Title Page
 The life of De Foe
 Robinson Crusoe: I
 Title Page
 Robinson Crusoe: II

Group Title: Robinson Crusoe
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00072815/00001
 Material Information
Title: The life and adventures of Robinson Crusoe
Uniform Title: Robinson Crusoe
Physical Description: 2 v. in 1 (viii, 314, 293 p., 1 leaf of plates) : 1 col. ill. ; 18 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
Sinclair, Thomas S., ca. 1805-1881 ( Lithographer )
Defoe, Daniel, 1661?-1731
J.B. Smith & Co ( Publisher )
Publisher: Pub. by J.B. Smith & Co.
Place of Publication: Philadelphia (No. 610 Chestnut Street)
Publication Date: ca. 1859
Subject: Castaways -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Shipwrecks -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Survival after airplane accidents, shipwrecks, etc -- Juvenile fiction   ( lcsh )
Imaginary voyages -- 1859   ( rbgenr )
Genre: Imaginary voyages   ( rbgenr )
fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Pennsylvania -- Philadelphia
Statement of Responsibility: by Daniel Defoe ; two volumes in one.
General Note: Gilt, decorative spine with title: Robinson Crusoe.
General Note: Undated reissue of Lovett, R.W. Robinson Crusoe, 458 and NUC pre- 1956, 0118338 (v. 136, p. 598) both of which are dated 1859.
General Note: Col. front.: Sinclair's Lith. Probably Thomas S. Sinclair, a lithographer active in Philadelphia from the 1840s.
General Note: All pages have fancy ruled frame.
General Note: Parts I and II of Robinson Crusoe. Part II originally published under title: Farther adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00072815
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 27866802

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    The life of De Foe
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Robinson Crusoe: I
        A 1
        A 2
        A 3
        A 4
        A 5
        A 6
        A 7
        A 8
        A 9
        A 10
        A 11
        A 12
        A 13
        A 14
        A 15
        A 16
        A 17
        A 18
        A 19
        A 20
        A 21
        A 22
        A 23
        A 24
        A 25
        A 26
        A 27
        A 28
        A 29
        A 30
        A 31
        A 32
        A 33
        A 34
        A 35
        A 36
        A 37
        A 38
        A 39
        A 40
        A 41
        A 42
        A 43
        A 44
        A 45
        A 46
        A 47
        A 48
        A 49
        A 50
        A 51
        A 52
        A 53
        A 54
        A 55
        A 56
        A 57
        A 58
        A 59
        A 60
        A 61
        A 62
        A 63
        A 64
        A 65
        A 66
        A 67
        A 68
        A 69
        A 70
        A 71
        A 72
        A 73
        A 74
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        A 78
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        A 93
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        A 150
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        A 304
        A 305
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        A 307
        A 308
        A 309
        A 310
        A 311
        A 312
        A 313
        A 314
    Title Page
        B 1
        B 2
    Robinson Crusoe: II
        B 3
        B 4
        B 5
        B 6
        B 7
        B 8
        B 9
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Full Text


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.~-r,,, .~,,,,,,,,,.,~1,~,~,~,~,,,., \L~!



DANIEL DE FOE was descended from a respect.
able family in the county of Northampton, and boin
in London, about the year 1663. His father, James
Foe, was a butcher, in the parish.of St. Giles's, Crip-
plegate, and a protestaut dissenter. Why the subject
of this memoir prefixed the De to his family name
cannot now be ascertained, nor did he at any period
of his life think it necessary to give his reasons to the
public. The political scribblers of the day, however,
thought proper to remedy this lack of information,
and accused him of posessing so little of the amor
patrias, as to make the addition in order that he
might not be taken for an Englishman; though this
idea could have had no other foundation than the
circumstance of his having, in consequence of his
zeal for king William, attacked the prejudices of his
countrymen in his True-born Englishman."
After receiving a good education at an academy at
Newington, young De Foe, before he had attained his
twenty-first year, commenced his career as an author,
by writing a pamplet against a very prevailing senti-
ment in favour of the Turks, who were at 'hat time
laying siege to Vienna. This production, being very
inferior to those of his maturer years, was very little
read, and the indignant author, despairing of success
with his pen, had recourse to the sword; or, as he
termed it, when boasting of the exploit his latter
years, "displayed his attachment to liberty and pro
testantism," by joining the ill-advised insurrection
under the duke of Monmouth, in the west. On the
failure of that unfortunate enterprise, he returned

again to the metropolis: and it is not improbable,
but that the circumstance of his being a native of
London, and his person not nuch known in that part
of the kingdom where the rebellion took place, might
facilitate his escape, and be the means of preventing
his being brought to trial for his share in the transac-
tion. With the professions of a writer and a soldier
Mr. De Foe, in the year 1685, joined that of a trader
he was first engaged as a hosier, in Cornhill, and af
terwards as a maker of bricks and pantiles, near Til
Dury Fort, in Essex; but in consequence of spending
those hours in the hilarity of the tavern which he
ought to have employed in the calculations of the
counting-house, his commercial schemes proved un-
successful; and in 1694 he was obliged to abscond
from his creditors, not failing to attribute those mis-
fortunes to the war and the severity of the times,
which were doubtless owing to his own misconduct
It is much to his credit however, that after having
been freed from his debts by composition, and being
in prosperous circumstances from King William's fa-
v)ur, he voluntarily paid most of his creditors both
the principal and interest of their claims. This is
such an example of honesty as it would be unjust to
De Foe and to the world to conceal. The amount
of the sums thus paid must have been very consider-
able, as he afterwards feelingly mentions to Lord
Haversham, who had reproached him with covetous-
ness; With a numerous family, and no helps but
my own industry, I have forced my way through a
sea of misfortunes, and reduced my debts exclusive
of composition, from seventeen thousand to less than
five thousand pounds."
At the beginning of the year 1700, Mr. De Foe
published a satire in verse, which excited very con
siderable attention, called the True-born English-
man." Its purpose was to furnish a reply to those
who were continually abusining ing William and some
of his friends asforeigners, by shewing that the pre-
sent race of Englishmen was a mixed and heteroge-
neous brood, scarcely any of which could lay claimn to

1._.....__C ._.

rxx ---- -*-------~ -----

native purity of blood. The satire was in many parts
very severe; and though it gave high offence, it
claimed a considerable share of the public attention.
The reader will perhaps be gratified by a specimen of
this production, wherein he endeavours to account
What makes this discontented land appear
Less happy now in times of peace, than war;
Why civil feuds disturb the nation more,
Than all our bloody wars had done before:
Fools out of favour grudge at knaves in place,
Anrd men are always honest in disgrace;
The court preferments make men knaves in course,
But they, who would be in them, would be worse.
'Tis not at foreigners that we repine,
Would foreigners their perquisites resign:
The grand contention's plainly to be seen,
To get some men put out and some put in."
It will be immediately perceived that De Foe could
have no pretensions to the character of a poet; but
lie has, notwithstanding, some nervous and well-ver.
sified lines, and in choice of subject and moral he is
in general excellent. The True-born Englishman
concludes thus:
Could but our ancestors retrieve their fate,
And see their offspring thus degenerate;
How we contend for birth and names unknown,
And build on their past actions, not our own;
They'd cancel records, and their tombs deface,
And openly disown the vile degenerate race.
For fame of families is all a cheat;
For this defence of foreigners De Foe was amply
rewarded by King William, who not only ordered hiu
a pension, but as his opponents denominated it, ap.
pointed him pamphlet-writer general to the court;
an office for which he was peculiarly well calculated,
possessing, with a strong mind and a ready wit, that
kind of yielding conscience which allowed him to sup-

ort the measures of his benefactors though convinced
they were injurious to his country. De Foe now re-
tired to Newington with his family, and for a short
lime lived at ease ; but the death of his royal patron
deprived him of a generous protector, and opened a
scene of sorrow which probably embittered his future
He had always discovered a great inclination to en-
gage in religious controversy, and the furious contest,
civil and ecclesiastical, which ensued on the accession
of Queen Anne, gave him an opportunity of gratify-
ing his favourite passion. He therefore published a
tract entitled The shortest Way with the Dissenters,
or Proposals for the Establishment of the Church,"
which contained an ironical recommendation of per-
secution, but written in so serious a strain, that many
persons, particular Dissenters, at first mistook its
real intention. The high church party however saw,
and felt the ridicule, and by their influence, a prose-
cution was commenced against him, and a proclama-
tion published in thie Gazette, offering a reward obr
his apprehension.* When De Foe found with how

St. James's, January 10, 1702-3.
"Whereas Daniel De Foe, alias De Fooe, is
charged with writing a scandalous and seditious pam-
phlet, entitled ".The shortest Way with the Dissent
ers :" he is a middle-sized spare man, about40 years
old, of a brown complexion, and dark brown colourd
hair, but wears a wig, a hooked nose a sharp chin,
grey eyes, and a large mole near his mouth, was born
in London, and for many years was a hose-factor, in
Freeman's Yard, in Cornhill, and now is owner of
the brick and pantile works near Tilbury Fort, in
Essex; whoever shall discover the said Daniel De
Foe, to one of her Majesty's Principal Secretaries of
State, or any of her Majesty's Justices of Peace, so
as he may be apprehended, shall have a reward of
501. which her Majesty has ordered immediately to
be paid upon such discovery."
London Gaz. No. 3879.

amen rigour himself and his pamphlet were about to
bu treated, he at first secreted himself; but his printer
and bookseller being taken into custodody, he surren-
dered, being resolved, as he expressed it, to throw
himself upon the favour of government, rather than
that others should be ruined for his mistakes." In
July, 1703, he was brought to trial, found guilty, and
sentenced to be imprisoned, to stand in the pillory, and
to pay a fine of two hundred marks. He underwent
the infamous part of the punishment with great for-
titude, and it seems to have been generally thought
that he was treated with unreasonable severity. So
far was he from being ashamed of his fate himself,
that he wrote a hymn to the pillory, which thus ends,
alluding to his accusers:
Tell them, the men that plac'd him here
Are scandals to the times;
Are at a loss to find his guilt,
And can't commit his crimes.
Pope, who has thought fit to introduce him in his
Dunciad (probably from no other reason than party
difference) characterises him in the following line
Earless on high stood unabash'd De Foe.
This is one of those instances of injustice and malig.
nity which so frequently occur in the Dunciad, and
which reflect more dishonour on the author than on
the parties traduced. De Foe lay friendless and dis-
tressed in Newgate, his Family ruined, and himself
without hopes of deliverance, till Sir Robert Harley,
who approved of his principles, and foresaw that dur-
ing a factious age such a genius could be converted
to many uses, represented his unmerited sufferings
to the Queen, and at length procured his release. The
treasurer, Lord, Godolphin, also sent a considerable
sum to his wife and family, and to him money to pay
his fine and the expense of his discharge. Gratitude
and fidelity are inseparable from an honest man; and
it was this benevolent act that prompted De Foe to
support Harley,with his able and ingenious pen, when


Anne lay lifeless, and his benefactor in the vicissitude
of party was persecuted by faction, and overpowered,
though not conquered, by violence.
The talents and perseverence of De Foe began
now to be properly estimated, and as a firm supporter
of the administration, he was sent by Lord Godol-
phin to Scotland, on an errand which, as he says, was
far from being unfit for a sovereign to direct or an
honest man to perform. Hisknowledge ofcommerce
and revenue, his powers of insinuation, and above
all his readiness of pen, were deemed of no small
utility, in promoting the union of the two kingdoms;
of which he wrote an able history, in 1709 with two
dedications, one to the Queen, and another to the
Duke of Queensbury. Soon afterwardshe unhappily,
.y some equivocal writings, rendered himselfsuspect-
ed by both parties, so that he once more retired to
Newington in hopes of spending the remainder of his
days in peace, His pension being withdrawn, and
wearied with politics, he began to compose works of
a different kind.-The year 1715 may therefore be re-
garded as the period of De Foe's political life. Fac-
tion henceforth found other advocates, and parties
procured other writers to disseminate their suggest
tions, and to propagate their falsehoods.
In 1715 Do Foe published the Family Instruc-
tor;" a work inculcating the domestic duties in a
lively manner, by narration and dialogue, and dis-
playing much knowledge of life in the middle ranks
bf society. Religious Courtship" also appeared
soon after, which, like the "Family Instructor," is
eminently religious and moral in its tendency, and
strongly impresses on the mind that spirit of sobriety
and private devotion for which the dissenters have
generally been distinguished. The most celebrated
of all his works, The Life and Adveutures of Ro-
binson Crusoe," appeared in 1719. This woak has
passed through numerous editions, and been trans-
lated into almost all modern languages. The great
invention which is displayed in it, the variety of in-
cidents and circumstances which it contains, relalteo

""~" """ ` "'"'~"'" '"" ~------- ---~----

Sn the most easy and natural manner, together with
the excellency of the moral and religious reflections,
render it a performance of very superior and uncom-
mon merit, and one of the most interesting works
that ever appeared. It is strongly recommended by
Rosseau as a book admirably calculated to promote
the purposes of natural education; and Dr. Blair
says, No fiction in any language, was ever better
supportedd than the adventures of Robinson Crusoe.
While it is carried on with that appearance of truth
and simplicity, which takes a strong hold on the ima-
gination of all readers, it suggests, at the same time,
very useful instruction; by shewing how much the
native powers of men may be exerted for surmount-
ing the difficulties of any external situation." It has
been pretended, that De Foe surreptitiously appro-
priated the papers of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch
it riner, who lived four years alone on the island of
Juan Fernandez, and a sketch of whose story had
before appeared in the voyage of Captain Woodes
Rogers. But this charge, though repeatedly and con-
laently brought, appears to be totally destitute of
.ny foundation. De Foe probably took some gene-
,al hints for his work from the story of Selkirk, but
here exists no proof whatever, nor is it reasonable
o suppose that he possessed any of his papers or
niemoirs, which had been published seven years be-
pre the appearance of Robinson Crusoe. As a far-
her proof of De Foe's innocence, Captain Rogers's
Account of Selkirk may be produced, in which it is
aid that the latter had neither preserved pen, ink,
ir paper, and had in a great measure lost his lan-
juage ; consequently De Foe could not have received
any written assistance, and we have only the asser-
lion of his enemies to prove that he had any verbal.
The great success of Robinson Crusoe induced its
author to write a number of other lives and adven-
tures some of which were popular in their times,
though at present nearly forgotten. One of his latest
publications was A Tour through the Island of

--- \~-~-\,,,,~,,,~,,,,~~~,,,_,,_~*


Great Britain," a performance of very inferior merits
but De Foe was now the garralous old man, and his
spirit (to use the words of an ingenious biographer)
"like a candle struggling in the socket, blazed and
sunk, blazed and sunk, till it disappeared at length in
total darkness." His laborious and unfortunate life
was finished on the 26th of April, 1731, in the parish
of St. Giles's, Cripplegate.
' Daniel De Foe possessed very extraordinary ta.
lents; as a commercial writer, he is fairly entitled to
stand in the foremost rank among his cotempora.
ries, whatever may be their performances or their
fame. His distinguished characteristics are original.
lity, spirit, and a profound knowledge of his subject,
and in these particulars he has seldom been surpassed.
As the author of Robinson Crusoe lie has a claim
not only to the admiration, but to the gratitude of
hih cn lntr men and olonnt as we have a reoard

for supereminent merit and take an interest in the
welfare of the rising generation, that gratitude will
not cease to exist. But the opinion of the learned
and ingenious Dr. Beattie will be the best eulogiunl
that can be produced on that celebrated romance *
Robinson Crusoe," says the Doctor, must be al.
lowed by the most rigid moralist, to be one of thoas
novels which one may read, not only with pleasure
but also with profit. It breathes throughout a spirit
of piety and benevolence ; it sets in a very striking
light the importance of the mechanic arts, which they,
who know not what it is to be without them. are so
apt to undervalue; it fixes on the mind a lively idea
sf the horrors of solitude, and, consequently of the
sweets of social life, and of the blessings we derive
from conversation and mutual aid ; and it shews
how, by labouring with one's own hands, one may
secure independence, and open for one's self many
sources of health and amusement. I agree, there
fore, with Rosseau, that it is one of the best books
ihat can be put into the hands of children."

"" """ `"``"-""`"^' ~' -~----




| _

I WAS born in the year 1632, in the city of Yozk
of a good family, though not of that country, my
farther being a foreigner of Bremen, who settled first
at Hull; he got a good estate by merchandise, and
leaving off his trade, lived afterwards at York, from
whence he had married my mother, whose relations
were named Robinson, a very good family in that
country, and from whom I was called Robinsor
Krutznaer; by the usual corruption of words ir.
Eingland, we are now called, nay we call ourselves,
and write our name Crusoe, and so my companions
always called me.
I had two elder brothers, one of which was lieu-
tenant-colonel to an Eriglish regiment of foot in Flan-
ders, formerly commanded by the famous Colonel
Lockhart, and was killed at the battle near Dunkirk
against the Spaniards. What became of my second
brother I never knew, any more than my father or
mother did know what was become of me.
Being the third son of the family, and not bred to

i .,~,,,.,~ <~n~z~~------ ------

any trade, my head began to be filled very early with
rambling thoughts: my father, who was very ancient,
had given me a competent share of learning, as far
as house education and a country free-school gene
rally go, and designed me for the law; but I would
be satisfied with nothing but going to sea; and my in-
clination to this led me strongly against the will,
nay the commands of my father, and against all the
entreaties and persuasions of my mother and other
friends, that there seemed to be something fatal in that
propension of nature -tending directly to the life of
misery which was to be fatal to me.
My father, a wise and grave man, gave me serious
and excellent counsel against what heforesawwas my
design. He called me one morning into his chamber,
where he was confined by the gout, and expostulated
very warmly with me upon this subject: he asked
me what reason more than a mere wandering incli-
nation I had for leaving my father's house and my
native country, where I might he well introduced, and
had a prospect of raising my fortune by application
and industry, with a fe of ease and pleasure. He
told me it was for meffof desperate fortunes on one
hand, or of aspiring superior fortunes on the other,
who went abroad upon adventures, to raise by enter-
prise, and make themselves famous in undertakings of
a nature out of the common road-; that these things
were all either too far above me, or too far below
me; that mine was the middle state, or what might be
called the upper station of low life, which he had
found by long experience was the best state in the
world, the most suited to human happiness, not ex-
posed to the miseries and hardships, the labour and
sufferings of the mechanic part of mankind, and not
enmbarrased with the pride, luxury, ambition, and
envy of the upper part of mankind. He told me, I
might judge of the happiness of this state by this one
think, viz. that this was the state oflife which all other
People envied that kings have frequently lamented
te miserable consequences of being horn to great

~r-- ,~~~~rcr~nrvc~urru~*c~KM~~~lrrruvuru~~ r=CI

* things, and wish they had been placed in the middia
of the two extremes, between the mean and the great;
that the wise man gave his testimony to this as the
just standard of true felicity, when he prayed to have
neither poverty nor riches.
He bid me observe it, and I should always find,
that the calamities of life were shared among the up-
per and lower part of mankind ; but that the middle
station had the fewest disasters, and was not exposed
to so many vicissitudes as the higher or lower part
of mankind; nay, they were not subjected to so many
distempers and uneasinesses, either of body or mind,
asthose were, who by vicious living, luxury, and ec-
travagances, on one hand, or by haid labour, want of
necessaries, and mean or insufficient diet, on the other
hand, bring distempers upon themselves by the na-
tural consequences of their way of living; that the
middle station of life was calculated for all kind of
virtues and all kind of enjoyments; that peace and
plenty were the handmaids of a middle fortune; that
temperance, moderation, quietness, health, society, all
agreeable diversions, and all desirable pleasures, were
the blessings attending the middle station of life; that
this way men went silently and smoothly through the
world, and comfortably out of it, not embarrassed
with the labours of the hands or of the head, not sold
to the life of slavery for daily bread, or harassed with
perplexed circumstances, which rob the soul of peace,
and the body of rest; not enraged with the passion
of envy, or secret burning lust of ambition for great
things; but in easycircunstancesslidinggently through
the world, and sensibly tasting the sweets of living,
without the bitter, feeling that they are happy, and
learning by every oay's experience to know it more
After this, he pressed me earnestly, and in the most
affectionate manner, not to play the young man, not
to precipitate myself into miseries which nature and
the station of life I was born in seemed to have pro.
tided against; that I was under no necessity of seek.

