust of ambition for great things; but, in easy
circumstances, sliding gently through the world, and sensibly
tasting the sweets of living, without the bitter, feeling that they
are happy, and learning by every day's experience to know it
more sensibly.
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most affec-
tionate manner, not to play the young man, not to precipitate
myself into miseries which nature, and the station of life I was
born in, seemed to have provided against; that I was under no
necessity of seeking my bread; that he would do well for me,
and endeavor to enter me fairly into the station of life which
he had been just recommending to me; and that if I was nor
very easy and happy in the world, it must be my mere fate or
fault that must hinder it; and that he should have nothing to
answer for, having thus discharged his duty in warning ine
against measures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a
word, that as he would do very kind things for me if I would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would not have so
much hand in my misfortunes, as to give me any encourage-
ment to go away; and, to close all, he told me I had my elder
brother for an example, to whom he had used the same earnest
persuasions to keep him from going into the Low Country
wars, but could not prevail, his young desires prompting him
to run into the army, where he was killed; and though he s:idt
he would not cease to pray for me, yet he would venture to
say to me, that if I did take this foolish step, God would not
bless me, and I would have leisure hereafter to reflect upon
having neglected his counsel, when there might be none to
assist m my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which was truly
prophetic though I suppose my father did not know it to be
so himself; I say, I observed the tears run down his face very
plentifully, and especially when he spoke of my brother who
was killed; and that when he spoke of my having leisure to
repent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that he broke
off the discourse, and told me, his heart was so full he could
say no more to ine.

I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as indeed who
could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to think of going
abroad any more, but to settle at home according to my father's
desire. But, alas! a few days wore it all off; and, in short, to
prevent any of my father's further importunities in a few weeks
after I resolved to run quite away from him. However, I did
not act so hastily, neither, as my first heat of resolution
prompted, but I took my mother, at a time when I thought
her a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told her, that my
thoughts were so entirely bent upon seeing the world, that
I should never settle to any thing with resolution enough to
go through with it, and my father had better give me his cou-
sent, than force me to go without it; that 1 was now eighteen
years old, which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should ne er
serve out my time, and I should certainly run away from my
master before my time was out, and go to sea; and if she
would speak to my father to let me go one voyage abroad, if I
came home again, and did not like it, I would go no more,
and I would promise, by a double diligence, to recover that
time I had lost.
This put my mother into a great passion: she told me she
knew it would be to no purpose to speak to my father upon
any such subject; that he knew too well what was my interest
to give his consent to any such thing so much for my hurt;
andthat she wondered how I could think of any such thing
after such a discourse as I had had with my father, and such
kind and tender expressions as she knew my father had used
to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin myself, there was no
help for me; but I might depend I should never have their
consent to it; that for her part, she would not have so much
hand in my destruction; and I should never have it to say,
that my mother was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father, yet, as
I have heard afterwards, she reported all the discourse to him,
and that my father, after showing a great concern at it, said
to her with a sigh, "That boy might be happy if he would
stay at home; but if he goes abroad, he wll be the most
miserable wretch that was ever born; I can give no con-
sent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke loose
though, in the mean time, I continued obstinately deaf to all
proposals of settling to business, and frequently expostulating
with my father and mother about their being so positively de.
termined against what they knew my inclinations prompted
me to. But being one day at Hull, where I went casually,
and without any purpose of making an elopement at that time;
but, I say, being there, ard one of my companions then going

oy sea to London, in his father's ship, and prompting me to
go with them, with the common allurement of sea-faring men
riz. that it should cost me nothing for my passage, I consumed
neither father or mother any more, not so much as sent them
word of it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any consid-
eration of circumstances or consequences, and in an ill hour
God knows, on the first of September, 1661, I went on board
a ship bound for London. Never any young adventurer's
misfortunes, I believe, began sooner, or continued longer than
mine. The ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but
the wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most fright-
ful manner; and, as I had never been at sea before, I was
most inexpressibly sick in body, and terrified in mind. I be-
gan now seriously to reflect upon what I had done, and how
lustly I was overtaken by the judgment of Heaven for wick-
edly leaving my father's house, andbandoning my duty. All
the good counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my
mother's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind and my
conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch of hardness
to which it has been'since, reproached me with the contempt
of advice, and the breach of my duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea, which I had
never been upon before, went very high, though nothing like
what I have seen many times since; no, nor like what I saw
a few days after: but it was enough to affect me then, who
was but young sailor, and had never known any thing of the
matter. I expected every wave would have swallowed- u up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought, in the
trough or hollow of the sea, we should never rise more; and in
this agony of mind I made many vows and resolutions, that if
it would please God here to spare my life this one voyage, if
ever I got once my foot upon dry land again, I would go di
rectly home to my'father, and never set it into a ship again
while I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run my-
self into such miseries as these any more. Now I saw lay
the goodness of observations about the middle st of
life,-how easy, h, r comfortably he had lived all his days, and
never had been exposed to tempests at sea, or troubles on
shore; and I resolved that I would, like a true repenting prod-
igal go home to my father.
T.ese wise and sober thoughts continued during the storm,
and, indeed, some time after; but the next day, as the wind
was abated, and the sea calmer, I began to be a little inured
to it: however, I was very grave for all that day, being also a
little sea-sick still; but towards night the weather cleared up,
the wind was quite over, and a charming fine evening followed;
the sun went down perfectly clear, and rose so the next morn-

ing; and having little or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun
shining upon it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delight-
ful that I ever saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more sea-sick,
but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon the sea, that was
so rough and terrible the day before, and could be so calm
and so pleasant in a little time after. And now, lest my good
resolutions should continue, my companion, who had, indeed,
enticed me away, came to me and said, Well, Bob," clap-
ping me on the shoulder, how do you do after it. I warrant
you were frightened, wa n't you, last .night, when it blew but
a cap-full of wind?'--"A cap-full do you call it?" said 1:
" it was a terrible storm."-(' A storm, you fool you," replied
he," do you call that a storm I why, it was nothing at all; give
us but a good ship and sea-room, and we think nothing of such
a squall of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-water sailor,
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and we'll forget
all that; do you see what charming weather it is now ?" To
make short this sad part of my story we went the old way of
all sailors; the punch was made, and I was made drunk with
it; and in that*one night's wickedness Idrowned all my re-
pentance, all my reflections upon my past conduct, and all
my resolution for my future. In a word, as the sea was re-
turned to its smoothness of surface and settled calmness by
the abatement of that storm, so, the hurry of my thoughts being
over my fears and apprehensions of being swallowed up
by the sea being forgotten, and the current of my foi mer de-
sires returned, I entirely forgot the vows and promises that I
made in my distress. I found, indeed, some intervals of re-
flection; and serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavor to
return again sometimes; but I shook them off, and rou.ed
myself from them as it were from a distemper, and applying
myselfto drinking and company, soon mastered the return of
those fits, for so called them; and I had in five or six days
got as complete a victory over conscience, as any young
fellow, that resolved not to be troubled with it could desire:
out I was to have another trial for it still; and Providence, as
in such cases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse; for if I would not take this for a deliverance
the next was to be such a one as the worst and most hardened
wretch among us would confess both the danger and the
mercy of.
The sixth day of our being at sea, we came into Yarmouth
Roads; the wind having been contrary, and the weather calm,
we had made but little way since the storm. Here. we were
obliged to come to anchor, and here we lay, the wind contin-
uing contrary, viz. at south-west, for seven or eight days,
during which time a great many ships from Newcastle came


into the same roads, as the common harbor where the ship
might wait for a wind for the River.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should have
tided it up the river, but that the wind blew too fresh; and,
after we had lain four or five days, blew very hard. However,
the roads being reckoned as good as a harbor, the anchorage
good, and our ground tackle very strong, our men were un-
concerned, and not in the least apprehensive of danger, bh
spent the time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea;
but the eighth day in the morning the wind increased and we
had all hands at work to strike our top-mast and mae every
thing saug and dose, that the ship might rid as eay p
sibte. By noon the sea went very high indeed, and our ship
rode forecastle in, shipped several seas, and we thought once
or twice our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with two an-
chors ahead, and the cables veered out to the better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed; and now I be-
gan to see terror and amazement in the faces even of the sea-
men themselves. The master though vigilant in the business
of preserving the ship, yet as he went in and out of his cabin
by me, I could hear him softly say to himself several times
"Lord, be merciful to us we shall be all lost; we shallbe al
undone!" and the like. During these first hurries I was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steerage, and
cannot describe my temper: I could ill reassme the first
penitence which I had so apparently trampled upon, and
hardened myself against: I tought the bitterness of death
had been past, and that this would be nothing like the first;
but when the master himself came b me as I said just now,
and said we should be all lot, I was dreadfully ighd: I got
up out of my cabin, and looked out; but suc adismal s t
I never saw; the sea went mountains high, and broke upo
us every three or four minutes: when I could look aout,
could see nothing but distress around us: two ship that rid
near us, we found, had cut their masts bythe h d bein
deep laden; and our men cried out, that a ship which r
about a mile ahead of u as wafoundered. Two more ships,
being driven from their anchors, were run out of the roads to
sea, at all adventures, ans that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much laboring in the
sea; but two or three of them drove, and came os by us.
running away with only their spritMil out before the win.
Towards evening, the mate and boatswain begged the mase
ter of our shi to et them cut away the fore-mat, which he
was very illingto do but the boatswain pressing to him
that if he did not, the ship would founder, he consented; ad
when they had cut away the foremast, the main-mast stood o

oose, and shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut
her away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be in at all
this, who was but a young sailor and who had been in such
a fright before at but a little. But if I can express at this
distance the thoughts that I had about me at that time, I wes
m tenfold more horror of mind upon account of my former
convictions, and the having returned from them to the resolu-
tions I had wickedly taken at first, than I was at death itself:
and these, added to the terror of the storm, put me in such
condition, that I can by no words describe it. But the worst
was not come yet; the storm continued with such fury, that
the seamen themselves acknowledged they had never known a
worse. We had a good ship, but she was deep laden, and
wallowed in the sea, that the seamen every now and then cried
out, she would founder. It was my advantage in one respect,
that I did not know what they meant by founder, till in-
quired. However, the storm was so violent, that I saw what
is not often seen, the master, the boatswain, and some others
more sensible than the rest, at their prayers and expecting
every moment when the ship would go to the bottom. In the
middle of the night, and under all the rest of our distresses
one of the men that had been down on purpose to see, cried
out, we had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the pump.
At that very word, my heart, as I thought, died within me, and
I fell backwards upon the side of my bed, where I sat, into the
cabin. However, the men roused me, and told me, that I, that
was able to do nothing before, was as well able to pump as
another; at which I stirred up, and went to the pump, and
worked very heartily. While this was doing, the master,
seeing some light colliers, who, not able to ride out the storm,
were obliged to slip and run away to sea, and would not come
near us, ordered us to fire a gun as a signal of distress. I
who knew nothing what that meant, was so surprised, that I
thought the ship had broke, or some dreadful thig had hap-
pened. In a word, I was so surprised, that I fell down in a
swoon. As this was a time when every body had his own life
to think of, nobody minded me, or what was become of me;
but another man stepped up to the pump, and, thrusting me.
aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking I had been dead; and
it was a great while before I came to myself
We worked on; but the water increasing in the hold, it was
apparent that the ship would founder; and though the storm
began to abate a little, yet as it was not possible she could
swim till we might run into a port, so the master continued'
firing guns for help; and a light ship, who had rid it out just
ahead of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the

utmost hazard the boat came near us; bat it was impossible
for us to get on board, or for the boat tolie near the ship'a ide,
till at last, the men rowing very heartily, and veatrig their
lives to save ours, our men cas them a rope over the str
with a buoy to it. and then veered it out gat length, which
they, after great labor and hazard, took h1d and we hauled
them close under our stern, and gt all into their boat. It was
to no purpose for them or us, after we were in the bat, to
think of reaching to their own ship s all agreed tolet her
drive and only to pll her in toars shore as much as we
could; and our master promised them, that if the boat was
staved upon shore, he would make it good to their master; so,
partly rowing and partly driving, or boat went the
northward, doping towards the e almost as fa Winter,
ton Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an hour oat of
our ship but we saw her sink, and then I understood for the
first time what was meant by a ship foundering in the sea. I
must acknowledge I had hardly eyes to look up when the se
men told me she was sinking r fom that momet they
rather put me into the boat, than that I might be said to g
in: my heart was, as it were, dead within me, rt wi
fright, partly with horror of mind, and the touts what
was yet before me.
While we were in this condition the mn yet laboi at
the oar to bring the boat near the shore, we co uld (wen
our boat mounting the waves, we were able to see the shoe)
a gWeat many people running along the strand to assist as
when we should come near; but we made but slow wiy to
wards the shore; nor were we able to reach it, till, b past
the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to th west-
ward, towards Cromer, and so the land broke off a itte the
violence of the wind. Here we got in and, though not with-
out much difficulty, got all safe on shore, and walked after-
wards on foot to Yarmouth, where, as unfortunate men, we
were used with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us gd quarters, as by particular
merchants and owners of hips, and had money ven us
sufficient to carry us either to Lond or back to Hull, as we
thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull, and
have gone home, I had been happy and my father, an emblem
of our blessed Savior's parable, ha even killed the fatted calf
for me; for hearing the ship I went away in was cast away
in Yarmouth Roads, it was a great while before he had any as-
surance that I was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obstinacy that
nothing could resist; and though I had several times loud calls

from my reason, and my more composed judgment, to go
home, yet I had no power to do it. 1 know not what to call
this, nor will I urge that it is a secret overruling decree that
hurries as on to ie the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we rush upon it with our
eyes open. Certainly, nothing but some such decreed un-
avoidable misery attending, and which it was impossible for
me to escape, could have pushed me forward against the calm
reasoning and persuasions of my most retired thoughts, anid
against two such visible instructions as I had met with in my
first attempt.
My comrad, who had helped to harden me before, and who
was the master s son, was now less forward than The first
time he spoke to me after we were at Yarmouth, which was
not till two or three days, for we were separated in the town
to several quarters; I say, the first time he saw me, it ap-
peared his tone was altered, and, looking very melancholy, and
shaking his head, asked me how I did, and telling his father
who I was, and how I had come this voyage only for a trial,
in order to go farther abroad: his father turning to me with a
very grave and concerned tone, "Young man," says he,
" you ought never to go to sea any more; you ought to take
this for a plain and visible token that you are not to be a sea-
faring man."-" Why, sir," said I, "will you go to sea no
more "--" That is another case," said he; "it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage for a
trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you of what you
are to expect if you persist. Perhaps this has all befallen us
on your account, like Jonah in the ship of Tarshish. Pray,"
continues he, what are you; and on what account did you
go to sea?" Upon that I told him some of my story; at the
end of which he burst out with a strange kind of passion;
" What had I done," says he, "that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship l I would not set my foot in the
same ship with thee again for a thousand pounds." This, in-
deed, was, as I said, an excursion of his spirits, which were
yet agitated by the sense of his loss, and was farther than he
could have authority to go. However he afterwards talked
very gravely to me, exhorting me to go back to my father, and
not tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a vis-
ible hand of Heaven against me. "And young man," said
he, depend upon it, if you do not go back wherever you go
you will meet with nothing but disasters and disappointments,
till your father's words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer, and I
saw him no more: which way he went I know not. As for
me, having some money in my pocket, I travelled to London
b.v land and there, as well as on the road, had many strug-

tes with what coue of life I should take, ad
whether I g home, or go to sea.
As to gig home, shame opposed the beetaotios that o
ed to my thoughts; ad it i dis occurred to b howl
should be d at bo and aboad 'be
ashamed to e, not my be ad ohr only, but
every body else; from whence I lave ine a ten
how mincongrous ad irrational the cm on te e of man-
kind is, especially of youth, to that remon whh ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they ae not autam d to
sn, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed of the ,tio
for which they ought justly to be esteemed fools, but are
ashamed of the returning, which only can make their be aes
teemed wise men.
In this state of life, however, I remained some time, uncer-
tain what measures to take, and what course of life to lead.
An irresistible reluctance continued to going hiie; and as l
staid awhile, the remembrance of the disrs Ihad been in
wore off; and as that abated, the little notion Ibhad in my de-
sires to a return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aide
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away from my
father's house, that hurried me into the wild and id
notion of raising my fortune; and that impraesd thoe e.
ceits so forcibly upon me, as to make me diaf to al gd ial
vice, and to the entreaties and even the commands of y'
father; I say the same influence, whatever it was,
the most unfortunate of all enterprises to my view; ml I
went on board a vessel bound to the coast of Arica; or, or
sailors vulgarly call it, a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great msfortune that in all these advetr.s I
did not ship myself as a sailor whereby, though I tit ii-
deed have worked a little harder than ordiar, yet tthe
same time I had learnt the duty and oice of a feoremal n;
and in time might have qualified myself for a mate or li
ant, if not for a master. But as it was always my ate to
choose fbr the worse, so I did here, for having money in my
pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I would alway go
on board in the habit of a genteman; and so I neither hid
any business in the ship or learat to do any.
It was my lot first fall to fal into pretty good company ,s
London, which does not always happen to such loose an u
guided young fellows as I then war; the devil eenrly ot
oniting to lay some snare for them very early: bat it.w pl
so with me. I first fell acquainted with the master of a
who had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, haviKil
very good success there, was resolved to go again; andol
taking a fancy to my conversation, which was not at a1

agreeable at that time, hearing me say I had a mind to see the
world, told me if I would go the voyage with him, I should be
at no expense; I should be his messmate and his companion;
and if I could carry any thing with me, I should have all the
advantage of it that the trade would admit; and perhaps I
might meet with some encouragement.
Embraced the offer; and entering into a strict friendship
with this captain, who was an honest and plain-dealing man,
I went the voyage with him, and carried a small adventure
with me, which, by the disinterested honesty of my friend the
captain, I increased very considerably; for I carried about
40 in such toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This 40 I had mustered together by the assistance.of some
of my relations whom I corresponded with, and who, I believe,
got my father, or at least my mother, to contribute so much as
that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage in which I may say I was success-
ful in all my adventures, and which I owe to the integrity and
honesty of my friend the captain; under whom also I got a
competent knowledge of the mathematics and the rules of
navigation, learnt how to keep an account of the ship's
course, take an observation, and, in short to understand some
things that were needful to be understood by a sailor; for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn; and, in
a word, this voyage made me both a sailor and a merchant
for I brought home five pounds nine ounces of gold-dust for
my adventure, which yielded me, in London, at my return, al
most 300; and this filled me with those aspiring thoughts
which have so completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too; particu-
larly that I was continually sick, being thrown into a violent
calenture by the excessive heat of the climate; our principal
trading being upon the coast, from the latitude of 15 degrees
north even to the line itself
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my friend, to
my great misfortune, dying soon after his arrival, I resolved
to go the same voyage again; and I embarked in the same
vessel with one who was his mate in his former voyage, and
had now got the command of the ship. This was the unhap-
piest voyage that ever man made; for though I did not carry
quite 100 of my new-gained wealth, so that I had 200 left,
and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was very
just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in this voyage;
and the first was this, viz. our ship, making her course towards
the Canary Islands, or rather between those islands and the
African shore, was surprised, in the gray of the morning by a
Turkish rover, of Sallee, who gave chase to us with ai the
sail she could make. We crowded also as much canvass as

or yads would spread, or or m cary to have got ear;
baut finding the pirate ged upon u, a would certainly
come up with us in a e our, we p red to fight; our
ship having twelve guns, and the rover i en. Aboutthree
in the afternoon, he came up with us, ndjinging to, by mi
take, just athwart or quarter instead of t rt o stern, s
he intended, we b h eit of our gmn to bear on that
side, and poured in a bro ie upon im, which made him
sheer off again, after returning oar fire, and pouring in also
his smallest r near 00 men, which be had O boad.
However we had not a man touhed, all our men heepin
close. He prepared to attack us again, and we to defend our.
selves; but laying us on board, the next time, upon our other
quarter, he entered sixty men upon our decks who imne.
diately fell to cutting and hacking the ail and rigging. We
lied them with smal-sot halfpikes, pode es, and sh
like, and cleared our deck ofihem twice. However, to cut
short this melancholy part of our story, our sh being dis
abled, and three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into allee, a
port belonging to the Moors.
The usage Ihad there was not so dreadful as at first ap-
prehended; nor was I carried up the country to the emper
court, as the rest of our men were, but was kept by the ap-
tain of the rover as his-proper prize, and made his slave, being
young and nimble, and fit for his business. At thi surpring
change of my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, 1 was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I looked back
upon my father's prophetic discourse to me, that I should be
miserable, and have none to relieve me which I thought was
now so effectually brought to pass, that I could not be worse;
that now the hand of Heaven had overtaken me, and I was un-
done without redemption; but, alas this was but a taste of
the misery I was to go through, as will appear in the sequel
of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home to his
house, so I was in hopes that he would take me with him when
he went to sea again, believing that it would some time or other
be his fate to be taken by a Spanish or Portuguese man of war;
and that then I should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine
was soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me on
shore to look after his little garden and do the common drudg-
ery of slaves about his house; and when he came home agam
from his cruise, he ordered me to lie in the cabin to look after
the ship.
Here 1 meditated nothing but my escape, and what method
I might take to effect it, but found no way that had the least
probability in it: nothing presented to make the supposition

14 Sonm~on cRUOE.
ofit rational; for had nobody to communicate t to that would
embark with me, no ellow-slave, no Englishman, Irishman,
or Scotchman there but myself; so that ior two years, though
I often pleased myself with the imagination, yet I never had
the least encouraging prospect of putting it m practice.
After about two years, an odd circumstance presented itself,
which put the old thought of making aome attempt for my
liberty again in my head. M tr lying at home long
than usual without fitting out his ship, which, as I heard, was
for want of money, he nsed constantly, once or twice a week,
sometimes oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace, and go out into the road a-fshing; and as he always
took me and a young Moresco with him to row the boat, we
made him very merry, and I proved very dexterous in catch-
ing fish; insomuch that sometimes he would send me with a
Moor one of his kinsmen, and the youth of Moresco, as they
called him, to catch a dish offish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark calm
morning, a fog rose so thick, that, though we were not half a
league fom the shore, we lost sight ofit and, rowing we knew
not whither or which way, we labored al day, and all the next
night; and when the morning came, we found we had pulled
off to sea instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore: however we got well in
again, though with a great deal of labor, and some danger;
for the wind began to blow pretty fresh in the morning; but
particularly we were all .very hungry.
But our patron, warned y this disaster, resolved to take
more care of himself for the future; and having lying by him
the long-boat of our English ship he had taken, he resolved he
would not go a-fishing any more without a compass and some
provision: so he ordered the carpenter of his ship, who also
was an English slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in
the middle of the long-boat, like that of a barges with a place
to stand behind it to steer and haul home the main-sheet; and
room before for a hand or two to stand and work the sails: she
sailed with what we call a shoulder of mutton sail; and the
boom gibbed over the top of the cabin, which lay very snug
and low, and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put in some
bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to drink; and particu-
larly his bread, rice, and coffee.
We went frequently out with this boat a-fishing, and as 1
was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never went with-
out me. It happened that he had appointed to go out in this
boat, either for pleasure or for fish, with two or three Moors
of some distinction in that place, and for whom he had provi-
ded extraordinarily, and had therefore sent on board the boat

aou11Mo CAUOM. 15
ht a larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had
rd me to get ready three fusees with powder and shot,
which were on board h shi; for that they designed some
sport of filing as wed a 6sh.
I got al th g ready as he d directed, and waited the
next morning withthe boat washed leha, her ensign and
pendants out, and evy thing to aeeMamEae his guests;
when, by and by, mypstra ome on boWa alse a told me
his guests had put going,upon some business that fall out,
;and ordered me, with the ma and boy, a l to o ot
,with the boat and catch them same fs r that h ends
*were to sup at his boose; and commanded that as soon as 1
got some fsh I should bring it hoe to his house; all which I
prepared to do.
This moment my fomer nations of deiveraoe darted into
my thoughts, for now I found I was like to have a lite shi at
my command; and my master being gone, prepared to
nish myself, nott forishing busineas,t a y ; though
I knew not, neither did so amuch aoid whither I
should steer; for any where, to get t of that place, was
my way.
M first contrivance was to make a pretence to speak to
this Moor, to get something for our subsistence on board; for
I told him we must not resume to eat of our patron's bread:
he said, that was true; so be brought a large basket of rnk
or biscuit of their kind, and three jars with fresh water, into
the boat. I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which, it was evident by the make, were taken out of some
English prize, and I conveyed them into the boat while the
Moor was on shore, as if they had been there before Sor our
master: I conveyed also a great lump of bees-wax into the
boat, which weighed above half a hundred weight, with a par-
cel of twine or thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all
which were of great use to us afterwards, especially the wax
to make candles. Another trick I tried upon him, which he
innocently came into also: his name was Ismael whom they
call Muley, or Moley; so I called him; "Moiey," said I,
"our patron's guns are on board the boat; can you not get a
little powder and shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies
(a fowl like our curlews) for ourselves, for I know he keeps
the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says he," I'l bring
some;" and accordingly he brought a greatat poch,
which held about a pound and a half of powder, or rather
more; and another with shot, that had five or sx pounds, with
some bullets, ad put all into the boat: at the ame time I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin with
which I filled of the large bottles in the case, which was
almost empty, pouring what was in it into another; and thus


furnished with every thing needful, we sailed out of the port
to fish. The castle, which is at the entrance of the port,
kn 3w who we were, and took no notice of us: and we were
not above a mile out of the port before we hauled in our sail,
and set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown southerly,
I had been sure to have made the coast of Spain, and at least
reached to the bay of Cadiz; but my resolutions were, blow
which way it would, I would be gone from that horrid place
where I was, and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and catched nothing, for
when I had fish on my hook I would not pull them up, that he
might not see them, I said to the Moor, This will not do,
our master will not be thus served; we must stand farther off."
lie, thinking no harm, agreed, and, being in the head of the
boat, set the sails; and as I had the helm, I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I would
fish; when, giving the boy the helm, I stepped forward to
where the Moor Was, and making as if I stooped for something
behind him, I took him by surprise with my arm under his
waist, and tossed him clear overboard into the sea. He rose
immediately, for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged
to be taken il, told me he would go all over the world with ine.
le swam so strong after the boat, that lie would have reached

me very quickly, there being but little wind; upon which I
stepped into the cabin, and fetching one of the fowling-pieces,
I presented it at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt,
and if he would be quiet, I would do him none: But," said I,
"you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and the sea is
calm; make the best of your way to shore, and I will do you
no harm; but if you come near the boat, I'll shoot you through
the head, for I am resolved to have my liberty:" so he turned
himself about, and swam for the snore, and I make no doubt
but he reached it with ease, for he was an excellent swimmer.
I could have been content to have taken this Moor with me,
and have drowned the boy, but there was no venturing to
trust him. When he was gone, I turned to the boy, whom
they called Xury, and said to him, "Xury, if you will be
faithful to me, I'll make you a great man; but if you will not
stroke your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Mahomet
and his father's beard, "I must throw you into the sea too."
The boy smiled in my face, and spoke so innocently, that 1
could not mistrust him; and swore to be faithful to me, and go
all over the world with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swimming, 1 stood
out directly to sea with the boat, rather stretching to wind-
ward, that they might think me gone towards the Straits'
mouth (as indeed any one that had been in their wits must
have been supposed to do); for who would have supposed we
were sailed on to the southward to the truly Barbarian coast,
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to surround us with
the canoes, and destroy us; where we could never once go on
shore but we should be devoured by savage beasts, or more
merciless savages of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, 1 changed my
course, and steered directly south and by east, bending my
course a little toward the east, that I might keep in with -the
shore; and having a fair, fresh gale of wind, and a smooth,
quiet sea, I made such sail that I believe by the next day at
three o'clock in the afternoon, when I first made the land, I
could not be less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of any other
king thereabout, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors, and the
dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into their hands, that
I would not stop, or go on shore, or come to an anchor; the
wind continuing fair till I had sailed in that manner five days;
and then the wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also
that if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also would
now give over; so I ventured to make to the coast, and come
to an anchor in the mouth of a little river, I knew not what, or
where; neither what latitude, what country, what nation, or

what river: 1 neither saw, or desired to see any people; the
principal thing I wanted was fresh water. We came into this
creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore as soon as it
was dark, and discover the country; but, as soon as it was
quite dark, we heard such dreadful noises of the barking,
roaring, and howling of wild creatures, of we knew not what
kinds, that the poor boy was ready to die with fear, and begged
of me not to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I,
" then I won't; but it may be we may see men by day, who
will be as bad to us as those lions."-" Then we give them the
shoot gun, says Xury, laughing, "make them run wey."
Such English Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves.
However, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave him
a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to cheer him up.
After all, Xury's advice was good, and I took it; we dropped
our little anchor, and lay still all night; I say still, for we slept
none; for in two or three hours we saw vast great creatures
(we knew not what to call them) of many sorts, come down to
the sea-shore, and run into the water, wallowing and washing
themselves for the pleasure of cooling themselves; and they
made such hideous howlings and yelings, that I never indeed
heard the like.
X'lry was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was I too;
but we were both more frightened when we heard one of these
mighty creatures come swimming towards our boat; we could
not see him, but we might hear him by his blowing to be a
monstrous huge and furious beast; Xury said it was a lion,
and it might be so for aught I know; butpoor Xury cried to
me to weigh the anchor and row away : "No," says ," Xury;
we can slip our cable with the buoy to it, and go off to sea;
they cannot follow us far." I had no sooner said so, but I per-
ceived the creature (whatever it was) within two oars' length,
which something surprised me; however, I immediately
stepped to the cabin door, and taking up my gun, fired at him;
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam towards
the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible noises, and hid-
eous cries and howling, that were raised, as well upon the
eilge of the shore as higher within the country, upon the noise
or report of the gun, a thing I have some reason to believe
those creatures had never heard before: this convinced me
that there was no going on shore for us in the night upon that
coast, and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any of the
savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into the hands of
lions and tigers; at least we were equally apprehensive of the
danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore some-

where or other for water, for we had not apmt left in the boat:
when or where to get it, was the point: Xury said if I would
let him go on shore with one of the jars, he would find if there
was any water and bring some to me. I asked him why he
would go; why I should not go and he stay in the boat. The
boy answered with so much affection, that made me love him
ever after. Says he "If wild mans come, they eat me, you
go wey."-" Well, IXry," said I," we will both go, and ifthe
wild mans come, we wi kill them; they shall eat neither of
us." So I gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles, which I mentioned before;
and we hauled the boat in as near the shore as we thought was
proper, and so waded to shore; carrying nothing but our arms,
and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sight of the boat, fearing the
coming of canoes with savages down the river; but the boy,
seeing a low place about a mile up the country, rambled to it;
and by and by I saw him come running towards me. I thought
he was pursued by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast,
and I run forward towards him to help him; but when I came
nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his shoulders,
which was a creature that he had shot, like a hare, but differ-
ent in color, and longer legs; however, we were very glad of
it, and it was very good meat; but the great joy that poor
Xury came with, was to tell me he had found good water, and
seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards, that we need not take such pain
for water, for a little higher up the creek where we were, we
found the water fresh when the tide was out, which flows but
a little way up; so we filled our jars, and feasted on the hare
we had killed, and prepared to go on our way, having seen no
footsteps of any human creature in that part of the country.
As Ihad been one voyage to this coast before I knew very
well that the islands of the Canaries, and the Cape de Verd
islands also, lay not far off from the coast. But as I had no
instruments to take an observation to know what latitude we
were in, and not exactly knowing, or at least remembering,
what latitude they were in, and new not where to look or
them, or when to stand off to sea towards them; otherwise
I might now easily have found some of these islands. But my
hope was, that if I stood along this coast till I came to that
part where the English traded, I should find some of their
vessels upon their usual design of trade, that would relieve and.
take us in.
By the best of my calculation, that place where I now was
must be that country, which, lying between the emperor o
Morocco's dominions and the Negroes, lies waste, and unin-
habited, except by wild beasts; the Negroes having abandoned

20 Ro soBBN CRoUO.
it, and gone farther south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors
not thinking it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigious num-
bers of tigers, lions, and leopards, and other furious creatures
which harbor there; so ththe Moors use it for their hunting
only, where they go like an army, two or three thousand men
at a time; and deed for near a hundred miles together upon
this coast, we saw nothing but a waste, uninhabited country
by day, and heard nothing but cowlings and roaring of wild
beasts by night.
Once or twice in the day-time I thought I saw the Pico of
Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain Tenerife in
the Canaries, and had a great mind to venture out, in hopes
of reaching thither; but having tried twice, I was forced in
again by contrary winds, the sea also going too high for my
little vessel; so I resolved to pursue my first design, and keep
along the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water, after we
had left this place; and once in particular being early in the
morning, we came to an anchor under a little point of land
which was pretty high; and the tide beginning to flow, we lay
still to go farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells me that we
had best go farther off the shore; for," says he," look, yonder
lies a dreadtul monster on the side of that hillock fast asleep."
I looked where he pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed,
for it was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the shore,
under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung as it were a
little over him. Xury" says I, "you shall go on shore and
kill him." Xury looked frightened and said, "Me kill! he
eat me at one mouth:" one mouthful he meant: however, 1
said no more to the boy, but bade him lie still, and I took our
biggest gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it with
a good charge of powder, and with two slugs, and laid it down;
then I loaded another gun with two bullets; and the third (for
we had three pieces) Iloaded with five smaller bullets. I took
the best aim I could with the first piece to have shot him in
the head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above his
nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and broke the
bone. He started up, growling at first, but finding his leg
broke, fell down again, and then got up upon three legs, and
gave the most hideous roar that ever I heard. I was a little
surprised that I had not hit him on the head; however, I took
up the second piece immediately, and, though he began to
move off, fired again, and shot him in the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise, but lie
struggling for life. Then Xury took heart, and would have
me let him go on shore; "Well, go," said I: so the boy

BaoDmBO CRusoE. 21
jumped into the water and taking a little gun in one hand,
swam to shore with t other hand, and coming close to
the creature, put the muzzle of the pwae to his ear, and shot
him in the head agai, which d him quite.
This was game deed to us, this was no food; and I
was very carry to lose three charges of powder and shot upon
a creature that was good for nothi tor u H er,Xry
said he would have some of mhim; es n board, and
asked me to give him the hatchet. "For what Xury said
L "Me cut ofhis head," said he. However, rycould not
cut off hi head, but he cut offa foot, and brought ith him
and it was a monstrous great one.
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin of him
might one way or other be of some value to us; andI resolved
to take off his skin if I could. So Xury and Iwentto work
with him; but Xury was much the better workman at it, for
I knew very ill how to doit. Indeed it took us both up the
whole day but at last we got off the hide of him and spread-
ing it on the top of our cabin, the sun eectually dried it in
two days' time, and it afterwards served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward continually
for ten or twelve days, living very sparing on our provisions,
which began to abate very much, and going no often into
the shore than we were obliged to for fesh water: my deign
in this was to make the river Gambia or Senegal, that s to
say, any where about the Cape de Verd where was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,I knew
not what course I had to take, but to seek for the iands, or
perish there among the Negroes. I knew that all the ship
from Europe, which sailed either to the coast of Guinea or to
Brazil, or to the East Indies, made this cape, or those islands;
and in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this sia-
gle point, either that I must meet with some ship or must
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days longer,
as I have said, I began to see that the land was inhabited;
and in two or three places, as we sailed by we saw people
stand upon the shore to look at us; we could also perceive
they were quite black, and stark naked. I was oce inclined
to have gone on shore to them; but Xury was my better coun-
sellor, and said to me, No go, no go. However I hauled
in nearer the shore that I might talk to them, and I fond they
run along the shore by me a good way: I observed they had
no weapons in their hands, except one, whohad a long slender
stick, which Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw
them a great wa with a god aim; so I kept at a distance,
but talked with them by sgns as well as I eild; and parti-
ularly made signs for something to eat; they beckoned to


me to stop my boat, and they would fetch me some meat
Upon this I lowered the top of my sail, and lay by, and two
o them ran up into the country, and in less than half an hour
came back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh and
some corn, such as is the produce of their country; but we
neither knew what the one or the other was: however, we
were willingto accept it, but how to come at it was our next
dispute, for I was not for venturing on shore to them, and they
were as much afraid of us: but they took a safe way for us all,
for they brought it to the shore, and laid it down, and went and
stood a great way off till we fetched it on board, and then came
close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, for we had nothing to
make them amends; but an opportunity offered that very in-
stant to oblige them wonderfully; for while we were lying by
the shore came two mighty creatures, one pursuing the other
(as we took it) with great fury from the mountains towards
the sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female, or
whether they were in sport or in rage, we could not tell any
more than we could tell whether it was usual or strange, but 1
believe it was the latter; because, in the first place, those
ravenous creatures seldom appear but in the mght; and in
the second place we found the people terribly frightened, es-
pecially the women. The man that had the lance or dart did
not fly from them, but the rest did; however, as the two
creatures ran directly into the water they did not seem to
offer to fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea, and swam about, as if they had come for their di-
version: at last, one of them began to come nearer our boat than
I at first expected; but I lay ready for him, for I had loaded
my gun with all possible expedition, and bade Xury load both
the others. As soon as he came fairly within my reach, I fired,
and shot him directly in the head: immediately he sunk down
into the water, but rose instantly, and plunged up and down, as
if he was struggling for life; and so indeed he was: he imme-
diately made to the shore; but between the wound, which was
his mortal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment of these poor
creatures at the noise and fire of my gun; some of them were
even ready to die for fear, and fell down as dead with the very
terror; but when they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the
water, and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart, and came to the shore, and began to search
for the creature. I found him by his blood staining the water;
and by the help of a rope which I slung round him, and gave
the Negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found
that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an ad-

mirable degree; and the Negroes held up their hands with
admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frightened with the flash of fire and
the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up directly to
the mountains from whence they came; nor could I, at that
distance, know what it was. I found quickly the Negroes
were for eating the flesh of this creature; so I was willing to
have them take it as a favor from me; which, when I made
signs to them that they might take him, they were very
thankful for. Immediately they fell to work with him; and
though they had no knife, yet, with a sharpened piece of wood,
they took off his skin as readily, and much more readily, than
we could have done with a knife. They offered me some of
the flesh, which I declined, making as ifI would give it them,
but made signs for the skin, which they gave me very freely,
and brought me a great deal more of their provisions, which,
though I did not understand, yet I accepted. I then made
signs to them for some water, and held out one of my jars to
them, turning it bottom upward, to show that it was empty,
and that I wanted to have it filled. They called immediately
to some of their friends, and there came two women, and
brought a gieat vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down to me, as before, and I sent
Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them all three. The
women were as stark naked as the men.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was,
and water; and leaving my friendly Negroes, I made forward
for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the
shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea
at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and
the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing, to make this
point. At length, doubling the point, at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the' other side, to sea-
ward; then I concluded, as it was most certain indeed, that
this was the Cape de Verd, and those the islands, called, from
thence, Cape de Verd Islands. However, they were at a
great distance, and I could not well tell what 1 had best to do;
for if I should be taken with a gale of wind, I might neither
reach one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as I was very pensive, I stepped into the
cabin, and sat me down, Xury having the helm; when, on a
sudden, the boy cried out, "Master, master, a ship with a
sail!" and the foolish boy was frightened out of his wits,
thinking it must needs be some of his master's ships sent to
pursue us, when I knew we were gotten far enough out of
their reach. I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately

saw, not only the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the coast
of Guinea, for Negroes. But, when I observed the course she
steered, I was soon convinced they were bound some other
way, and did not design to come any nearer to the shore;
upon which I stretched out to sea as much as I could, re-
solving to speak with them, if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should noL be able
to come in their way, but that they would be gone by before I
could make any signal to them; but after I had crowded tc
the utmost, and began to despair, they, it seems, saw me b)
the help of their perspective glasses, and that it was some
European boat, which, they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail, to let me come up.
I was encouraged with this, and as I had my patron's ensign
on board, I made a waft of it to them, for a signal of distress,
and fired a gun, both which they saw; for they told me they
saw the smoke, though they did not hear the gun. Upon these
signals, they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and
in about three hours' time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was, in Portuguese, and in Spanish
and in French, but I understood none of them; but, at last, a
Scotch sailor, who was on board, called to me, and I answered
him, and told him I was an Englishman, that I had made my
escape out of slavery from the Moors, at Sallee : they then
bade me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and all
my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, which any one will be-
lieve, that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed it, from such a
miserable, and almost hopeless condition, as I was in; and I
immediately offered all I had to the captain of the ship, as a
return for my deliverance; but he generously told me, he
would take nothing from me, but that all I had should be de-
livered safe to me, when I came to the Brazils. For," says
le, "I have saved your life on no other terms than I would be
glad to be saved myself; and it may, one time or other, be my
lot to be taken up in the same condition. Besides," continued
he, when I carry you to the Brazils, so great a way fron
your own country, if I should take from you what you have
you will be starved there, and then I only take away th;
life I have given. No, no, Seignior Inglese" (Mr. English-
man), says he; I will carry you thither in charity, and these
things will help to buy your subsistence there, and your
passage home again."
As he was charitable in this proposal, so he was just in the
performance, to a tittle; for he ordered the seamen, that none
should offer to touch any thing I had: then he took every
thing into his own possession, and gave me back an exact in-

ventory of them, that I might have them, even so much as my
three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one; and that he saw
and told me he would buy it of me for the ship's use; and
asked me what I would have for it. I told him, he had been
so generous to me in every thing, that I could not offer to
make any price of the boat, but left it entirely to him: upon
which, he told me he would give me a note of hand to pay me
eighty pieces of eight for it at Brazil; and when it came there,
if any one offered to give more, he would make it up. He
offered me also sixty pieces of eight more for my boy Xury,
which I was loth to take; not that I was not willing to let the
captain have him, but I was very loth to sell the poor boy's
liberty, who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he owned it
to be just, and offered me this medium, that he would give
the boy an obligation to set him free in ten years, if he turned
Christian: upon this, and Xury saying he was willing to go
to him I let the captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brazils, and arrived in
the Bay de Todos loe Santos, or All Saints' Bay, in about
twenty-two days after. And now I was once more delivered
from the most miserable of all conditions of life; and what to
do next with myself, I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can never
enough remember: he would take nothing of me for my pa-
sage, gave me twenty ducats for the leopard's skin, and forty
for the lion't skin, which I had in my boat and caused every
thing I had in the ship to be punctually delivered to me; and
what I was willing to sell, hebought of me; such as the case
of bottles, two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax,-for I had made candles of the rest: in a word, I made
about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight of all my cargo;
and with this stock, 1 went on shore in the Brazils
I had not been long here, before I was recommended to the
house of a good, honest man, like himself, who had an inemo,
as they call it (that u, a plantation and a sugar-houe). I
lived with him some time, and acquainted myself, by that
means, with the manner of planting and making of sugar; and
seeing how well the planters lived, and how they got rich sod-
denly, 1 resolved, if I could get a license to settle there, I
would turn planter among them; endeavoring, in the mean
time, to find out some way to get my money, which I had left
in London, remitted to me. To this purpose, getting a kind
of a letter of naturalization, I purchased as much land that
was uncured as my money would reach, and formed a plan
for my plantation and settlement; such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to receive
from England.

26 ROBImsON cUusoL
I had a neighbor, a Portuguese of Lisbo, ba bt be of
English parents, whose name was Wells, and m uch suach
circumstances as I was. I call him my neighbor, because his
plantation lay next to mine, and we went on very sociably to-
gether. My stock was but low, as well ashis; and we rather
planted for food than any thing else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began to come
into order; so that the third year we planted some tobacco,
and made each of us a large piece of ground ready for plant-
ing canes in the year to come : but we both wanted help; and
now I found, more than before, I had done wrong in parting
with my boy Xury.
But, alas I for me to do wrong, that never did right, was no
greatwonder. I had noremedy,but to goon: I had gotinto
an employment quite remote to my genius, and direct con-
trary to the life I delighted in, and for which 1 forsook my
father's house, and broke through all his good advice: nayl
was coming into the very middle station, or upper degree of
low life, which my father advised me to before; and which, if
I resolved to go on with I might as well have staid at home,
and never have fatigued myself in the world, as I had done:
dalied often to say to myself, I could have done this as
w in England, among myfriends, as have gone five thousand
miles offt o dit among strangers and savages, in a wilderness,
and at such a distance as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner, I used to look upon my condition with the
utmost regret. I had nobody to converse with, but now and
then this neighbor; no work to be done, but by the labor of
my hands; and I used to say, I lived just-like a man cast
away upon some desolate island, that had nobody there but
himself But how just has it been! and how should all men
reflect, that when they compare their present conditions with
others that are worse, Heaven may oblige them to make the
exchange, and be convinced of their former felicity by their
experience: I say, how just has it been, that the truly solitary
life I reflected on, in an island of mere desolation, o be
my lot, who had so often unjustly compared it with the life
which I then led, in which, had I continued, I-had, in all
probability, been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was, m some degree, settled in my measures for carry-
ing on the plantation, before my kind friend, the captain
of the ship that took me up at sea, went back; for the
ship remained there, in providing his lading, and preparing
for his voyage, near three months; when, telling him what
little stock I had left behind me in London, he gave me this
friendly and sincere advice: Seignior Inglese, says he (for


so he always called me), "if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to the person who
as your money in London, to send your effects to Lisbon, to
such persons as I shall direct, and in such goods as are proper
for this country, I will bring you the produce of them, God
willing, at my return; but, since human affairs are all subject
to changes and disasters, I would have you give orders for but
one hundred pounds sterling, which, you say, is half your
stock, and let the hazard be run for the first, so that if it come
s:fe, you may order the rest the same way; and, if it mis-
carry, you may have the other half to have recourse to for
your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so friendly, that
[ could not but be convinced it was the best course I could
take; so I accordingly prepared letters to the gentlewoman
with whom I left my money, and a procuration to the Portu-
guese captain, as he desired me.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account of all my
adventures; my slavery, escape, and how I had met with the
Portuguese captain at sea, the humanity of his behavior, and
what condition I was now in, with all other necessary direc-
tions for my supply and when this honest captain came to
Lisbon, he found means, by some of the English merchants
there, to send over, not the order only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented it efiect-
ually to her; whereupon she not only delivered the money,
but, out of her own pocket, sent the Portuguese captain a very
handsome present for his humanity and charity to me.
The merchant in London, vesting this hundred pounds in
English goods, such as the captain had wrote for, sent them
directly to him at Lisbon, and he brought them all safe to me
at the Brazils; among which, without my direction (for I was
too young in my business to think of them), he had taken care
to have all sorts of tools, iron work, and utensils, necessary for
my plantation, and which were of great use to me.
When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune made, for I
was surprised at the joy of it; and my good steward, the cap-
tain, had laid out the five pounds, which my friend had sent
him as a present for himself, to purchase and bring me over a
servant, under bond for six years' service, and would not ac-
cept of any consideration, except a little tobacco, which I
would have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all English man-
ufactures, such as cloths, stuffs, baize, and things particul rly
valuable and desirable in the country, 1 found means to sell
them to a very great advantage; so that I might say, 1 had
more than four times the value of my first cargo, and was now
infinitely beyond my poor neighbor, I mean in the advance-