mg my bread; that he would do well for me, ana
endeavour to enter me fairly into the station of life
which he had been just recommending to me; and
that if I was not very easy and happy in the world
it must be my mere fate or fault that must hinder it
and that he should have nothing to answer for, having
thus discharged his duty in warning me against mea-
Eures which he knew would be to my hurt; in a word,
that as he would do very kind things for me ifI would
stay and settle at home as he directed, so he would
not have so much hand in my misfortunes, as to give
me any encouragement to go away: and to close all,
he told me I had my elder brother for an example,
to whom he had used the same earnest persuasions to
keep him from going into the Low Country wars, but
could not prevail, his young desires prompting him to
run into the army, where he was killed; and though
he said he would not cease to pray for me, yet he
would venture to say to me, that if I did take this
foolish step, God would not bless me, and I would
have leisure hereafter to reflect upon having neglect-
ed his counsel when there might be none to assist in
my recovery.
I observed in this last part of his discourse, which
was truly prophetic, though I suppose my father did
not know it to be so himself; I say, I observed the
tears run down his face very plentifully, and espe-
cially when he spoke of my brother who was killed;
and that when he spoke of my having leisure to re-
pent, and none to assist me, he was so moved, that
he broke off the discourse, and told me, his heart was
so full that he could do no more.
I was sincerely affected with this discourse, as in-
deed who could be otherwise ? and I resolved not to
think of going abroad any more, but to settle at home
according to my father's desire. But, alas! a few days
wore it all off; and in short, to prevent any of my fa.
their's farther importunities, in a few week after I re-
solved to run quite away from him. However, I did
tot act so hastily neither as m, first heat of resolution

prompted, but I took my mother, at a time wnen I
thought her'a little pleasanter than ordinary, and told
her, tnat my thoughts were so entirely bent upon see-
ing the world, that I should never settle to any thing
with resolution enough to go through with it, and my
father had better give me his consent than force me
to go without it; that I was now eighteen years old,
which was too late to go apprentice to a trade, or clerk
to an attorney; that I was sure, if I did, I should
never serve out my time, and I should certainly run
away from my master before my time was out, and
go to sea; and if she would speak to my father to let
me go one voyage abroad, if I came home again, and
did not like it, I would go no more, and I would pro-
mise by a double diligence to recover that time I had
This put my mother into a great passion: she to;d
tme, she knew it would be to no purpose to speak to
my father upon any such subject; that he knew too
well what was my interest to give his consent to any
such thing so much for my hurt; and that she won-
dered how I could think of any such thing after such
a discourse as I had had with my father, and such kind
and tender expressions as she knew my father had
used to me; and that, in short, if I would ruin my-
self, there was no help for me; but I might depend I
should never have their consent to it: that for her part
she would not have so much hand in my destruction;
and I should never have it to say, that my mother
was willing when my father was not.
Though my mother refused to move it to my father
yet, as I have heard afterwards, she reported all the
discourse to him, and that my father, after showing a
great concern at it, said to her with a sigh, "That
boy might be happy if he would stay at home; but if
he goes abroad, he will be the most miserable wretch
that was ever born; I can give no consent to it."
It was not till almost a year after this that I broke
loose, though, in the meantime, I continued obsti.
nately deaf to all proposals of settling to business, and


frequently expostulating with my father and mother
alout their being so positively determined against
vhlat they knew my incination prompted me to. But
beingone day at Hull, where I went casually, and with.
nout an~r nur noe nf making an lonenment that timer

but I say, being there, and one of my companions
being going by sea to London, in his father's ship, and
prompting me to go with them, with the common al-
lbrement of seafaring men, viz. that it should cost me
nothing for my passage, I consulted neither father or
mother any more, not so much as sent them word of
it; but leaving them to hear of it as they might, with-
out asking God's blessing, or my father's, without any
consideration of circumstances or consequences, and
in an ill hour, God knows, on the first of September,
1651, I went on board a ship bound for London.
Never any young adventurer's misfortunes, I believe,
began sooner, or continued longer than mine. The
ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the
wind began to blow, and the waves to rise in a most
frightful manner; and, as I had never been at sea be-
fore, I was most inexpressibly sick in body, and ter-
rified in mind. I began now seriously to reflect upon
what I had done, and how justly I was overtaken by
jhe judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my
father's house, and abandoning my duty; all the good
counsel of my parents, my father's tears and my mo-
ther's entreaties, came now fresh into my mind; and
my conscience, which was not yet come to the pitch
of hardness to which it has been since, reproached me
with the contempt of advice, and the breach of my
duty to God and my father.
All this while the storm increased, and the sea,
which I had never been upon be-fore, went very high,
though nothing like what I have seen many times
since; no, nor like what I saw a few days after: Lt.
it was enough to affect me then, who was but a young
sailor, and had never known any thing of the matter.
I expected every wave would have swallowed us up,
and that every time the ship fell down, as I thought,

m the trough or hollow of the sea, we should never
rise more; and in this agony of mind I made many
vows and resolutions, that if it would pleas God here
to spare my life this one voyage, if ever 1 got once
my foot upon dry land again I would go directly home
to my father, and never set it into a ship again while
I lived; that I would take his advice, and never run
myself into such miseries as these any more. Now I
saw plainly the goodness of his observations about the
middle station of life, h-w easy, how comfortably he
had lived all his days, and never had been exposed to
tempests at sea, or troubles on shore; and I resolved
that I would, like a true repenting prodigal, go home
to my father.
These wise and sober thoughts continued all he
while the storm continued, and indeed some time af-
ter; but the next day the wind was abated, and the
sea calmer, and I began to be a little inured to it
however, I was very grave for all that day, being alsc
a littlB sea-sick still; but towards night the weather
cleared up, the wind was quite over, and a charming
fine evening followed; the sun went down perfectly
clear, and rose so the next morning; and having little
or no wind, and a smooth sea, the sun shining upon
it, the sight was, as I thought, the most delightful that
ever I saw.
I had slept well in the night, and was now no more
sea-sick, but very cheerful, looking with wonder upon
the sea that was so rough and terrible the day before,
and could be so calm and so,pleasant in so little time
after. And now, lest my good resolutions should
continue, my companion, who had indeed enticed me
away, comes to me: "1 Well, Bob," says he, (clapping
me upon the shoulder) how do you do after it? I
warrant you were frighted, wa'n't you, last night, when
it blew but a capful of wind ?"-" A capful do you call
it?" said I; ".it was a terrible storm."-" A storm,
you fool you," replied he, do you call that a storm ?
why it was nothing at all; give" us but a good ship
and sea-room, and we think nothing of such a squall
2 .

of wind as that; but you're but a fresh-watei sailor
Bob. Come, let us make a bowl of punch, and wet'
forget all that; do you see what charming weather
is now ?" To make short this sad part of my story, wv
went the old way of all sailors; the punch was mate,
and I was made drunk with it; and in that one night's
wickedness I drowned all my repentance, all my re-
flections upon my past conduct, and all my resolution
for my future. In a word, as the sea was returned to
its smoothness of surface and settled calinness by the
abatement of that storm, so the hurry of my thoughts
being over, my fears and apprehensions of being swal-
lowed up by the sea being forgotten, and the current
of my former desires returned, I entirely forgot the
vows and promises that I made in my distress. I
found, indeed, some intetials of reflection, and the
serious thoughts did, as it were, endeavour to return
again sometimes; but I snook them off, and roused
myself from them as it ,' re from a distemper, and
applying myself to drink ig and company, soon mas
tered the return of those fib, for so I called them; and
I had in five or six days got as complete a victory
over conscience, as any your g fellow that resolved not
to be troubled with it could desire: but I was to have
another trial for it still; and Providence, as in such
"eases generally it does, resolved to leave me entirely
without excuse: for if I would not take this for a de.
liverance, the next was to be such a one as the worst
and most hardened wretch among us would confess
both the danger and the mercy.
The sixth day of our being at sea we came into
Yarmouth Roads; the wind having been contrary, and
the weather calm, we had made but little way since
tie storm. Here we were obliged to come to anchor,
and here we lay, the wind continuing contrary, viz
at south-west, for seven or eight days, during which
time a great many ships from Newcastle came intc
the same roads, as the common harbour where the
ships might wait for a wind for the river.
We had not, however, rid here so long, but should

',~~,,,~,, ,,,~,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, >

have tided it up the river, but that the wind blew ton
fresh; ..:d after we had lain four or five days, blew
very hard. However, the roads being reckoned as
good as aharbour, the anchorage good, and our ground
tackle very strong, our men were unconcerned, and
not in the least apprehensive of danger, but spent tre
time in rest and mirth, after the manner of the sea
but the eighth day in the morning the wind increased,
and we had all hands at work to strike our top-masts
and make every thing snug and close, that the ship
migh ride as easy as possible. By noon the sea went
very high indeed, and our ship rid forecastle in,
shipped several seas, and we thought once or twice
our anchor had come home; upon which our master
ordered out the sheet anchor; so that we rode with
two anchors ahead, and the cables veered out to tie
better end.
By this time it blew a terrible storm indeed ; and
now I began to see terror and amazement in the faces
even of the seamen themselves. The master, though
vigilant in the business of preserving the ship, yet as
he went in and out of his cabin by me, I could hear
him softly to himself say several times, Lord be
merciful to us! we shall be all lost, we shall be all un-
done !" and the like. During these first hurries] was
stupid, lying still in my cabin, which was in the steer-
age, and cannot describe my temper: I could ill re-
assume the first penitence which I had so apparently
trampled upon, and hardened myselfagainst: Ithought
the bitterness of death had been past, and that this
would be nothing like the first: but when the master
himself came by me, as I said just now, and said we
should be all lost, I was dreadfully frightened : I got up
out of my cabin, and looked out; but such a dismal
sight I never saw: the sea went mountains high, and
broke upon us every three or four minutes: when I
could look about, I could see nothing but distress round
us, two ships that rid near us, we found had cut their
masts by .ie board, being deep loaden; and our men

L_____z ~h.M~-IZ~~--~V

cried out, that a ship which rid about a mile ahead
of us was foundered. Two more ships being driven
from their anchors, were run out of the roads to sea,
at all adventures, and that with not a mast standing.
The light ships fared the best, as not so much labour-
ing in the sea; but two or three of them drove, and
came close by us, running away with only their sprit-
sail out before the wind.
Towardsevening the mate and boatswain begged the
master of our ship to let them cut away the fore-mast,
which he was very unwilling to do: but the boatswin
protesting to him, that if he did not, the ship would
founder, he consented; and when they had cut away
the fore-mast, the main-mast stood so loose, and
shook the ship so much, they were obliged to cut her
away also, and make a clear deck.
Any one may judge what a condition I must be In
at all this, who was but a young sailor, and who had
been in such a fright before at but a little. But if I
can express at this distance the thoughts I had about
me at that time, I was in tenfold more horror of mind
upon account ofmy formerconvictions, and the having
returned from them to the resolutions I had wickedly
taken at first, than I was at death itself; and these,
added to the terror of the storm, put me in such a con-
dition, that I can by no words describe it. But the
worst was not come yet; the storm continued with
sdch fury, that the seamen themselves acknowledged
they had never known a worse. We had a good ship,
but she was deep loaden, and wallowed in the sea,
that the seamen every now and then cried out, she
would founder: It was my advantage in one respect,
that I did not know what they-meant by founder till
I inquired. However, the storm was so violent, that
Isaw what is not often seen, the master, the boatswan,
and some others more sensible than the rest, at their
prayers, and expecting every moment when the ship
would go to the bottom. In the middle of the night,
and under all the rest of our distresses, one of the men
that had been down on purpose to see, cried out, we


had sprung a leak; another said, there was four foot
water in the hold. Then all hands were called to the
,lump At that very word my heart, as I thought, died
within me, and I fell backwards upon the srde of my
bed where I sat, into the cabin. However, the men
roused me, and told me, that I that was able t, do
nothing before, was as well able to pump as another;
at which I stirred up, and went to the pump and
worked very heartily. While this was .doing, the
master seeing some light colliers, who not able to ride
out the storm, were obliged to slip and run away to
sea, and would come near us ordered to fire a gun as
a signalof distress. I, who knew nothing what that
meant, was so surprised, that I thought the ship had
broke, or some dreadful thing happened. In a word,
I was so surprised, that I fell down in a swoon. As
this was a time when every body had his own life to
think of, nobody minded me, or what was become
of me ; but another man stept up to tle pump, and
tbursting me aside with his foot, let me lie, thinking
I had been dead; and it was a great while before I
came to myself.
We worked on; but the water increasing in the
bold, it was apparent that the ship would founder;
and though the storm began to abate a little, yet as it
was not possible she could swim till we might run
into a port, so the master continued firing guns for
help; and a light ship who had rid it out just ahead
of us, ventured a boat out to help us. It was with the
utmost hazard the boat came near us, but it was im-
possible for us to get on board, or for the boat to lie
near the ship's side, till at last the men rowing very
heartily, and venturing their lives to save ours, our
men cast them a rope over the stern with a buoy to it,
and then veered it out a great length, which they after
great labour and hazard took hold of, and we hauled
them close under our stern, and got all into their
boat. It was to no purpose for them or us, after we
were in the boat, to think of reaching tb their own

ship; so all agreed to let her drive, and only to pull
her in towards shore as much as we could; and our
master promised them, that if the boat was staved
upon shore he would make it good to their master:
so partly rowing ann partly driving, our boat went
away to the nothward, sloping towards the shore
almost as far as Winterton-Ness.
We were not much more than a quarter of an houl
out of our ship but we saw her sink, and then 1 un-
derstood for the first time what was meant by a ship
foundering in the sea. I must acknowledge I had
hardly eyes to look up when the seamen told me she
was sinking; for from that moment they rather put
me into the boat, than that I might be said to go in;

my heart was, as it were, dead within me, partly
with frighth, partly with horror of mind, and the
thoughts of what was yet before me.
While we were in this condition, the men yet la-
bouring at the oar to bring the boat near the shore,
we could see, when our boat mounting the waves we
were able to see the shore, a great many people run-
ning along the shore to assist us when we should come
i ear; but we made but slow way towards the shore,
nor were we able to reach the sore, till being past
the light-house at Winterton, the shore falls off to the
westward towards Cromer, and so the land broke off
a little the violence of the wind. Here we got in,
and, though not without much difficulty, got all safe
on shore, and walked afterwards on foot to Yar-
mouth, where, as unfortunate men, we were used
with great humanity, as well by the magistrates of
the town, who assigned us good quarters, as by par-
ticular merchants and owners of ships, and had
money given us sufficient to carry us either to Lon-
don or back to Hull, as we thought fit.
Had I now had the sense to have gone back to Hull,
and have gone home, I had been happy, and my
father, an emblem four blessed Saviour'sparable, had
even killed the fatted calf for me; for hearing the ship

|, \,,,,,~,,,,.,,~~, ~ ~ z~

I went away in was cast away in Yarmouth Roads, it
was a great while before he had any assurance that I
was not drowned.
But my ill fate pushed me on now with an obsti-
nacy that nothing could resist; and though I had se-
veral times loud calls from my reason and my more
composed judgment to go home, yet I had no power
to do it. I know not what to call this, nor will I
urge that it is a secret overruling decree that hurries
us on to be the instruments of our own destruction,
even though it be before us, and that we push upon it
with our eyes open. Certainly nothing but some such
decreed unavoidable misery attending, and which it
was impossible for me to escape, could have pushed

sions of my most retired thoughts, and against two
such visible instructions as I had met with in my first
My comrade, who had helped to harden me before
and who was the master's son, was now less forward
than I. The first time he spoke to me after we were
at Yarmouth, which was not till two or three days,
for we were separated in the town to several quarters;
I say, the first time he saw me, it appeared his tone
was altered, and looking very melancholy, and shak-
ing his head, asked me how I did, and telling his fa-
ther who I was, and how I had come this voyage only
for a trial, in order to go farther abroad; his father
turning to me with a very grave and concerned tone,
' Young man," says he, "you ought never to go to
sea any more; you ought to take this for a plain and
visible token that you are not to be a seafaring man."
-" Why, Sir," said I, "wilh you go to sea no more?"
" That is another case," said he; it is my calling,
and therefore my duty; but as you made this voyage
for a trial, you see what a taste Heaven has given you
pf what you are to expect if you persist: perhaps this
is all befallen us on your account, like Jonah in the
ship of Tarshish. Pray, "continues he, what are
you? and on what account did you go to sea ?" Upon




that I told him some >f my story; at the end of which
he burst out with a strange kind of passion; What
had I done," says he, that such an unhappy wretch
should come into my ship? I would riot set my foot
in the same ship with thee again for a thousand
pounds." This indeed was, as I said, an excursion of
his spirits, which were yet agitated by the sense of his
loss, and was farther than he could have authority te
go. However, he afterwards talked very gravely to
me, "exhorting me to go back to my father, and not
tempt Providence to my ruin; told me I might see a
visible hand of Heaven against me. "And young
man," said he, depend upon it, if you do not go
back, wherever you go, you will meet with nothing
but disasters and disappointments, till your farther's
words are fulfilled upon you."
We parted soon after; for I made him little answer,
and Isaw him no more: which way he went, I know
not. As for me, having some money in my pocket,
I travelled to London by land: and there, as well as
on the road, had many struggles with myself, what
course of life I should take, and whether I should
go home, or get to sea.
As to going home, shame opposed the best motions
that offered to my thoughts; and it immediately oc-
curred to me ow I should be laughed at among the
neighbours, and should be ashamed to see, not my
father and mother only, but even every body else;
from whence I have since often observed, how inco>.
gruous and irrational the common temper of mankind
is, especially of you.h, to that reason which ought to
guide them in such cases, viz. that they are not asham-
ed to sin, and yet are ashamed to repent; nor ashamed
of the action for which they ought justly to be esteem
ed fools, but are ashamed of the returning, which
only can make them be esteemed wise men.
In this state of life however I remained some time,
uncertain what measure to take, and what course of
life to lead. An irresistible reluctance continued to
going home; and as 1 stayed a while, the remem


iI i


nrance of the distress I had been in wore off; and as
that abated, the little motion I had in my desires to a
return wore off with it, till at last I quite laid aside
the thoughts of it, and looked out for a voyage.
That evil influence which carried me first away
from my father's house, that hurried me into the wild
and indigested notion ofraising my fortune; and that.
impressed those conceits so forcibly upon me as to
make me deaf to allgood advice, and to the entreaties
and even the command of my father: I say, the same
influence, whatever it was, presented the most unfor-
tunate of all enterprises to my view; and I went on
board a vessel bound to thecoast of Africa; or, as
our sailors vulgarly call it a voyage to Guinea.
It was my great misfortune that in all these adven-
tures I did not ship myself as a sailor; whereby,
though I might indeed have worked a little harder
than ordinary, yet at the same time I had learnt the
duty and office of a foremastman; and in time might
have qualified myself.for a mate or lieutenant, if not
for a master. But as it was always my fate to
choose for the worse, so I did here; for having money
in my pocket, and good clothes upon my back, I
would always go on board in the habit of a gentle-
man; and so I neither had any business in the ship,
or learnt to do any.
.It was my lot first of all to fanminto pretty good
company in London, which does not always happen
to such loose and unguided young fellows as I then
was; the devil generally not omitting to lay some
snare for them very early: but it was not so with me.
I first fell acquainted with the master of a ship who
had been on the coast of Guinea; and who, having had
very good success there, was resolved to go again;
and who taking a fancy to my conversation, which
was not at all disagreeable at that time, hearing me
say I had a mind to see the world, told me if I would
go the voyage with him I should be at no expense; I
should be his messmate and his companion ; and ifl
rould carry any tiling with me, I should have all the

\--rr~ uv--Mrn1uC~,s~

advantage of it that the trade would admit; and per-
haps I might meet with some encouragement.
i embraced the offer; and entering into a strict
friendship with the captain, who was an honest and
plain-dealing man, I went the voyage with him, and
carried a small adventure with me, which, by the dis-
interested honesty of my friend the captain, I increase.
ed very considerably; for I carried about 401. in such
toys and trifles as the captain directed me to buy.
This 401, I had mustered together by the assistance of
some of my relations whom I corresponded with, and
who, I believe, got my father, or at least my mother,
to contribute so much as that to my first adventure.
This was the only voyage which I may say was
successful in all my adventures, and which I owe to
the integrity and honesty of my friend the captain,
under whom also I got a competent knowledge of the
mathematics and the rules of navigation, learnt how
to keep an account of the ship's course, take an obser-
vation, and, in short, to understand some things thai
were needful to be understood by a sailor: for, as
he took delight to instruct me, I took delight to learn;
and, in a word, this voyage made me both a sailor
and a merchant: for I brought home five pounds nine
ounces of gold-dust for my adventure, which yielded
me in London at my return almost 3001. and this fil-
led me with those aspiring thoughts which have so
completed my ruin.
Yet even in this voyage I had my misfortunes too;
particularly, that I was continually sick, being thrown
into a violent calenture by the excessive heat of the
climate; our principal trading being upon the coast,
from the latitude of 15 degrees north even to the lire
I was now set up for a Guinea trader; and my
friend, to my great misfortune, dying soon after his
arrival, I resolved to go the same voyage again, and
I embarked in the same vessel with one who was his
mate in the former voyage, and had now got the com.
mand of the ship. This was the unhappiest voyage

that ever man made; for though I did not carry quite
1101. ofnmy new-gained wealth, so that I had 2001. left,
and which I lodged with my friend's widow, who was
very just to me, yet I fell into terrible misfortunes in
this voyage; and the first was this, viz. our ship mak-
ing her course towards the Canary Islands, or rather
between those islands and the African shore, was sur-
prized in the grey of the morning by a Turkish rover
of Sallee, who gave chase to us with all the sail she
could make. We crowded also as much canvass as
mor yards would spread, or our masts carry, to have
got clear; but finding the pirate gained upon us, and
would certainly come up with us in a few hours, we
prepared to fight; our ship having twelve guns, and
the rogue eighteen. About three in the afternoon he
came up with us, and bringing to by mistake just
athwart our quarter, instead of athwart our stern, as
he intended, we brought eight of our guns to bear on
that side, and poured in a broadside upon him, which
made him sheer off again, after returning our fire,
and pouring in also his small-shot from nearly 200 men
which he had on board. However, we had not a man
touched, all our men keeping close. He prepared to
attack us again, and we to defend ourselves; but lay-
ing us on board the next time upon our other quar-
ter, he entered sixty men upon our decks, who imme-
diately fell to cutting and hacking the decks and rig-
ging. We plied them with small shot, half-pikes,
powder-chests, and such like, and cleared our deck
of them twice. However, to cut short this melan-
choly part of our story, our ship being disabled, and
three of our men killed and eight wounded, we were
obliged to yield, and were carried all prisoners into
Sallee, a port belonging to the Moors.
The usage I had there was not so dreadful as at first
I apprehended; nor was I carried up the country to
the emperor's court, as the rest of our men were, but
was kept by the captain of the rover as his proper
prize, and made his sl-re, being young and nimble,
anid fit for his business At this surprising change of

-----S--------~-- *5-~-~- ~ ~ ~~~~~~ -1-----\


my circumstances, from a merchant to a miserable
slave, I was perfectly overwhelmed; and now I look-
ed back upon my father's prophetic discourse to me,
that I should be miserable, and have none to relieve
me, which I thought was now so effectually brought to
pass, that I could not be worse; that now the hand of


Heaven had overtaken me, and I was undone with
out redemption: but alas this was but a taste of the
misery I was to go through, as will appear in the
sequel of this story.
As my new patron, or master, had taken me home
to his house so I was in hopes that he would take me
with him when he went to sea again, believing that it
would some time or other be his fate to be taken by a
Spanish or Portugal man of war; and that then I
should be set at liberty. But this hope of mine was
soon taken away; for when he went to sea, he left me
on shore to look after his little garden, and to do the
common drudgery of slaves about his house; and
when he came home again from his cruise, he order-
ed me to lie in the cabin to look after the ship.
Here I meditated nothing but my escape, and what
method I would take to effect it, but found no way
that had the least probability in it: nothing presented
to make the supposition of it rational; for I had no-
body to communicate ittothat would embark with me,
no fellow slave, noEnglishman, Irishman, orScotsman
there but myself; so that for two years, though I often
pleased myselfwith the imagination, yet I never had
the leastencouraging prospect of putting it in practice,
After about two years an odd circumstance present-
ed itself, which put the old thought of making some
attempt for my liberty again in my head: my patron
lying at home longer than usul without fitting out his
ship, which, as I heard, was for want of money, lie
used constantly, once or twice a week, sometimes
oftener, if the weather was fair, to take the ship's
pinnace and go out into the road a-fishing; and as he
always took me and a young Maresco with him to
-ow the boat, we made him very merry, and I vroved

' _, ,, ^ __ ^ ^^^ _____ -~-J---

very dexterous in catching fish; insomuch that some
times he would send me-with a Moor, one of his
kinsmen, and the youth the Maresco, as they called
him, to catch a dish of fish for him.
It happened one time, that going a-fishing in a stark
calm morning, a fog rose so thick, that though we
were not half a league from the shore we lost sight of
it; and rowing we knew not whither or which way,
we laboured all day, and all the next night, and when
the morning came we found we had pulled off to sea
instead of pulling in for the shore; and that we were
at least two leagues from the shore: however, we got
well in again, though with a great deal of labour and
some danger; for the wind began to blow pretty fresh
in the morning; but particularly we were all very
But our patron, warned by this disaster, resolved to
take more care of himself for the future; and having
lying by him the long-boat of our English ship he had
taken, he resolved he would not go a-fishing any more
without acompass and some provision; so he ordered
Sthe carpenter of his ship, who also was an English
slave, to build a little state-room, or cabin, in the
middle of the long-boat, like that of a barge, with a
place to stand behind it to steer and hale home the
main-sheet: and room before for a hand or two to
stand and work the sails: she sailed with what we call
a shoulder of mutton sail; and the boom gibed over
the top of the cabin, which lay very snug and low,
and had in it room for him to lie, with a slave or two,
and a table to eat on, with some small lockers to put
in some bottles of such liquor as he thought fit to
drink; particularly his bread, rice and coffee.
We went frequendyout with this boat a-fishing,and
as I was most dexterous to catch fish for him, he never
went without me. It happened that he had appointed
to go out in this boat, either for pleasure or for fish,
with two or three Moores of some distinction in that
place, and for whom he had provided extraordinarily,
and had therefore sent on board the boat over-night a

,,-'/ IM -~~~~~~~ M~ I~~CL4 2VF~LC-C~

larger store of provisions than ordinary; and had or
S dered me to get ready three fusees with powder ant
shot, which were on board his ship; for that they de.
signed some sport of fowling as well as fishing.
I got all things ready as he had directed, and waited
the next morning with the boat washed clean, her
ancient and pendants out, and every thing to accom.
nodate his guests; when by and bye my patron came
on board alone, and told me khi guests had I ut off
going, upon some businws that fell out, and ordered
me with the man and bvr as usual, to go out with
the boat and catch their some fish, for that his friends
were to sup at his house; and commanded that as
soon as I got some fish I should bring it home to his
house; all which I prepared to do.
This moment my former notions of deliverance
darted into my thoughts, for now I found I was like
to have a little ship at my command; and my master
being gone, I prepared to furnish myself, not for fish.
ing business, but for a voyage; though 1 knew not,
neither did I so much as consider, whither I should
steer; for any way to get out of that place was my
My first contrivance was to make a pretence to
speak to this Moor, to get something for our subsist-
ence on board; for I told him we must not presume
to eat of our patron's bread ; he said, that was true i
so he brought a large basket of rusk or bisket of their
kind, and three jars with fresh water, into the boat.
I knew where my patron's case of bottles stood,
which it was evident, by the make, were taken out of
some English prize, and I conveyed them into the
boat while the Moor was on shorr as if they had been
there before for our master: I conveyed also a great
lump of bees-wax into the boat, which weighed above
half a hundred weight, with a parcel of twine or
thread, a hatchet, a saw, and a hammer, all which
were of great use to us afterwards, especially the
wax to make candles. Another trick I tried upon
him, which he innocently came into also; his nanm

was Ismael, whom they call Mily, or Moley; so I
called to him: Moley," said I, "our patron's guns
are on board the boat; can you not get a little powder
and shot? it may be we may kill some alcamies (a
fowl like on curlews) for ourselves, for I know he
keeps the gunner's stores in the ship."-" Yes," says
he, "I'll bring some;" and accordingly he brought a
great leather pouch which held about a pound and a
half of powder, or rather more; and another with
shot, that had five or six pounds, with some bullets,
and put all into the boat: at the same time I had
found some powder of my master's in the great cabin,
with which 1 filled one of the large bottles in the case,
which was almost empty, pouring what was in it into
another; and thus furnished withevery thing needful,
we sailed out of the port to fish. The castle, which
is at the entrance of the port, knew who we were,
and took no notice of us: and we were not above a
mile out of the port before we haled in our sail, and
set us down to fish. The wind blew from the N.N.E.
which was contrary to my desire; for had it blown
southerly, I had been sure to have made the coast o
Spain, and at least reached to the bay of Cadiz ; but
my resolutions were, blow which way it would, I
would be gone from that horrid place where I was,
and leave the rest to fate.
After we had fished some time and watched nothing,
for when I had fish on my hook I would not pull
them up, that he might not see them, I said to the
Moor, This will not do; our master will not be thus
served; we must stand farther off." He, thinking no
harm, agreed, and being in the head of the boat set
the sails; and as I had the helm I run the boat out
near a league farther, and then brought her to as if I
would fish; when giving the boy the helm, I stepped
forward to where the Moor was, and making as if I
stooped for something behind him, I took him by sup-
prise with my arm under his twist, and tossed him
clear overboard into the sea; he rose immediately,
for he swam like a cork, and called to me, begged to

j, j

be taken in, told me he would go all over the world
with me. He swam so strong after the boat, that he
would have reached me very quickly, there being but
little wind; upon which I stepped into the cabin, and
fetching out one of'the fowling-pieces, I presented it
at him, and told him, I had done him no hurt, and if
he would be quiet I would do him none: But," said
I, "you swim well enough to reach to the shore, and
the sea is calm; make the best of your way to shore,
and I will do you no harm ; but if you come near the
boat I'll shoot you through the head, for I am resolved
to have my liberty;" so he turned himself about,
and swam for the shore, and I make ho doubt but
he reached it with ease," for he was an excellent
I could have been content to have taken this Moor
with me, and have drowned the boy, but there was
no venturing to trust him. When he was gone I
turned to the boy, whom they called Xury, and said
to him, Xury, if you will be faithful to me I'll
make you a great man; but if you will not stroke
your face to be true to me," that is, swear by Maho-
met and his father's beard, I must throw you into
the sea too." The boy smiled in my face, and spoke
so innocently, that I could not mistrust him; and
swore to be faithful to me, and go all over the world
with me.
While I was in view of the Moor that was swim-
ming, I stood out directly to sea with the boat, rather
stretching to windward, that they might think me
gone towards the Strait's mouth; (as indeed any one
that had been in their wits must have been supposed
to do) for who would have supposed we were sailed
on to the southward to the truly barbarian coast
where whole nations of Negroes were sure to sur
round us with their canoes, and destroy us; where
'e could never once go on shore but we should be
devoured by savage beasts, or more merciless savages
of human kind ?
But as soon as it grew dusk in the evening, I


Changed my course, and steered directly south and by
east, bending my course a little toward the east, that.l
right keep in with the shore; and having a fair, fresh
gale of wind, and a smooth, quiet sea, I made such
sail that I believe by the next day at three o'clock in
the afternoon, when I first made the land, I could not
be less than 150 miles south of Sallee; quite beyond
the Emperor of Morocco's dominions, or indeed of
any other king thereabouts, for we saw no people.
Yet such was the fright I had taken at the Moors,
and the dreadful apprehensions I had of falling into
their hands, that I would not s.op, or go on shore, or
come to an anchor; the wind continuing fair till I
had sailed in that manner five days; and then the
wind shifting to the southward, I concluded also that
if any of our vessels were in chase of me, they also
would now give over; so I ventured to make to the
coast and come to an anchor in the mouth of a little
river, I knew not what, or where; neither what lati-
tude, what country, what nation, or what river; I
neither saw, nor desired to see any people; the princi-
pal thing I wanted was freshwater. We came into
this creek in the evening, resolving to swim on shore
as soon as it was dark, and discover the country; but
as soon as it was quite dark, we heard such dreadful
noises of the barking, roaring, and howling of wild
r.reatures, of we knew not ofwhatkinds, that the poor
boy was ready to die with fear, and begged of me not
to go on shore till day. Well, Xury," said I,
" then I won't; but it may be we may see men by
day, who will be as bad to us as those lions."-
" Then we give them the shoot gun," says Xury,
laughing, "make them run wey." Such English
Xury spoke by conversing among us slaves. How-
ever, I was glad to see the boy so cheerful, and I gave
him a dram (out of our patron's case of bottles) to
cheer him up. After all, Xury's advice was good,
and I took it; we dropped our little anchor, and lay
still all night; 1 say still, for we slept none; for in
two or three hours we saw vast great creatures (we

knew not what. to call them) of many sorts, coma
down to the sea-shore and run into the water wallow-
ng and washing themselves for the pleasure of cool.
ing themselves; and they made such hideous howling
and yelling, that I never indeed heard the like.
Xury was dreadfully frightened, and indeed so was
I too; but we were both more frighted when we heard
one of these mighty creatures come swimming to-
wards our boat; we could not see him, but we might
hear him by his blowing to be a monstrous huge and
furious beas ; Xury said it was a lion, and it might
be so for aught I know; but poor Xury cried to me
to weigh the anchor and row away: No," says I,
Xury; we can slip our cable with the buoy to it,
and go off to sea; they cannot follow us far.", I had
no sooner said so than I perceived the creature (what-
ever it was) within two oars' length, which some
Ihing surprised me; however, I immediately stepped $
to the cabin-door, and taking up my gun fired at him :
upon which he immediately turned about, and swam
towards the shore again.
But it is impossible to describe the horrible nises,
and hideous cries and howlings, that were raised, as
well upon the edge of the shore as higher within the
country, upon the noise or report of the gun, a thing
I have some reason to believe those creatures had
never heard before: this convinced me there was no
going on shore for us in the night upon that coast,
and how to venture on shore in the day was another
question too; for to have fallen into the hands of any
of the savages, had been as bad as to have fallen into
S the hands of lions and tigers: at least we are equally
apprehensive of the danger of it.
Be that as it would, we were obliged to go on shore
somewhere or other for water, for we had not a nint
left in the boat; when or where to get it, was the
point- Xurv said, if I would let him go on shore with
one of the jars, he would find if there was any water,
and bring some to me. I asked him why he would
go? why I should not go, and he stay in the boat?

The boy answered with so much affection, that made
me love him ever after. Says he, "If wild mans
rome, they eat me, you go wey."--" Well, Xury,"
said 1, we will roth go, and if the wild manscome,
we will kill them, they shall eat neither of us." So I
gave Xury a piece of rusk bread to eat, and a dram
out of our patron's case of bottles which I mentioned
before; and we haled the boat in as near the shore as
we thought was proper, and waded on shore; carry
ing nothing but our arms, and two jars for water.
I did not care to go out of sigit of the boat, fearing
the coming of canoes with savages down the river
but the boy seeing a low place about a mile up the
country, rambled to it; and by and by I saw him
come running towards me. I thought he was pursued
by some savage, or frighted with some wild beast, and
I run forward towards him to help him; but when I
came nearer to him, I saw something hanging over his
shoulders, which was a creature that he had shot,
like a hare, but different in colour, and longer legs;
however, we were very glad of it, and it was very
good meat; but the great joy that poor Xury came
with, was to tell me that he had found good water,
and seen no wild mans.
But we found afterwards that we need not take
such pains for water, for a little higher up the creek
where we were, we found the water fresh when the
tide was out, which flows but a little way up ; so we
filled our jars, and feasted on the hare we had killed,
and prepared to go on our way, having seen no foot-
steps of any human creature in that part of the coun-
As I had been one voyage to this coast before, I
knew very well that the islands of the Canaries, anr
the Cape de Verd islands also, lay not far off from
the coast.. But as I had no instruments to take ar
observation to know what latitude we were in, atnr
not exactly knowing, or at least remembering wha.
latitude they were in, and knew not where to look fao
Vt)O, I.


them, or when to stand off to sea towards them;
otherwise I might now easily have found some of
these islands. But my hope was, that if I stood alh ug
this coast till I came to that part where the English
traded, I should find some of their vessels upon theib
usual design of trade, that would relieve and take us
By the best of my calculation, that place where I
now was, must lie that country, which, lying between
the emperor of Morocco's douinions and the Negroes
lies waste, and uninhabited, except by wild beasts;
the negroes ha. ing abandoned it, and gone farther
south for fear of the Moors; and the Moors not think-
ing it worth inhabiting, by reason of its barrenness;
and indeed both forsaking it because of the prodigi-
ous number of tigers, lions, leopards, and other furi
ous creatures which harbour there; so that the Moors
use if for their hunting only, where they go like an
army, two or three thousand men at a time; and in-
deed for near an hundred miles together upon this
coast, we saw nothing but a waste uninhabited coon-
try by day, and heard nothing but howlings and
roaring of wild beasts by night.
Once or twice in the daytime 1 thought I saw the
Pico of Teneriffe, being the high top of the Mountain
Teneriffe in the Canaries; and had a great mind to
venture out in hopes of reaching thither; but having
tried twice, I was forced in again by contrary winds,
the sea also going too high for my little vessel; so I
resolved to pursue my first design, and keep aloi g
the shore.
Several times I was obliged to land for fresh water,
after we had left this place; and once in particular,
being early in the morning, we came to an anchor
under a little point of land which was pretty high
and the tide beginning to flow, we lay still to go
farther in. Xury, whose eyes were more about him
than it seems mine were, calls softly to me, and tells
me that we had best go farther off the shore: for,"
eays lie, look yonder lies a dreadfld monster on the

side of that hillock fast asleep." I looked where he
pointed, and saw a dreadful monster indeed, for it
was a terrible great lion that lay on the side of the
shore, under the shade of a piece of the hill that hung
as it were a little over him. Xury," says I, "you
shall go on shore and kill him." Xury looked fright-
ed, and said, "Me kill he eat me at one mouth ;
one mouthful he meant: however, I said no more to
the boy, but bad him lie still, and I took our biggest
gun, which was almost musket-bore, and loaded it
with a good charge of powder, and with two slugs,
and laid it down; then I loaded another gun with
two bullets; and the third, for we had three pieces, I
loaded with five smaller bullets. I took the best aim
I could with the first piece to have shot him into the
head, but he lay so with his leg raised a little above
his nose, that the slugs hit his leg about the knee, and
broke the bone. He started up growling at first, but
finding his leg broke fell down again, and then got up
upon three legs, and gave the most hideous roar that
ever I heard. I was a little surprised that I had not
hit him on the head; however, I took up the second
piece immediately, and though he began to move off,
fired again, and shot him into the head, and had the
pleasure to see him drop, and make but little noise,
but lie struggling for life. Then Xury took heart,
and would have me let him go on shore: Well, go,"
said I; so the boy jumped into the water and taking
a little gun in one hand, swam to shore with the
other hand, and coming close to the creature, put the
muzzle of the piece to his ear, and shot him into the
head again, which dispatched him quite.
This was game indeed to us, but this was no food;
and I was very sorry to lose three charges of powder
and shot upon a creature that was good for nothing to
us. However, Xury said he would have some of
him; so lie comes on board, and asked me to give
him the hatchet. For what, Xury ?" said I, "Me
cut (ff his head," said lie. However, Xury could