meant of my plantation; for the first thing I did, I bought
me a Nego slave, and a European servant also; I mean
another besides that which the captain brought me from
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made the very means
of our adversity, so was it with me. I went on the next year
with great success in my plantation; I raised fifty great rolls
of tobacco on my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbors; and these fifty rolls, being
each of above a hundred weight, were well cured, and laid by
against the return of the fleet from Lisbon; and now, increase
ing in business and in wealth, my head began to be full of
projects and undertakings beyond my reach; such as are
indeed, often the ruin of the best heads in business. Had I
continued in the station 1 was now in, I had room for all the
happy things to have yet befallen me, for which my father so
earnestly recommended a quiet retired life, and which he had
so sensibly described the middle station of life to be full of;
but other things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
agent of all my own miseries; and, particularly to increase
my fault, and double the reflections upon myself, which, in
my future sorrows, I should have leisure to make, all these
nucarres were procured by my apparent obstinate adhering
to my foolish inclination, of wandering about, and pursuing
that inclination, in contradiction to the clearest views of doing
myself good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects, and
those measures of life, which nature and Providence concurred
to present me with, and to make my duty.
As I had once done thus in breaking away from my parents,
so I could not be content now, but I must go and leave the
happy view I bad of being a rich and thriving man in my new
plantation, only to pursue a rash and immoderate desire of
rising faster than the nature of the thing admitted; and thus
I cast myself down again into the deepest gulf of human
misery that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consistent
with life. and a state of health in the world.
To come, then, by just degrees, to the particulars of this
part of my story:-You may suppose, that having now lived
almost four years in the Brazils, and beginning to thrive and
prosper very well upon my plantation, [had not only learned
the language, but had contracted an acquaintance and
friendship, among my fellow-planters, as well as among the
merchants at St. Salvador, which was our port; and that, in
my discourses among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea, the manner
of trading with the Negroes there, and how easy it was to ppr-
chase on the coast, for trifles-such as beads, toys, knives
scissors, hatchets, bits of glass, and the like-not only gold

dust, Guinea grains, elephants' teeth, &c., but Negroes, for
the service of the Brazils, in.great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my discourses on
these heads, but especially to that part which related to the
buying Negroes; which was a trade, at that time, not only not
far entered into, but, as far as it was, had been carried on by
the assientos, or permission of the kings of Spain and Portug:l,
and engrossed from the public; so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some merchants and
planters of my acquaintance, and talking of those things very
earnestly, three of them came to me the next morning, and
told me they had been musing very much upon what I had
discoursed with them of the last night, and they came to make
a secret proposal to me; and, after enjoining me to secrecy,
they told me that they had a mind to fit out a ship to go to
Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as I, and were
straitened for nothing so much as servants; that as it was a
trade that could not be carried on, because they could not
publicly sell the Negroes when they came home, so they de-
sired to make but one voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore
privately, and divide them among their own plantations; and,
in a word, the question was, whether I would go their super-
cargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon the coast
of Guinea; and they offered me that I should have an equal
share of the Negroes, without providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had it been
made to any one that had not a settlement and plantation of
his own to look after, which was in a fair way of coming to be
very considerable, and with a good stock upon it. But for me,
that was thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years more, and to
have sent for the other hundred pounds from England; and
who, in that time, and with that little addition, could scarce
have failed of being worth three or four thousand pounds ster-
ling, and that increasing too; for me to think of such a voyage,
was the most preposterous thing that ever man, in such cir-
cumstances, could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer, could no more
resist the offer, than I could restrain my first r 1,l.1; .1. ,
when my father's good counsel was lost upon me. In a word,
I told them I would go with all my heart, if they would under-
take to look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct, if I miscarried. This
they all engaged to do, and entered into writings or covenants
to do so; and 1 made a formal will, disposing of mily plantation
and effects, in case of my death, making the captain of the
ship, that had saved my life, as before, my universal heir; but

oblging him to dispose of my effects as I had directed m my
will; one half of the produce being to himself, and the other
to be shipped to England.
In short, I took possible caution to preserve my effects,
and to keep up my plantation: had I used half as much pru-
dence to have looked into my own interest, and have made a
judgment of what I ought to.have done and not to have done,
I had certainly never gone away from so proselus an n-
dertaking, leaving all the probable views ofa thriving circum.
stance and gone a voyage to sea, attended with all its common
hazards, to say nothing of the reasons I had to expect partic
ular misfortunes to myself
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dictates of
my fancy, rather than my reason; and accordingly, the ship
being fitted out, and the cargo furnished, and all things done
as by agreement, by my partners in the voyage, I went on
board in an evil hour again, the 1st of September, 1659, being
the same day eight years that I went fiom my father ana
mother at Hull, in order to act the rebel to their authority, and
the fool to my own interest.
Our ship was about one hundred and twenty tons burden,
carried six guns, and fourteen men, besides the master, his
boy, and myself; we had on board no large cargo of goods,
except of such toys as were fit for our trade with the Negroes,
such as beads, bits of glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially
little looking-glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board, we set sail, standing away
to the northward upon our own coast, with design to stretch
over for the African coast. When they came about ten or
twelve degrees of northern latitude, which, it seems, was the
manner of their course in those days, we had very good
weather, only excessive hot all the way upon our own coast,
till we came to the height of Cape St. Augustino; from
whence, keeping farther off at sea, we lost sight of land, and
steered as if we were bound for the isle Fernando de Norouha,
holding our course N.E. by N. and leaving those isles on the
east. In this course we passed the line in about twelve days'
time, and were, by our last observation, in 7 degrees 22 minutes
northern latitude, when a violent tornado, or hurricane, took
us quite out of our knowledge: it began from the south-east,
came about to the north-west, and then settled in the north
east; from whence it blew in such a terrible manner, that, for
twelve days together, we could do nothing but drive, and,
scudding awaybefore it, let it carry us whither ever fate and
the fury of the winds directed; and, during these twelve days
I need not say that I expected every day to be swallowed up
nor, indeed, did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the storm, one


of our men died of the calenture, and one man and a boy
washed overboard. About the twelfth day, the weather abat-
ing a little, the master made an observation as well as he could,
and found that he was in about 11 degrees north latitude, but
that he was 22 degrees of longitude difference, west from Cape
St. Augustino; so that he found he was got upon the coast of
Guiana, or the north part of Brazil, beyond the river Amazons,
toward that of the river Oroonoque, commonly called the
Great River; and began to consult with me what course he
should take, for the ship was leaky and very much disabled,
and he was going directly back to the coast of Brazil.
I was positively against that; and looking over the charts
of the sea-coast of America with him, we concluded there was
no inhabited country for us to have recourse to, till we came
within the circle of the Caribbee islands, and therefore re-
solved to stand away for Barbadoes; which, by keeping off to
sea, to avoid the in-draft of the bay or gulf of Mexico, we might
easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen days' sail; where-
as we could not possibly make our voyage to the coast of
Africa without some assistance, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steered away
N.W. by W., in order to reach some of our English islands,
where I hoped fbr relief; but our voyage was otherwise de-
termined; for being in the latitude of 12 degrees 18 minutes, a
second storm came upon us, which carried us away with the
same inpetuosity westward, and drove us so out of the very
way of all human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being devoured by
savages than ever returning to our own country.
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard, one of our
men early in the morning cried out, Land!" and we had no
sooner run out of the cabin to look out, in hopes of seeing
whereabouts in the world we were, but the ship struck upon
a sand, and in a moment, her motion being so stopped, the
sea broke over her in such a manner, that we expected we
should all have perished immediately; and we were immedi-
ately driven into our close quarters, to shelter us from the
very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the like con-
dition, to describe or conceive the consternation of men in
such circumstances; we knew nothing where we were, or
upon what land it was we were driven, whether an island or
the main, whether inhabited or not inhabited; and as the
rage of the wind was still great, though rather less than at
first, we could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes, without breaking in pieces, unless the wind, by a
kind of miracle, should immediately turn about. In a word, we
sat looking upon one another, and expecting death every mo-

meant, and every man acting accordingly, as preparing for
another world; for there was little or nothing more for us to
do in this: that which was our present coubfrt, and all the
comfort we had, was, that, contrary to our expectation, the
ship did not break yet, and that the master said the wind be-
gan to abate.
Now, though we thought that the wind did a little abate,
yet the ship having thus struck upon the sand, and sticking
too fast for us to expect her getting off, we were in a dreadful
condition indeed, and had nothing to do but to think of
saving our lives as well as we could. We had a boat at our
stern just before the storm, but she was first staved by dashing
against the ship's rudder, and, in the next place, she broke
away, and either sunk, or was driven off to sea; so there was
no hope from her: we had another boat on board, but how to
get her off into the sea was a doubtful thing; however, there
was no room to debate, for we fancied the ship would break
in pieces ever- minute, and some told us she was actually
broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel laid hold of the boat,
and with the help of the rest of the men, they got her flung
over the ship's side; and getting all into, her, let her go, and
committed ourselves, being eleven in number, to God's mercy,
and the wild sea: for though the storm was abated consider-
ably, yet the sea went dreadful high upon the shore, and
might be well called den wild zee, as the Dutch call the sea
in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed; for we all saw
plainly, that the sea went so high that the boat could not live,
and that we should be inevitably drowned. As to making sail,
we had none; nor, if we had, could we have done thing with
it; so we worked at the oar towards the land, thogwith
heavy hearts, like men going to execution; for we all knew
that when the boat came nearer to the shore, she would be
dashed in a thousand pieces by the breach of the sea. How-
ever, we committed our souls to God in the most earnest man-
ner; and the wind driving us towards the shore, we hastened
our destruction with our own hands, pulling as well as we
could towards land.
What the shore was-whether rock or sand, whether steep
or shoal-we knew not; the only hope that could rationally
give us the least shadow of expectation, was, if we might hap-
pen mto some bay or gulf, or the mouth of some river, where
by great chance we might have run our boat in, or got under
the lee of the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; and as we made nearer
and nearer the shore, the land looked more frightful than
the sea.


After we had rowed, or rather driven, about a league and a
half' as we reckoned it, a raging wave, mounliin-like, canm
-...... astern of us, and plainly bade us expect thie rcoup d'
gr(are. In a word, it took us with such a fury, that it oversee the
boat at once ; and separating us, as well from the boat as from
one another, gave us not time hardly to say, 0 God!" for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which I felt,
when I sunk into the water; for though I swam very well, yet
1 could not deliver myself from the waves so as to draw my
breath, till that wave having driven me, or rather carried me.
a vast way on towards the shore, and having spent itself, went
back, and left me upon the land almost dry, but half dead with
the water I took in. I had so much presence of mind, as well
as breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land than
1 expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavored to make on
towards the land as fast as I could, before another wave should
return and take me up again; but I soon foundit was impos-
sible to avoid it; for I saw the sea come after f as high as a
great hill, and as furious as an enemy, which I had no nme'ans or
strength to contend with: my business was to hold my breath,
and raise myself upon the water, if I could; and so, by swim-
ming, to preserve my breathing, and pilot myself towards the
shore, if possible; my greatest concern now being, that the
wave, as it would carry me a great way towards the shore
when it came on, might not carry me back again with it wheu
it gave back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again buried me at once
twenty or thirty feet deep in its own body; and 1 could foel
myself carried with a mighty force and swiftness towards the
shore a very great way; but 1 held my breath, and assisted
myself to swim still forward with all my might. I was ready
to burst with holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising
up, so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though it was
not two seconds of time that I could keep myself so, yet it re-
lieved me greatly, gave me breath, and new courage. I was
covered again with water a good while, but not so long but I
held it out; and finding the water had spent itself, and began
to return, I struck forward against the return of the waves,
and felt ground again with my feet. I stood still a few
moments, to recover breath, and till the water went from me,
and then took to my heels, and ran with what strength I had
farther towards the shore. But neither would this deliver me
from the fury of the sea, which came pouring in after me
again; and twice more I was lifted up by the waves and car-
ried forwards as before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well nigh been fatal to me; for


the sea, having hurried me along, as before, landed me, or rather
dashed me, against a piece of a rock, and that with such force,
that it left me senseless, and indeed helpless, as to my own de-
liverance; for the blow taking my side and breast, beat the
breath, as it were, quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the water: but
I recovered a little before the return of the waves, and seeing I
should again be covered with the water, I resolved to hold fast
by a piece of the rock, and so to hold my breath, if possible,
till the wave went back. Now, as the waves were not so high
as tile first, being nearer land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought me so near
the shore, that the next wave, though it went over me, yet did
not so swallow me up as to carry me away; and the next run 1
took, 1 got to the main land; where, to my great comfort, I
clambered up the cliffs of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach of the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to look up
and thank God, that my life was saved, in a case wherein there
were, some minutes before, scarce any room to hope. I be-
lieve it is impossible to express, to the life, what the ecstasies
and transports of the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may
say, out of the grave; and I did not wonder now at the cus-
tom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has the halter about his


neck, is tied up, and just going to be turned off, and has a re-
prieve brought to him; I say Ido not wonder that they bring
a surgeon with it, to let him blood that very moment they tel
him of it, that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits
from the heart, and overwhelm him;
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at firsn
I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands, and my
whole being, as I may say, wrapt up in the contemplation of
my deliverance; making a thousand gestures and motions
which I cannot describe; reflecting upon my comrades that
were drowned, and that there should not be one soul saved
but myself; for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, o
any sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, and two
shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel-when the breach and
froth of the sea being so big I could hardly see it, it lay so far
off-and considered, Lord! how was it possible I could get
on shore ?
After I had solaced my mind with the comfortable part of
my condition, I began to look round me, to see what kind of a
place I was in, and what was next to be done; and 1 soon
found my comforts abate, and that, in a word, I had a dreadful
deliverance; for I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any
thing either to eat or drink, to comfort me; neither did I see
any prospect before me, but that of perishing with hunger, or
being devoured by wild beasts: and that which was particu-
larly afflicting to me, was, that I had no weapon, either to
hunt and kill any creature for my sustenance, or to defend
myself against any other creature, that might desire to kill me
for theirs. In a word, I had nothing about me but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box. This was all my
provision; and this threw me into such terrible agonies of
mind, that, for a while, I ran about like a madman. Night
coming upon me, I began with a heavy heart, to consider
what would be my lot if there were any ravenous beasts m that
country, seeing at night they always come abroad for their
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts, at that time,
was, to get up into a thick, bushy tree, like a fir, but thorny-
which grew near me, and where I resolved to sit all night-
and consider the next day what death I should die, for as yet
I saw no prospect of life. I walked about a furlong from the
shore, to see if I could find any fresh water to drink, which 1
did to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little tobac-
co into my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to the tree, and
getting up into it, endeavored to place myself so as that, if'I
should fall asleep, I might not fall; and having cut me a short

stick, like a truncheon, for my defence I took up my lodging;
and having been excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept
as comfortably as, I believe, few could have done m my con-
dition; and found myself the most refreshed with it that 1
think I ever was on such an occasion.
When I waked, it was broad day, the weather clear, and the
storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and swell as before;
but that which surprised me most was, that the ship was lifted
off in the night from the sand where she lay, by the swelling
of the tide, and was driven up almost as far as the rock which I
at first mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the wave
dashing me against it. This being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand upright
still, I wished myself on board, that at least I might save some
necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree, I looked
about me again, and the first thing I found was the boat,
which lay, as the wind and the sea had tossed her up, upon the
and, about two miles on my right hand. I walked as far as 1
could upon the shore to have got to her; but found a neck, or
inlet, of water between me and the boat, which was about half a
mile broad; so I came back for the present, being more intent
upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find something for
my present subsistence.
A little after noon, I found the sea very calm, and the tide
abbed so far out, that I could come within a quarter of a mile
of the ship; and here I found a fresh renewing of my grief;
for I saw evidently, that if we had kept on board, we had been
all safe; that is to say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had
not been so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears from my
eyes again; but as there was little relief in that, I resolved, if
possible, to get to the ship; so I pulled off my clothes, for the
weather was hot to extremity and took the water; but when
I came to the ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how
to get on board; for as she lay aground, and high out of the
water, there was nothing within my reach to .ay hold of. 1
swam round her twice, and the second time I spied a small
piece of a rope, which I wondered I did not see at first, hang
down by the fore-chains so low, as that with great difficulty I
got hold of it, and by the help of that rope got into the fore-
castle of the ship. Here I found that the ship was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold; but that she lay so
on the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather earth, that her
stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and her head low, almost to
the water. By this means all her quarter was free, and all
that was in that part was dry; for you may be sure my first
work was to search and to see what was spoiled and what was

fiee: and, first, I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being ry well disposed to
eat, I went to the bread-room, an filled my pockets with bis-
cuit, and ate it as I went about other things, for I had no time
to lose. I also found some rum in the gat cabin, of which I
took a large dram, and which I had indeed need h ofto
spirit me for what was before me. Now I wanted nothing but
a boat, to furnish myself with many things which I foresaw
would be very necessary to me.
It was in vrm to sit still and wish for what was not to be
had, and this extremity roused my application: we had sev-
eral spare yards, and two or three large spars of wood, and a
spare top-mast or two in the ship: Iresolved to fall to work
with these, and flung as many oveboard as I could manage for
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they might not
drive away. When this was done, I went down the ship's
side, and pulling them to me, I tied four of them fast together
at both ends, as well as I could, in the form of a raf, and lay-
ing two or three short pieces of plank upon them, crossways,
I found I could walk upon it very well,but that it was not able
to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light: so 1 went
to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut a spar top-mat
into three lengths, and added them to my raft, with a great
deal of labor and pains. But the hope of furnishing myself
with necessaries encouraged me to go beyond what I should
have been able to have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reasonable
weight. My next care was what to load it with, and how to
preserve what I laid upon it from the surf of the sea; but 1
was not long considering this. I first laid all the planks or
boards upon it that I could get, and having considered we
vhat I most wanted, I got three of the seamen's chests, which
I had broken open and emptied, and lowered them down upon
my raft: these I filled with provisions, viz. bread, rice, three
Dutch cheeses, five pieces of dried goats' flesh (which we
lived much upon), and a little remainder of European corn,
which had been laid by for some fowls which we had brought
o sea with us; but the fowls were killed. There had been
some barley and wheat together; but, to my great disappoint-
ment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten or spe it
all. As for liquors, I found several cases of bottles belonging
to our skipper, in which were some cordial waters; and, iG
all, about five or six gallons of rack. These I stowed by
themselves, therl being no need to put them into the chests,
nor any room for them. While I was doing this, found the
tide began to flow, though very calm; andI had the mortif.
cation to see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had left
on shore, upon the sand, swim away; as for my breeches,


which were only linen, and open-kneed, I swam on board in
them, and my stockings. However, this put me upon rum-
aging for clothes, of which 1 found enough, but took no more
than I wanted for present use, for I had other things which my
eye was more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore,
and it was after long searching that I found the carpenter's
chest, which was indeed a very useful prize to me, and much
more valuable than a ship-lading of gold would have been at
that time. I got it down to my raft even whole as it was
without losing time to look into it, for I knew in general what
it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms. There
were two verygood fowling-pieces in the great cabin, and two
pistols; these Isecured first, with some powder-horns, and a
small bag of shot, and two old rusty swords. I knew there
were three barrels of powder in the ship, but knew not where
our gunner had stowed them; but with much search I found
them, two of them dry and $ood; the third had taken water.
Those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now I thought
myself pretty well freighted, and began to think how I should
get to shore with them, having neither sail, oar, nor rudder;
and the least cap-full of wind would have overset all my nav-
I had three encouragements: 1st, A smooth, calm sea:
2dly, The tide rising, and setting in to the shore: 3dly, What
little wind there was, blew me towards the land. And thus,
having found two or three broken oars belonging to the boat,
and besides the tools which were in the chest, I found two
saws, an axe, and a hammer; and with this carg I put to
sea. For a mile, or thereabouts, my raft went very well, only
that I found it drive a little distant from the place where I had
landed before; by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently 1 hoped to find some
creek or river there, which I might make use of as a port to
get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before me a little
opening of the land, and I found a strong current of the tide
set into it; so I guided my raft, as well as 1 could, to get into
the middle of the stream. But here I had like to have suffered
a second shipwreck, which, ifI had, I think verily would have
broken my heart; for knowing nothing of the coast, my raft ran
aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and not being aground at
the other end, it wanted but a little that all my cargo had slipped
off towards that end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water
1 did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests, to keep
them in their places, but could not thrust off the raft with all
my strength; neither durst I stir from the posture 1 was in,
but, holding up the chests with all my might, I stood in that


manner near half an hour, in which time the rising of the
water brought me a little more upon a level; and a lite after,
the water still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her
off with the oar I had, into the channel, and then driving up
higher, I at length found myself in the mouth of a little river,
with land on both sides, and a strong current or tide running up.
1 looked on both sides for a proper place to get to shore, for I
was not willing to be driven too high up the river; hoping, in
time, to see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
Myself as near the coast as I could.
SAt length I spied a little cove on the right shore of the creek,
to which, with great pain and difficulty,I guided my raft, and
at last got so near, as that, reaching ground with my oar, 1
could thrust her directly in; but here I had like to have dipped
all my cargo into the sea again; for that shore lying pretty
steep, that is to say, sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of my float, if it ran on shore, would lie so high,
and the other sink lower, as before, that it would endanger
my cargo again. All that 1 could do was, to wait till the tide
was at the highest, keeping the raft with my oar like an anchor
to hold the side of it fast to the shore, near a flat piece of
ground, which I expected the water would flow over; and so
it did. As soon as I found water enough,-for my raft drew
about a foot of water,-1 thrust her upon that dat piece of
ground, and there fastened or moored her, by sticking my two
broken oars into the ground; one on one side, near one end,
and one on the other side, near the other end: and thus I lay
till the water ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo
safe on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a proper
place for my habitation, and where to stow my goods, to secure
them from whatever might happen. Where I was, Iyet knew
not; whether on the continent, or on an island; whether in-
habited, or not inhabited; whether in danger of wild beasts,
or not. There was a hill, not above a mile from me, which rose
up very steep and high, and which seemed to overtop some
other hills, which lay as in a ridge from it, northward. I took
out one of the fowling-pieces, and one of the pistols, and a
horn of powder; and thus armed, I travelled for discovery up
to the top of that hill; where after I had, with great labor and
difficulty, got up to the top, I saw my fate, to my great afflic-
tion, viz. that I was in an island, environed every way with
the sea, no land to be seen, except some rocks, which lay a
great way off, and two small islands, less than this, which lay
about three leagues to the west.
I found also that the island 1 was in was barren, and, as 1
saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, except by wild beasts,

of whom, however, I saw none; yet I saw abundance of fowls,
but knew not their kinds; neither, when I killed them, could
I tell what was fit for food, and what not. At my coming
back, I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree,
on the side of a great wood. I believe it was the first gun that
had been fired there since the creation of the world: I had no
sooner fired, but from all the parts of the wood there arose an
innumerable number of fowls, of many sorts, making a con-
fused screaming, and crying, every one according to his usual
note; but not one of them of any kind that I knew. As for
the creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its color
and beak resembling it, but had no talons or claws more than
common. Its flesh was carrion, and fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, I came back to my raft, and
fell to work to bring my cargo on shore, which took me up the
rest of that day: what to do with myself at night I knew not,
nor indeed where to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the
ground, not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found, there was really no need for
those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself round
with the chests and boards that I had brought on shore, and
made a kind of a hut for that night's lodging. As for food,
yet saw not which way to supply myself, except that I had
seen two or three creatures, like hares, run out of the wood
where I shot the fowl.
I now began to consider, that I might yet get a great many
things out of the ship, which would be useful to me, and par-
ticularly some of the rigging and sails, and such other things
as might come to land; and Iresolved to make another voyage
on board the vessel, if possible. And as I knew that the first
storm that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, I re-
solved to set all other things apart, till I got every thing out
of the ship that I could get. Then I called a council that is
to say, in my thoughts, whether I should take back the raft;
but this appeared impracticable; so I resolved to go as before
when the tide was down; and I did so, only that I stripped
before I went from my hut; having nothing on but a checked
shirt, a pair of linen drawers, and a pair of pumps on my feet.
I got on board the ship as before, and prepared a second
raft; and having had experience of the first, I neither made
this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard, but yet I brought
away several things very useful to me: as, first, in the car-
penter's stores, I found two or three bags of nails and spikes,
a great screw-jack a dozen or two of hatchets; and, above all,
that most useful thing called a grindstone. All these I se-
cured together, with several things belonging to the gunner:

particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels of m.u
lets seven muskets, and another fowling-piece with
some small quantity of powder more; a largebag full small
shot, and a rll oheled; but this last was so heavy,
I could not he it up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clohs that I could
find, and a spare fi top sail, a hammock, and some bedding;
and with this I loaded my second raft, and brought them all
safe on shore, to my very great comfort.
I was under some apprehesions, during my absence from
the land, that at least my prone ons mit be devoured on
shore: but when I cam back, I found no sign of any visit;
our there sat a creature like a wild cat, upon one of tas
chests, which, when I came towards it, ran away a little dis-
tance, and then stood still. She sat very composed and un-
concerned, and looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to
be acquainted with me. I presented my un to her, but as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncoerned at
it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon which I tomsed her a
bit of biscuit, though, by the way, was not very free of it,
for my store was not great: however, I spared her a bit, I say,
and she went to it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked (as
pleased) for more; but I thanked her, and could spare no
more: so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore-though I was fain
to open the barrels of powder and bring them by parcels, for
they were too heavy, being large ca -1 went to work to
make me a little tent, with the sail, and some poles, which 1
cut for that purpose; and into this tent I. brought every thing
that I knew would spoil either with rain or sun; and I piled
all the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the tent,
to fortify it from any sudden attempt either from man or beast.
When I had done this. blocked up the door of the tent with
some boards within, and an empty chest set up on end with-
out; and spreading one of the beds upon the ground, laying
my two pistols just at my head, and my gun at lenh by me,
I went to bed for the first time, and slept very qeti all night.
for I was very weary and heavy; for the gt before Ihad
slept little, and had labored very hard all day, as well to fetch
all those things from the ship, as to get them on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of an kinds now that ever was
laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was not satisfied still
for while the ship sat upright in that posture, I thought f
ought to get every thing out of her that could; so every day,
at low water, I went on board, and brought away something
or other; but particularly, the third time I went, I bought
away as much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare can-


vas, which was to mend the sils upon occasion, and the bar
rel of wet gunpowder. In a ordI brought away all the
sails first and last; only that I was fain to cut them in pieces,
and bring as much at a time as I could; for they were no
more useful to be sails, but as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me still more, was, that, last of
all, after I had made five or six such voyages as these, and
thought I had nothing more to expect from the ship that was
worth my meddling with; I say, after all this I found a great
hogshead of bread, and three large runlets of rum or spirits,
and a box of sugar, and a barrelof fine flour: this was sur-
prising to me, because I had given over expecting any more
provisions, except what was spoiled by the water. I soon
emptied the hogshead of that bread, and wrapped it up, par-
cel by parcel, in pieces of the sails, which I cut out; and, in
a word, I got all this safe on shore also.
The next day I made another voyage; and now, having
plundered the ship of what was portable and fit to hand out, I
began with the cables, and cutting the great cable into pieces,
such as I could move, I got two cables and a hawser on shore,
with all the iron-work I could get; and having cut down the
spritsail-yard, and the mizzen-yard, and every thing I could,
to make a large raft, I loaded it with all those heavy goods, and
came away; but my good luck began now to leave me; for
this raft was so unwieldy, and so overladen, that after I was
entered the little cove, where I had landed the rest of my
goods, not being able to guide it so handily as I did the other,
it overset, and threw me and all my cargo into the water: as for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore; but as to
my cargo, it was a great part ofit lost, especially the iron, which
I expected would have been of great use to me: however,
when the tide was out, I got most of the pieces of cable ashore,
and some of the iron, though with infinite labor; for I was
fain to dip for it into the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this I went every day on board, and brought
away what I could get.
I had been now thirteen days ashore, and had been eleven
limes on board the ship; in which time I had brought away
all that one pair of hands could well be supposed capable to
bring; though I believe verily, had the calm weather held, 1
should have brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but
preparing the twelfth time to go on board, I found the wind
began to rise; however, at low water, I went on board; and
though I thought I had rummaged the cabin so effectually as
that nothing could be found, yet 1 discovered a locker with
drawers in it, in one of which I found two or three razors, and
one pair of large scissors, with some ten or a dozen of good
knives and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds

aOi m asotrm. 43

value in money, some European coin, some Brazil, some
pieces of eight, some gold, and some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money: "Odrug!"
said I aloud, what art thou good for Thou art not worth
to me, no, not the taking off the ground: one of tiose knives
is worth all this heap: have no manner of use for thee; e'en
remain where thou art, and go to the bottom, as a creature
whose life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away; and wrapping all this in a pece of
canvass, I began to think of making another raft; but while I
was preparing this, I found the sky overcast, and the wind
began to rise, and in a quarter of an hour it blew a fresh gale
from the shore. It presently occurred to me, that it was in
vain to pretend to make a raft with the wind off shore; and
that it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood be-
gan, or otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at al
Accordingly I let mysef down into the water, and swam across
the channel which lay between the ship and the sands, and
even that with difficulty enough partly with the weight of the
things I had about me, and partly the roughness of the water;
for the wind rose very hastily, and before it was quite high
water it blew a storm.
But I was got home to my little tent, where I lay, with all
my wealth about me very secure. It blew very hard all that
night, and in the morning, when I looked out behold no more
ship was to be seen I I was a little surprised, but recovered
myself with this satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no
time, nor abated no diligence, to get every thing out of her
that could be useful to me, and that, indeed, there was lit-
tle left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had
more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or of any
thing out of her, except what might drive on shore, from her
wreck; as, indeed, divers pieces of her afterwards did; but
those things were of small use to me.
My thoughts were now wholly employed about securing
myself against either savages, if any should appear, or wild
beasts, if any were in the island; and had many thoughts of
the method how to do this, and what kind of dwelling to make,
whether I should make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon
the earth: and, in short, I resolved upon both; the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to give an ac-
count of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my settlement,
particularly because it was upon a low, moorish ground, near
the sea, and I believed it would not be wholesome; and more
particularly because there was no fresh water near it; so I


resolved to find a more healthy and more convenient spot of
I consulted several things in my situation, which I found
would be proper for me: 1st, Health and fresh water, I just
now mentioned: 2dly, Shelter from the heat of the sun: 3dly,
Security from ravenous creatures, whether men or beasts:
4thly, A view to the sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I
might not lose any advantage for my deliveran e, of which I
was not willing to banish allmy expectation yet.
In search for a place proper for this, I found a little plain on
the side of a rising hill, whose front towards this little plain
was steep as a house side, so that nothing could come down
upon me from the top. On the side of this rock, there was a
hollow place, worn a little way in, like the entrance or door
of a cave; but there was not really any cave, or way into the
rock, at all.
On the flat of the green, just before this hollow place, I
resolved to pitch my tent. This plain was not above a hun-
dred yards broad, and about twice as long, and lay like a green
before my door; and, at the end of it, descended irregularly
every way down into the low ground by the sea-side. It was
on the N.N.W. side of the hill; so that it was sheltered from
the heat every day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or there-
abouts, which, in those countries, is near the setting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half-circle before the hol
low place, which took in about ten yards in its semi-diameter
from the rock, and twenty yards in its diameter, from its be-
ginning and ending.
In this halfcircle 1 pitched two rows of strong stakes,
driving them into the ground till they stood very firm like
yiles, the biggest end being out of the ground about five feet
and a half, and sharpened on the top. The two rows did not
stand above six inches from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I cut in the ship, and
laid them in rows, one upon another, within the circle, be-
tween these two rows of stakes, up to the top, placing other
stakes in the inside, leaning against them, about two feet and
a half high, like a spur to a post; and this fence was so strong,
that neither man nor beast could get into it, or over it. This
cost me a great deal of time and labor, especially to cut the
piles in the woods, bring them to the place, and d-ive them
into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by oor, but
by a short ladder to go over the top; which ladder, when 1
was in, I lifted over after me; and so Iwas completely fenced
m and fortified, as I thought, from all the world, and conse-
quently slept secure in the night, which otherwise I could aot

have done; though, as it appeared afterwards, there was no
need of all this caution from the enemies that 1 apprehended
danger from.
Into this fence, or fortress, with infinite labor, I carried all
my riches, all my provisions, ammunition, and stores, of which
you have the account above; and I made a large tent, which,
to preserve me from the rains, that in one part of the year are
very violent there, I made double, viz. one smaller tent within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the uppermost with
a large tarpaulin, which I had saved among the sails.
And now I lay no more for a while in the bed which I had
brought on shore, but in a hammock, which was indeed a very
good one, and belonged to the mate of the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every thing
that would spoil by the wet; and having thus inclosed all my
goods, I made up the entrance, which till now I had left open,
and so passed and repassed as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way into the
rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that I dug down,
out, through my tent, I laid them up within my fence in the
nature of a terrace, so that it raised the ground within about
a foot and a half; and thus I made me a cave, just behind my
tent, which served me like a cellar to my house. It cost me
much labor and many days, before all these things were
brought to perfection; and therefore I must go back to some
other things which took up some of my thoughts. At the
same time it happened, after I had laid my scheme for the
setting up my tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain
falling from i thick, dark cloud, a sudden flash of lightning
happened, and after that, a great clap of thunder, as is nat-
urally the effect of it. I was not so much surprised with the
lightning, as I was with a thought, which darted into my mind
as swift as the lightning itself: 0 my.powder My very heart
sunk within me when I thought, that at one blast, all my
powder might be destroyed; on which, not my defence only,
\ lt the providing me food, as I thought, entirely depended.
i I was nothing near so anxious about my own danger, though,
had the powder took fire, I had never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that after the sturm
was over, Ilaid aside all my works, my building and foru.fy-
ing, and applied myself to make bags and boxes, to separate
the powder, and to keep it a little and a little in a parcel, in
hope that whatever might come, it might not all take fire at
a~ce;. and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
tomake one part fire another. I finished this work in about a
fortnight; and I think my powder, which in all was abou-
24 lb. weight, was divided in not less than a hundred parcels.
As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not apprehend any


danger from that; so I placed it in my new cave, which, in my
fancy, I called my kitchen, and the rest I hid up and down in
holes among the rocks, so that no wet might come to it,
marking very carefully where 1 laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went out at
least once every day with my gun, as well to divert myself, as
to see if I could kill any thing fit for food; and, as near as I
could, to acquaint myself with what the island produced.
rhe first time I went out, I presently discovered that there
were goats upon the island, which was a great satisfaction to
me; but then it was attended with this misfortune to me, viz.
that they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
it was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them; but I was not discouraged at this, not doubting but I
might now and then shoot one, as it soon happened; for after
I had found their haunts a little, I laid wait in this manner for
them: 1 observed, if they saw me in the valleys, though they
were upon the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible
fright; but if they were feeding in the valleys, and I was upon
the rocks, they took no notice of me; from whence I conclu-
ded, that, by the position of their optics, their sight was so di-
rected downward, that they did not readily see objects that
were above them: so, afterwards, I took this method-I al-
vays climbed the rocks first, to get above them, and then had


frequently a fair mark. The first shot 1 made among them
creatures, I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid by her,
which she gave suck to, which grieved me heartily but when
the old one fell, the kid stood stock till by her, t I came and
took her up; and not only so, but when I carried the old one
with me, upon my shoulders, the kid followed me quite to my
inclosure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took the kid
in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in hopes to have
bred it up tame; but it would not eat; so 1 was forced to kill
it, and eat it myself. These two supplied me with flesh a
great while, for I ate sparingly, and preserved my provisions
(my bread especially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it absolutely ne-
cessary to provide a place to make a fire in, and fuel to burn:
and what I did for that, as also how I enlarged my cave, and
what conveniences I made, I shall give a full account of in
its proper place; but I must first give some little account of
myself, and of my thoughts about living, which, it may well
be supposed, were not a few.
I had a dismal project of my condition; for as I was not
cast away upon that island without being driven, as is said, by
a violent storm, quite out of the course of our intended voyage,
and a great way, viz. some hundreds of leagues, out of the
ordinary course of the trade of mankind, I had great reason
to consider it as a determination of Heaven, that m this deso-
late place, and in this desolate manner, I should end my life.
The tears would run plentifully down my face, when I made
these reflections; and sometimes I would expostulate with my-
self why Providence should thus completely ruin its creatures,
and render them so absolutely miserable; so abandoned with-
out help, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly be rational
to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to check these
thoughts, and to reprove me; and particularly, one day,
walking with my gun in my hand, by the sea-side, I was very
pensive upon the subject of my present condition, when rea-
son, as it were, expostulated with me tne other way, thus.
" Well, you are in a desolate condition, it is true; but, pray
remember, where are the rest of you t Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Wherearetheten? Why were
not they saved, and you lost? Why were you singled outT
Is it better to be here or there ?" And then I pointed to the
sea. All evils are to be considered with the good that is m
them, and with what worse attends them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was furnished for
my subsistence, and what would have been my case if it had
not happened (which was a hundred thousand to one) that the
ship coated from the place where'she first struck, and was

driven so near to the shore, that I had time to get all these
things out of her; what would have been my case, if I had
been to have lived in the condition in which I at first came on
shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to supply and
procure them Particularly," said I aloud (though to my-
self)," what should I have done without a gun, without ammu-
nition, without any tools to make any thing, or to work with,
without clothes, bedding, a tent, or any manner of covering? "
and that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and was
in a fair way to provide myself in such a manner as to live
without my gun, when my ammunition was spent; so that 1
had a tolerable view of subsisting, without any want as long as
I lived; for I considered, from the beginning, how I should
provide for the accidents that might happen, and for the time
that was to come not only after my ammunition should be
spent, but even after my health or strength should decay.
I cofess, I had not entertained any notion of my ammuni-
tion being destroyed at one blast, I mean my powder being
blown up by lightning; and this made the thoughts of it so
surprising to me, when it lightened and thundered, as I ob-
served just now.
And now, being to enter in to a melancholy relation of a scene
of silent life. such, perhaps, as was never heard of in the world
before, I shall take it from its beginning, and continue it in its
order. It was, by my account, the 30th of September when,
in the manner as above said, I first set my foot upon this hor-
rid island; when the sun, being to us in its autumnal equinox,
was almost just over my head; for I reckoned myself, by ob-
servation, to be in the latitude of 9 degrees 22 minutes north
of the Line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it came into
my thoughts that I should lose my reckoning of time for want
of books, and pen and ink, and should even forget the Sabbath
days from the working days; but, to prevent this, I cut it with
my knife upon a large post, in capital letters; and making it
into a great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first landed,
viz. came on shore here on the 30th of September, 1659."
Upon the sides of this square poet I cut every day a notch with
my knife, and every seventh notch was as long again as the
rest, and every first day of the month as long again as that
long one; and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly,
and yearly reckoning of time.
But it happened that among the many things which I
brought out of the ship, in the several voyages which, as above
mentioned, I made to it, I got several things of less value, but
not at all less useful to me, which I found, some time after, in
rummaging the chests; as, inparticular, pens, ink, and paper;
several parcels in the captain s, mate's, gunner's, and carpep-


ter's keeping; three or four compasses, some mathematical
instruments, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of naviga-
tion; all which I huddled together, whether 1 might want
them or no: also I found three very good Bibles, which came
to me in my cargo from England, and which 1 had packed up
among my things; some Portuguese books also, and, among
them, two or three popish prayer books, and several other
books, all which 1 carefully secured. And I must not forget,
that we had in the ship a dog, and two cats, of whose eminent
history I may have occasion to say something, in its place;
for I carried both the cats with me; and as for the dog, he
jumped out of the ship himself, and swam on shore to me the
day after I went on shore with my first cargo, and was a
trusty servant to me for many years: I wanted nothing that he
could fetch me, nor any company that he could make up to
me; I only wanted to have him talk to me; but that would not
do. As I observed before, 1 found pens, ink, and paper, and
I husbanded them to the utmost; and I shall show that while
my ink lasted; I kept things very exact, but after that was
gone I could not; for I could not make any ink, by any means
that I could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things, not-
withstanding all that I had amassed together; and of these,
this of ink was one; as also a spade, pickaxe, and shovel, to
dig or remove the earth; needles, pins, and thread: as for
linen, I soon learned to want that without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on heavily;
and it was near a whole year before I had entirely finished my
little pale, or surrounded my habitation. The piles or stakes,
which were as heavy as I could well lift, were a long time in
cutting and preparing in the woods, and more, by far, in
bringing home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and a third day in driv-
ing it into the ground; for which purpose, I got a heavy piece
of wood at first, but at last bethought myself of one of the iron
crows; which, however, though I found it, yet it made driving
these posts or piles very laborious and tedious work. But
what need I have been concerned at the tediousness of any
thing I had to do, seeing I had time enough to do it in ? nor
had any other employment, if that had been over, at least
that I could foresee, except the ranging the island to seek fbr
food; which I did, more or less, every day.
I now began to consider seriously my condition, and the
circumstance I was reduced to; and I drew up the state of
my affairs in writing, not so much to leave them to any that
wbre to come after me (for I was like to have but few heirs),
a to deliver my thoughts from daily poring upon them, and
afflicting my mmd; and as my reason began now to master

my despondency, I began to comfort myself ae wel as I could,
and to set the good against the evil, that I might have some
thing to distinguish my case from worse; and I stated very
impartially, like debtor and creditor, the comforts I enjoyed
against the miseries I suffered, thus:-

I am cast upon a horrible, deso-
late island, void of all hope of re-
I am singled out and separated,
s it were, from all the world, to
be miserable.

I am divided from nmakind, a
olitaire; one banished from hu-
man society.
I have no clothes to cover me.

I am without any defence, or
means to resist any violence of
man or beast.

I have no soul to speak to, or
relieve me.

But I am alive; and not drown
ed, as all my ship's company were.
But I am singled oat, too, from
all the ship's crew, to be spared
from death; and He that muracu-
loasly saved me from death, can
deliver me from this condition.
But I am not starved, and per-
ishing in a barren place, affording
no sustenance.
But I am in a hot climate, where,
if I had clothes, could hardly
wear them.
But I am east on an island
where I see no wild beast to hurt
me, as I saw on the coast of Af.
rica; and what if I had been ship-
wrecked there ?
But God wonderfully sent the
ship in near enough to the shore,
that I have got out so many neces-
sary things as will either supply
my wants, or enable me to supply
myself, even as long as I live.

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony, that
there was scarce any condition in the world so miserable, but
there was something negative, or something positive, to be
thankful for in it; and let this stand as a direction, from the
experience of the most miserable of all conditions in this world,
that we may always find in it something to comfort ourselves
from, and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mmd a little to relish my condition,
and given over looking out to sea, to see if I could spy a ship;
I say, giving over these things, 1 began to apply myself to ac-
commodate my way of living, and to make things as easy to
me as I could.
I have already described my habitation, which was a tent
under the side of a rock, surrounded with a strong pale of posts
and cables; but I might now rather call it a wall, for I raised a
kind of wall against it of turfs, about two feet thick on the out-
side; and after some time (I think it was a year and a half)

I raised rafters from it leaning to the rock, and thatched or
covered it with boughs of trees and such things as I could get,
to keep out the ram; which I fond, at some tnes of the year,
very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods into
this pale, and into the cave which I had made behind me.
But I must observe, too, that at first this was a confused heap
of goods, which as they lay in no order, so they took up aD
my place: I had no room to turn myself: so I set mysef to
enlarge my cave, and work farther into the earth; for it was
a loose, sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labor I be-
stowed on it; and when I found I was pretty safe as to the
beasts of prey, I worked sideways, to the right hand, into the
rock, and then, turning to the right again, worked quite oat,
and made me a door to come out m the outside of my pale or
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were, a back-
way to my tent and to my storehouse, but gave me room to
stow my goo
And now Iegan to apply myself to make such necessary
things as I found I most wanted, particularly a chair and a
table; for without these 1 was not able to enjoy the few comforts
I had in the world; I could not write, or eat, or do several
things with so much pleasure, without a table: so I went to
work. And here I must needs observe, that as reason is the
substance and original of the mathematics, so, by stating and
squaring every thing by reason, and by making the most ra-
tional judgment of things every man may be, in time, master
of every mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life
and yet, in time, by labor, application, and contrivance. I
found, at last, that I wanted nothing but I could have made
especially if I had had tools. However, I made abundance of
things, even without tools i and some with no more tools than
an adze and a hatchet, which perhaps were never made that
way before, and that with infinite labor. For example, if 1
wanted a board, I had no other way but to cot down a tree,
set it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side with
my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a plank, and then
dub it smooth with my adze. It is true, bythis method I
could make but one board of a whole tree; but this I had no
remedy for but patience any more than I had for a prodigious
deal of time and labor which it took me up to make a plank or
board; but my time or labor was little worth, and so it was as
well employed one way as another.
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I observed
above, in the first place; and this 1 did out ofthe short pieces
of boards that I brought on my raft from the ship. But when
I wrought out some boards, as above, I made large shelves, of

the breadth of a foot and a half, one over another, all along one
side of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-work on;
and, in a word, to separate every thing at large in their places,
that I might easily come at them. I knocked pieces into the
wall of the rock, to hang my guns, and all things that would
hang up; so that had my cave been seen, it looked like a gen-
eral magazine of all necessary things; and I had every thing
so ready at my hand, that it was a great pleasure to me to see
all my goods m such order, and especially to find my stock of
all necessaries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of every
day's employment; for, indeed, at first, I was in too much
hurry, and not only hurry as to labor, but in much di-compo-
sure of mind: and my journal would, too, have been fill of
many dull things; for example, I must have said thus-
" ept. 30th. After I had got to shore, and had escaped drown-
ing, instead of being thankful to God for my deliverance, having
first vomited, with the great quantity of salt water which was
gotten into my stomach, and recovering myself a little, 1 ran
about the shore, wringing my hands, and beating my head
and face, exclaiming at my misery, and crying out 'I was
undone, undone i' till, tired and faint, I was forced to lie down
on the ground to repose, but durst not sleep, for fear of being
Some days after this and after I had been on board the
ship, and got all that I could out of her, I could not forbear
getting up to the top of a little mountain, and looking out to
sea, in hopes of seeing a ship; then fancy, that, at a vast dis-
tance, I spied a sail, please myself with the hopes of it, and,
after looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite, and
sit down and weep like a child, and thus increase my misery
by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some measure, and
having settled my household-stuff and habitation, made me a
table, and a chair, and all as handsome about me as I could, 1
began to keep my journal; of which I shall here give you the
copy (though in it will be told all these particulars over again)
as ong as it lasted; for, having no more ink, I was forced to
leave it ofE

september S30, iB9. 1, poor, nmserable Robinson Crusoe,
king shipwrecked, during a dreadful storm, in the offing
aanie on shore on this dismal, unfortunate island, whic'l
called the ISLAND OF DESPAIR; all the rest of the ship's com-
Si ny being drowned, and myself almost dead.