T^*--C~-C^~CC~"~S~L~nV~YIZIU-YL~CICIMCI~ ---

not cut off his head, but he cut off a foot, and brought
it with him, and it was a monstrous great one:
I bethought myself however, that perhaps the skin
of him might one way or other be of some value to
us; and I resolved to take off his skin if I could.
So Xury and I went to work with him; but Xur3
was much the better workman at it, for I knew very
ill how to do it. Indeed it took us up both the whole
day, but at last we got off the hide of him, and
spreading it on the top ol our cabin, the sun effect.
ally dried it in two days time, and it afterwards
served me to lie upon.
After this stop, we made on to the southward con-
tinually for ten or twelve days, living very sparing
on our provisions, which began to abate very much,
and going no oftener into the shore than we were
obliged to for fresh water: my design in this was, to
make the river Gambia or Senegal, that is to say, any
where about the Cape de Verd, where I was in hopes
to meet with some European ship; and if I did not,
I knew not what course I had to take, but to seek for
the islands, or perish there among the Negroes. I
knew that all the ships from Europe, which sailed
either to the coast of Guinea or to Brazil, or to the
East Indies, made this Cape, or those islands; and
in a word, I put the whole of my fortune upon this
single point, either that I must meet with some ship,
or must perish.
When I had pursued this resolution about ten days
longer, as I have said, I began to see that the lan 1
was inhabited; and in two or three places, as we
sailed by, we saw people stand upon the shore to look
at us; we could also perceive they were quite black,
and stark naked. I was once inclined, to have gone
on shore to them; but Xury was my better counsellor,
and said to me, No go, no go," However, I
hauled in nearer the shore that I might talk to them,
and I found they run along the shore by me a good
way. 1 observed they had no weapons in their hands,

except one, who had a long slender stick, which
Xury said was a lance, and that they would throw
them a great way with good aim; so I kept at a dis-
tance, but talked with them by signs as well as I
could; and particularly made signs for something to
eat; they beckoned to me to stop my boat, and they
would fetch me some meat. Upon this I lowered the
top of my sail, and lay by, and two of them ran up
into the country, and in less than half an hour came
back, and brought with them two pieces of dry flesh
and some corn, such as is the produce of their coun-
try; but we neither knew what the one nor the other
was: however, we were we er killing to accept it, but how
to come at it was our next dispute, for I was not for
venturing on shore to them, and they were as much
afraid of us; but they took a safe way for us all, for
they brought it to the shore and laid it down, and
went and .stood a great way off till we fetched it on
board, and then came close to us again.
We made signs of thanks to them, foi we had
nothing to make them amends; but an opportunity
offered that very instant to oblige them wonderfully ;
for while we were lying by the shore came two
mighty creatures, one pursuing the other (as we took
it) with great fury from the mountains towards the
sea; whether it was the male pursuing the female
or whether they were in sport or in rage we could not
tell, any more than we could tell whether it was usual
or strange, but I believe it was the latter; because, in
the first place, those ravenouscreatures seldom appear
but in the night; and in the second place, we found the
people terribly frighted, especially the women. The
man that had the lance or dart did not fly from them,
but the rest did; however, as the two creatures ran
directly into the waler they did not seem to offer to
fall upon any of the Negroes, but plunged themselves
into the sea and swam about as if they had come for
their diversion. At last one of them began to come
nearer our boat than at first I expected ; but I lay
.eady for him, for I had loaded my gun with all pos

sible expedition, and bad Xury load both the others .
as soon as he came fairly within my reach I fired, and
shot him directly into the head; immediately he
sunk down into the water, but rose instantly, and
plunged up and down as if he was struggling for life:;
and so indeed be was; he immediately made to the
shore; but between the wound, which was his mor
tal hurt, and the strangling of the water, he died just
before he reached the shore.
It is impossible to express the astonishment ofthese
poor creatures at the noise and the fire of my gun ;
some of them were even ready to die for fear, and
fell down as dead with the very terror. But when
they saw the creature dead, and sunk in the water,
and that I made signs to them to come to the shore,
they took heart and came to the shore, and began to
search for the creature. I found him by his blood
staining the water, and by the help of a rope, which I
slung round him, and gave the Negroes to hale, they
dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most
curious leopard, spotted and fine to an admirable de-
gree, and the Negroes held up their hands with admi-
ration to think what it was I had killed him with.
The other creature, frighted with the flash of fire
and the noise of the gun, swam on shore, and ran up
directly to the mountains from whence they came,
nor could I at that distance know what it was. I
found quickly the Negroes were for eating the flesh ol
this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as
a favour from me, which, when I made signs to them
that they might take him, they were very thankful
for. Immediately they fell to work with him, and
though they had no knife, yet with a sharpened piece
of wood they took off his skin as readily, and much
more readily, than we could have done with a knife.
They offered me some of the flesh, which I declined,
making as if I would give it them, but made signs for
the skin, which they gave me very freely, and brought
me a great deal more of their provision, which,
though I did not understand, yet 1 accepted; haen I

made signs to them for some water, and held out one
of my jars to them, turning it bottom upwards, to
show that it was empty, and that I wanted to have it
filled. They called immediately to some of theii
friends, and there came two women, and brought a
great vessel made of earth, and burnt, as I suppose,
in the sun; this they set down for me, as before, and
I sent Xury on shore with my jars, and filled them
all three. The women were as stark naked as the
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as
it was, and water; and, leaving my friendly Negroes,
I made forward for about eleven days more, without
offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run
out a great length into the sea, at about the distance
of four or five leagues before me; and, the sea being
very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point,
at length, doubling the point at about two leagues
from the land, I saw plainly land on the other side to
seaward; then I concluded, as it was most certain
indeed, that this was the Cape de Verd, and those
the islands, called from thence Cape de Verd Islands.
However, they they were at a great distance, and 1
could not well tell what I had best to do, for if I should
be taken with a fresh of wind I might neither reach
one nor the other.
In this dilemma, as Iwasverypensive, stepped into
the cabin and sat me down, Xury having the helm,
when on a sudden the boy cried out, "Master,
Master, a ship with a sail!" and the foolish boy was
frighted out of his wits, thinking it must needs Le
some of his master's ships sent to pursue us, when I
knew we were gotten far enough out of their reach.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw not
only the ship, but what she was, viz. that it was a
Portuguese ship, and, as I thought, was bound to the
coast of Guinea for Negroes. But when I observed
the course she steered, I was soon convinced they
were bound some other way, and did not design to
come any nearer to the shore; upon which I stretched

"st to sea as much as I could, resolving to speuk wita
them if possible.
With all the sail I could make, I found I should
not be able to come in their way, but thatthey would
be gone by before I could make any signal to them;
iut after I had crowded to the utmost, aud began to
despair, they, it seems, saw me by the help of their
perspective-glasses, and that it was some European
b.)at, which as they supposed, must belong to some
ship that was lost; so they shortened sail to let me
come up. I was encouraged with this; and as I had
my patron's ancient on board, I made a waft of it to
them for a signal of distress, and fired a gun, both
which they saw, for they told me they saw the smoke,
though they did not hear the gun : upon these signals
they very kindly brought to, and lay by for me, and
in about three hours time I came up with them.
They asked me what I was in Portuguese, and in
Spanish, and in French; but I understood none of
them; but at last a Scots sailor, who was on board,
called to me, and I answered him, and told him I
was an Englishman, that I had made my escape out
of slavery from the Moors at Salee. Then they bad
me come on board, and very kindly took me in, and
all my goods.
It was an inexpressible joy to me, that any one
would believe that I was thus delivered, as I esteemed
it, from such a miserable and almost hopeless con-
dition as I was in, and immediatelyoffered all I had to
the captain of the ship, as a return for my deliver-
ance; but he generously told me, he would take no-
thing from me, but that all I had should be delivered
eafe to me when I came to the Brasils; "For," say
he, I have saved your life on no other terms than
I would be glad to be saved myself; and it may one
time or other, he my lot to be taken up in the same
condition. Besides, said he, when I carry you to
Sthe Brasils, so great a way from your own country,
if I should take from you what you have, you will be
starved there, and then I only take away that life I

- - - -

have given. No, no, Seignor Inglese," says he, Mr.
Englishmnan, I will carry you thither in charity, and
those things will help you to buy your subsistence
there, and your passage home again."
Ashe was charitable in his proposal, so he wasjust
in the performance to a tittle; for he ordered the sea-
men, that none should offer to touch any thing I had:
hien he took every thing into his own possession, and
gave me back an exact inventory of them, that I might
have them; even so much as my three earthen jars.
As to my boat, it was a very good one, and that he
saw, and told me lie would buy it of me for the ship's
use, and asked me what I would have for it ? I told
him, he had been so generous to me in every thing,
that I could not offer to make any price of the boat
but left it entirely to him ; upon which he told me ne
would give me a note of his hand to pay me eighty
pieces of eight for it at Brasil; and when it came
there, if any one offered to give more, he would make
it up: he offered me also sixty pieces of eight more
for my boy Xury, which I was loath to take; not
that I was not willing to let the captain have him,
but I was very loath to sell the poor boy's liberty,
who had assisted me so faithfully in procuring my
own. However, when I let him know my reason, he
owned it to be just, and offered me this medium, that *
ea would give the boy an obligation to set him free in
ten years, if he turned Christian. Upon this, and
Xury saying he was willing to go to him, I let the
captain have him.
We had a very good voyage to the Brasils, and ar-
rived in the Bay de Todos los Santos, or All Saints'
Bay, in about twenty-two days after. And now 1
was once more delivered from the most miserable of
all conditions of life; and what to do next with my-
self I was now to consider.
The generous treatment the captain gave me, I can
never enough remember; he would take nothing of
me for my passage, gave me twenty ducats for the

leopard's skin, and forty for the lion's skin, which I
had in my boat, and caused every thing I had in the
ship to be punctually delivered me; and what I was
willing to sell he bought, such as the case of bottles,
two of my guns, and a piece of the lump of bees-
wax, for I had made candles of the rest: in a word,
I made about two hundred and twenty pieces of eight
of all my cargo; and with this stock I went on shore
in the Brasils.
I had not been long here, but being recommended
to the house of a good honest man like himself, who
had an ingeino as they call it; that is, a plantation
and a sugar-house; I lived with him some time, and
acquainted myself by that means with the manner of
their planting and making of sugar; and seeing how
well the planters lived, and how they grew rich sud-
denly, I resolved, if I could get license to settle there,
I would turn planter among them, resolving, in the
mean time, to find out some way to get my money,
Which I had left in London, remitted to me. To this
purpose, getting a kind of a letter of naturalization, I
purchased as much land that was uncured as my
money would reach, and formed a plan for my plan-
tation and settlement, and such a one as might be
suitable to the stock which I proposed to myself to
receive from England.
I had a neighbour, a Portuguese of Lisbon, but
born of English parents, whose name was Wells, and
In much such circumstances as I was. I call him
neighbour, because his plantation lay next to mine,
and we went on very sociable together. My stock
was but low, as well as his: and we rather planted
for food than any thing else, for about two years.
However, we began to increase, and our land began
to come into order; so that the third year we planted
some tobacco, and made each of us a large piece of
ground ready for planting cane in the year to come;
but we both wanted help; and now I found, more
tqan before, I had done wrong in parting with my
boy Xury.

But, alas! for me to do wrong, that never did right,
was no great wonder: I had no remedy but to go on;
I was gotten into an employment quite remote to my
genius, and directly contrary to the life I delighted in,
and for which I forsook my father's house, and broke
through all his good advice; nay, I was coming into
the very middle station, or upper degree of low life,
which my father advised me to before; and which it
I resolved to go on with, I might as well have staid at
home, and never have fatigued myself in the world as
I had done; and I used often to say to myself, I
could have done this as well in England amongst my
friends, as have gone five thousand miles off to do it,
among strangers and savages in a wilderness, and at
such distance, as never to hear from any part of the
world that had the least knowledge of me.
In this manner I used to look upon my condition
with the utmost regret. I had nobody to converse
with, but now and then this neighbour; no work to
be done, but by the labour of my hands; and I used
to say, I lived just like a man cast away upon same
desolate island, that had nobody tnere but himself
But how just has it been, and how should all men
reflect, that, when they compare their present condi-
tions with others that are worse, Heaven may oblige
them to make the exchange, and be convinced of their
former felicity, by their experience; I say, how just
has it been, that the truly solitary life I reflected on in
an island of mere desolation should be my lot, who
had so often unjustly compared it with the life which
I then led, in which had I continued, I had in all
probability been exceeding prosperous and rich.
I was ir. some degree settled in my measures for
carrying on the plantation, before my kind friend the
captain of the ship, that took me up at sea,- went
back : for the ship remained there, in providing his
loading, and preparing for his vovage, near three
months; when, telling him what little stock I had left
behind me in London, he gave me tnis friendly and
sincere advice: Seignor Inglese," says lie, for so he

~_ __-u^w^_ru-un~-vn-r~M~ur~l~-r~-rurr~~r .

always called me, if you will give me letters, and a
procuration here in form to me, with orders to the
person who has your money in London, to send your
effects to Lisbon, to such persons as I shall direct, anl
in such goods as are proper for this country, I will
bring you the produce of them, God willing, at my
return; but since human affairs are all subject to
changes and disasters, I would have you give orders
but for one hundred pounds sterling, which you say
is half your stock, and let the hazard be run for the
first; so that if it comes safe, you may order the
rest the same way; and if it miscarry, you may have
ine other half to have recourse to for your supply."
This was so wholesome advice, and looked so
friendly, that I could not but be convinced it was the
best course I could take; so I accordingly prepared
letters to the gentlewoman with whom I had left my
money, and a procuration to the Portuguese captain,
as he desired.
I wrote the English captain's widow a full account.
of all my adventures, my slavery, escape, and how I
had met with the Portugal captain at sea, the huma-
nity of his behaviour, and what condition I was now
in, with all other necessary directions for my supply;
and when this honest captain came to Lishon, he found
S means, by somnc of the English merchants there, to
send over, not the or).r only, but a full account of
my story to a merchant at London, who represented
it effectually to her; .whereupon, she not only deliver-
ed the money, hut out of her own pocket sent the
Portugal captain a very handsome present for his hu-
maui;y and charity io me.
The merchant in London vesting this hundred
pounds in English goods, such as the captain had writ
lir, sent themi directly to him at Lisbon, and lhe'
brought tlher. all safe to me to the Brasils: among
which, without my direction (for I was too young in
my business to> think of them) lie had taken rare to
have all s-rtsiof tools, iron-work, and uitellnils necesa ry
for iy plantation, anil nioh were of great use to me-

When this cargo arrived, I thought my fortune
made, for 1 was surprised with joy of it; and my
good steward the captain had laid out the five pounds
Which my friend had sent him for a present for him-
self, to purchase, and bring me over a servant under
bond for six years service, and would not accept of any
consideration, except a little tobacco, which I would
have him accept, being of my own produce.
Neither was this all; but my goods being all Eng
ish manufactures, such as cloth, stuffs, baize, and
things particularly valuable and desirable in the coun-
try, I found meansto sell them to a very great advan-
tage; so that I may say, I had more than four times
the value of my first cargo, and was now infinitely
bey( nd my poor neighbour, I mean in the advance-
ment of my plantation ; for the first thing I did, I
bought me a Negro slave, and an European servant
also; I mean another besides that which the captain
brought me from Lisbon.
But as abused prosperity is oftentimes made tle
very means of our greatest adversity, so was it with
me. I went on the next year with great success in
my plantation: I raised fifty great rolls of tobacco on
my own ground, more than I had disposed of for
necessaries among my neighbours; and these fifty
rolls, being each of above one hundred weight, were
well cured and laid by against the return of the fleet
from Lisbon. And now, increasing in business and
in wealth, my head began to be full of projects and
undertakings beyond my reach; such as are indeed
often the ruin of the best heads in business.
Had I coinlinned in the station I was now in, I had
room 'for all the happy things to have befallen nie,
for which my father so earnestly recommended a
quiet retired life, and of which he had so sensibly de.
scribed the middle station of life to be fill: but other
things attended me, and I was still to be the wilful
azent of all my own miseries: and particularly to in-
crease my fault, and double the reflections upon my.

self, which in my future sorrows I should have leisure
to make; all these miscarriages were procured by my
apparent obstinate adhering to my foolish inclination
of wandering abroad, and pursuing that inclination,
in contradiction to the clearest views of doing myself
good in a fair and plain pursuit of those prospects
a,.J those measures of life, which nature and Provi
dence concurred to present me with, and to make my
As I had done this in my breaking away from my
parents, so I could not be content now, but I must go
and leave the happy view I had of being a rich and
thriving man in my new plantation, only to pursue a
rash and immoderate desire of raising faster than the
nature of the thing admitted ; and thus I cast myself
down again into the deepest gulph of human misery
that ever man fell into, or perhaps could be consist-
ent with life and a state of health in the world.
To come then by just degrees to the particulars of
this part of my story; you may suppose, that having
now lived almost four years in the 13rasils, and begin-
ning to thrive and prosper very well upon my plan-
tation, I had not only learnt the language, but had
contracted acquaintance and friendship among my
fellow-planters, as well as among the merchants at St
Salvadore, which was our port; and that in my dis-
course among them, I had frequently given them an
account of my two voyages to the coast of Guinea,
the manner of trading with the Negroes theie, and
how easy it was to purchase upon the coast, for tri-
fles, such as beads, toys, knives, scissars, hatchets.
bits of glass, and the like, not only gold-dust, Gui.
nea grains, elephants teeth, &c. hut Negroes for the
service of the Brasils in great numbers.
They listened always very attentively to my dis-
courses on these heads, but especially to that part
which related to the buying Negroes, which was a
trade at that time not only far entered into, but,
as far as it was, had been carried on by the Assientos


or permission of the kings of Spain and Portugal, and
engrossed in the public, so that few Negroes were
bought, and those excessive dear.
It happened, being in company with some mer-
chants and planters of my acquaintance, and talking
of those things very earnestly, three of them came to
me the next morning, and told me they had been
musing very much upon what I had discoursed with
them of, the last night, and they came to make
secret proposal to me ; and after enjoining me secrecy,
they told me, that they had a mind to fit out a ship to
go to Guinea; that they had all plantations as well as
I, and were straitened for nothing so much as ser-
vants; that as it was a trade could not be carried on,
because they could not publicly sell the Negroes when
they came home, so they desired to make but onE
voyage, to bring the Negroes on shore privately, and
divide them among their own plantations; and in a
word, the question was, whether I would go their su-
percargo in the ship, to manage the trading part upon
the coast of Guinea? and they offered me that I
should have my equal share of the Negroes, without
providing any part of the stock.
This was a fair proposal, it must be confessed, had
It been made to any one that had not had a settle-
ment and plantation of his own to look after, which
was in a fair way of coming to be very considerable,
and with a good stock upon it. But for me, that was
thus entered and established, and had nothing to do
but go on as I had begun, for three or four years
more, and to have sent for the other hundred pounds
from England, and who in that time, and with that
little addition, could scarce have failed of being worth
three or four thousand pounds sterling, and that in-
creasing too; for me to think of such a voyage, was
the most preposterous thing that ever man in such
circumstances could be guilty of.
But I, that was born to be my own destroyer,
could no more resist the offer, than I could restrain
my first rambling designs, when my father's good

|--5-~- ~.--M-CZY~~C~ 4 LL~ I~~~~WIV

counsel was lost upon me. In a word, I told them I
would go with all my heart, if they would undertake
to look after my plantation in my absence, and would
dispose of it to such as I should direct if I miscarried.
This they all engaged to do, and entered into writings
or covenants to do so; and I made a formal will,
disposing of my plantation and effects, in case of my
death, making the captain of the ship that had save
my life as before, my universal heir, but obliging him
to dispose of my effects as I had directed in my will
one half of the produce being to himself, and the
other to be shipped to England,
In short I took all possible caution to preserve my
effects, and keep up my plantation: had I used half
as much prudence to have looked into my own inter-
est, and have made a judgment of what I ought to
have done, and not to have done, I had certainly
never gone away from so prosperous an undertaking,
leaving all the probable views of a thriving circum-
stance, and gone upon a voyage to sea, attended with
all its common hazards; to say nothing of the reasons
I had to expect particular misfortunes to myself.
But I was hurried on, and obeyed blindly the dio-
tates of my fancy rather than my reason: and accord-
ingly the ship being fitted out, and the cargo furnish-
ed, and all things done as by agreement by my part-
ners in the voyage, I went on board in an evil nour,
the 1st of September, 1659, being the same day eight
years that I went from my father and mother at Hull,
in order to act the rebel to their authority, and the
fool to my own interest.
SOur ship was about one hundred and twenty tons
burden, carrying six guns, and fourteen men, besides
he master, his boy, and myself; we had on board no
arge cargo of goods, except of such toys as were fit
for our trade with the Negroes, such as beads, bits of
glass, shells, and odd trifles, especially little looking.
glasses, knives, scissors, hatchets, and the like.
The same day I went on board we set sail, stand
Ing away to the northward upon our own coast, with


design to stretch over for the African coast; when
they came about 10 or 12 degrees of northern latitude,
which it seems was the manner of their course in
those days. We had very good weather, only exces-
sive hot, all the way upon our own coast, till we made
the height ofCape St. Augustino, from whence keep-
ing farther off at sea we lost sight of land, and steered
as if we were bound forth isle Fernand de Noronhat
holding our course N. E. by N. and leaving those
isles on the east. In this course we passed the line in
about twelve days time, and were by our last obser-
vation in 7 degrees 22 min. northern latitude, when a
violent tornado or hurricane took us quite out of our'
knowledge; it began from the south-east, came about
to the north-west, and then settled into the north-east,
from whence it blew inr such. a terrible manner, that
for twelve days together we could do nothing but
drive; and scudding away before it, let it carry us
whither ever fate and the fury of the winds directed;
and during these twelve days, I need not say that I
expected every day to be swallowed up, nor indeed
did any in the ship expect to save their lives.
In this distress, we had, besides the terror of the
storm, one of our men die of the calenture, and one
man and the boy washed overboard; about the 12th
day the weather abating a little, the master made an
observation as well as he could, and found that he was
in about 11 degrees north latitude, but that he was 22
degrees of longitude difference west from Cape St.
Augustino; so that he found he was gotten upon the
coast of Guinea, or the north part of Brasil, beyond
the river Amazones, toward that of the river Oro-
noque, commonly called the Great River, and be-
gan to consult with me what course he should take,
for the ship was leaky and very much disabled, and
he was going directly back to the coast of Brasil.
I was positively against that, and looking over the
charts of the sea-coast of America with him we con-
eluded there was no inhabited country for us to have
nursee to, till we came within the circle of the

i. M~-~CW*WCW~4-L~M~Z~Y~WW15~1

Carribbee islands, and therefore resolve to stand
away for Barbadoes, which by keeping off at sea, to
avoid the indraft of the bay or gulf of Mexico. we
might easily perform, as we hoped, in about fifteen
days sail; whereas we could not possibly make our
voyage to the coast of Africa without some assist-
aice, both to our ship and ourselves.
With this design we changed our course, and steer
ed away N. W. by W. in order to reach some of'our
.English islands, where I hoped for relief; butouir
voyage was otherwise determined; for being in the
latitude of 12 deg. 18 tmin. a second storm came upon
us, which carried us away with the same impetuosity
westward, and drove us so out of the very way of all
human commerce, that had all our lives been saved,
as to the sea, we were rather in danger of being de-
voured by savages than ever returning to our own
In this distress, the wind still blowing very hard,
one of our men early in the morning cried out, Land!
and we had no sooner run out of the cabin to look
out in hopes of seeing whereabouts in the world we
were, but the ship struck upon a sand, and in a mo-
ment, her motion being so stopped, the sea broke over
her in such a manner, that we expected we should
all have perished immediately; and we were imme-
diately driven into our close quarters to shelter us
from the very foam and spray of the sea.
It is not easy for any one, who has not been in the
like condition, to describe or conceive the consterna-
tion of men in such circumstances; we knew nothing
where we were, or upon what land it was we were
driven, whether an island or the main, whether inha
bited or not inhabited; and as the rage of the wini
was still great, though rather less than at first, ws
could not so much as hope to have the ship hold many
minutes without breaking in pieces, unless tile winds
by a kind of miracle should turn immediately about,
In a word, we sat looking one upon another, and ex-
pecting death every moment, and every man acting


accordingly, as preparing for another world, for there
was little or nothing more for us to do in this; that
which was our present comfort, and all the comfort
- had, was, that contrary to our expectation, the
snip did not break yet, and that the master said the
wind began to abate.
Now though we thought that the wind did a lit'e
abate, yet the ship having thus struck upon tile sand
and sticking too fast for usto expect her i getting off
we were in a dreadful condition indeed, and had no-
thing to do but to think of saving our lives as well as
we could. We had a boat at our stern, just before the
storm ; but she was first staved by clashing against the
ship's rudder, and in the next place she broke a% ay,
and either sunk or was driven off to sea ; so there was
no hope from her. We had another boat on board,
but how to get her off into the sea was a doubtful
tiling; however, there was no room to debate, for we
fancied the ship would break in pieces every minute,
and some told us she was actually broken already.
In this distress, the mate of our vessel lays hold of
the boat and with the help) of the rest ofthe men they
got her slung over the ship's side, and getting all into
her, let go, and committed ourselves, being eleven in
number, to God's mercy and the wild sea; for though
the storm was abated considerably, yet the sea went
dreadful high upon the shore, and might well be cal-
led den wildzee, as the Dutch call the sea in a storm.
And now our case was very dismal indeed ; for we
all saw plainly, that the sea went so high, that the
boat could not live, and that we should be inevitably
drowned. As to making sail, we had none, nor, if
i e had, could we nave a lone any thin 'g with it; so we
worked at 'he oar towards the land, though with
hiravy hearts, like tmen goi g to execution ; for we all
knew, 'fhat when tle boat came neilrer the shore, she
would be dashed into a thousand peces by the breach
ofthe sea However, we committed our souls to God
in, the most earnest manner; and the wind driving

us towards the shore, we hastened our destruction with
our own hands pulling as well aswe could towardsland.
What the shore was, whether rock or sand, whe-
her steep or shoal, we knew not; the only hope that
sould rationally give us the least shadow of expecta-
lion, was, if we might happen into some bay or gulf,
or the mouth of some river, where, by great chance
we might have run our boat in, or got under the lee of
the land, and perhaps made smooth water. But
there was nothing of this appeared; but as we made
nearer and nearer the shore, the land looked more
frightful than the sea.
After we had rowed or rather driven ahout.a league
and a half, as we reckoned it, a raging wave, moun-
tain-like, came rolling astern of us, and plainly bad
us expect the coup-de-grace. In a word, it took us
with such a fury, that it overset the boat at once,
and separating us as well from the boat as from one
another, gave us not time hardly to say 0 God for
we were all swallowed up in a moment.
Nothing can describe the confusion of thought which
I felt when I sunk into the water; for though I swam
very well, yet I couldn't deliver myself from the waves
so as to draw breath, till that wave having driven me
or rather carried me a vast way on towards the shore,
and having spent itself, went back, and left me upon
the land almost dry, but half dead with the water 1
took in. I had so much presence of mind as well as
breath left, that, seeing myself nearer the main land
than I expected, I got upon my feet, and endeavourea
to make on towards the land as fast as I could, before
another wave should return, and take me up again.
But I soon found it was impossible to avoid it; for I
saw the sea come after me as high as a great hill, and
as furious as an enemy which I had no means ox
strength to contend with; my business was to hold my
breath, and raise myself upon the water, if I could;
and so by swimming to preserve my breathing, and
pilot myselftowards the shore, if possible; my greatest

toncein now being, that the sea, as it would carry mn
a great way towards the shore when it came on,
might not carry me back again with it when it gave
back towards the sea.
The wave that came upon me again, buried me at
once twenty or thirty foot deep in its own body; and
* could feel myself carried with a mighty force and
swiftness towards the shore a very great way; but I
held my breath, and assisted myself to swim still for-
ward with all my might. I was ready to burst with
holding my breath, when, as I felt myself rising up,
so, to my immediate relief, I found my head and hands
shoot out above the surface of the water; and though
it was not two secondsof time that I could keep my-
self so, yet it relieved me greatly, gave me breath and
new courage. I was covered again with water a good
while, but not so long but I held it out; and finding
the water had spentitself, and began to return, struck
forward against the return of the waves, and felt
ground again with my feet. I stood still a few mo-
ments to recover breath, and till the water went from
me, and then took to my heels, and run with what
strength I had farther towards the shore. But neither
would this deliver me from the fury of tne sea, which
came pouring in after me again; and twice more I
was lifted up by the waves and carried forwards as
before, the shore being very flat.
The last time of these two had well near been fatal
to me; for the sea having hurried me along as before,
landed me, or lather dashed me against a piece of a
rock, and that with such force, as it left me senseless,
and indeed helpless, as to my own deliverance ; for
the blow taking my side and breast, beat the breath
as t were quite out of my body; and had it returned
again immediately, I must have been strangled in the
water; but I recovered a little before the return of
the waves, and seeing I should be covered again with
the water, I resolved to hold fast by a piece of the rock,
and so to hold my breath, if possible, till the wave
went back. Now as the waves were not so high as at

first, being near land, I held my hold till the wave
abated, and then fetched another run, which brought
me so near the shore, that the next wave, though it
went over me, yet did not so swallow me up as to
carry me away: and the next run I took I got to the
main land, where to my great comfort I clambered
up the lifts of the shore, and sat me down upon the
grass, free from danger, and quite out of the reach ed
the water.
I was now landed, and safe on shore, and began to
look up and thank God that m; life was saved in a
case wherein there was some minutes before scarce
any room to hope. I believe it is impossible to ex-
press to the life what the ectasies and transports of
the soul are, when it is so saved, as I may say, out
of the very grave; and I do not wonder now at that
custom, viz. that when a malefactor, who has the hal-
ter about his neck, is tied up, and just going to ha
turned off, and has a reprieve brought to him: I say,
I do not wonder that they bring a surgeon with it, to
let him blood that very moment they tell him of it,
that the surprise may not drive the animal spirits from
the heart, and overwhelm him:
For sudden joys, like griefs, confound at first.

I walked about on the shore, lifting up my hands
and my whole being, as I may say, wrapped up in the
contemplation of my deliverance, making a thousand
gestures and motions which I cannot describe; reflect-
ing upon all my comrades that were drowned, and
that there should not be one soul saved but myself;
for, as for them, I never saw them afterwards, or any
sign of them, except three of their hats, one cap, an
two shoes that were not fellows.
I cast my eyes to the stranded vessel, when the
breach and froth of the sea being so big, I could
hardly see it, it lay so far off, and considered, Lord!
how was it possible I could get on shore !
After I had solaced my mind w Ath the comfortable

part of my condition, I began to look round me, to
see what kino of place I was in, and what was next
to be (lone; and I soon found my comforts abate,
and that in a word I had a dreadful deliverance; for
I was wet, had no clothes to shift me, nor any thing
either to eat or drink to comfort me; neither did 1
see any prospect before me, but that of perishing with
hunger, or being devoured by wild beasts; and that
which was particularly afflicting to me, was, that I
had no weapon either to hunt and kill any creature
for my sustenance, or to defend myself against any
other creature that might desire to kill me for theirs:
in a word, I had nothing about nme but a knife, a
tobacco-pipe, and a little tobacco in a box; this was
all my provision, and this threw me into terrible ago-
nies of mind, that for a while I run about like a mad-
man. Night coining upon ime, I began with a heavy
heart to consider what would be my lot if there were
any ravenous beasts in that country, seeing at night
they always come abroad for their prey.
All the remedy that offered to my thoughts at that
tihe, was, to get up into a thick bushy tree like a fir,
out ii,...,, which grew near me, and where I resolv-
ed .. :.1 it night, and consider the next day what
death I should die, for as yet I saw no prospect of
life. I walked about a furlong from the shore, to see
if I could find any fresh water to drink, which I did,
to my great joy; and having drank, and put a little
tobacco in my mouth to prevent hunger, I went to
the tree, and :* l ;..: up into it, endeavoured to place
Myself so, as 11, .1 1I should sleep, I might not fall,
and having cut me a short stick, like a truncheon, for
miy defence, I took up my lodging, and having been
excessively fatigued, I fell fast asleep, and slept as
comfortably as, I believe, few could have done in my
condition, and found myself the most refreshed with
it that I think I ever was on such an occasion.
?When I waked it was broad day, the weather clear,
and the storm abated, so that the sea did not rage and
swell as before ; but that which surprised me most

......... ..... ..~......

was, that the ship was lifted off in the night from thb
sand where she lay, by the swelling of the tide, ana
was rliven up almost as far as the rock which I first
mentioned, where I had been so bruised by the dash-
ing me against it; this being within about a mile from
the shore where I was, and the ship seeming to stand
upright still, I wished myself on board, that, at least
I might save some necessary things for my use.
When I came down from my apartment in the tree
I looked about me again, and the first thing I found
was the boat, which lay as the wind and their sea had
tossed her up upon the land, about two miles on my
right hand. I w walked as far as I could upon the shore
to have got to her, but found a neck or inlet of water
between me and the boat which was about halfa mile
broad; so I came back for the present, being more
Intent upon getting at the ship, where I hoped to find
something for my present subsistence.
A little after noon I found the sea very calm, and
the tide ebbed so far out, that I could come within a
quarter ofa mile of the ship; and here I founl a fresh
renewing of my grief: for I saw evidently, that if we
had kept on board, we had been all safe, that is to
say, we had all got safe on shore, and I had not been
so miserable as to be left entirely destitute of all com-
fort and company, as I now was. This forced tears
from my eyes again; but as there was little relief in
that, I resolved, if possible, to get to the ship; so 1
pulled off my clothes, for the weather was hot to ex-
tremity, and took the water; but when I came to the
ship, my difficulty was still greater to know how to
get on hoard; for as she lay aground, and high out of
the water, there was nothing within my reach to lay
bold of. I swam round her twice, and the second
ftime I espied a small piece of a rope, which I wonder
td I did not see at first, hang down by the fore-chains
to low as that with great difficulty I got hold of it,
and by the help of that rope got up into the fore-castle
tf the ship. Here I found that the snip was bulged,
and had a great deal of water in her hold, but that she


lay soon the side of a bank of hard sand, or rather
earth, and her stern lay lifted up upon the bank, and
her head low almost to the water: by this means all
her quarter was free, and all that was in that part was
dry ; for you may be sure my first work was to search
and to see what was spoiled and what was free ; and
first I found that all the ship's provisions were dry
and untouched by the water; and being very well dis-
posed to eat, I went to the bread-room and filed my
pockets with bisket, and ate it as I went about oilther
things, for I had no time to lose. 1 also found some
rum in the great cabin, of which I took a large draim,
and which I had indeed need enough of to spirit me
for what was before me. Now I wanted-nothing but
a boat to furnish myself with many things which I
foresaw would be very necessary to me.
It was in vain to sit still and wish for what was not
to be had ; and this extremity roused my application
We had several spare yards, and two or three large
spars of wood, and a spare topmast or two in the
ship; I resolved to fall to work with these, and flung
as many of them overboard as I could manage of
their weight, tying every one with a rope, that they
might not drive away. When this was done I went
down the ship's side, and pulling them to me I tied
four of them fast together at both ends as well as I
could, in the form of a raft, and laying two or three
short pieces of plank upon them crossways, I found 1
could walk upon it very well, but that it was not able
to bear any great weight, the pieces being too light;
so I went to work, and with the carpenter's saw I cut
a spare topmast into three lengths, and added them to
my raft, with a great deal oflabour and pains; but
hope of furnishing myself with necessaries encourag-
ed me to go beyond what I should have been able to
have done upon another occasion.
My raft was now strong enough to bear any reason.
able weight; my next care was what to load it with,
and how to preserve what I laid upon it from the suf I


of the sea; but I was not long considering this: I firs
!aai all the planks or boards upon it that I could get,
and having considered well what I most wanted, I
first got three of the seamen's chests, which I had
broken open and emptied, and lowered them down
upon my raft. The first of these I filled with provi-
sions, viz. bread, rice, three Dutch cheeses, five pieces
of dried goat's flesh, which we lived much upon, and
a little remainder of European corn which had been
laid by for some fowls which we brought to sea with
us, but the fowls were killed. There had been some
harley and wheat together, but, to my great disap-
pointment, I found afterwards that the rats had eaten
or spoiled it all. As for liquors, I found several cases
of bottles belonging to our skipper, in which were
some cordial waters, and in all above five or six gal-
lons of rack: these I stowed by themselves, there being
no need to put them into the chest, nor no room for
them. While I was doing this, I found the tide began

to flow, though very calm, and I had the mortification
t0 see my coat, shirt, and waistcoat, which I had
left on shore upon the sand, swim away; as for my
breeches, which were only linen, and open-knee'd, I
swam on board in them and my stockings: however,
this put me upon rummaging for clothes, of which I
found enough, but took no more than I wanted for
present use, for I had other things which my eye was
more upon; as, first, tools to work with on shore;
and it was after long searching that I found out the
carpenter's chest, which was indeed a very useful
prize to me, and much more valuable than a ship.
loading ofgolil would have been at that time : I got
it down to my raft, even whole as it was, without
Asking time to look into it, for I knew in general what
it contained.
My next care was for some ammunition and arms.
There were two very good fowling-pieces in the great
cabin, and tro pistols : these I secured first, with some
powder horns, and a small bag of shot, and two old
rusty swards. I knew there were three barrels of

owder in the ship, but knew not where our gunnel
had stowed them; but with much search found them,
two of them dry and good, the tlird had taken water,
those two I got to my raft, with the arms. And now
I thought myself pretty well freighted, and began to
think how I should get to shore with them, having
neither sail, nar, or rudder, and the least capful of
wind would have overset all my navigation.
SI had three encouragements: 1. A smooth, calm
sea; 2. The tide rising and setting in to the shore; 3.
What little wind there was blew me towards the land:
and thus, having found two or three broken oars be-
longing to the boat, and besides the tools which were
in the chest, I found two saws, an axe, and a hammer;
and with this cargo I put to sea: for a mile, or there-
abouts, my raft went very well, only that I found it
drive a little distant from the place where I had landed
before, by which I perceived that there was some in-
draft of the water, and consequently I hoped to find
some creek or river there, which I might make use
of as a port to get to land with my cargo.
As I imagined, so it was: there appeared before
me a little opening of the land, and I found a strong
current of the tide set into it, so I guided my raft as
well as I could to keep into the middle of the stream;
but here I had like to have suffered a second ship-
wreck, which, if I had, I think verily would have
broke my heart; for knowing nothingof the coast, my
raft.run aground at one end of it upon a shoal, and
not being aground at the other end, it wanted but a
little that all my cargo had slipped off towards that
end that was afloat, and so fallen into the water. I
did my utmost, by setting my back against the chests,
to keep them in their places, but could not thrust off
the raft with all my strength ; neither durst I stir from
the posture I was in, but holding up the chests with
all my might, stood in that manner near half an hour,
in which time the rising of the water brought me a
little more upon a level; and a little after, the water
still rising, my raft floated again, and I thrust her off




witn tne oar I had into the channel; and then driving
up higher, I at length found myself in the mouth ofa
little river, with land on both sides, and a strong cur
rent or tide running up. I looked on both sides for
a proper place to get to shore ; for I was not willing
to be driven too high up the river, hoping in time to
see some ship at sea, and therefore resolved to place
myself as near the coast as I could.
At length I spied a little cove on the right shore o
the creek, to which, with.great pain and difficulty,
guided my raft, and at last got so near, as that, reach.
ing ground with my oar, I could thrust her directly
in; but here I had liked to have dipped all my cargo
in the sea again; for that shore lying pretty steep,
that is to say sloping, there was no place to land, but
where one end of the float, ifit run on shore, would
lie so high, and the other sink lower as before, that it
would endanger my cargo again: all that I could do,
was to wait till the tide was at the highest, keeping
the raft with my oar like an anchor to hold the side
of it fast to the shore, near a flat I.iece of ground,
which I expected the water would flow over; and so
it did. As soon asI found water enough, for my raft
drew about a foot of water, I thurst her on upon that
flat piece of ground, and there fastened or moored
her by sticking my two broken oars into the ground;
one on one side near one end, and one on the other
side near the other end; and thus I lay till the water
ebbed away, and left my raft and all my cargo safe
on shore.
My next work was to view the country, and seek a
proper place for my habitation, and where to stow
my goods, to secure them from whatever might hap-
pen. Where I was I yet knew not; whether on the
continent or on an island, whether inhabited or no
inhabited, whether in danger of wild beasts or not
There was a hill not above a mile from me, which
rose up very steep and high, and which seemed to
overtop some other hills which lay as in a ridge from
it northward I took out one of the fowling pieces.