All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting myself at the
dismal circumstances I was brought to, viz. I had neither food,
house, clothes, weapon, nor place to fly to; and, in despair
of any relief, saw nothing but death before me; that I should
either be devoured by wild beasts, murdered by savages, or
starved to death for want of food. At the approach of night I
slept in a tree, for fear of wild creatures; but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great surprise, the
ship had floated with the high tide, and was driven on shore
again much nearer the island; which, as it was some comfort
on one hand (for seeing her sit upright and not broken in
pieces, I hoped, if the wind abated, I ht get on board, and
get some food and necessaries out of her formy relief), so on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the los of my comrades,
who, I imagined, if we had all staid on board, might have
saved the ship, or, at least, that they would not have been all
drowned, as they were; and that, had the men been saved,
we might perhaps have built as a boat, out of the ruins of the
ship, to have carried us to some other part of the world. 1
spent great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but, at length seeing the ship almost dry Iwent upon
the sand as near as could, and then swam on board. This
day also it continued raining, though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these days entirely
spent in many several voyages to get all I could out of the
ship; which I broughton shore, every tide of flood, upon rafts.
Much rain also in these days, though with some intervals of
fair weather but it seems this was the rainyseasn.
Oct. 20. 1 overset my raft, and all the goodsI had got upon
it; but being in shoal water, and the hin being chiey
heavy, I recovered many of them when the tidewas out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some gusts of
wind; during which time the ship broke in pieces (the wind
blowing a little harder thrA before), and was no more to be
*en, except the wreck of her, and tlt only at low water. I
spent this day in covering and securing the goods which I has
saved, that the rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day, to find
out a place to fix my habitation; greatly concerned to secure
myself from any attack in the night, either from wild beasts or
men. Towards night I fixed upon a proper place, under a
rock, and marked out a semicircle for my encampment;
which I resolved to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortifica-
tion, made of double piles, lined within with cables, and wits
out with turt
From the 26th to the 30th, 1 worked very hard in carrying
all my goods to my new habitation, though some part of the
time it rained exceedingly hard.


C- M &

The 31st, in the morning, I went out into the island with
my gun, to seek for some food, and discover the country;
when I killed a ,he-goat, and her kid followed me home, which
I afterwards killed also, because it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and lay there
for the first night; making it as large as I could, with stakes
driven in to swing my hammock upon.
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the pieces
of timber which made my rafts; and with them formed a fence
round me, a little within the place 1 had marked out for my
Nov. 3. 1 went out with my gun, and killed two fowls like
ducks, which were very good food. In the afternoon I went
to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of work,
of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and time of diver-
sion; viz. every morning I walked out with my gun for two
or three hours, if it did not rain; then employed myself
to work till about eleven o'clock; then ate what I had to live
on; and from twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather
being excessive hot; and then, in the evening, to work again.
The working part of this day and the next wa, wholly em-
ployed in making my table, for I was yet bur v'-y sorry

workman, though time and necessity made me a complete
natural mechanic soon after, as I believe they would any
one else.
Nov. 5. This day went abroad with my gun and dog, and
killed a wild cat; her skin pretty soft, but her flesh good for
nothing: of every creature that I killed I took off the skins,
and preserved them. Coming back by the sea-shore, 1 saw
many sorts of sea-fowl which I did not understand; but was
surprised, and almost frightened, with two or three seals;
which, while I was gazing at them (not well knowing what
they were), got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk, I went to work with my
table again, and finished it, though not to my liking; nor was
it long before I learned to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather. The 7th,
8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the 11th was Sunday,
according to my reckoning), 1 took wholly up to make me a
chair, and with much ado, brought it to a tolerable shape, but
never to please me; and, even m the making, 1 pulled it in
pieces several times.
Note. I soon neglected my keeping Sundays; for omitting
my mark for them on my post I orgt which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rain ; which refreshed me exceed-
ingly, and cooled the earth; but it was accompanied with tee-
rible thunder and lightning, which frightened me dreadfully,
for fear of my powder. As soon as it was over, I resolved to
separate my stock of powder into as many little parcels as
possible, that it might not be in danger.
Nov. 14, 15, 16. These three days I spent in making little
square chests or boxes which might hold about a pound, or
two pounds at most, of powder; and so, putting the powder
in, I stowed it in places as secure and as remote from one
another as possible. On one of these three days I killed a
largee bird that was good to eat; but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. This day I began to dig behind my tent, into the
rock, to make room for my farther convenience.
Note. Three things I wanted exceedingly for this work,
viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheelbarrow, or basket; so I
desisted from my work, and began to consider how to supply
these wants, and make me some tools. As for a pickaxe,
made use of the iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shove or spade; this was so
absolutely necessary, that, indeed I could do nothing effect-
ually without it; but what kind of one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next day, in searching the woods, I found a
tree of that wood, or like it, which, in the Brazils, they call
the iron tree, from its exceeding hardness: of this, with great
labor, and almost spoiling my axe, I cut a piece, and brought


it home, too, with difficulty enough, for it was exceeding
heavy. The excessive hardness of the wood, and my having
no other way, made me a long while upon this machine; for I
worked it effectually, by little and little, into the form of a
shovel or spade; the handle exactly shaped like ours in England,
only that the broad part having no iron shod upon it at bottom,
it would not last me so long: however, it served well enough
for the uses which 1 had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after that fashion, or so long
I was still deficient; for 1 wanted a basket, or a wheelbar-
row. A basket I could not make by any means, having no
such things as twigs that would bend to make wicker ware
at least none yet iound out; and as to the wheelbarrow, I
fancied I could make all but the wheel, but that I had no notion
of; neither did I know how to go about it: besides, I had no
possible way to make iron gudgeons for the spindle or axis of
the wheel to run in: so I gave it over: and, for carrying away
the earth which I dug out of the cave, I made me a thing like
a hod, which the laborers carry mortar in for the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult to me as the making the shovel; and
yet this and the shovel, and the attempt which I made in vain
to make a wheelbarrow, took me up no less than four days;
I mean always excepting my morning walk with my gun.
which I seldom omitted, and very seldom failed also bringing
home something fit to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood still, because of
my making these tools, when they were finished I went on;
and, working every day, as my strength and time allowed, I
spent eighteen days entirely in widening and deepening my
cave, that it might hold my goods commodiously.
Note. During all this time, I worked to make this room, or
cave, spacious enough to accommodate me as a warehouse or
magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room, and a cellar. As for a
lodging, I kept to the tent; except that, sometimes, in the wet
season of the year, it rained so hard that I could not keep my-
self dry; which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles, in the form of rafters, leaning
against the rock, and loaded them with flags and large leaves
of trees, like a thatch.
December 10. I began now to think my cave or vault fin-
ished; when on a sudden (it seems I had made it too large) a
great quantity of earth fell down from the top and one side;
so much, that, in short, it frightened me, and not without rea-
son too; for if I had been under it, I should never have want-
ed a grave-digger. Upon this disaster, I had a great deal of
work to do over again, for I had the loose earth to carry out;
and, which was of more importance, I had the ceiling to prop
up, so that I might be sure no more would come down.

Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accordingly, and
got two shores or posts pitched upright to the top, with two
pieces of board across over each poet: this I finished the next
day; and setting more poets up with boards, in about a week
more I had the roof secured; and the poets, standing in rows.
sewed me for partitioos to part offmy-onse.
Dec. 17. From this day to the 90th, I placed shelves, and
knocked up nails on the poets to hang every thing up that
could be hung up: and now I began to be in some order
within doors.
Dec. 20. I carried every thing into the cave, and began to
furnish my house, and set up some pieces of boards, like a
dresser -to order my victuals upon; but boards began to be
very scarce with me: also I mde me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stirring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain; and the earth much cooler than before,
and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat; and lamed another, so that
I catched it, and led it homein a string: when I had it home,
I bound and splintered up its leg, which was broke.
N. B. I took such care of it that it lived; and the leg grew
well, and as strong as ever; but, by nursing it so long, it grew
tame, and fed upon the little green at my door, and would not
go away. This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might have food
when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30, 31. Great heats, and no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening, for food:
this time I spent in putting all my things in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still; but I went abroad early and
late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of the day. This
evening, going farther into the valleys which lay towards the
centre of the island, I found there was plenty of goats, though
exceeding shy, and hard to come at; however, resolved to
try if I could not bring my dog to hunt them down. Accord-
ingly, the next day, I went out with my dog, and set him
upon the goats: but I was mistaken, for they al faced about
upon the dog; and he knew his danger too well, for he would
not come near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which being stilljealous
of my being attacked by somebody, I resolved to make very
thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I purposely omit
what was said in the journal: it is sufficient to observe, that I
was no less time than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this wall: though it

was no more than about 25 yards in length, being a half-circle,
from one place in the rock to another place, about twelve
yards from it, the door of the cave bemg m the centre,
behind it.
All this time I worked very hard; the rains hindering me
many days, nay, sometimes weeks together: but I thought I
should never be perfectly secure tl this wall was finished;
and it is scarce credible what inexpressible labor every thing
was done with, especially the bringing piles out of the woods,
and driving them into the ground; for I made them much big-
ger than I neede.. to have done.
When this wall was finished, and the outside double-fenced,
with a turf-wall raised up close to it, I persuaded myself that
if any people were to come on shore there, they would not per-
ceive any thing like a habitation; and it was very well rdid
so, as may be observed hereafter, upon a very remarkaNe
During this time, I made my rounds in the woods for gas-'
every day, when the rain permitted me, and made frequer
discoveries, in these walks, of something or other to my advan-
tage; particularly, I found a kind of wild pigeons, who buila
not as wood-pigeons, in a tree, but rather as house-pigeons, in
the holes of the rocks: and, taking some young ones, I en-
deavored to breed them up tame, and did so: but when they
grew older they flew all away; which, perhaps, was at first
for want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them: how-
ever I frequently found their nests, and got their young ones,
which were very good meat. And now, m the managing my
household affairs, I found myself wanting in many things,
which I thought at first it was impossible for mt to make, as
indeed, as to some of them, it was: for instance. could never
make a cask to be hooped. I had a small runlet or two, as I
observed before; but I could never arrive to the carcity of
making one by them, though I spent many weeks about it; I
could neither put in the heads, nor join the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water.; so I gave that also over
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candles; so that as
soon as it was dark, which was generally by seven o'clock, 1
was obliged to go to btd. I remember the lump of bees-wax
with which I made candles in my African adventure; but I
had none of that nowv; the only remedy 1 had was, that when
I had killed a goa saved the tallow; and with a little dish
made of clay, which I baked in the sun, to which I added a
wick of some oakum, 1 made me a lamp; and this gave me
light, though not a clear, steady light, like a candle. In the
middle of all my labors it happened, that, in rummaging my
things, I found a little bag; which, as I hinted- before, had
been filled with corn, for the feeding of poultry; not for this


voyage, but before, as 1 suppose, when the ship came from
Lisbon. What little remainder of corn had been in the bag
was all devoured with the rats, and I saw nothing in the bag
but husks and dust; and being willing to have the bag for
some other use (I think it was to put powder in, when I di-
vided it for fear of the lightning, or some such use), I shook
the husks of corn out ot it, on one side of my fortification,
under the rock.
It was a little before the great rain just now mentioned, that
I threw this stuff away; taking no notice of any thing, and
not so much as remembering that I had thrown any thing
there; when about a month after, I saw some few stalks of
something green shooting out of the ground, which I fancied
might be some plant I had not seen; but I was surprised, and
perfectly astonished, when, after a little longer time, I saw
about ten or twelve ears come out, which were perfect green
barley, of the same kind as our European, nay, as our English
It is impossible to express the astonishment and confusion
of my thoughts on this occasion : I had hitherto acted upon
no religious foundation at all; indeed, I had very few notions of
religion in my head, nor had entertained any sense of any
thing that had befallen me, otherwise than as chance, or, as
we lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as in-

quiring into t le end of Providence in these things, or his order
in governing events in the world. But after I saw barley grow
there, in a climate which I knew was not proper for corn, and
especially as I knew not how it came there,'it startled me
strangely; and I began to suggest, that God had miraculously
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed sown, and
that it was so directed purely for my sustenance, on that wild,
miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears out of my
eyes; and I began to bless myself that such a prodigy of na-
ture should happen upon my account: and this was the more
strange to me, because I saw near it still, all along by the side
of the rock, some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen it grow
in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of Providence
for my support, but, not doubting that there was more in the
place, I went over all that part of the island where I had been
before, searching in every corner, and under every rock, for
more of it; but Icould not find any. At last it occurred to my
thoughts, that I had shook out a bag of chicken's-meat in that
place, and then the wonder began to cease; and I must confess,
my religious thankfulness to God's providence began to abate
too, upon the discovering that all this was nothing but what
was common; though 1 ought to have been as thankful for so
strange and unforeseen a providence, as if it had been mirac-
ulous; for it was really the work of Providence, as to me, that
should order or appoint that ten or twelve grains of corn should
remain unspoiled, when the rats had destroyed all the rest, as if
it had been dropped from heaven; as also, that I should throw
it out in that particular place, where, it being in the shade
of a high rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas, if I had
thrown it any where else, at that time, it would have been
burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of this corn, you may be sure, in
their season, which was about the end of June; and, laying up
every corn, I resolved to sow them all again; hoping, in time,
to have some quantity sufficient to supply me with bread.
But it was not till the fourth year that I could allow myself
the least grain of this corn to eat, and even then, but sparingly
as I shallshow afterwards, in its order; for I lost all that I
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper time; as I
sowed just before the dry season, so that it never came up at
all, at least not as it woud have done; of which in its place.
Besides this barley, there were, as above, twenty or thirty
stalks of rice, which I preserved with the same care; and
whose use was of the same kind, or to the same purpose, viz.
to make me bread, or rather food; for I found ways to cook it

up without baking, though I did that also after some time.-
But to return to my journal.
I worked excessively hard these three or four months, to get
my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed it up; contriv-
ing to get into it, not by a door, but over the wall, by a ladder,
that there might be no sign on the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder; so I went up with the
ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me, and let it
down in the inside: this was a complete inclosure to me; for
within I had room enough, and nothing could come at me
from without, unless it could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished 1 had almost
all my labor overthrown at once, and myself killed: the case
was thus:-As 1 was busy in the inside of it, behind my tent,
just at the entrance into my cave, I was terribly tightened
with a most dreadful surprising thing indeed; for, a on a
sudden, I found the earth come crumbling down from the roof
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill over my head, and
two of the posts had set up in the cave cracked in a frightful
manner. I was heartily scared; but thought nothing of what
really was the cause, only thinking that the top of my cave was
falling in, as some of it had done before; and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not thinking
myself safe there neither. I got over my wall for fear of the
pieces of the hill which 1 expected might roll down awupne
I had no sooner stepped down upon the firm ground, thn 1
plainly saw it was a terrible earthquake; for the ground 1
stood on shook three times at about eight minutes' distance,
with three such shocks as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the earth
and a great piece of the top of a rock, which stood about half
a mile from me, next the sea, fell down, with such a terrible
noise as I never heard in all my life. I perceived also, that
the very sea was put into a violent motion by it; and I believe
the shocks were stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so much amazed with the thing itself (having never
felt the like, nor discoursed with any one that had), that I was
like one dead or stupefied; and the motion of the earth made
my stomach sick, like one that was tossed at sea: but the noise
of the falling of the rock awaked me, as it were; and rousing
me from the stupefied condition I was in, filled me with horror
and I thought of nothing but the hill falling upon my tent and
my household goods, and burying all at once: this sunk my
very soul within me a second time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt no more for some
time, I began to take courage; yet I had not heart enough to
go over my wall again, for fear of being buried alive but sat
still upon the ground, greatly cast down, and disconsolate, not

knowing what to do. All this while, I had not the least serious
religious thought; nothing but the common Lord, hoe mercy
upon me! and when it was over, that went away too.
While I t thus, I found the air overcast and grow cloudy
as if it wou d rain; and soon after the wind rose by little and
little, so th .t in less than half an hour it blew a most dreadful
hurricane: the sea was, all on a sudden, covered with foam
and froth; the shore was covered with a breach of the water;
the trees were torn up by the roots; and a terrible storm it
was. This held about three hours, and then began to abate;
and in two hours more it was quite calm, and began to rain
very hard. All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected; when, on a sudden, it came into my
thoughts, that these winds and rain being the consequence of
the earthquake, the earthquake itself was spent and over, and
I might venture into my cave again. With this thought my
spirits began to revive; and the rain also helping to persuade
me, I went in, and sat down in my tent; but the ram was so
violent, that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to get into my cave though very much
afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall head. This
violent rain forced me to a new work, viz. to cut a hole through
my new fortification, like a sink, to let the water go out,
which would else have drowned my cave. After I had been
in my cave for some time, and found no more shocks of the
earthquake follow, I began to be more composed. And now
to support my spirits, which, indeed, wanted it very much, I
went to my little store, and took a small sup of rum; which
however, I did then, and always, very sparingly, knowing I
could have no more when that was gone. It continued raiung
all that night, and great part of the next day, so that I could
not stir abroad; but my mind being more composed, I began
to think of what I had best do; concluding, that if the island
was subject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for
me in a cave, but I must consider of building me some little
hut in an open place, which I might surround with a wall, as
I had done here, and so make myself secure from wild beasts
or men; for if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts, I resolved to remove my tent from the
place where it now stood, being just under the hanging preci-
pice of the hill, and which, if it should be shaken again, would
certainly fall upon my tent. I spent the two next days, being
the 19th and 20th of April in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation. The fear of bemg swallowed alive
affected me so, that I never slept in quiet; and yet the appre-
hension of lying abroad, without any fence, was almost equal
to it: but still, when I looked about, and saw how every thing

omseoW CRBUE. 63
war pt in order, how pleasntly I was concealed. and hek
safe fm danger, it ma me very loth o remove. In the
mean time, it occurred to me that it would require a vast deal
of time for me to do this; and that I must be contented to run
the risk where 1 was, till I had formed a convenient camp, and
secured it so as to remove to it. With this conclusion com-
posed myself for a time; and resolved that would so to work
with all speed to build me a wall with piles and cable, &e., in
a circle, before, and set up my tent in it when it was fin-
ished; but that I would venture to stay where I was till it was
ready and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 2. The next morning I began to consider of means
to put this measure into execution; but I was at a great loss
about the tools. I had three large axes, and ablnance of
hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for traffic with the In-
dians); but with much chopping adl cutting knotty, hard wood,
they were all full of notes and dull; and though I had a
grindstone, I could not turn it and grind my tools too. This
caused me as much thought as a statesman would have be-
stowed upon a grand point of politics, or a judge upon the
life and death o a man. At length I contrived a wheel with
a string, to turn it with my foot, that I might have both my
hands at liberty.
Note. I had never seen any such thing in England, or, at
least, not to take notice how it was done; though since, I have
observed it is very common there: besides that, my grindstone
was very large and heavy. This machine cost me a full week's
work to bring it toperfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in grinding
my tools my machine for turning my grindstone performing
very well.
April 80. Having perceived that my bread had been low a
great while, I now took a survey of it, and reduced myself tU
one biscuit-cake a day, which made my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the mrnn, looking toward the seaside, thl
tide being low, I saw something lie on the shore bigger tha.
ordinary, and it looked like a cask: when I came to it, I found
a small barrel, and two or three pieces of the wreck of the
ship, which were driven on shore by the late hurricane; and
looking towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examined the
barrel that was driven on shore, and soon found it was a barrel
of gunpowder; but it had taen water, and the powder was
caked as hard as a stone; however, I rolled it farther on the
shore for the present, and went on upon the sands, as near as
I could to the wreck of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely re-
moved. The forecastle, which lay before buried in sand, was


heaved up at least six feet; and the stern (which was broke to
pieces, and parted from the rest, by the force of the sea, soon
after I had left rummaging of her) was tossed, as it were, up,
and cast on one side; and the sand was thrown so high on that
side next her stern, that I could now walk quite up to her
when the tide was out; whereas there was a great piece of
water before, so that I could not come within a quarter of a
mile of the wreck without swimming. I was surprised with
this at first, but soon concluded it must be done by the earth-
quake; and as by this violence the ship was more broke open
than formerly, so many things came daily on shore, which the
sea had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled by
degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design of remov-
ing my habitation; and I busied myself mightily, that day
especially, in searching whether I could make any way into
the ship; but I found nothing was to be expected of that kind,
for all the inside of the ship was choked up with sand. How-
ever, as I had learned not to despair of any thing, I resolved
to pull every thing to pieces thatI could of the ship, conclu-
ding that every thing I could get from her would be of some use
or other to me.
lay 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a beam
through, which I thought held some of the upper part or quar-
ter-deck together; and when I had cut it through, I cleared
away the sand as well as I could from the side which lay high-
est; but the tide coming in, I was obliged to give over for
that time.
May 4. I went a-fishing, but caught not one fish that I
durst eat of, till I was weary of my sport; when, just going to
leave off, I caught a young dolphin. I had made me a long
line of some rope-yarn, but I had no hooks: yet I frequently
caught fish enough as much as I cared to eat; all which
dried in the sun and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck; cut another beam asunder,
and brought three great fir-planks off from the decks; which
I tied together, and made swim on shore when the tide of flood
came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck; got several iron bolts out
of her, and other pieces of iron-work; worked very hard,
and came home very much tired, and had thoughts of giving
it over.
May 7. Went to the wreck again, but not with an intent to
work; but found the weight of the wreck had broke itself
down, the beams being cut; that several pieces of the ship
seemed to lie loose; and the inside of the hold lay so open that
I could see into it; but almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron crow to


wrench up the deck, which lay now quite clear of the water
and sand. I wrenched up two planks, and brought them on
shore also with the tide. Ileft the iron crow in the wreck for
next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck and with the crow made way
into the body of the wreck, and felt several casks, and loosened
them with the crow but could not break them up. I felt
also a roll of English lead, and could stir it; but it was too
heavy to remove.
May 10-14. Went every day to the wreck; and got a
great many pieces of timber, and boards, or plank, and two
or three hundred weight of iron.
May 15. 1 carried two hatchets, to try if 1 could not cut a
piece off the roll of lead, by placing the edge of one hatchet,
and driving it with the other; but as it lay about a foot and a
half in the water, 1 could not make any blow to drive the
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the wreck ap-
peared more broken by the force of the water; but I staid so
long in the woods, to get pigeons for food, that the tide pre-
vented my going to the wreck that day.
May 17. 1 saw some pieces of the wreck blown on shore, at
a great distance, two miles off me, but resolved to see what
they were, and found it was a piece of the head, but too heavy
for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day, to this day, I worked on the wreck;
and with hard labor I loosened some things so much with the
crow, that the first blowing tide, several casks floated out, and
two of the seamen's chests; but the wind blowing from the
shore, nothing came to land that day but pieces of timber,
and a hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it; but the
salt-water and the sand had spoiled it. I continued this work
everwjday to the 15th of June, except the time necessary to
get food; which I always appointed, during this part of my
employment, to be when the tide was up, that I might be ready
when it was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and iron-work, enough to have built a good boat,
if I had known how; and I also got, at several times, and in
several pieces, near one hundred weight of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a large tor-
toise, or turtle. This was the first I had seen; which, it
seems, was only my misfortune, not any defect of the place or
scarcity; for had I happened to be on the other side of the
island, I might have had hundreds of them every day, as 1
found afterwards; but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17 I spent in cooking the turtle. I found in her
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me, at that time, the
most savory and pleasant that I ever tasted m my life; having


had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since I landed in this
horrid place.
June 18. Rained all that day, and I staid within. I thought,
at this time, the rain felt cold, and 1 was somewhat chilly;
which I knew was not usual in that latitude.
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather had
been cold.
June 20. No rest all night; violent pains in my head, and
June 21. Very ill; frightened almost to death with the ap-
prehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and no help;
prayed to God for the first time since the storm off Hull; but
scarce knew what 1 said, or why, my thoughts being all
June 22. A little better; but under dreadful apprehensions
of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again; cold and shivering, and then a
violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent: the fit held me seven hours;
cold fit, and hot, with faint sweats after it.
June 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat, took my
gun, but found myself very weak : however, I killed a she-goat,
and with much difficulty got it home, and broiled some of it,