and one of the pistols, and an horn of powder, and
thus armed I travelled for discovery up to the top of
that hill, where, after I had with great labour and
difficulty got to the top, I saw my fates to my great
affliction, viz. that 1 was in an island environed every
way with the sea, no land to be seen, except some
rocks which lay a great way off, and two small islands
less than this, which lay about three leagues to the
I found also that the island I was in was barren,
and as I saw good reason to believe, uninhabited, ex-
cept by wild beasts, of whom, however, I saw none;
yet I saw abundance of fowls, but knew not their
kinds; neither when I killed them could I tell what
was fit for food, and what not. At my coming back
I shot at a great bird, which I saw sitting upon a tree
on the side of a great wood-I believe it was the first
gun that had been fired there since the creation of the
world. I had no sooner fired, but from all parts of
the wood there arose an innumerable number of fowls
of many sorts, making a confused screaming, and cry-
ing every one according to his usual note; but not
one of them of any kind that I knew. As for the
creature I killed, I took it to be a kind of a hawk, its
colour and beak resembling it, but had no talons or
claws more than common; its flesh was carrion, and
fit for nothing.
Contented with this discovery, .1 came back to my
raft, and fell to work to bring my cargo on shore,
which took me up the rest of that day; and what to
do with myself at night I knew not, nor indeed where
to rest; for I was afraid to lie down on the ground,
not knowing but some wild beast might devour me;
though, as I afterwards found there was really no need
for those fears.
However, as well as I could, I barricadoed myself
round with the chests and boards that I had brought
on shore, and made a kind of a hut for that night's
lodging As for food, I yet saw not which way to
supply myself, except that I had seen two or three

creatures like hares run out of the wood where I shot
the fowl.
.1 now began to consider, that I might yet get a
great many things out ofthe ship, which would be use
ful to me, and particularly some of the rigging ano
sails, and such other things as might come to land
and I resolved to make another voyage on board the
vessel, if possible ; and as I knew that the first storm
that blew must necessarily break her all in pieces, J
resolved to set all other things apart, till I got every
thing out of the ship that I could get. Then I called
a council, that is to say, in my thoughts, whether I
should take back the raft; but this appeared imprac-
ticable : so 1 resolved to go as before, when the tide
was down, and I did so, only that I stripped before I
went from my hut, having nothing on but a checked
shirt and a pair of linen trowsers, and a pair of pumps
on my feet.
I got on board the ship, as before, and prepared a
second raft; and having had experience of the first, I
neither made this so unwieldy, nor loaded it so hard,
but yet I brought away several things very useful to
me ; as first, in the carpenter's stores I found two mo
three bags full of nails and spikes, a great screw-jack,
a dozen or two of hatchets, and above all, that most
useful thing called a grindstone; all these I secured,
together with several things belonging to- the gunner
particularly two or three iron crows, and two barrels
f musket-bullets, seven muskets, and anotherfowling-
piece, with some small quantity of powder more; a
large bag fill of small shot, and a great roll of sheet
lead ; but this last was so heavy I could not hoist it
up to get it over the ship's side.
Besides these things, I took all the men's clothes
that I could find, and a spare fore-topsail, hammock,
and some bedding; and with this I loaded my second
raft, and brought them all safe on suore to my very
great comfort.
I was under some apprehensions during my absence
from the land, that at least my prdeisions might be

Aevoured on shore; but when I came back, I foui.d
no sign of any visitor, only there sat a creature like a
wild cat upon one of the chests, which, when I came
towards it, ran away a little distance, and then stood
still; she sat very composed and unconcerned, and
looked full in my face, as if she had a mind to be ac-
quainted with me; I presented my gun at her, but as
she did not understand it, she was perfectly uncon-
cerned at it, nor did she offer to stir away; upon
which I tossed her a bit of biscuit, though by the way
I was not very free of it, for my store was not great;
however, I spared her a bit, I say, and she went to
it, smelled of it, and ate it, and looked as pleased, for
more; but I thanked her, and could spare no more;
so she marched off.
Having got my second cargo on shore, though I
was fain to open the barrels of powder and bring
them by parcels, for they were too heavy, being large
casks, I went to work to make me a little tent with
the sail and some poles which I cut for that purpose;
and into this tent I brought every thing that I knew
would spoil, either with rain or sun; and I piled al!
the empty chests and casks up in a circle round the
tent, to fortify it from any sudden attempt, either from
man or beast.
When I had done this, I blocked up the door of the
tent with some boards within, and an empty chest set
up an end without, and spreading one of the beds
upon the ground, laying my two pistols just at my
bead, and my gun at length by me, I went to bed for
the first time, and slept very quietly all night, for I
was very weary and heavy, as the night before I had
slept little, and had laboured very hard all day, as well.
to fetch all those things from the ship as to get them
on shore.
I had the biggest magazine of all kinds now that
ever were laid up, I believe, for one man; but I was
not satisfied still; for while the ship sat upright in
hat posture, I thought I ought to get every thing out
her that I could: so every day at low water I went







on board, and brought away something or other; but
particularly the third time I went, I brought away as
much of the rigging as I could, as also all the small
ropes and rope-twine I could get, with a piece of spare
canvass, which was to mend the sails upon occasion
and the barrel of wet gunpowder: in a word I brought
away all the sails first and last, only that I was fain
to cut them in pieces, and bring as much at a time a
I could ; for they were no more useful to he sails, bu
as mere canvass only.
But that which comforted me more still, was, that
at last of all, after I had made five or six such voyages
as these, and thought I had nothing mare to expect
from the ship that was worth my meddling with; 1
say, after all this, I found a great hogshead of bread,
and three large runlets of rum or spirits, and a box
of sugar, and a barrel of fine flower; this was surprise
ing to me because I had given over expecting any
more provisions, except what was spoiled by the war
ter: I soon emptied the hogshead of that bread, and
wrapped it up, parcel by parcel, in pieces of the sais,
which I cut out: and in a word, I got all this safe on
shore also.
The next day I made another voyage: and now,
having plundered the ship of what was portable and
fit to hand out, I began with the cab!Es; and cutting
the great cable into pieces, such as I could move, I
gut two cables and a hawser on sl;se, with all tmh
iron work 1 could get; and having cut down the sprit
sail yard, and the mizen yard, and every thing I could
to make a large raft, i loaded it with all those navy
goods, and came away: but my good luck began now
to leave me; for this raft was so unwieldy and so
overladen, that after I had entered the little cove wrnea
I had landed the rest of my goods, not being able to
guide it so handily as I did the other, it overset, and
threw me ani all my cargo into the water. As for
myself, it was no great harm, for I was near the shore,
but as to my cargo, it was great part of it lost, espe
cially the iron, which I expected nould have been a



great use to me: however, when the tide was out, I
got most of the pieces of cable ashore, and some of
the iron, though with infinite labour; for I was fain
to dip for it ir.to the water, a work which fatigued me
very much. After this, I went every day on board,
and brought away what 1 could get.
I had been now thirteen days on shore, and hao
been eleven times on board the ship; in which time
I had brought away all that one pair of hands could
well be supposed capable to bring, though I believe
verily, had the calm weather held, I should have
brought away the whole ship, piece by piece; but pre-
paring the twelfth time to go on board, I found the
wind began to rise; however at low water I went on
board, and though I thoughtI had rummaged the cabin
so effectually, as that nothing more could be found,
yet I discovered a locker with drawers in it, in one
of which I found two or three razors, and one pair of
large scissars, with some ten ora dozen ofgood kniv s
and forks; in another I found about thirty-six pounds
value in money, some European coin, some Brusil,
some pieces of eight, some gold, some silver.
I smiled to myself at the sight of this money. O
drug !" said I, aloud, what art thou good for ? thou
art not worth to me, no not the taking off of thi
,eound; one of those knives is worth all this heap; I
have no manner of use for thee; even remain where
thou art, and go to the bottom as a creature whose
life is not worth saving." However, upon second
thoughts, I took it away, and wrapping all this in a
piece of canvass, I began to think of making another
raft, but while I was preparing this, 1 found the sky
overcast, and the wind began to rise, and in a quarter
of an hour it blew a fresh gale from the shore. It
presently occurred to me, that it was in vain to pro-
tend to make a raft with the wind off shore, and that
it was my business to be gone before the tide of flood
began, otherivise I might not be able to reach the shore
at all: accordingly I let myself down into the w\ ater


and swam across the channel which lay between the
ship and the sands, and even that with difficulty
enough, partly with the weight of things 1 had about
me, and partly the roughness of the water, for the wind .
rose very hastily, and before it was quite high water
it blew a storm.
But I was gotten home to my little tent, where I
lay with all my wealth about me very secure. It blew
verp hard all that night, and in the morning when [
looked out behold no more ship was to he seen. I
was a little surprised, but recovered myself with this
satisfactory reflection, viz. that I had lost no time, nor
abated r.:.. i _i.-., to get every thing out of her that
could be Il ** .. ie, and that indeed there was little
left in her that I was able to bring away, if I had had
more time.
I now gave over any more thoughts of the ship, or
of any thing out of her, except what might drive on
shore from her wreck, as indeed divers pieces of her
afterwards did; but those things were of small use to
My thoughts were now wholly employed about se
curing myself against either savages, if any should ap.
pear, or wild beasts, if any were in the island; and I
had many thoughts of the method how to do this, and
what kind of dwelling to make; whether I shoiut
make me a cave in the earth, or a tent upon the earlh
and, in short, I resolved upon both, the manner and
description of which it may not be improper to give
an account of.
I soon found the place I was in was not for my set-
tlement, particularly because it was upon a low moor-
ish ground near the sea, and I believed would not be
wholesome, and more particularly because there was
no fresh water near it; so I resolved to find a more
healthy and more convenient spot of ground.
I consulted several things in my situation which I
found would be proper for me; 1st, Health, and fresh
water, I just now mentioned. 2ndly, Shelterlrom the
beat of the sun. 3dly, Security from ravenous crea

lures, whether man or beast. 4thly, A view to the
sea, that if God sent any ship in sight, I might not
lose any advantage formy deliverance, of which I was
not willing to banish all my expectation yet.
In search of a place proper for this, I found a little
plain on the side ofa rising hill, whose front towards
this little plain was steep as a house-side, so that no-
thing could come down upon me from the top: on
the side of this rock there was hollow place worn a
little way in a like the entrance or door "f a cave, but
there was not really any cave or way into tie rock
at all.
On the flat ofthe green, justbefore this hollow place,
I resolved to pitch my tent: this plain was not above
an hundred yards broad, and about twice as long, and
lay like a green before my door, and at the end of it
descended irregularly every way down into the low
grounds by the sea-side. It was on the N. N. W. side
of the hill, so that I was sheltered from the heat every
day, till it came to a W. and by S. sun, or thereabouts,
which in those countries is near the sitting.
Before I set up my tent, I drew a half circle before
the hollow place, which took in about ten yards in its
semi-diameter from the rock, and twenty yards in its
diameter, from its beginning and ending.
In this half-circle I pitched two rows of strong
stakes, driving them into the ground till they stood
very firm, like piles, the biggest end being out of the
ground about five foot and a half, and sharppened on
the top; the two rows did not stand above six inches
from one another.
Then I took the pieces of cable which I had cut in
the ship, and laid them in rows one above another,
within the circle between these two rows of stakes, up
to the top, placing other stakes in the inside, leaning
against them, about two foot and a half high, like a
spur to a post; and this fence was so strong, that nei-
tner man or beast coul- get into it or over it: this cost
me a great deal of .:me and labour, especially to cut

the piles in the woods, bring them to the [ ace, and
drive them into the earth.
The entrance into this place I made to be not by a
door, but by a short ladder, to go over the top: which
ladder, when I was in, I lifted over after me: and so
I was completely fenced in, and fortified, as I thought,
from all the world, and consequently slept secure in
the night, which otherwise I could not have done,
though, as it appeared afterward, there was no need
of all this caution from the enemies that I apprehend-
ed danger from.
Into this fence or fortress, with infinite labour, I
carried all my riches, all my provisions, ammunition,
and stores, ofwhich you have the account above; and
I made me a large tent, which, to preserve me from
the rains, that in one part of the year are very violent
there, I made double, viz. one smaller tent, within,
and one larger tent above it, and covered the upper-
most with a lage tarpaulin which I had saved among
the sails.
And now I lay no more for awhile in the bed which
I had brought on shore but in a hammock, which was
indeed a very good one, and belonged to the mate oi
the ship.
Into this tent I brought all my provisions, and every
thing that w-iuld spoil by the wet; and having thus

enclosed all rny goous. I made up the entrance, which
till now I had left open, and so passed and repassed,
as I said, by a short ladder.
When I had done this, I began to work my way in.
to the rock, and bringing all the earth and stones that
I dug down, out through my tent, I laid them up with-
in my fence in the nature of a terrace, that so it rais-
ed the ground within about a foot and a half, and
thus I made me a cave just behind my tent, which
served me like a cellar to my house.
It cost me much labour and many davs, before all
these things were brought to perfection, and therefore
I must go back to some other things which took up


some of my thoughts. At the same time it happened,
after I had laid my scheme for the setting up my
tent, and making the cave, that a storm of rain fall
ing from a thick dark cloud, a sudden flash of light
ning happened, and after that a great clap of thunder,
as is naturally the effect of it. I was not so much
surprised with the lightning, as I was with a thought
which darted into my mind as swift as the lightning
itself: 0 my powder! my very heart sunk within me,
when I thought, that at one blast all my powder might
be destroyed: on which, not my defence only, but
the providing me of food, as I thought, entirely de-
pended : I was nothing near so anxious about my
own danger; though, had the powder took fire, I had
never known who had hurt me.
Such impression did this make upon me, that, after
the storm was over, I laid aside all my works, my
building, and fortifying, and applied myself to make
bags and boxes to separate the powder, and to keep
it a little and a little in a parcel, in hope, that, what-
ever might come, it might not all take fire at once,
and to keep it so apart, that it should not be possible
to nake one part fire another. I finished this work
in about a fortnight; and I think my powder, which
in all was about two hundred and forty pounds
weight, was divided in not less than a hundred par-
cels. As to the barrel that had been wet, I did not
apprehend any danger from that, so I placed it in my
new cave, which in my fancy I called my kitchen;
and the rest I hid up and down in holes among the
rocks, so that no wet might come to it, marking very
carefully where I laid it.
In the interval of time while this was doing, I went
out once at least every day with my gun, as well to
divert myself, as to see if I could kil. any thing fit fo.
food, and as near as I could to acquaint myself with
what the island produced. Thle first time I went out
I presently discovered that there were goats in the
island, which was' ... i i, ..r, to me; but then
't was attended l 11. .....: II 1... to me, viz. that

, .j


j ^ .

they were so shy, so subtle, and so swift of foot, that
t was the most difficult thing in the world to come at
them. But I was not discouraged at this, not doubt-
hig but I might now and then shoot one, as it
soon happened; for after 1 had found their haunts a
little, I laid wait in this manner for them : I observed,
if they saw me in the vallies, though they were upon
the rocks, they would run away as in a terrible fright;
but if they were feeding in the vallies, and I was
upon the rocks, they took no notice of me; from
whence I concluded, that by the position of their
optics, their sight wasso directed downward, that they
did not readily see objects that were above them; so
afterward I took this method; I always climbed the
rocks first to get above them, and then had frequent
ly a fair mark. The first shot I made among these
creatures I killed a she-goat, which had a little kid
by her which she gave suck to, which grieved me
heartily; but when the old one fell, the kid stood
stock still by her till I came and took her up,; and not
only so; but when I carried the old one with me upon
my shoulders, the Aid followed me quite to my en-
closure; upon which I laid down the dam, and took
the kid in my arms, and carried it over my pale, in
hopes to have bred it up tame; but it would not eat;
so I was forced to kill it, and eat it myself. These
two supplied me with flesh a great while, for I ate
sparingly, and saved my provisions (my bread espe-
cially) as much as possibly I could.
Having now fixed my habitation, I found it abso
tutely necessary to provide a place to make a fire in,
and fuel to burn; and what I did for that, as also
how I enlarged my cave, and what conveniences I
made, I shall give a full account of in its place; but
I must first give some little account of myself, and of
my thoughts about living, which it may well be sup.
posed were not a few.
I had a dismal prospect of my condition; for as 1
was not cast away upon that island without being
driven, as is said, by a violent storm quite out of the




course of our intended voyage, and a great way, viz.
some hundreds of leagues out of the ordinary course
of the trade of mankind, I had great reason to consi
der it as a determination of Heaven, that in this de-
solate place, and in this desolate manner, I should
end my life. The tears would run plentifully down
my face when I made these reflections; and some-
times I would expostulate with myself, why Provi-
dence should thus completely ruin his creatures, and
render them so absolutely miserable, so without help
abandoned, so entirely depressed, that it could hardly
be rational to be thankful for such a life.
But something always returned swift upon me to
check these thoughts, and to reprove me; and parti-
cularly one day, walking with my gun in my hand by
the sea-side, I was very pensive upon the subject of
my present condition, when reason, as it were, ex-
postulating with me t'other way, thus: Well, you
are in a desolate condition, 'tis true, but pray remem-
ber, where are the rest of you ? Did not you come
eleven of you into the boat? Where are the ten ? Why
were they not saved and you lost? Why were you
singled out? Is it better to be here or there ?" And
then I pointed to the sea. All evils are to be consi-
dered with the good that is in them, and with what
.vorse attended them.
Then it occurred to me again, how well I was fur-
nished for my subsistence, and what would have been
my case if it had not happened, which was a hun-
dred thousand to one, that the ship floated from the
place where she first struck, and was driven so near
the shore that I had time to get all these things out of
her. What would have been my case, if I had been
to have lived in the condition in which I at first came
on shore, without necessaries of life, or necessaries to
supply and procure them? particularly," said I,
loid (though to myself), what should I have done
without a gun, without ammunition, without any tools
to make any thing, or to work with; without clothes,
tbdding, a tent, or any manner of covering ?" and