Ike- ---


and ate. I would fain have stewed it, and made some broth,
but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent that I lay a-bed all day,
and neither ate nor drank. I was ready to perish for thirst;
but so weak, I had not strength to stand up, or to get myself
any water to drink. Prayed to God again, but was light-
headed: and when I was not, I was so Ignorant that I knew
not what to say; only lay and cried, "Lord, look upon
me! Lord, pity me! Lord, have mercy upon me!" Isup-
pose I did nothing else for two or three hours; till, the fit wear-
m off, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night
When I awoke, I found myself much refreshed, but weak, and
exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no water in my whole
habitation, I was forced to he till morning, and went to sleep
again. In this second sleep, I had this terrible dream: 1
thought that 1 was sitting on the ground, on the outside of my
wall, where I sat when the storm blew after the earthquake,
and that I saw a man descend from a great black cloud, in a
bright flame of fire, and light upon the ground: he was all
over as bright as a dame, so that I could but just bear to look
towards him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
liu, impossible for words to describe: when he stepped upon
the ground with his feet, I thought the earth trembled, just as
it had done before in the earthquake: and all the air looked,
to my apprehension, as if it had been filled with flashes of fire.
lie had no sooner landed upon the earth, but he moved for-
ward towards me, with a long spear or weapon in his hand to
kill me; and when he came to a rising ground, at some dis-
tance, he spoke to me, or I heard a voice so terrible that it is
impossible to express the terror of it: all that I can say I
understood, was this: "Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die;" at which
words I- thought he lifted up the spear that was in his hand to
kill me.
No one that shall ever read this account, will expect that I
should be able to describe the horrors of my soul at this terrible
vision; I mean that even while it was a dream, I even dreamed
of those horrors; nor is it any more possible to describe the
impression that remained upon my mind, when I awaked, and
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas! no divine knowledge: what I had received by
the good instruction of my father, was then worn out, by an
uninterrupted series, for eight years, of seafaring wickedness,
and a constant conversation with none but such as were, like
myself, wicked and profane to the last degree. I do not re-
member that I had, in all that time, one thought that so much
as tended either to looking upward towards God, or inward
towards a reflection upon my own ways: but a certain stu-

pidity of soul, without desire of good, or consciousness of evil
had entirely overwhelmed me; and I was all that the most
hardened, unthinking, wicked creature, among our common
sailors, can be supposed to be; not having the least sense,
either of the fear of God, in danger, or of thankfulness to him,
in deliverances.
In the relating what is already past of my story, this will be
the more easily believed, when I shall add, that through all the
variety of miseries that had to this day befallen me, I never
had so much as one thought of its being the hand of God, or
that it was a just punishment for my sin; either my rebellious
behavior against my father, or my present sins, which were
great; or even as a punishment for the general course of my
wicked life. WhenI was on the desperate expedition on the
desert shores of Africa, I never had so much as one thought
of what would become of me; or one wish to God to direct me
whither I should go, or to keep me from the danger which ap-
parently surrounded me, as well from voracious creatures, as
cruel savages: but I was quite thoughtless of a God or a Prov-
idence ; acted like a mere brute, from the principles of nature,
and by the dictates of common sense only; and, indeed,
hardly that. When I was delivered and taken up at sea, by
the Portuguese captain, well used, and dealt with justly and
honorably, as well as charitably, I had not the least thankful-
ness in my thoughts. When, again, I was shipwrecked,
ruined, and in danger of drowning, on this island, I was as far
from remorse, or looking on it as a judgment: I only said to
myself often, that I was an unfortunate dog, and born to be
always miserable.
It is true, when I first got on shore here, and found all my
ship's crew drowned, and myself spared, 1 was surprised with
a kind of ecstasy, and some transports of soul, which, had the
grace of God assisted, might have come up to true thankful-
ness; but it ended where it began, in a mere common flight
of joy; or, as I may say, being glad I was alive, without the
least reflection upon the distinguished goodness of the hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to be pre-
served when all the rest were destroyed, or an inquiry why
Providence had been thus merciful to me; just the same com-
mon sort of joy which seamen generally have, after they are
got safe ashore from a shipwreck; which they drown all in
the next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is over;
and all the rest of my life waslike it. Even when I was, af
terwards, on due consideration, made sensible of my condition
-how I was cast on this dreadful place, out of the reach of
human kind, out of all hope of relief, or prospect of redemp-
tion,-as soon as I saw but a prospect of living, and that I
should not starve and perish for hunger, all the sense of my


affliction wore off, and I began to be very easy, applied myself
to the works proper for my preservation and supply, and was
far enough from being afflicted at my condition, as a judgment
from Heaven, or as the hand of God against me: these were
thoughts which very seldom entered into my head.
The growing up of the corn, as is hinted i my journal, had,
at first, some little influence upon me, and began to affect me
with seriousness, as long as I thought it had something mirac-
ulous in it; but as soon as that part of the thought was re-
moved, all the impression which was raised from it wore off
also, as I have noted already. Even the earthquake, though
nothing could be more terrible in its nature, or more imme-
diately- directing to the invisible Power which alone directs
such things, yet no sooner was the fright over, but the impred-
sion it had made went off also. I had no more sense of God,
or his judgments, much less of the present affliction of my cir-
cumstances being from his hand, than if 1 had been in the
most prosperous condition of life. But now, when I began to
oe sick, and a leisure view of the miseries of death came to
place itself before me; when my spirits began to sink under
the burden of a strong distemper, and nature was exhausted
with the violence of.the fever; conscience, that had slept so
long, began to awake; and I reproached myself with my past
*ife, n which I had so evidently, by uncommon wickedness,
provoked the justice ofGod tolay me under uncommon strokes,
and to deal with me in so vindictive a manner. These relec-
tions oppressed me for the second or third day of my distem-
per; and in the violence, as well of the fever as of the dreadful
reproaches of my conscience extorted from me some words
like praying to God; though I cannot say it was a prayer at-
tended either with desires or with hopes; it was rather the
voice of mere fright-and distress. My thoughts were con-
fused; the convictions great upon my mind; and the horror
of dying in such a miserable condition raised vapors in my
head with the mere apprehension; and in these hurries of my
soul, I knew not what my tongue might express; but it was
rather exclamation, such as, "Lord what a miserable creature
am I! If Ishould be sick, I shal certainly die for want of
help; and what will become of me?" Then the tears burst
out of my eyes, and 1 could say no more for a good while. In
this interval the good advice of my father came to my mind,
and present his prediction, which I mentioned at the begin-
ing of this story, viz. that if I did take this foolish step,God
would not bless me; and I should have leisure hereafter to
reflect upon having neglected his counsel, when there might
be none to assist m my recovery. "Now said I, aloud,
" my dear father's words are come to pass; God's justice has
overtaken me, and I have none to help or hear me. I rejected


the voice of Providence, which had mercifully put me in a sta-
tion of life wherein I might have been happy and easy; but 1
would neither see it myself, nor learn from my parents to know
the blessing of it. I left them to mourn over my folly; and
now I am left to mourn under the consequences of it: 1 refused
their help and assistance, who would have pushed me in the
world, and would have made every thing easy to me; and now
I have difficulties to struggle with, too great for even nature
itself to support; and no assistance, no comfort, no advice."
Then I cried out, Lord, be my help, for I am in great dis-
tress." Thi was the first prayer, if 1 may call it so, that T
had made for many years. But I return to my journal
June 28. Having been somewhat refreshed with the sleep 1
had had, and the fit being entirely off, I got up; and though
the fright and terror of my dream was very great, yet I con
sidered that the fit of the ague would return again the next
day, and now was my time to get something to refresh and
support myself when I should be ill. The first thing I did was
to fill a large square case-bottle with water, and set it upon
my table, in reach of my bed; and to take off the chill or
aguish disposition of the water, I put about a quarter of a pint
of rum into it, and mixed them together. Then I got me a
piece of the goat's flesh, and broiled it on the coals, but could
eat very little. I walked about; but was very weak, and withal
very sad and heavy-hearted under a sense of my miserable
condition, dreading the return of my distemper the next day.
At night, I made my supper of three of the turtle's eggs;
which I roasted in the ashes, and ate, as we call it, in the shell;
and this was the first bit of meat I had ever asked God's bless-
ing to, as I could remember, in my whole life. After I had
eaten, I tried to walk; but found myself so weak, that I could
hardly carry the gun (for I never went ott without that); so 1
went but a little way, and sat down upon the ground, looking
out upon the sea, which was just before me, and very calm
and smooth. As I sat here, some such thoughts as these oc-
curred to me: What is this earth and sea, of which I have
seen so much? Whence is it produced? And what am I,
and all the other creatures, wild and tame, human and brutal?
Whence are we? Surely, we are all made by some secret
Power, who formed the earth and sea, the air and sky. And
who is that? Then it followed most naturally, It is God
that has made all.-Well, but then," it came on strangely, if
God has made all these things, he guides and governs them all,
and all things that concern them; for the Power that could
make all things, must certainly have power to guide and di-
rect them: if so, nothing can happen in the great circuit of
his works, either without his knowledge or appointment.
And if nothing happens without his knowledge, he knows

that I am here, and am in this dreadful condition; and if
nothing happens without his appointment, he has appointed
all this to befall me." Nothing occurred to my thought, to
contradict any of these conclusions; and therefore it rested
upon me with the greatest force, that it must needs be that
God had appointed all this to befall me; that I was brought to
this miserable circumstance by his direction, he having the
sole power, not of me only, but of every thing that happens in
the world. Immediately it followed, Why has God done this
to me? What have I done to be thus used?" My conscience
presently checked me in that inquiry, as if I had blasphemed;
and methought it spoke to me like a voice,-" Wretch! dost
thou ask what thou hast done? Look back upon a dreadful
misspent life, and ask thyself what thou hast not done. Ask,
why is it that thou wert not long ago destroyed? Why wert
thou not drowned in Yarmouth Roads; killed in the fight
when the ship was taken by the Sallee man-of-war; devoured
by the wild beasts on the coast of Africa; or drowned here.
when all the crew perished but thyself? Dost thou ask what
thou hast done ? I was struck dumb with these reflections,
as one astonished, and had not a word to say; no, not to an-
swer to myself; and rising up pensive and sad, walked back
to my retreat, and went over my wall, as if I had been going
to bed; but my thoughts were sadly disturbed, and 1 had no
inclination to sleep; so I sat down in the chair, and lighted my
lamp, for it began to be dark. Now, as the apprehension of
the return of my distemper terrified me very much, it occurred
to my thought, that the Brazilians take no physic but their
tobacco for almost all distempers; and I had a piece of a roll
of tobacco in one of the chests, which was quite cured; and
some also that was green, and not quite cured.
I went, directed by Heaven, no doubt; for in this chest I
found a cure both for soul and body. I opened the chest, and
found what I looked for, viz. the tobacco; and as the few
books I had saved lay there too, I took out one of the Bibles
which I mentioned before, and which to this time I had not
found leisure, or so much as inclination, to look into. I say,
I took it out, and brought both that and the tobacco with me
to the table. What use to make of the tobacco I knew not, as
to my distemper, nor whether it was good for it or not; but 1
tried several experiments with it, as if was resolved it should
hit one way or other. I first took a piece of a leaf, and chewed
it in my mouth; which, indeed, at first, almost stupefied my
brain; the tobacco being green and strong, and such as I had
,lot been much used to. Then I took some and steeped it an
aour or two in some rum, and resolved to take a dose of it
when I lay down: and lastly, I burnt some tipon a pan of
coals, and held my nose close over the smoke of it as long as I

could bear it; as well for the heat, as almost for suffocation.
In the interval of this operation, I took up the Bible, and be-
gan to read; but my head was too much disturbed with the
tobacco to bear reading, at least at that time; only, having
opened the book casually, the first words that occurred to me
were these: "Call on me m the day of trouble, and I will de-
liver thee, and thou shalt glorify me." These words were very
apt to my case, and made some impression upon my thoughts
at the time of reading them, though not so much as they did
afterwards; for, as for being delivered, the word had no sound,
as I may say, to me; the thing was so remote, so impossible
in my apprehension of things, that, as the children of Israel
said when they were promised flesh to eat, Can God spread a
table in the wilderness so I began to say, Can even God
himself deliver me from this place And as it was not for
many years that any hopes appeared, this prevailed very
often upon my thoughts: but however, the words made a
great impression upon me, and I mused upon them very often.
It now grew late and the tobacco had, as I said dozed my
head so much, that I inclined to sleep: so I lef my lamp
burning in the cave, lest I should want any thing in the night,
and went to bed. But before I lay down, I did what I never
had done in all my life; I kneeled down, and prayed to God
to fulfil the promise to me, that if I called upon him in the day
of trouble, he would deliver me. After my broken and imperfect
prayer was over, I drank the rum, in which I had steeped the
t bacco; which was so strong and rank of the tobacco, that,
indeed, I could scarce get it down: immediately upon this I
went to bed. 1 found presently the rm flew up mto my head
violently; but I fell into a sound sleep, and waked no more,
till, by the sun, it must necessarily be near three o'clock in the
afternoon the next day: nay, to this hour I am partly of opin-
ion, that I slept all the next day and night, and till almost
three the day after; for otherwise, I know not how I should
lose a day out of my reckoning in the days of the week, as it
appeared, some years after, I had done; for if I had lost it by
crossing and recrossing the Line, I should have lost more than
one day; but certainly I lost a day in my account, and never
knew which way. Be that, however, one way or the other,
when I awaked, I found myself exceedingly refreshed, and my
spirits lively and cheerful: when I got up, I was stronger than
I was the day before, and my stomach better, for 1 was hungry;
and, in short, I had no fit the next day but continued much
altered for the better. This was the 29th.
The 30th was my well day, of course; and I went abroad
with my gun, but did not care to travel too far. I killed a
sea-fowl or two, something like a brand goose, and brought
them home; but was not very forward to eat them; so I ate

some more of the turtles egs which were very good. This
evening I renewed the medii which I had supposed did
me good the day before, viz. the bacco seepd in rum; cly
I did not take so much as before, nor did Ihew any of the
lea, or hold my head over the smoke: however I was not so
well the next day, which was the Ist of July as I hoped I
should have been; for I had a little of the cold fit, but t was
not much.
Jly 2. I renewed the medicine all the three ways; and
dosed myself with it as at first, and doubled the quantity
which I drank.
July I missed the fit for good and all, thoughI did nt
recover my full strength for some weeks after. While I wa
thus gathering strength, my thoughts an exceediny po
this scriptre," I wi deliver thee;" and the impossbility of
my deliverance lay much upon my mind, in bar of my ever
expecting it: but as I was discouraging myself with such
thoughts, it occurred to my mind that I pored so much upon
my deliverance from the main affliction, that I disregarded the
deliverance I had received; and I was, as it were, made to ask
myself such questions as these, viz. Have I not been de-
livered, and wonderfully too from sickness; from the most
distressed condition that cold be, and that was so frightful to
me? and what notice have I taken of it Have I done my
part? God has delivered me, but I have not glorified him;
that is to say, I have not owned and been thankTul for that as
a deliverance; and how can I expect a greater deliverance "
This touched my heart very much; and immediately I knelt
down, and gave God thinks aloud for my recovery from my
July 4. In the morning I took the Bible; and beginning at
the New Testament, I began seriously to read it; and imposed
upon myself to read awhile every morning and every night;
not binding myself to the number of chapters, but as mg a
my thoughts should engage me. It was not long after aset
seriously to this work, that I found my heart more deeply
and sincerely affected with the wickedness of my past le.
The impression of my dream revived; and the wods," Al
these things have not brought thee to repentance" ran sor
ously in my thoughts. I was earnestly being o d to gie
me repentance, when it happed provdntia, the ver
same day, that readi the came to these ord
"He is exalted a prince, and a Savior; to give repentance,
and to give remission." threw down the bo; and, witmy
heart as well as my hands lifted up to heaven.n i kind of
ecstasy of joy, I cried out aloud "JJesns thou Mon of David
Jesus, thou exalted Prince and Savior give me repentance I"
This was the first time in all my life I could say, ii the true

sense of the words, that I prayed; for now 1 prayed with a
sense of my condition, and iwh a true Scripture view of hope,
founded on the encouragement of the word of God; and from
this time, I may say, 1 began to have hope that God would
hear me.
Now I began to construe the words mentioned above," Call
on me, and I will deliver thee," in a different sense from what
I had ever done before; for then I had no notion of any thing
being called deliverance, but my being delivered from the cap-
tivity I was ip; for though I was indeed at large in the place,
yet the island was certainly a prison to me, and that m the
worst sense in the world. But now I learned to take it il,
another sense; now I looked back upon my past life with such'
horror, and my sins appeared so dreadful, that my soul sought
nothing ofUod but deliverance from the load of guilt that bore
down all my comfort. As for my solitary life, it was nothing;
I did not so much as pray to be delivered from it, or thihk of
it; it was all of no consideration, in comparison with this.
And I add this part here, to hint to whoever shall read it
that whenever they come to a true sense of things, they will
find deliverance from sin a much greater blessing than deliv-
erance from affliction. But leaving this part, I return to my
My condition began now to be, though not less miserable as
to my way of living, yet much easier to my mind: and my
thoughts being directed, by constantly reading the Scripture
and praying to God, to things of a higher nature, I had a great
deal of comfort within, which, till now, I knew nothing of;
also, as my health and strength returned, I bestirred me ta
furnish myself with every thing that 1 wanted, and make my
way of living as regular as I could.
From the 4th of July to the 14th, I was chiefly employed in
walking about with my gun in my hand, a little and a little at
a time, as a man that was gathermg up his strength after a fit
of sickness; for it is hardly to be imagined how low I was,
and to what weakness 1 was reduced. The application which
I made use of was perfectly new, and perhaps what had never
cured an ague before; neither can I recommend it to any one
to practise, by this experiment; and though it did carry off
the fit, yet it rather contributed to weakening me; for I had
frequent convulsions in my nerves and limbs tor some time: I
learned from it, also, this, in particular; that being abroad in
the rainy season, was the most pernicious thing to my health
that could be, especially in those rains which came attended
with storms and hurricanes of wind; for as the rain which
came in the dry season was almost always accompanied with
such storms, so 1 found that this rain was much more danger-
ous than the rain which fell in September and October.

1 had now been in this unhappy island above ten months;
all possibility of deliverance from this condition seemed
entirely taken from me; and I firmly believed that no human
shape had ever set foot upn that place. Having secured my
habitation, as I thought, lly to my mind, I had a great desire
to make a more perfect discovery of the island and to see
what other productions I might find, which I yet knew
nothing of.
It was on the 15th of July that I began to take a more par-
ticular survey of the islanditselL I went up the creek first,
where, as I hinted, I brought my rafts on shore. I found,after
I came about two miles up, that the tide did not flow any
higher; and that it was no more than a little brook of running
water, very fresh and good: but this being the dry season,
there was hardly any water in some parts of it; at lest not
any stream. On the banks of this brook I found many plea
ant savannahs or meadows, plain, smooth, and covered with
grass; and on the rising parts of them, next to the higher
grounds (where the water, as it might be supposed, never over-
flowed), I found a great deal of tobacco, green, and growing to
a very great and strong stalk; and there were divers other
plants, which I had no knowledge of, or understanding about,
and that might, perhaps, have virtues of their own, which I
could not find out. I searched for the cassava root, which the
Indians, in all that climate, make their bread of: but I
could find none. I saw large plants of aloes, but did not un-
terstand them. I saw several sugar-canes, but wild; and, for
want of cultivation, imperfect. Icontented myself with thee
discoveries for this time; and came back, musing with myself
what course I might take to know the virtue and goodness of
any of the fruits or plants which I should discover; but could
bring it to no conclusion; for in short, I had made so little
observation while I was in the Brazils, that I knew little of the
plants in the field; at least, very little that might serve me to
an purpose now in my distress.
The next day, the 16th I went up the same way again; and
after going somthi frher than I had gone the day before,
I found the brook and the savannahs begin to cease, and the
country become more woody than before. In this part I
found different fruits; and particularly I found melons upon
the ground, in great abundance, and grapes upon the trees:
the vines, indeed, had spread over the trees, and the clusters
of grapes were now just in their prime, very ripe and rice
This was a surprising discovery, and I was exceedingly glad
of them, but I was warned by my experience to eat singly
of them; remembering that when I was ashore in arbary,
the eating of grapes killed several of our Englishmen, w
were slaves there, by throwing them into fluxes and fevers.


I found, however, an excellent use for these grapes; and that
was, to cure or dry them in the sun, and keep them as dried
grapes or raisins are kept; which I thought would be (as in-
deed they were) as wholesome and as agreeable to eat, when
no grapes were to be had.
I spent all that evening there, and went not back to my
habitation; which, by the way, was the first night, as I might
say, I had lain from home. At night, I took my first contri-
vance, and got up into a tree, where I slept well; and the next
morning proceeded on my discovery, travelling near four miles,
as I might judge by the length of the valley; keeping still due
north, with a ridge of hills on the south and north sides of me
At the end of this march 1 came to an opening, where the
country seemed to descend to the west; and a little spring of
fresh water, which issued out of the side of the hill by me, ran
the other way, that is, due east; and the country appeared so
fresh, so green, so flourishing, every thing being in a constant
verdure, or flourish of spring, that it looked like a planted
garden. I descended a little on the side of that delicious vale,
surveying it with a secret kind of pleasure (though mixed with
other afflicting thoughts), to think that this was all my own;
that I was king and lord of all this country indefeasibly, and
had a right of possession; and, if I could convey it, I might
have it in inheritance as completely as any lord of a manor in
England. I saw here abundance of cocoa-trees, and orange,
lemon, and citron-trees, but all wild, and very few bearing any
fruit; at least, not then. However, the green limes that I
gathered were not only pleasant to eat, but very wholesome;
and 1 mixed their juice afterwards with water, which made it
very wholesome, and very cool and refreshing. I found now I
had business enough to gather and carry home; and I resolved
to lay up a store, as well of grapes as limes and lemons, to fur-
nish myself for the wet season, which I knew was approaching.
In order to this, I gathered a great heap of grapes in one place
a lesser heap in another place, and a great parcel of limes and
melons in another place;- and, taking a few of each with me, 1
travelled homeward; and resolved to come again, and bring a
bag or sack, or what I could make, to carry the rest home.
Accordingly, having spent three days in this journey, I came
home (soI must now call my tent and my cave); but before I
got thither, the grapes were spoiled; the richness of the fruits,
and the weight of the juice, having broken and bruised them,
they were good for little or nothing: as to the limes, they were
good, but Icould bring only a few.
The next day, being the 19th, I went back, having made me
two small bags to bring home my harvest; but I was surprised
when, coming to my heap of grapes, which were so rich and
fine when I gathered them, Ifound them all spread about,

OBmsaol CaIsoW 77
trod to pieces, and dragged about, some here, some there, and
abundance eaten and devoured. By this I concluded there
were some wild creatures thereabouts which had done this, but
what they were I knew not. However, as 1 found there was
no laying them up in heaps, and no carry them away in a
sack; but that one way they would be destroyed and the
other way they wouldbe crushed with their own w ht; I took
another course: I Sthe gathered a large q.tfity fie grapes,
and hung them upon thle ut-branhe the trees, that they
might cure and dry inthe sm andas for te limes ad lemmons
I carried as many back a I could well stand ander.
When I cnem home fom this journey I contemplated with
great pleasure the fruitfulness fthat aey, ad the pleasant
ness of the situation; the security fi m. r on tait side;
the water and the wood; and concluded that I had pited
upon a place to fix my abode in which was by far the wost
part of the country. Upon the whds, I began to cosider of
removing my habitatin, and to look out fr a place equally
safe as where I was now situate; if poseit, in tht pleasant,
fruitful part of the island. -
This thought ran lon in my head; and I was exceeding
fond of it for some time, te pleasantness of the place tempting
me; but when I came to a nearer view of it, I considered that
I was now by the sea-side, where it was at least possible that
something might happen to my advantage, and, by the same
ill fate that brought me hither, might bring some other un-
happy wretches to the same place and though it was scare
probable that any such thing would ever happen, yet to en-
close myself among the hills and woods in the centre of the
island, was to anticipate my bondage, and to render such an
affair not only improbable, but impossible; and that, therefore,
I ought not by any means to remove. However, I was so en.
amored of this place, that I spent much of my tune there for
the whole remain part of the month of July; and though,
upon second thoughts, I resolved, as above stated, not to re-
move, yet I built me a little kind of a bower, and surrounded
it at a distance with a strong fence, being a double hedge, as
high as I could reach, well staked, and filed between with
brushwood. Here I lay very secure, sometimes two or three
nights together; always going over it with a ladder, as before;
so that fancied now liad my country and my sea-coast
house. This work took me up till the beginning of Auust.
I had but newly-finished my fence, and began to enjoy my
labor, when the rains came on and made me stick close to my
first habitation; for though I had made a tent, like the other,
with a piece of sail, and spread it very well, yet I had not the
shelter of a hill to keep me from storms, nor a cave behind me
to retreat into when the rains were extraordinary.