__ ________________ _____ ____

that now I had all these to a sufficient quantity, and
was in a fair way to provide myself in such a man-
ner, as to live without my gun when my ammunition
Was5l~' ;~ utiLi jm Uruiaie bIC Ui 5IC

was spIInt; .IsotaL tI Illhad a toltleL Vi ew UL O Su sst-
ing, without any want, as long as I lived; for I con-
sidered from the beginning how I should provide for
the accidents that might happen, and for the time
hat was to come, even not only after my.ammuni
ion should be spent, but even after my health o
strength should decay.
I confess I had not entertained any notion of my
anmmunition being destroyed at one blast, I mean my
powder being blown up by lightning, and this made
the thoughts of it so surprising to me when it light
ened and thundered, as I observed just now.
And now, being about to enter into a melancholy
relation ofa scene of silent life, such perhaps as was
never heard of in the world before, I shall take it
from its beginning, and continue it in its order, It
was, by my account, the 30th of September, when, in
the manner as above said, I first set foot upon this
horrid island, when the sun being, to us, in its autum-
nal equinox, was almost just over my head, for I
reckoned myself, by observation, to be in the latitude
of 9 degrees 22 minutes north of the line.
After I had been there about ten or twelve days, it
came into my thoughts, that I should kI se my reekon-
ing of time for want of books, and pen and ink, and
should even forget the sabbath days from the working
days ; but to prevent this, I cut it with my knife upon
a large post, in capital letters, and making it into a
great cross, I set it up on the shore where I first land-
ed, viz I came on shore here on the 30th of Sep-
tember 1659." Upon the sides of this square post, I
cut every day a notch with my knife, and every so-
venth notch was as long again as the rest, and every
first day of the month as long again as that long one;
and thus I kept my calendar, or weekly, monthly, and
yearly reckoning of time.
In tile next place we are to observe, that among


tne many things which I brought out of the ship in the
several voyages, which, as above mentioned, I made
to it, I got several things of less value, but not all less
useful to me, which I omitted setting down before;
as in particular, pens, ink, and paper, several parcels
in the captain's, mate's, gunner's, and carpenters keep-
ing, three or four compasses, some mathematical in-
strmnents, dials, perspectives, charts, and books of
navigation ; all which I huddled together, whether I
mnigh want them or no. Also I found three very good
Bibles, which came to me in my cargo from England,
and which I had packed up amofg my things ; some
Portuguese books also, and among them two or three
popish prayer-books, and several other books; all
which I carefully secured. And I must not forget,
that we had in the ship a dog and two cats, of whose
eminent history I may have occasion to say something
in its place: for I carried both the cats with me ; and
as for the dog, he jumped out of the ship of himself,
and swam on shore to me the day after I went on
shore with my first cargo, and was a trusty servant to
me many years; I wanted nothing that he could fetch
me, nor any company that he could make up to me;
1 only wanted to have him talk to me, but that he
could not do. As 1 observed before, I found pen,
ink, and paper, and I husbanded them to the utmost;
and I shall show, that while my ink lasted, I kept
things very exact; but after that was gone I could not,
for I could not make any ink by any means that 1
could devise.
And this put me in mind that I wanted many things,
notwithstanding all that I had amassed together; and
of these, this of ink was one, as also spade, pickaxe,
and shovel, to dig or remove the earth ; needles, pins,
and thread. As for linen, I soon learnt to want that
without much difficulty.
This want of tools made every work I did go on
heavily, and it was near a whole year before 1 had
entirkvy finished my little pale or surrounded habita-
tion ; the piles or stakes, which were as heavy as I

could well lift, were a long time in cutting and pra
paring in the woods, and more by far in bringing
home; so that I spent sometimes two days in cutting
and bringing home one of those posts, and third day
in driving it into the ground ; for which purpose I
got a heavy piece of wood at first, but at last bethought
myself of one of the iron crows, which however,
though I found it, yet it made driving those posts or
piles very laborious and tedious work.
But what need I have been concerned at the tedi
ousness of any thing I had to do, seeing I had time
enough to do it in ? Nor had I any other employment
if that had been over, at least that I could foresee,
except the ranging the island to seek for food, which
I did more or less every day.
1 now began to consider seriously my condition,
and the circumstance I was reduced to, and I drew
up the state of my affairs in writing, not so much to
leave them to any that were to come after me, for I
was like to have but few heirs, as to deliver my
thoughts from daily poring upon them, and afflicting
my mind ; and as my reason began now to master my
despondency, I began to comfort myself as well as I
could, and to set the good against the evil that I might
have something to distinguish my case from worse;
and I stated it very impartially, like debtor and cre-
ditor the comforts 1 enjoyed against the miseries I
suffered, thus
Evil. Good.
Iam cast upon a horri- But I am alive, and
ble desolate island, void not drowned, as all my
of all hope of recovery, ship's company was.
I am singled out and But I am singled out
separated, as it were, too from all the ship's
flom all the world, to be crew to be spared from
miserable, death; and He that mira-
culously saved me from
death, can deliver me
from this condition

Evil. Good.
I am divided from But I am not starveo
mankind, a solitaire, one and perishing on a oar-
banished from human so- ren place, affording .no
city. sustenance.
I have not clothes to But I am in a hot cli.
covet me. mate, where, if I had
clothes I could hardly
wear them.
I am without any de- But I am cast on an
fence or means to resist island where I see no
any violence of man or wild beasts to hurt me,
beast. as I saw on the coast of
Africa; and what if I
had been shipwrecked
there ?
I have no soul to speak But God wonderfully
to, or relieve me. sent the ship in near
enough to the shore, that
I have gotten out so many
necessary things as will
either supply my wants,
or enable me to supply
myself even as long as I

Upon the whole, here was an undoubted testimony,
that there was scarce any condition in the world so
miserable, but there was something negative or some-
thing positive to be thankful for in it; and let this
stand as a direction from the experience of the most
miserable of all conditions in this world, that we may
always find in it something to comfort ourselves from,
and to set, in the description of good and evil, on the
credit side of the account.
Having now brought my mind a little to relish my
condition, and given over looking out to sea, to see
if I could spy a ship ; I say, giving over these things,
I began to apply myself to accommodate my way o/
living, and to make things as easy to me as I could.

I have already described my habitation, which was
a tent under the side of a rock, surrounded with a
strong pale of posts and cables : hut I might now ra-
ther call it a wall, for I raised a kind of wall up against
it of turfs, about two foot thick on the outside; and
after some time, I think it was a year and half, I
raised rafters from it, leaning to the rock, and thatch-
ed or covered it with boughs of trees, and such things
s I could get to keep out the rain, which I found at
some times of the year very violent.
I have already observed how I brought all my goods
into this pale, and into the cave which I had made
behind me : but I must observe too that at first this
was a confused heap of goods, which as they lay in no
order, so they took up all my place : I had no room
to turn myself; so I set myself to enlarge my cave,
and work farther into the earth; for it was a loose
sandy rock, which yielded easily to the labour I be-
stowed on it; and so when I found I was pretty safe
as to beasts of prey, I worked sideways to the right
hand into the rock ; and then, turning to the right
again, worked quite out, and made me a door to
come out, on the outside of my pale or fortification.
This gave me not only egress and regress, as it were
a back-way to my tent and to my storehouse, but
gave me room to stow my goods.
And now I began to apply myself to make such
necessary things as I found I most wanted, particu-
larly a chair and a table; for without these I was not
ihle to enjoy the few comforts I had in the world ; 1
could not write or eat, or do several things with so
inch pleasure without a table.
So I went.to work ; and here I must needs observe,
hat as reason is the substance and original of the ma.
thematics, so by stating and squaring every thing by
reason, and by making the most rational judgment of
things, every man may be in time master of'every
mechanic art. I had never handled a tool in my life
and yet in time, by labour, application, and contriv-
ance. I found at last that I wanted nothing but I could


have made it, especially if I had had tools; however,
I maae abundance of things, even without tools, and
some with no more tools than an adze and a hatchet,
which perhaps were never made that way before, and
that with infinite labour: for example, if wanted a
board, I had no other way but to cut down a tree, set
it on an edge before me, and hew it flat on either side
with my axe, till I had brought it to be as thin as a
plank, and then dub it smooth with my adze. It is
true, by this method I could make but one board out
of a whole tree; but this I had no remedy for but
patience, any more than I had for the prodigious
deal of time and labour which it took me up to make
a plank or board : but my time or labour was little
worth, and so it was as well employed one way as
However, I made me a table and a chair, as I ob-
served above, in the first place; and this I did out of
the short pieces of boards that I brought on my raft
from the ship: but when I had wrought out some
boards, as above, I made large shelves of the breadth
of a foot and a half one over another, all along one
nide of my cave, to lay all my tools, nails, and iron-
work, and in a word, to separate every thing at large
in their places, that I might come easily at them. I
knocked pieces in the wall of the lock to hang my
guns and all things that would hang up.
So that, had my cave been to be seen, it looked
like a general magazine of all necessary things; and
I had every thing so ready at my hand, that it was a
great pleasure to me to see all my goods in such oD-
der, and especially to find my stock of all necessa-
ries so great.
And now it was that I began to keep a journal of
every day's employment; for indeed at first I was in
too much a hurry; and not only hurry as to labour,
but in too much discomposure of mind, and my
journal would have been full of many dull things
For examp e I must have said thus: Sept. the 30th,
after I got to shore, and had escaped drowning, in

stead of being thankful to God for my deliverance,
having first vomited with the great quantity of salt
water which was gotten into my stomach, and reco-
vering myself a little, I ran about the shore, wringing
my hands, and beating my head and face, exclaiming
at my misery, and craving out, I was undone, undone;
till tired and faint I was forced to lie down on the
S ground to repose, but durst not sleep for fear of be-
ing devoured.
Some days after this, and after I had been en board
the ship, and got all that I could out of her, yet I
could not forbear getting up to the top of a little
mountain, and looking out to sea in hopes of seeing a
ship; than fancy at a vast distance 1 spied a sail;
please myself with the hopes of it; and then after
looking steadily till I was almost blind, lose it quite,
and sit down and weep like a child, and thus in-
crease my misery by my folly.
But having gotten over these things in some mea-
sure, and having settled my household-stuffand ha-
bitation, made me a table and a chair, and all as
handsome about me as I could, I began to keep my
journal, of which I shall here give you the copy
(though in it will be told all these particulars over
again) as long as it lasted; for having no more ink, I
was forced to leave it off.

September 30, 1659.
j POOR miserable Robinson Crusoe, being ship
wrecked, during a dreadful storm in the offing,
came on shore on this dismal unfortunate island,
which I called the Island of Despair; all the rest of
the ship's company being drowned, and myself al-
most dead.
All the rest of that day I spent in afflicting mvsell
at the dismal circumstances I was rnouvn -o-

_ .___

had neither food, house, clothes, weapon, or place to
fly to, and in despair of any relief, saw nothing but
death before me, either that I should be devoured by
wild beasts, murdered by savages, or starved to death
for want of food. At the approach of night I slept
in a tree, for fear of wild creatures, but slept soundly,
though it rained all night.
October 1. In the morning I saw, to my great sur-
prise, the ship had floated with the high tide, and was
driven on shore again much nearer the island; which
as it was some comfort on one hand, for seeing hei
sit upright, and not broken to pieces, I hoped, if the
wind abated, I might get on board, and get some
food and necessaries out of her for my relief; so on
the other hand, it renewed my grief at the loss of my
comrades, who I imagined, if we had all staid on
board, might have saved the ship, or at least that they
would not have been all drowned, as they were; and
that, had the men been saved, we might perhaps have
built us a boat out of the ruins of the ship, to have
carried us to some other part of the world. I spent
great part of this day in perplexing myself on these
things; but at length, seeing the ship almost dry, I
went upon the sand as near as I could, and then
swam on board This day also it continued raining,
though with no wind at all.
From the 1st of October to the 24th. All these
days entirely spent in many several voyages to get all
I could out of the ship, which I brought on shore,
every tide of flood, upon rafts. Much rain also in
these days, though with some intervals of fair wear
their: but, it seems, this was the rainy season.
Oct. 20. I overset my raft, and all the goods I had
got up upon it; but being in shoal water, and the
things being chiefly heavy, I recovered many of them
when the tide was out.
Oct. 25. It rained all night and all day, with some
gusts of wind ; during which time the ship broke in
pieces, the wind blowing a li,'tle harder than before,
had was no more to be seen, except the wreck of her,

and that only at low water. I spent this day in
covering and scouring the goods which had saved,
that rain might not spoil them.
Oct. 26. I walked about the shore almost all day
to find out a place to fix my habitation, greatly con-
cerned to secure myselffrom any attack in the night,
either from wild beasts or men. Towards night 1
fixed upon a proper place under a rock, and marked
out a semicircle for my encampment, which I resolv-
ed to strengthen with a work, wall, or fortification
made of double piles, lined within with cable, and
without with turf.
From the 26th to the 30th I worked very hard in
carrying all my goods to my new habitation, though
some part of the time it rained exceeding hard.
The 31st in the morning I went out into the island
with my gun, to see for some food, and discover the
country; when I killed a she-goat, and her kid fol.
lowed me home, which I afterwards killed also, b&
cause it would not feed.
November 1. I set up my tent under a rock, and
lay there for the first night, making it as large as 1
could with stakes driven in to swing my hammock
Nov. 2. I set up all my chests and boards, and the
pieces of timber which made my rafts, and with them
formed a fence round me, a little within the place 1
had marked out for my fortification.
Nov. 3. 1 went out with my gun, and killed two
fowls like ducks, which were very good food. In the
afternoon went to work to make me a table.
Nov. 4. This morning I began to order my times of
work, of going out with my gun, time of sleep, and
ime of diversion; viz. every morning I walked out
with my gun for two or three hours, if it did not rain,
then employed myself to work till about eleven
o'clock, then ate what I had to live on, and from
twelve to two I lay down to sleep, the weather being
excessive hot, and then in the evening to work again
the working part of this day and of the next were

- --------- ----~ICY~Z~-L.SY- -

wholly employed in making my table, for I was yet
'ut a very sorry workman, though time and necessity
made me a complete natural mechanic soon after, as
Believe it would do any one else.
Nov. 5: This day went abroad witb my gun and
my dog, and killed a wild cat, her skin pretty soft,
b t her flesh good for nothing, every creature I killed
took off the skins and preserved them. Coming
ack by the sea-shore I saw many sorts of sea-fowls
which I did not understand ; but was surprised al A
almost frighted with two or three seals, which, while
I was gazing at, not well knowing what they were,
got into the sea, and escaped me for that time.
Nov. 6. After my morning walk I went to work
with my table again, and finished it, though not to my
liking; nor was it long before I learnt to mend it.
Nov. 7. Now it began to be settled fair weather.
The 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, and part of the 12th (for the
11th was Sunday), I took whollyup to make me a
chair, and with much ado brought it to a tolerable
shape, butneverto please me; and even in the making
I pulled it in pieces several times. JVote, I soon neg-
Sscted my keeping Sundays, for omitting my mark for
them on my post, I forgot which was which.
Nov. 13. This day it rained, which refreshed nre
exceedingly, and cooled the earth, but it was accom-
panied with terrible thunder and lightning, which
frighted me dreadfully for fear of my powder: as
soon as it was over I resolved to separate my stock of
powder into as many little parcels as possible, that
it might not be in danger.
Nov, 14,15, 16. These three days I spent in making
ttle square chests or boxes, which might hold about
pound, or two pound, at-most, of powder; and so
cutting the powder in, I stowed it in places as secure
nd remote from one another as possible. On one
of these three days I killed a large bird that was
good to eat, but I knew not what to call it.
Nov. 17. Tb is day 1 began to dig behind my tent

,nno the rock, to make room for my farther convene.
eancy. cote, Three things I wanted exceedingly for
this work, viz. a pickaxe, a shovel, and a wheel-bar-
row or basket; so I desisted from my work, and be-
gan to consider how to supply that want, and make
tme some tools: as for a pickaxe, I made use of the
iron crows, which were proper enough, though
heavy; but the next thing was a shovel or spade
this was so absolutely necessary, that indeed I could
do nothing effectually without it; but what kind of
one to make I knew not.
Nov. 18. The next (lay in searching the woods I
found a tree of that wood, or like it, which in the
Brasils they call the iron tree, for its exceeding hard-
ness: of this, with great labour and almost spoiling
my axe, 1 cut a piece, and brought it home too with
difficulty enough, for it was exceeding heavy.
The excessive hardness of the wood, and having
no other way, made me a long while upon this ma-
chine; for 1 worked it effectually by little and little
into the form of a shovel or spade, the handle exactly
shaped like ours in England, only that the broad part
having no iron shod upon it at bottom, it would not
last me so long; however, it served well enough for
the uses which 1 had occasion to put it to; but never
was a shovel, I believe, made after this fashion, or
so long a making.
I was still deficient, for I wanted a basket or a
wheel-barrow; a basket I could not make by any
means, having no such things as twigs that would
bend to make wicker-ware, at least none yet found
out; and as to awheel-barrow, I fancied I could make
all but the wheel, but that I had no notion of neither
did I know how to go about it; besides, I had no pos-
sible way to make the iron gudgeons for the spindle
or axis of the wheel to run in, so I gave it over; and
so for carrying away the earth which I dug out of the
cave, I made me a thing like i hod which the labour-
ers carry mortar in, when thb- serve the bricklayers.
This was not so difficult te me as the making the

_- --- -- -- -- -- --

shovel; and yet this, and the shovel, and the attempt
which I made in vain to make a wheel-barrow, took
me up no lhss than four days, I mean always except-
ing my morning walk with my gun, which I seldom
failed; and very seldom failed also bringing home
something to eat.
Nov. 23. My other work having now stood stills
because of my making these tools, when they wer
finished I went on, and working every day, as iry
strength and time allowed, I spent eighteen days en-
tirely in widening and deepening my cave, that it
might hold my goods commodiously.
JVote, During all this time, I worked to make this
room or cave spacious enough to accommodate me as
a warehouse or magazine, a kitchen, a dining-room,
and a cellar: as for my lodging, I kept to the tent,
except that sometimes in the wet season of the year,
it rained so hard that I could not keep myself dry,
which caused me afterwards to cover all my place
within my pale with long poles in the form of rafters,
leaning against the rock, and load them with flags
and large leaves of trees like a thatch.
Dec. 10. 1 began now to think my cave or vault
finished, when on a sudden (it seems I had made ii
too large) a great quantity of earth fell down from the
top and one side, so much that in short it frighted me,
and not without reason too; for if I had been under
it I had never wanted a gravedigger. Upon this dis-
aster I had a great deal of work to do over again; for
I had the loose earth to carry out, and, which was of
more importance, I had the ceiling to prop up, so that
1 might be sure no more would come down.
Dec. 11. This day I went to work with it accord-
ingly, and got two shores or posts pitched upright to
the top, with two pieces of boards across over each
post; this I finished the next day; and setting more
posts up with boards, in about a week more I had the
roof secured ; and the posts, standingin rows, served
me for partitions to part off my house.
Dec. 17. From this day to the twentieth I placed

shelves, and knocked up nails on the posts to hana
every thing up that could be hung up: ar d now
began to be in some order within doors.
Dec. 20. Now I carried every thing into the cave,
and began to furnish my house, and set up some
pieces of boards like a dresser, to order my victuals
upon ; but boards began to be very scarce with me:
also I made me another table.
Dec. 24. Much rain all night and all day; no stir
ring out.
Dec. 25. Rain all day.
Dec. 26. No rain, and the earth much colder than
before and pleasanter.
Dec. 27. Killed a young goat, and lamed another,
so that I caught it, and led it home in a string; when
I had it home, I bound and splintered up its leg,
which was broke. N. B. I took such care of it that
it lived, and the leg grew well and as strong as ever;
but by nursing it so long it grew tame, and fed upon
the little green at my door, and would not go away.
This was the first time that I entertained a thought
of breeding up some tame creatures, that I might
have food when my powder and shot was all spent.
Dec. 28, 29, 30. Great heatsand no breeze; so that
there was no stirring abroad, except in the evening
for food. This time I spent in putting all my things
in order within doors.
January 1. Very hot still, but I went abroad early
and late with my gun, and lay still in the middle of
the day. This evening, going farther into the allies,
which lay towards the centre of the island, I found
there was plenty of goats, though exceeding shy and
hard to come at; however, I resolved to try if I
could not bring my dog to hunt them down.
Jan. 2. Accordingly, the next day I went out with
my dog, and set him upon the goats; but I was mis-
taken, for they all faced about upon the dog; and he
knew his danger too well, for he would not come
near them.
Jan. 3. I began my fence or wall; which, being

till jealous of my being attacked by somebody, I re-
solved to make very thick and strong.
N. B. This wall being described before, I pur-
posely omit what was said, in the Journal; it
is sufficient to observe, that I was no less time
than from the 3d of January to the 14th of
April, working, finishing, and perfecting this
wall, though it was no more than about twenty-
four yards in length, being a half-circle from
one place in the rock to another place about
eight yards from it, the door of the cave being
in the centre behind it.
All this time I worked very hard, the rains hinder-
ing me many days, nay, sometimes weeks together ;
but I thought I should never be perfectly secure until
this wall was finished ; and it is scarce credible what
inexpressible labour every thing was done with, espe-
cially the bringing piles out of the woods, and driving
them into the ground, for I made them much bigger
than I need to have done.
When this wall was finished, and he outside double
fenced with a turf wall raised up close to it, I per-
suaded myself that if any people were to come on
shore there, they would not perceive any thing like a
habitation ; and it was very well I did so, as maybe
observed hereafter upon a very remarkable occasion.
During this time I made my rounds in the woods
for game every day, when the rain admitted me, and
made frequent discoveries in these walks of something
or other to my advantage; particularly I found a kind
of wild pigeons, who built not as wood pigeons in a
tree, but rather as house pigeons, in the holes of the
rocks; and taking some young ones, I endeavoured to
breed them up tame, and did so; but when they grew
older they flew away, which perhaps at first was for
want of feeding them, for I had nothing to give them;
however, I frequently found their nests, and got their
young ones, which were very good meat.
And now, in the managing my household affairs, I
found myself wanting in many things, which) I