About the beginning of August, as I said, I had finished my
bower, and began to enjoy myself. The 3d of August, I found
the grapes 1 had hung up were perfectly dried, and indeed
were excellent good raisins of the sun : so I began to take
them down from the trees; and it was very happy that I did
so, as the rains which followed would have spoiled them, and I
should have lost the best part of my winter food; for I had
above two hundred large bunches of them. No sooner had I
taken them all down, and carried most of them home to my
cave, but it began to rain; and from hence, which was the
14th of August, it rained, more or less, every day till the mid-
dle of October; and sometimes so violently, that I could not
stir out of my cave for several days.
In this season, I was much surprised with the increase of
my family. I had been concerned for the loss of one of my
cats, who ran away from me, or, as I thought, had been dead;
and I heard no more of her, till, to my astonishment, she came
home with three kittens. This was the more strange to me,
because about the end of August, though I had killed a wild
cat, as i called it, with my gun, yet I thought it was quite a
different kind from our European cats: yet the young cats
were the same kind of house breed as the old one; and both
of my cats being females, I thought it very strange. But
from these three, I afterwards came to be so pestered with cats,

that I was forced to kill them like vermin or wild beasts, and
to drive them from my house as much as possible.
From the 14th of August to the 26th, incessant rain; so
that I could not stir, and was now very careful not to be much
wet. In this confinement, I began to be straitened for food;
but venturing out twice, I one day killed a goat, and the last
day, which was the 26th, found a very large tortoise, which
was a treat to me. My food was now regulated thus: I ate a
bunch of raisins for my breakfast; a piece of the goat's flesh,
or of the turtle, broiled, for my dinner (for, to my great misfor-
tune, I had no vessel to boil or stew any thing), and two or
three of the turtle's eggs for my supper.
During this confinement in my cover by the rain I worked
daily two or three hours at enlarging my cave and y degrees
worked it on towards one side, til I came to the outside of the
hill, and made a door, or way out, which came beyond my
fence or wall; and so I came m and out this way. But I was
not perfectly easy at lying so open; for as 1 had managed
myself before, I was in a perfect inclosure; whereas, now, I
thought I lay exposed; and yet I could not perceive that there
was any living thing to far, the biggest creature that I had
yet seen upon the island being a goat.
Septemberr 30. I was now come to the unhappy anniversary
of my landing. I cast up the notches on my post, and found
I had been on shore three hundred and sixty-five days. I kept
this day as a solemn fast, setting it apart for religious exercise,
prostrating myself on the ground with the most serious humil-
lation, confessing my sins to God, acknowledging his righteous
Judgments upon me, and praying to him to have mercy on me,
through Jesus Christ; and having not tasted the least refresh-
ment or twelve hours, even till the going down of the sun, I
then ate a biscuitand a bunch of grapes, and went to bed, i-
ishing the day as I began it. I had all this time observed no
Sabbath-day; for, as at first I had no sense of religion upon
my mind, I had, after some time, omitted to distinguish the
weeks, by making a longer notch than ordinary, for the Sab.
bath-day, and so did not really know what any of the days
were; but now, having cast up the days as above, I found 1
had been there a year; so I divided it into weeks, and set
apart every seventh day for a Sabbath; though I found at the
end of my account, I had lost a day or two m my rekoaing.
A little after this, my ink beinnin to fail me, I counted
myself to use it more sparing, and to write down only the
most remarkable events of my li, without continuing a daily
memorandum of other things.
The rainy season and the dry season began now to appear
regular to me, and I learned to divide them so as to provide for
them accordingly; but I bought all my experience before I

had it; and what I am going to relate was one of the most
discouraging experiments that I had made at all.
I have mentioned that I had saved the few ears of barley
and nce which I had so surprisingly found sprung up as I
thought, of themselves. I believe there were about thirty
stalks of rice, and about twenty of barley; and now I thought
it a proper time to sow it after the rains, the sun being in its
southern position going from me. Accordingly, I dug a piece
of ground, as well as I could, with my wooden spade; and, di-
viding it into two parts, I sowed my grain; but, as I was
sowing, it casually occurred to my thoughts that would not
sow it all at first, because I did not know when was the proper
time for it; so I sowed about two thirds of the seed, leaving
about a handful of each; and it was a great comfort to me af~
terwards that I did so, for not one gram of what I sowed this
time came to any thing; for the dry month following, and the
earth having thus had no rain after the seed was sown, it had
no moisture to assist its growth, and never came up at all till
the wet season had come again, and then it grew as if it had
been but newly sown. Finding my first seed did not grow,
which I easily imagined was from the drought, I sought for a
moister piece of ground, to make another trial in; and I dug
up a piece of ground near my new bower, and sowed the rest
of my seed in February, a little before the vernal equinox.
This, having the rainy month of March and April to water it,
sprung up very pleasantly, and yielded a very good crop; but
having only part of the seed left, and not daring to sow all that
I had, I got but a small quantity at last, my whole crop not
amounting to above half a peck of each kind. But by this ex-
periment I was made master of my business, and knew exactly
when was the proper time to sow; and that I might expect
two seed-times and two harvests every year.
While this corn was growing, I made a little discovery,
which was of use to me afterwards. As soon as the rains were
over, and the weather began to settle, which was about the
month of November, I made a visit up the country to my
bower; where, though I had not been some months, yet 1
found all things just as I left them. The circle or double
hedge that I had made was not only firm and entire, but the
stakes which I had cut out of some trees that grew thereabouts
were all shot out, and grown with long branches, as much as a
willow-tree usually shoots the first year after lopping its head;
but I could not tell what tree to call it that these stakes were
cut from. I was surprised, and yet very well pleased, to see
the young trees grow; and I pruned them, and led them to
grow as much alike as I could; and it is scarce credible how
beautiful a figure they grew into in three years; so that,
though the hedge made a circle of about twenty-five yards in

diameter, yet the trees--for such I might now call them-soon
covered it and it was a complete ide, tfficiant to lodge
under all te dry season. This made me resolve to cut some
more stakes, and hake me a hedge like this, in a semicircle
round my wall (Imean that of myfst dwelling), which I did;
and placing the trees or stakes in a double row, at about eight
yards' distance from my first fence, they grew presently, and
were at first a fine cover to my habitaton, and afterward
served for a defense also, as I shall observe in its order.
I found now that the seasons of the year might generally be
divided, not into summer and winter, as in Europe, bt into
.the rainy seasons and the dry seasons, which were ally
Thus: From the middle of February to the middle o Aed,
'ainy; the son eig theneor ner the From the
riddlee of April till middle of Ag tht, e am being
Then north of the line. From the ief August till the
middle of October, rainy; the sn being then coam back to
the line. From the middle of October til the middle of b.
ruary, dry; the sun boei then to the south of the line
The rainy season he sometimes longer and sometimes
shorter, as the winds happened to blow; but this was the gso-
eral observation I made. After I had foed, by experience,
the ill consequences of being abroad in the rain, I took ea
to furnish myself with provision beforehand, that I might not
be obliged to go ot; and I sat within doors as much as po-
sible during the wet moths. In this time I fond much em-
ployment, and very suitable also to the time; for I fond great
occasion for many thin which I had no way to furnish my-
self with, but by hard la and constant appliatio: pere-
ularly, I tried many ways to make myfa basket; b at ll
the twigs I could get for the pose proved brittle, tat
they would do noting. It ed of excellent advante to
me now, that when 1 was a I used to take grat dgt
in standing at a basket-mkr's in the town whee my
father lived, to see them make their wicker-wae; am
being, as boys usually are, very vicious to help, ad a
great observer of the manner how they worked those thins
and sometimes lending a hand, I had by these mes l
knowledge of the methods of it, so that I wanted nothing bet
the materials; when it came into my mind, that the twigs of
that tree from whence I cut my stakes that grew, might
possibly be as tough as the allows, willows, and er,
m England; and I resolved to try. Acordingly, the ant
day, I went to my country-bouse, as I called it; and, cutting
some of the smaller twigs, 1 found them to my purpose as
much as I could desire; whereupon I came the next time pr-
pared with a hatchet, to cut down a quality, which I soon
found, for there was geat plenty of them. These I set up to

dry within my circle or hedge; and when they were fit for
use, I carried them to my cave; and here, during the next
season, I employed myself in making, as well as I could, sev-
eral baskets, both to carry earth, or to carry or lay up any
thing as I had occasion for. Though I did not finish them
very handsomely, yet I made them sufficiently serviceable for
my purpose; and thus, afterwards, I took care never to be
without them; and as my wicker-ware decayed, I made more,
especially strong, deep baskets, to place my corn in, instead
ofsacks, when I should come to have any quantity of it.
Having mastered this difficulty, and employed a world of
time about it, I bestirred myself to see, if possible, how to sup-
ply two other wants. I had no vessel to hold any thing that
was liquid, except two runlets, which were almost full of rum,
and some glass bottles, some of the common size, and others
(which were case-bottles) square, for the holding of waters,
spirits, &c. I had not so much as a pot to boil ay thing;
except a great kettle, which I saved out of the ship, and which
was too bi for such use as I desired it, viz. to make broth,
and stew a it of meat by itself. The second.thing I would fain
have had was a tobacco-pipe; but it was impossible for me
to make one: however I found a contrivance for that too at
last. I employed myself in planting my second row of stakes
or piles, and also in this wicker-working, all the summer or
dry season; when another business took me up more time than
it could be imagined I could spare.
I mentioned before, that I had a great mind to see the whole
island; and that I had travelled up the brook, and so on to
where I had built my bower, and where I had an opening quite
to the sea, on the other side of the island. I now resolved to
travel quite across to the sea-shore, on that side; so, taking my
gun, a hatchet, and my dog, and a larger quantity of powder
and shot than usual, with two biscuit-cakes, and a great bunch
of raisins in my pouch, for my store, I began my journey
When I had passed the vale where my bower stood, as above,
I came within view of the sea, to the west; and it being a very
clear day, I fairly described land, whether an island or conti
nent I could not tell; but it lay very high, extending from W.
to W.S.W., at a very great distance; by my guess, it could
not be less than fifteen or twenty leagues off.
I could not tell what part of the world this might be; other
wise than that I knew it must be part of America, and, as I
concluded, by all my observations, must be near the Spanish
dominions, and perh a was all inhabited by savages, where
if I should have landed, I had been in a worse condition than I
was now. I therefore acquiesced in the dispositions of Provi-
dence, which I began now to own and to believe ordered every
thing for the best; I say, I quieted my mind with this, and
left off afflicting myself with fruitless wishes of being there.

ROnmloON cRBMo.
Besides after some pause pon this affair, I considered that
if this lan was the Spanish coast, I should certainly, one tinm
or other, see some vessel pass or repass oe way or other; but
if not, then it was the savage coast between the Spanish comn
try and the Brazils, whose inhabitants am indeed the worst of
savages; for they are cannibals, or meneaters, and fail not to
murder and devour all human beings that fall into their hand
With these considerations, walking very leisurely forward, I
found this side of the island, where 1 now was, mch pleasant
er than mine; the open or savannah field sweetly adorned
with flowers and grass, and full of very fine woods I saw
abundance of parrots, and fain would have caught ae, if
possible to have kept it to be tame, and taught it tospet to
me. I id, after takingsome pains, catch a young part; f
I knocked it down with a stick, and, having recovered 1
brought it home; but it was some years befe I could ma
him speak: however, at last I taught him to call me by my
name very familiarly. But the accident that followed, though
it be a trifle, will be very diverting in its place.
I was exceedingly amused with this journey. I und, in the
low grounds, hares, as I thought them to be, and fmes; but
they dired greatly from all the other kindsl had met with;
nor could I saisfy myself to eat them. though I killed seral
But I had no need to be venturous; for I had a want of
food, and of that which was very good too; especially the
three sorts, viz. goats, pigeons, and turtle, or tortoise With
these, added to my grapes, Leaden-hall-Market could not have
furnished a table better than I, in proportion to the company;
and though my case was deplorable enough, yet I had pest
cause for thankfulness; as I was not driven to any extemitiea
for food, but had rather plenty, even to dainties
I never travelled on this journey above two miles outrig in
a day, or thereabouts; but I took so many turns and returns,
to see what discoveries I could make, that I came wry
enough to the place where I resolved to it down for the nig;
and then I either reposed myself in a tree, or surrounded m
self with a row of stakes, set upright in the ground, either fio
one tree to another, or so as no wild creature could comar
me without waking me.
As soon as I came to the sea-shore, I was surprised to
that I had taken up my lot on the worst side ofthe island;
here indeed the shore was covered with innumerable tr
whereas, on the other side, I had found but three n a year
a half. Here was also an infinite number of fbws of .
kinds; some of which I had seen, and some of which I had not
seen before, and many of them very good meat; but sach s 1
knew not the names of, except those called penguins.

I-could have shot as many as I pleased, but was very spar-
ing of my powder and shot; and therefore had more mind to
kil a she-goat, if I could, which I could better feed on. But
though there were many goats here more than on my side the
island, yet it was with much more difficulty that 1 could come
wear them; the country being flat and even, and they saw me
much sooner than when I was upon a hill.
I confess this side of the country was much pleasanter than
mine yet I had not the least inclination to remove; for as I
was fied in my habitation, it became natural to me, and I
seemed aB the while I was here to be as it were upon a journey,
and from home. However, I travelled along the sea-shore
towards the east, I suppose about twelve miles; and then set-
lag up a great pole upn the shore for a mark, I concluded I
would go home again; and that the next journey I took should
be on te other side of the island, east from my dwelling, and
so round till I came to my post again; of which in its place.
I took another way to come back than that I went, thinking
I could easily keep so much of the island in my view, that I
could not miss my first dwelling by viewing the country; but
I found myself mistaken; for being come about two or three
miles, I found myself descended into a very large valley, but
so surrouded with hills, and those hills covered with wood,
that I could not see which was my way, by any direction but that
of the sun, nor even then, unless I knew very well the position
of the sun at that time of the day. And it happened to my
further misfortune, that the weather proved hazy for three or
four days while I was in this valley; and not being able to see
the sun, I wandered about very uncomfortable, and at last was
obliged to find out the sea-side, look for my post, and come
back the same way I went; and then by easy journeys I
turned homeward, the weather being exceeding hot, andmy
gun, ammunition, hatchet, and other things, very heavy.
In this journey, my dog surprised a young kd, and seized
upon it; and running to take hold of it, I caught it, and saved
it alive from the dog. I had a great mind to bring it home ifI
could; for I had often been musig whether it might not be
possible to get a kid or two, and so raise a breed of tame goats,
which might supply me when my powder and shot should be
all spent. I made a collar for this little creature, and with a
string which I had made of some rope-yarn, which I always
carried about me, I led him along, though with some difficulty
till I came to my bower, and there I inclosed him and lef
him; for I was very impatient to be at home, from whence I
had been absent above a month.
I cannot express what a satisfaction it was to me to come
into my old hutch, and lie down in my hammock-bed. This
little wandering journey, without a settled place of abode, had


been so unpleasant to me, that my own house, as 1 called it to
myself, was a perfect settlement to me, compared to that; and
it rendered every thing about me so comfortable, that I re-
solved I would never go a great way from it again, while it
should be my lot to stay on the island.
I reposed myself here a week, to rest and regale myself after
my long journey; during which, most of the time was taken
up in the weighty affair of making a cage for my Pol, who
began now to be more domestic, and to be mighty well ac-
quainted with me. Then I began to think of the poor kid
which I had penned within my little circle, and resolved to
fetch it home, or give it some food: accordingly I went, and
found it where I left it (for indeed it could not get out),
but was almost starved for want of food. I went and cut
boughs of trees, and branches of such shrubs as I could find,
and threw it over, and having fed it, I tied it as I did before,
to lead it away; but it was so tame with being hungry, that I
had no need to have tied it, for it followed me like a dog; and
as I continually fed it, the creature became so loving, so gentle,
and so fond, that it was from that time one of my domestics
also, and would never leave me afterwards.
The rainy season of the autumnal equinox was now come,
and I kept the 30th of September, in the same solemn manner
as before, being the anniversary of my landing on the island;
having now been there two years, and no more prospect of
being delivered than the first day I came there. I spent the
whole day in humble and thankful acknowledgments for the
many wonderful mercies which my solitary condition was at-
tended with, and without which it might have been infinitely
more miserable. I gave humble and hearty thanks to God for
having been pleased to discover to me, that it was possible I
might be more happy even in this solitary condition, than I
should have been in the enjoyment of society, and in all the
pleasures of the world; that he could fully make up to me the
deficiencies of my solitary state, and the want of human so-
ciety, by his presence, and the communications of his grace
to my soul; supporting, comforting, and encouraging me to
depend upon his providence here, and to hope for his eternal
presence hereafter.
It was now that I began sensibly to feel how much more
happy the life I now led was, with all its miserable circum-
stances, than the wicked, cursed, abominable life I led all the
past part of my days; ahd now I changed both my sorrows
and my joys: my very desires altered; my affections changed
their gusts; and my delights were perfectly new from what
they were at my first coming, or indeed for the two years past.
Before, as I walked about, either on my hunting, or for
viewing the country, the anguish of my soul at my condition

would break out upon me on a sudden, and my very heart
would die within me, to think of the woods, the mountains, the
deserts I was in; and how I was a prisoner, locked up with
the eternal bars and bolts of the ocean, in an uninhabited wil-
derness, without redemption. In the midst of the greatest
composures of my mind; this would break out upon me like a
storm, and make me wring my hands, and weep like a child.
sometimes it would take me in the middle of my work, and I
would immediately sit down and sigh, and look upon the
ground for an hour or two together: this was still worse to
me; but if I could burst into tears, or give vent to my feelings
by words, it would go off; and my grief, being exhausted,
would abate.
But now I began to exercise myself with new thoughts; I
daily read the word of God, and applied all the comforts of it
to my present state. One morning, being very sad, I opened
the Bible upon these words-" I wi never leave thee, nor for-
sake thee:" immediately it occurred that these words were to
me; why else should they be directed in such a manner, just
at the moment when I was mourning over my condition as
one forsaken of God and man t Well, then," said I, "if God
does not forsake me, of what ill consequence can it be, or what
matters it, though the world should forsake me; seeing, on the
other hand, if I had all the world, and should lose the favor and
blessing of God, there would be no comparison in the loss?'
From this moment I began to conclude in my mind, that it
was possible for me to be more happy in this forsaken, solitary
condition, than it was probable I should ever have been in any
other particular state in the world; and with this thought I
was going to give thanks to God for bringing me to this place.
I know not what it was, but something shocked my mind at
that thought, and I durst not speak the words. How canst
thou be such a hypocrite," said I, even audibly, to pretend
to be thankful for a condition, which, however thou mayest
endeavor to be contented with, thou wouldest rather pray
heartily to be delivered from? Here I stopped; but though
I could not say I thanked God for being here, yet I sincerely
gave thanks to God for opening my eyes, by whatever afflict-
ing providence, to see the former condition of my life, and to
mourn for my wickedness, and repent I never opened the
Bible, or shut it, but my ery soul within me blessed God for
directing my friend in England, without any order of mine, to
pack it up among my goods; and for assisting me afterwards
to save it out of the wreck of the ship.
Thus, and in this disposition of mind, I began my third
year; and though I have not given the reader the trouble of

so particular an account of my works this year as the first,
yet in general it may be observed, that I was very seldom idle
but having regularly divided my tme, according to the several
daily employment that were before me; su first, My
duty to God, and the reading the Scriptres, which 1 con-
stantly set apart some time fo, thrice every day; secondly,
Going abroad with my gun for food, which generally took me
up three hours every morning, when it did not rain; thirdly
Ordering, during, preserving, and cooking what I had kild
or watched for my supply; these took up great part of the
day: also it is to be sired, that in the middle of the day.
when the sun was in the zenith, the violence of the heat wa
too great to stir out; so that about four hours in the evening
was all the time I could be supposed to work in; with this ex-
ception, that sometimes I changed my hours of hunting and
working, and went to work in the morning, and abrd with
my gun in the afternoon.
To this short time allowed for labor, I desire may baded
the exceeding laboriousness of my work; the manyhours
which, for want of tools, want of help, and want ofskill, very
thing I did took up out of my time; for example I was full
two-and-forty days making me a board for a long self,which
I wanted in my cave; whereas, two sawyers, with their tools
and a saw-pit, would have cut ix of them out of the same tree
in half a day.
My case was this: it was a large tree which was to be cut
down, because my board was to be a broad one. This tree I
was three days cutting down and two more in cutting off the
boughs, and reducing it to a log, or piece of timber. With in-
expressible hacking and hewing, I reduced both the sides of it
into chips, till it was light enough to move; then I turned it,
and made one side of it smooth and flat as a board, from d
to end; then, turning that side downward, cut the other side
till I brought the plank to be about three inches thick, and
smooth on both sides. Any one may judge the labor of my
hands in such a piece of work; but labor and patience carried
me through that, and many other things: I only observe this
in particular, to show the reason why so much of my time
went away with so little work, viz. that what might be a little
to be done with help and tools, was a vast labor, and required
a prodigious time to do alone, and by hand. Notwithstanding
this, with patience and labor 1 went through many things;
and, indeed, every thing that my circumstances made neces-
sary for me to do, as wil appear by what follows.
I was now, in the months of November and December, ex-
pecting mf crop of barley and rice. The ground I had ma-
nured or dug up for them was not great; for, as I observed,
my seed of each was not above the quantity of half a peck.

having lost one whole crop by sowin in the dry season: but
now my crop promised very well; when, on a sudden, I found
I was in danger of losing it all again by enemies of several
sorts, which it was scarce possible to keep from it; as, first,
the goats and wild creatures which I called hares, who, tasting
the sweetness of the blade, lay in it night and day, as soon as
it came up, and ate it so close, that it could get no time to
shoot up into stalk.
I saw no remedy for this, but by making an enclosure about
it with a hedge, which I did with great deal of toil; and the
more, because it required speed. However as my arable land
was but small, suited to my crp, I got it tolerably well fenced
in about three weeks' time; andshootig some of the creatures
in the day time, I set my dog toguard it m the night,tying him
up to a stake at the gate, where he would stand and bark all
night long; so in a little time the enemies forsook the place,
and Ie corn grew very strong and well, and began to ripen
But as the beasts ruined me before, while my corn was in
the blade, so the birds were as likely to ruin me now, when it
was in the ear; for going along by the place to see how it
throve, I saw my little crop surrounded with fowls, I know
not of how many sorts, who stood, as it were, watching till 1
should be gone. I immediately let fly among them (for I al-
ways had my gun with me); I.had no sooner shot, but there
rose up a little cloud of fowls, which I had not seen at all,
from among the corn itself
This touched me sensibly, for I foresaw that in a few days
they would devour all my hopes; that I should be starved, and
never be able to raise a crop at all; and what to do I could not
tell: however I resolved not to lose my corn, if possible
though I should watch it night and day. In the first place, I
went among it, to see what damage was already done, and
found they had spoiled a good dealof it; but that, as it was
yet too green for them, the loss was not so great, but that the
remainder was likely to be a good crop, if it could be saved.
I staid by it to load my gun, and then coming away, I could
easily see the thieves sitting upon all the trees about me, as if
they only waited till I was gone away; and the event proved
it to be so; for as I walked o f, as if gone, I was no sooner out of
their sight, than they dropped down, one by one, into the corn
again. I was so provoked, that I could not have patience to stay
till more came on, knowing that every grain they ate now was,
as it might be said, a peck-loaf to me m the consequence; so,
coming up to the hedge, I fired again, and killed thsee of them.
This was what I wished for; sol took them up, and served
them as we serve notorious thieves in England, viz. hanged
them in chains, for a terror to others. It is impossible to im-

agine that this should have such an eift anthad; for the
fowls not only never came to the corn, but, in short, they for-
sook all that pat of the iuand, and I could never ee a bird
near the place as long as my arecrows hung there. This I
was very of, you may be asre; and about the latter end
of December, which was our second harvest of the year, 1
reaped my corn.
I wassadly pt to for a scythe or tackle to cut it down
and all I colddo was to make one as well as could,'out
one of the broad-swords or cutlasses, which I saved among the
arms out of the ship. However, as my fit rop was btamall,
I had no great diiculty to cat it down: in sort, I reaped it
my way, for I cut noting offbut the ear, and carried it away
in a great basket which had made, and so robbed it out with
my hands; and at the end of all my harvesting, I found that
out of my half peck of seed I had near two buels of rice, and
above two bushels and a half of barley; that is to say, by my
guess, for I had no measure.
However, this was great encouragement to me; and I fore-
saw that, in time, it would please God to supply me with
bread; and yet here I was perplexed again; for I neither
knew how to grind, or make mena of my corn,or indeed how
to clean it and part it; nor, if made into meal, how to make
bread of it: and if how to make it, yet I knew not how to bake
it: these things being added to my desire of having a od
quantity for store, and to secure a constant supply, Iresved
not to taste any of this crop, but to preserve it all for seed
against the next season; and, in the mean time, to employ all
my study and hours of working to accomplish this great work
of providing myself with corn and bread.
It might be truly said, that now I worked for my bread. It
is a little wonderful, and what I believe few people have thought
much upon, viz. the strange multitude of little things necessary
in the providing, producing, curing, dressing, making, and
finishing this one article of bread.
* I, that was reduced to a mere state of nature, found this to
my daily discouragement, and was made more sensible of it
every hour, even after I had got the first handful of seed-
corn, which, as I have said, came up unexpectedly, and indeed
to a surprise.
First, I had no plough to turn up the earth; no spade or
shovel to dig it: well, this I conquered by making a wooden
spade, as I observed before; but this did my work but in a
wooden manner; and though it cost me a great many days to
make it yet, for want of iron, it not only wore out the sooner,
but made my work the harder, and performed it much worse.
However, this I bore with and was content to work it out
with patience, and bear with the badness of the performance.

When the corn was sown, I had no harrow, but was forced to
go over it myself, and drag a great heavy bough of a tree over
it, to scratch it, as it may be called, there than rake or har-
row it. When it was growing and grown, I have observed
already how many things I wanted to fence it, secure it, mow
or reap it, cure and carry it home, thrash, part it from the
chaff, and save it: then I wanted a mill to grind it, sieves to
dress it, yeast and salt to make it into bread, and an oven to
bake it; and yet all these things I did without, as shall be ob-
served; and the corn was an inestimable comfort and advan-
tage to me: all this, as I said, made every thing laborious and
tedious to me, but that there was no help for; neither was my
time so much loss to me, because, as 1 had divided it, a certain
part cf it was every day appointed to these works; and as I
resolved to use none of the corn for bread till I had a greater
quantity by me, I had the next six months to apply myself
wholly, by labor and invention, to furnish myself with utensils
proper for the performing all the operations necessary for
making corn fit for my use.
But now I was to prepare more land; for I had seed enough
to sow above an acre of ground. Before I did this, I had a
week's work, at least, to make me a spade; which, when it was
done was but a sorry one indeed and very heavy, and required
double labor to work with it: however, I went through that,
and sowed my seed in two large, flat pieces of ground, as near
my house as I could find them to my mind, and fenced them
in with a good hedge; the stakes of which were all cut off that
wood which I had set before, and knew it would grow; so that,
in one year's time, I knew I should have a quick or living
hedge, that would want but little repair. This work took me
up full three months; because a great part of the time was in
the wet season, when I could not go abroad. Within doors,
that is, when it rained, and I could not go out, I found em-
ployment on the following occasions; always observing, that
while I was at work, I diverted myself with talking to my
parrot, and teaching him to speak; and I quickly learned him
to know his own name, and at last to speak it out pretty loud
Pol; which was the first word I ever heard spoke in the island
by any mouth but my own. This, therefore was not my
work, but an assistant to my work; for now, as I said, I had a
great employment upon my hands, as follows: I had long
studied, by some means or other, to make myself some earthen
vessels, which indeed I wanted much, but knew not where to
come at them: however, considering the heat of the climate, 1
did not doubt but if I could find out any clay, I might botch
up some such pot as might, being dried in the sun, be hard
and strong enough to bear handling, and to hold any thing that
w;t dry, azd required to be kept so; and as this was necessary

OitO IoMN CRUtmO. 91
in the preparing meal, d., which was the thing I was
upon, r reolved to mae some large as I could, and it only
to stand like jars, to hold what should be put into them.
It would make the reader pity me, or rather laugh at me to
tell how many awkward ways I took to raise this pastil; what
odd, misshapen, ugly things I made; how many of them feo
in, and bow many fll out, the clay not being stiff enough to
bear its own weight; how many cracked by the over-violent
heat of the sun, being set out too hastily; and how many fell
in pieces with only removing, as well before as after they were
dried; and, in a word, how, after having labored hard to
find the clay, to dig it, to temper it, to bring it home, and work
it, I could not make above two large earthen ugly things (1
cannot call them jars) in about two months' labor.
However, as the sun baked these two very dry and hard,
I lifted them very gently up, and set them down again in
two great wicker baskets, which I had made on purpose for
them, that they might not break; and as between the pot and
the basket there was a little room to spare, I stuffed it full of
the rice and barley-straw; and these two pots, being to stand
always dry, I thought would hold my dry corn, and perhaps
the meal, when the corn was bruised.
Though I miscarried so much in my design for large pots,
yet I made several smaller things with better success; such
as little round pots, flat dishes pitchers, and pipkins, ad any
thing my hand turned to; nd the heat of the sun baed them
very hard.
But all this would not answer my end, which was to get an
earthen pot to hold liquids, and bear the fire, which none of
these could do. It happened, some time after, making pretty
large fire for cooking my meat, when I went to put it out, afteL
I had done with it, I found a broken piece of one of my earth.
en-ware vessels in the fire, burnt as hard as a stone, and red as
*a tile. I was agreeably surprised to see it; id qidto myself.
that certainly they might be made to burn whole, ty would
burn broken.
This set me to study how to order my fire, so as to make
it burn some pots I bad no notion of a iln, such as the
potters burn min, or of glazing them with lead, though I had
tome lead to do it with; but placed three large pil and
two or three pots in a pile, one upon another placed my
fire-wood all round it with a great heap of emers under them.
I plied the fire with fresh fuelround the outside, and upon the
top, till I saw the pots in the inside red-hot quite through, and
observed that they did not crack at all: when I saw them
clear red, I let them stand in that heat about fve or six hours,
till I found one of them though it did not crack, did melt or
run; for the sand which wa mixed with the cay melted by

*he violence of he heat, and would have ran into glass, if I
had gone on; so I slacked my fire gradually, till the pots be-
gan to abate of the red color; and watching them all night
tat I might not let the fire abate too fast, m the morning I
had three very good, I will not say handsome, pipkins, and
two other earthen pots, as hard burnt as could be desired; and
one of them perfectly glazed with the ruling of the sand.
After this experiment, I need not say that I wanted no sort
of earthen-ware for my use; but I must needs say, as to the
shapes of them, they were very indifferent, as any one may
suppose, as I had no way of making them but as the children
make dirt pies, or as a woman would make pies that never
learned to raise paste.
No joy at a thin of so mean a nature was 'ever equal to
mine, when I fondI had made an earthen pot that wonud bear
the fire; and I had hardly patience to stay till they were cold,
before I set one on the fire again, with some water in it, to
boil me some meat, which it did admirably well; and with
a piece of a kid I made some very good broth; though 1
wanted oatmeal, and several other ingredients requisite to make
it so good as I would have had it been.
My next concern was to get a stone mortar to stamp or beat
-some corn in; for as to the mill, there was no thought of ar-
riving to that perfection of art with one pair of hands. To
supply this want I was at a great loss; for of all rades in the
world, I was as perfectly unqualified for a stone-cutter, as for
a y whatever; neither had I any tools to go about it with. I
spent many a day to find out a great stone big enough to cut
hollow, and make fit for a mortar; but could find none at all,
except what was in the solid rock, and which I had no way to
dig or cut out; nor, indeed, were the rocks in the island of
sufficient hardness, as they were all of a sandy, crumbling
stone, which would neither bear the weight of a heavy pestle,
nor would break the corn without filling It with sand: so, after
a great deal of time lost in searching for a stone, I gave it over
and resolved to look out a great block of hard wood, which 1
found indeed much easier; and getting one as big as I had
strength to stir, I rounded it, and formed it on the outside with
my axe and hatchet; and then, with the help of fire, and infi-
nite labor, made a hollow place in it, as the Indians in Brazil
make their canoes. After this, I made a great, heavy pestle, or
beater, of the wood called iron-wood; and this I prepared and
laid by against I had my next crop of corn, when I proposed
to myself to grind, or rather pound, my corn into meal, to
make my breed.
My next difficulty was, to make a sieve, or scarce, to dress
my meal, and to part it from the bran and the husk, without
which I did not see it possible I could have any bread.
This was a most difficult thing, even but to think on: for I


had nothing like the necessary thing to make it; I mean fine
thin canvass or stuff, to seLree the mel thron h. Here I was
at a full stop for many months; nor did I really know what to
do: linen had none left, but what was mre rags: I had
goats'-hair, but neither knew how to weave it nor spmn it and
had I known how, here were no tools to work it with; al the
remedy I found for this was, at last recollecting I had, among
the seamen's clothes which were saved out of the ship some
neckcloths of calico or muslin, with some pieces of thee 1
made three small sieves, proper enough for the work and thus
I made shift for some years: how I did afterward, I shall
show in its place.
The baking part was the next thing to be considered, and
how I should make bread when I cae to have corn; for,first,
I had no yeast: as to that part there was no supplying the
want, so I did not concern myself much about it; bt fr an
oven I was indeed puzzled. At length I found out an expe-
dient for that also, which was this: I made some earthen ves-
sels, very broad, but not deep, that is to say, about two feet
diameter, and not above nine inches deep: these I burned in
the fire, as I had done the other, and laid them by; and when
I wanted to bake, I made a great fire upon my hearth, which
I had paved with some square tiles, of my own making so
burning also; but I should not call them square.
When the fire-wood was burned into embers, or live coals, 1
drew them forward upon the hearth, so as to cover it all over,
and there let them lie till the hearth was very hot; then sweep-
ing away all the embers, I set down my loaf, or loaves, and
covering them with the earthen pot, drew the embers all round
the outside of the pot, to keep in and add to the heat; and
thus, as well as in the best oven in the world, I baked my
barley loaves, and became, in a little time, a good pastry-ook
into the bargain; for I made myself several cae a pud.
dings of the rice; but made nopies, as I had nothing to put
into them except the flesh of fowIs or goats
It need not be wondered at if all these things took me up
most part of the third year o my abode here; far it isto be
observed, in the intervals of these things I had my new har-
vest and husbandry to manage. I re my rn in its sea-
son, and carried it home as well as I could, and laid it up in
the ear, in my large baskets, till I had time to rub it ot; for I
had no floor to thrash itn, or instrument to thrash it with.
And now, indeed, my stock of corn inreas I really
wanted to build my bas bigger: I wanted a place to lay it
up in; for the increase of the corn now yie me so muc,
that Ihad of the barley about twenty bushels, and of rice as
much or more, insomuch that now I resolved to begin to se
it fdy; for my bread had been quite gone great while: 1

resolved also to see what quantity would be efficient for me a
whole year, and to sow but once a year.
Upon the whole, I found that the forty bushels of barley and
rice were much more than I could consume in a year; so I
resolved to sow just the same quantity every year that I sowed
the last, in hopes that such a quantity would fully provide me
with bread, &c.
All the while these things were doing, you may be sure my
thoughts ran many times upon the prospect of land which I
had seen from the other side of the island; and I was not with-
out some secret wishes that I was on shore there; fancying,
that seeing the main land, and an inhabited country, I might
find some way or other to convey myself farther, and perhaps
at last find some means of escape.
But all this while I made no allowance for the dangers of
such a condition, and that I might fall into the hands of savages,
and perhaps such as I might have reason to think far worse than
the lions and tigers of Africa; that if I once came in their power,
I should run a hazard of more than a thousand to one of being
killed, and perhaps of being eaten; for I had heard that the
people of the Caribbean coast were cannibals, or man-eaters;
and I knew, by the latitude, that I could not be far off from
that shore. Then supposing they were not cannibals, yet that
they might kill me, as they had many Europeans who had
fallen into their hands, even when they have been ten or twenty
together; much more I, who was but one, and could make
little or no defence; all these things, I say, which I ought to
have considered well of, and did cast up in my thoughts after-
wards, took up none of my apprehensions at first; yet my head
ran mightily upon the thought of getting over to the shore.
Now I wished for my boy Xury and the long-boat with the
shoulder-of-mutton sail, with which I sailed above a thousand
miles on the coast of Africa; but this was in vain: then I
thought I would go and look at oar ship's boat, which, as I
have kaid, was blown up upon the shore a great way, in the
storm, when we were first cast away. She lay nearly where
she did at first, but not quite; having turned, by the force of
the waves and the winds, almost bottom upward, against a
high ridge of beachy rough sand; but no water about her as
before. If I had hands to have refitted her, and to have
launched her into the water, the boat would have done very
well and I might have gone back into the Brazils with her
easily enough; but I might have foreseen, that I could no
more turn her and set her upright upon her bottom, than I
could remove the island; however, I went to the woods, and
cut levers and rollers and brought them to the boat, resolving
to try what I could do; suggestmg to myself, that if I could
but turn her down, and repair the damage she had received,
she would be a very good boat, and I might venture to sea
in her.


I spared no pains, indeed, in this piece of fruitless toil, aiu
spent, I think, three or four weeks abt it: at last finding t
impossible to heave her up with my little strength, I felto
digging away the sand, to undermine her, and so as to make
her fall don, setting pieces of wood to thrust and guide her
right in the fall.
But when I had done this, I was unable to stir her up again,
or to get under her, much less to move her forward towards
the water; so I was forced to give it over; and yet, though
I gave over the hopes of the boat, my desire to venture over
the main increased, rather than diminished, as the means for
it seemed impomible.
At length, began to think whether it was not possible to
make myself a canoe, or periagna, such as the natives of those
climates make, even.without tools, or, as I might say, without
hands, of the trunk of a great tree. This I not only though
possible, but easy, and pleased myself extremely withe idea
of making it, and with my havng much more convenience for .
it than any of the Negroes or Indans; but not at all consider-
ing the particular inconveniences which I lay under more than
the Indians did, viz. the want of hands to move it into the water
when it was made-a difficulty much harder for me to sur-
mount than all the consequences of want of tools could he to
them: for what could it avail e, if. after I had chosen mr
tree, and with much trouble cut it down, and might he able
with my tools to hew and dub the outside into the pro
shape of a boat, and burn or cut out the inside to make it
low, so as make a boat of it; if, after all this, I must leave 49
just where I found it, and was not able to launch it into the
water 1
One would imagine, if I had had the least rejection upon
my mind of my circumstances while I wns making this boat,
I should have immediately thought how I was to get it into the
sea; but my thoughts were so intent upon my voyage in it,
that I never once considered how I should get it off the land;
and it was really, in its ownnature, more easy for me to guide
it over forty-five miles of sea, than the forty-five fathoms of
land, where it lay, to set it doat in the water.
I went to work upon this boat the most like a fool that ever
man did, whohad any ofhis senses awake. I pleased myself
with the design, without determining whether I was abe to
undertake it; not but that the difculty oflaunching my boat
came often into my head; but I put a stop to my own inquiries
into it, by this foolish answer: Let me firstmake it; I warrant
Swill find some way or other to get it along when it is done.
This was a most prepotero method; hbt the eagerness of
my fancy prevailed adto work I went. Ifelled a cedar-tree,
and I question much whether Solomon ever had such a one
'- t 1ndilding of the Temple at Jerusalem; it was five feet

ten inches diameter at the lower part next the stump, and four
feet eleven inches diameter at the end of twenty-two feet,
where it lessened, and then parted into branches. It was not
without infinite labor that I felled this tree; I was twenty days
hacking and hewing at the bottom, and fourteen more getting
the branches and limbs, and the vast spreading head ofit, cut
off: after this, it cost me a month to shape it and dub it to a
proportion, and to something like the bottom of a boat, that it
might swim upright as it ought to do. It cost me near three
months more to clear the inside, and work it out so as to make
an exact boat of it: this I did, indeed, without fire, by mere
mallet and chisel, and by the dint of hard labor, till I had
brought it to be a very handsome periagua, and big enough to
have carried six and twenty men, and consequently big
enough to have carried me and all my cargo.
When I had gone through this work, Iwas extremely de-
lighted with it. The boat was really much bigger than ever
I saw a canoe or periagua, that was made of one tree, in my
life. Many a weary stroke it had cost, you may be sure; and
there remained noting but to get it into the water; which,
had I accomplished, I make no question but I should have
begun the maddest voyage, and the most unlikely to be per-
formed, that ever was undertaken.
But all my devices to get it into the water failed me, though
they cost me inexpressible labor too. It lay about one hundred
yards from the water, and not more; but the first inconve-
ji ce was, it was up hill towards the creek. Well, to take away
.. s discouragement, I resolved to dig into the surface of the
earth, and so make a declivity: this Ibegan, and it cost me a
prodigious deal of pains; (but who grudge pains that have
their deliverance in view?) when thts was worked through
and this difficulty managed, it was still much the same, for I
could no more stir the canoe than I could the other boat. Then
I measured the distance of ground, and resolved to cut a dock
or canal, to bring the water up to the canoe, seeing I could
not bring the canoe down to the water. Well, I began this
work; and when I began to enter upon it, and calculate how
deep it was to be dug, how broad, how the stuff was to be
thrown out, I found by the number of hands I had, having
none but my own that it must have been ten or twelve
years before I could have gone through with it; for the shore
lay so high, that at the upper end it must have been at least
twenty feet deep: this attempt, though with great reluctance,
I was at length obliged to give over also.
This grieved me heartily; and now I saw, though too late
the folly of beginning a work before we count the cost, and
before ve judge rightly of our own strength to go through
with it.
In the middle of ths work, I finished my fourth year in this

place, and kept my anniversary with the same devotion, and
with as much comfort as before; for, by a constant study and
serious application to the word of God and by the assistance
of his grace, I gained a different knowledge from what I had
before; I entertained different notions of things; I looked now
upon the world as a thing remote, which I had nothing to do
with no expectation from, and, indeed, no desires about: in a
word, I had nothing to do with it, nor was ever likely to have;
I thought it looked, as we may perhaps look upon it hereafter
viz. as a place I had lived in, but was come out of it; and well
might I say, as father Abraham to Dives, "Between me and
thee is a great gulf fixed."
In the first ace I was here removed from all the wicked-
ness of the world; I had neither the lust of the flesh, the lust
of the eye, nor the pride of life. I had nothing to covet, for 1
had all that I was now capable of enjoying : I was lord of the
whole manor; or, if I pleased, I might clmyself king or em-
peror over the whole country which I had possession of; there
were no rivals; I had no competitor, none to dispute sove-
reignty or command with me: I might have raised ship-load-
ings of corn, but I had no use for it; so I let as little grow as
I thought enough for my occasion. I had tortoise or turtle
enough, but now and then one was as much as I could put to
any use: I had timber enough to have built a fleet of ships;
and I had grapes enough to have made wine, or to have cuied
into raisins, to have loaded that fleet when it had been built.
But all I could make use of was all that was valuable: I hil
enough to eat and supply my wants, aqd what was the rest to
me? If I killed more flesh than I could eat, the dog must eat
it, or vermin if I sowed more corn than I could eat, it must
be spoiled; the trees that I cut down were lying to rot on the
ground; I could make no more use of them than for fuel, and
that I had no other occasion for but to dress my food.
In a word, the nature and experience of things dictated to
me, upon just reflection, that all the good things of this world
are of no further good to us than for our use; and that what-
tver we may heap up to give others, we enjoy only as much
as we can use and no more. The most covetous grpinm
miser in the world would have been cured of the vice of covet-
ousness, if he had been in my case; for I possessed infinitely
more than I knew what to do with. I had no room for desire,
except it was for things which I had not, and they were com-
paratively but trifles, though indeed of great use to me. I had,
as I hinted before, a parcel of money, as well gold as silver, about
thirty-six pounds sterling. Alas! there the nasty, sorry, use-
less stuff lay: I had no manner of business for it; and I often
thought within myself, that I would have given a handful of it
for a gross of tobacco-pipes, or for a hand-mill to grind my
corn; nay, I would have given it all for sixpennv-woth of tur


nip ana carrot seed from England, or for a handful of peas and
beans, and a bottle of ink. As it was, I had not the least ad-
vantage by it, or benefit from it; but there it lay in a drawer,
and grew mouldy with the damp of the cave in the wet sea-
sons; and if I had had the drawer full of diamonds, it had been
the same case,-they had been of no manner of value to me,
because of no use.
I had now brought my state of life to be much more com-
fortable in itself than it was at first, and much easier to my
mind, as well as to my body. I frequently sat down to meat
with thankfulness, and admired the hand of God's providence,
which had thus spread my table in the wilderness; I learned
to look more upon the bright side of my condition, and less
upon the dark side, and to consider what I enjoyed, rather
than what I wanted; and this gave me sometimes such secret
comforts, that I cannot express them ; and which I take notice
of here, to put those discontented people in mind of it, who
cannot enjoy comfortably what God has given them, because
they see and covet something that he has not given them. All
our discontents about what we want, appeared to me to spring
from the want of thankfulness for what we have.
Another reflection was of great use to me, and doubtless
would be so to any one that should fall into such distress as
mine was; and this was, to compare my present condition
with what I at first expected it would be; nay, with what it