.~~~-,.,,,,,~~,,,,,............... -- .......~_~~~~

thought at first it was impossible for me to make, as
indeed as to some of them it was; for instance, I
could never make a cask to be hooped; I had a
small runlet or two, as I observed before, but I could
never arrive to the capacity of making one by them,
though I spent many weeks about it; I could neither
put in the heads, or joint the staves so true to one
another as to make them hold water : so I gave that
over also.
In the next place, I was at a great loss for candle
so that as soon as ever it was dark, which was gene-
rally by seven o'clock, I was obliged to go to bed : I
remembered the lump of bees-wax with which I
made candles in my African adventure, but I had
none of that now ; the only remedy I had, was, that
when I had killed a goat I saved the tallow, and with
a little dish made of clay, which I baked in the sun,
to which I added a wick of some oakum, I made me
a lamp ; and this gave me light, though not a clear
steady light like a candle. In the middle of all my
labours it happened, that, rummaging my things, I
found a little bag, which, as I hinted before, had been
filled with corn for the feeding of poultry, not for this
voyage, but before, as I suppose, when the ship came
from Lisbon ; what little remainder of corn had been
in the bag, was all devourded with the rats, and I saw
nothing in the bag but husks and dust; and being
willing to have the bag for some other use, I think it
was to put powder in, when I divided it for fear of
the lightning, or some such use, I shook the husks ou
corn out of it on one side of my fortification under
the rock.
It was a little before the great rains, just now men
tioned, that I threw this stuff away, taking no notice
of any thing, and not so much as remembering that I
had thrown any thing there; when about a month
after or thereabout, I saw some few stalks of some,
thing green shooting out of the ground, which I faim
cied might be some plant I had not seen ; but I waa
surprised and perfectly astonished, when after a little

t j

L ^^,,,-,;,,,-,,,~ ,^. ^ ^ ^~~~,-,,-~~~

longer time I saw about ten or twelve ears come out,
which were perfect green barley of the same kind as
our European, nay, as our English barley.
It is impossible to express the astonishment and
confusion of my thoughts on this occasion ; I had
hitherto acted upon no religious foundation at all
indeed I had very few notions of religion in my
head, or had entertained any sense of any thing that
nad befallen me, otherwise than as a chance, or, as
wve lightly say, what pleases God; without so much as
inquiring into the end of Providence in these things,
or his order in governing events in the world ; but
after I saw barley grow there, in a climate which I
knew was not proper for corn, and especially that I
knew not how it came there, it startled me strangely,
and I began to suggest, that God had miraculoiuly
caused this grain to grow without any help of seed
sown, and that it was so directed purely for my sus-
tenance on that wild miserable place.
This touched my heart a little, and brought tears
out of my eyes, and I began to bless myself, that
such a progidy of nature should happen upon my ac-
count; and this was the more strange to me, because
I saw near it still, all along by the side of the rock,
some other straggling stalks, which proved to be
stalks of rice, and which I knew, because I had seen
it grow in Africa, when I was ashore there.
I not only thought these the pure productions of
Providence for my support, but not doubting but that
there was more in the place, I went all over that part
of the island, where I had been before, preping in
every corner and under every rock to see for more of
it, but I could not find any; at last it occurred to my
thought, that I had sh ok a bag of chicken's meat out
in that place, and then tne wonder began to cease,
and I must confess, my religious thankfiuless to
God's providence began to abate too upon discovering
that all this was nothing but what was common;
though I ought to hav. .~trn as thankful for so strange
and u nforeseen a pro' rnce as if it had been iiracu-

lous : for it was really the work of Providence as
me, that should order or appoint ten or twelve grain
of corn to remain unspoiled, when the rats had de.
stroyed all the rest, as if it had been dropped from
heaven ; as also, that I should throw it out in that
particular place, where, it being in the shade of a
igh rock, it sprang up immediately; whereas if I
had thrown it any where else at that time, it had been
burnt up and destroyed.
I carefully saved the ears of corn, you may be sure
in their season, which was about the end of June, and
laying up every corn, I resolved to sow them all
again, hoping in time to have some quantity sufficient
to supply me with bread ; but it was not till the
fourth year that I could allow myself the least grain
of this corn to eat, and even then but sparingly, as I
shall say afterwards in its order ; for I lost all that I
sowed the first season, by not observing the proper
time ; for I sowed it just before the dry season, so
that it never came up at all, at least not as it would
have done: of which in its place.
Besides this barley there were, as above, twenty c
thirty stalks of rice which I preserved with the sam r
care, and whose use was of the same kind or to thbi
same purpose, viz. to make me bread, or rather
food ; for I found ways to cook it up without baking
though I did that also after some time. But to return
to my journal.
I worked excessive hard these three or four months
to get my wall done; and the 14th of April I closed
it up contriving to go into it, not by a door but ovel
the wall by a ladder, that there might be no sign in
the outside of my habitation.
April 16. I finished the ladder ; so I went up with
the ladder to the top, and then pulled it up after me,
and let it down on the inside: this was a complete
enclosure to me ; for within I had room enough, and
nothing could come at me from without, unless it
could first mount my wall.
The very next day after this wall was finished, I

bad almost had all my labour overthrown at once, anl
myself killed ; the case was thus: As I was busy in
the inside of it behind my tent, just in the entrance
into my cave, I was terribly frightened with a most
dreadful surprising thing indeed ; for on a sudden I
found the earth come crumbling down from the root
of my cave, and from the edge of the hill, over my
head and two of the posts I had set up in the cave
cracked in a frightful manner; I was heartily scared
but thought nothing of what was really the cause,
only thinking that the top of my cave, was falling in
as some of it had done before ; and for fear I should
be buried in it, I ran forward to my ladder, and not
thinking myself safe there neither, I got over my wall
for fear of the pieces of the hill which I expected
might roll down upon me. I was no sooner sept
down upon the firm ground, but I plainly saw it was
a terrible earthquake, for the ground I stood on shook
three times at about eight minutes distance, with three
such shocks, as would have overturned the strongest
building that could be supposed to have stood on the
earth ; and a great piece of the top ofa rock, which
stood about half a mile from me next the sea, fell
down with such a terrible noise as I never heard in
all my life : I perceived also the very sea was put in
violent motion by it: and I believe the shocks were
stronger under the water than on the island.
I was so amazed with the thing it 3elf, having never
felt the like, or discoursed with any one that had, that
I was like one dead or stupified ; and tie motion of
the earth made my stomach sick, like one that was
tossed at sea ; but ltie noise of the falling of the rock
awaked me, as it were, and rousing me from the stu-
pified condition I was in., filled me with horror, and I
thought of nothing then but the hill falling upori, i"
tent and all my household goods, and burying atii
once; and this sunk my very soul within me"5r time.
After the third shock was over, and I felt nr. iw

- --------------- ---------------------i-;---. ,

for some time, I began to take courage, and yet I haa
not heacu enough to get over my wall again, for fear
of being buried alive, but sat still upon the ground,
greatly cast clown and disconsolate, not knowing what
to do. All this while I had not the least serious reli-
gious thought, nothing but the common Lord have
mercy upon me, !" and when it was over, that went
away too.
While I sat thus, I found the air overcast, and grow
cloudy, as if it would rain ; soon after that the wind
rose by little and little, so that in less than half an
hour it blew a most dreadful hurricane ; the sea was
all on a sudden covered over with foam and froth,
the shore was covered with the breach of the water,
the trees were torn up by the roots, and a terrible
storm it was ; and this held about three hours, and
then began to abate, and in two hours more it was
stark calm, and began to ram very hard.
All this while I sat upon the ground, very much
terrified and dejected, when on a sudden it came into
my thoughts, that these winds and rain being the con-
sequence of the earthquake, the earthquake itself was
spent and over, and I might venture into my cave
again; with this thought my spirits began to revive,
and the rain also helping to persuade me, I went in
and sat down in my tent; but the rain was so violent,
that my tent was ready to be beaten down with it;
and I was forced to go into my cave, though very
much afraid and uneasy, for fear it should fall on my
The violent rain forced me into a new work, viz. to
cut a hole through my new fortification like a sink, to
let water go out, which would else have drowned my
cave. After I had been in my cave some time, and
Sound still no more shocks of the earthquake follow,
I began to be more composed; and now, to support
nmy spirits, which indeed wanted it very much, I went
Sto my little store, and took a small sup of rum, which,
however I did then and always very sparingly, know
hig I could ive no more when that was gone.

\?~--- \-~~~~ ~ ~- ~~-,, -,, ,.,,,,,_,.



It continued raining all that night, and great part of
he next day, so that I could not stir abroad ; out 1my
mind being more composed, I began to think of what
I had best do, concluding that if the island was sub-
ject to these earthquakes, there would be no living for
me in a cave, but I must consider of building me
some little hut in an open place, which I might sur-
round with a wall as I had done here, and so make
myself secure from wild beasts or men: but conclud-
ed, if I staid where I was, I should certainly, one
time or other, be buried alive.
With these thoughts I resolved to remove my tent
from the place where it stood, which was just under
the hanging precipice of the hill, and which, if it
should be shaken again, would certainly fall upon my
tent. And I spent the two next days, being the 19th
and 20th of April, in contriving where and how to
remove my habitation.
The fear of being swallowed up alive, made me
that I never slept in quiet, and yet the apprehension
of lying abroad without any fence was almost equal
to it; but still, when I looked about and saw how
every thing was put in order, how pleasantly conceal.
ed I was, and how safe from danger, it made me very
loth to remove.
In the mean time it occurred to me that it would
require a vast deal of time for me to do this, and that
I must be contented to run the venture where I was,
till I had formed a camp for myself, and had secured
it so as to remove to it. So with this resolution I
composed myself for a time, and resolved that I
would go to work with all speed to build me a wall
with piles and cables, &c. in a circle as before; and
set my tent up in it when it was finished, but that I
would venture to stay where I was till it was finished
and fit to remove to. This was the 21st.
April 22. The next morning I began to consider of
means to put this resolve in execution, but I was at a
great loss about my tools. I had three large axes and
abundance of hatchets (for we carried the hatchets for





traffic with the Indians) : hut with much chopping
and cutting knotty hard wood, they were all full of
notches and dull ; and though I had a grindstone, I
could not turn it and grind my tools too : this cost me
as much thoughts a statesman would have bestowed
upon a grand point of politics, or a jurce upon the
life and death of a man. At length I contrived a
wheel with a string, to turn it with my foot, that I
might have both my hands at lib`ny. NJote, I had
never seen any such thing in England, or at least not
to take notice how it was done, though since I have
observed it was very common there ; besides that my
grindstone was very large and heavy. This machine
cost me a full week's work to bring it to perfection.
April 28, 29. These two whole days I took up in
grinding my tools, my machine for turning my grind-
stone performing very well.
April 30. Having perceived my bread had been
low a great while, now I took a survey of it and re-
duced myself to one biscuit-cake a day, which made
my heart very heavy.
May 1. In the morning, looking toward the sea-
side, the tide being low, I saw something lie on the
shore bigger than ordinary; and it looked like a cask;
when I came to it, I found a small barrel, and two or
three pieces of the wreck of the ship, which were
driven on shore by the late hurricane; and looking
towards the wreck itself, I thought it seemed to lie
higher out of the water than it used to do. I examin-
ed the barrel which was driven on shore, and soort
found it was a barrel of gunpowder, but it had taken
water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone;
however, I rolled it. farther on shore for the present,
and went on upon the sand as near as I could to the
wreck-of the ship, to look for more.
When I came down to the ship, I found it strangely
removed; the forecastle, which lay before buried in
sand, was heaved up at least six foot; and the stern,
which was broke to pieces, and parted from the rest
hy the force of the sea, soon after I had left rumma-

- - ---- -----------------

ing her, was tossed, as it were, up, and cast on one
side, and the sand was thrown so high on that side
next her stern, that whereas there was a great place of
water before, so that I could not come within a quar-
ter of a mile df the wreck without swimming, I could
now walk quite up to her when the tide was out. I
was surprised with this at first, but soon concluded it
must be done by the earthquake : and as by this vio-
lence the ship was more broken open than formerly
so many things came daily on shore, which the sea
had loosened, and which the winds and water rolled
by degrees to the land.
This wholly diverted my thoughts from the design
of removing my habitation; and I busied myself
mightily, that day especially, in searching whether I
could make any way into the ship; but I found no-
thing was to be expected of that kind, for that all the
inside of the ship was choked up with sand: however
as I learnt not to despair of any thing, I resolved
to pull every thing to pieces that 1 could of the ship,
concluding, that every thing I could get from her
would be ofsome use or other to me.
May 3. I began with my saw, and cut a piece of a
beam through, which I thought held some of the upper
part or quarter-deck together, and when I had cut it
through, I cleared away the sand as well as I could
from the side which lay highest; but the tide coming
in, I was obliged to give over for that time.
May. 4. 1 went a-fishing, but caught not one fish
that I durst eat ot, till I was weary of my sport;
when just going to leave off, I caught a young dolphin.
I had made me a long line of some rope-yarn, but I
had no hooks, yet I frequently caught fish enough, as
much as I cared to eat; all which I dried in the sun,
and ate them dry.
May 5. Worked on the wreck, cut another beam
asunder, and brought three great fir planks off from
the decks, which I tied together, and made swim on
shore i hen the tide of flood came on.
May 6. Worked on the wreck, got several iron

i t-,--,~,~,,,,,,,~,~,._

bolts out of her, and other pieces cf iron-work,
worked very hard, and came home very much tired,
and had -1,.-..,l r...r. givingg it over.
May 7. -',.A ... r,. wreck again, but with an intent
not to work, but found the weight of the wreck had
broke itself down, the beams being cut, that several
pieces of the ship seemed to lie loose, and the inside
of the hold lay so open, that I could see into it, but
almost full of water and sand.
May 8. Went to the wreck, and carried an iron
crow to wrench up the deck, which lay now quite
clear of the water or sand ; 1 wrenched open two
planks, and brought them on shore also with the tide -
1 lelfthe iron crow in the wreck for next day.
May 9. Went to the wreck, and with the crow
made way into the body of the wreck, and felt several
casks, and loosened them with the crow, but could
not break them up: I felt also the roll of English
lead, and could stir it, but it was too heavyto remove.
May 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. Went every day to the
wreck, and got a great many pieces of timber, and
boards, or plank, and two or three hundred weight of
May 15. I carried two hatchets, to try if Icould
not cut a piece off the roll of lead, by placing the
edge of one hatchet and driving it with the other;
but as it lay about a foot and a half in the water, I
could not make any blow to drive the hatchet.
May 16. It had blown hard in the night, and the
wreck appeared more broken by the force of the
water; but I staid so long in the woods to get pigeons
for food, that the tide prevented me going to the
wreck that day.
May 17. I saw some pieces of the wreck blown on
shore, at a great distance, near two miles off me, bu
resolved to see what they were, and found it was a
piece of the head, but too heavy for me to bring away.
May 24. Every day to this day I worked on the
wreck, and with hard labour I loosened some things
to much with the crow, that the fist flowing tide

z~~~s~M~zM~rrrv,~u ~ L4ur~ ~ ~uzut

several cases floated out, and two of the seamen's
chests; but tle wind blowing from the shoe, nothing
came to land that day but pieces of timber, and a
hogshead, which had some Brazil pork in it, but the
salt water and the sand had spoiled it.
I continued this work every day to the 15th ofJune,
except the time necessary to get food, which I always
appointed, during this part of my employment, to be
when the tide was up, that I might be ready when it
was ebbed out; and by this time I had gotten timber,
and plank, and iron-work enough to have built a good
boat, if I had known how; and also I got at several
times, and in several pieces, near one hundred weight
of the sheet-lead.
June 16. Going down to the sea-side, I found a
large tortoise or turtle: this was the first I had seen,
which it seems was only my misfortune, not any de-
fect of the place, or scarcity; for had I happened to
be on the other side of the island, I might have had
hundreds of them every day, as I found afterwards;
but perhaps had paid dear enough for them.
June 17. I spent in cookingthe turtle; Ifound in Ihr
threescore eggs; and her flesh was to me at that time
the most savory and pleasant that ever I tasted in myn
life, having had no flesh, but of goats and fowls, since
I landed in this horrid place.
June 18. Rained all day, and stayed within. I
thought at this time the rain felt cold, and I was
something chilly, which I knew was not usual in that
June 19. Very ill, and shivering, as if the weather
had been cold.
June 20. No rest all night, violent pains in my
head, and feverish.
June 21. Very ill, frighted almost to death with tlh
apprehensions of my sad condition, to be sick, and
no help. Prayed to God for the first time since the
storm off Hull, but scarce knew what I said, or why;
my thoughts being all confused.

June 22. A little better, but under dreadful appre
tensions of sickness.
June 23. Very bad again, cold and shivering, and
then a violent headache.
June 24. Much better.
June 25. An ague very violent; the fit held me
seven hours, cold fit and hot, with faint sweats after it
June. 26. Better; and having no victuals to eat
took my gun, but found myself very weak; however
I killed a she goat, and with much difficulty got i
home, and broiled some of it, and ate: I would fain
have stewed it, and made some broth, but had no pot.
June 27. The ague again so violent, that I lay abed
all day, and neither ate or drank. I was ready to
perish for thirst, but so weak I had not strength to stanj
up, orto get myself any water to drink. Prayed to
od again, but was light-headed: and when I was not
I was so ignorant, that I knew not what to say: only
I lay and cried, Lord look upon me! Lord pity
me, Lord have mercy upon me!" I suppose I did
nothing else for two or three hours, till the fit wearing
ff, I fell asleep, and did not wake till far in the night;
when I walked, I found myself much refreshed, but
weak, and exceeding thirsty: however, as I had no
water in my whole habitation, I was forced to lie till
morning, and went to sleep again. In this second
sleep I had this terrible dream.
I thought that I was sitting on the ground on the
outside of my wall, where I sat when the storm blew
after the earthquake, and that I saw a man descend
from a great black cloud, in a bright name of fire, au
light upon the ground. He was all over as bright a
a flame, so that I could but just bear to look toward
him; his countenance was most inexpressibly dread-
ful, impossible for words to describe ; when he step-
ped upon the ground with his feet I thought the earth
trembled, just as it had done before in the earthquake,
and all the air looked to my apprehension as ifit had
been filled with flashes of fire.


He was no sooner landed upon the earth, but he
moved forwards towards ;e, with a long spear or
weapon in his hand to kill me ; and when he came
to a rising ground, at some distance, he spoke to me.
or I heard a voice so terrible, that it is impossible to
express the terror of it; all that I can say I under-
stood was this, Seeing all these things have not
brought thee to repentance, now thou shalt die ;" at
which words I thought he lifted up the spear that was
in his hand to kill me.
No one, that shall ever read this account, will ex-
pect that I should be able to describe the horrors on
my soul at this terrible vision; I mean, that even while
it was a dream, I even dreamed of those horrors;
nor is it any more possible to describe the impression
that remained upon my mind, when I awaked, adi
found it was but a dream.
I had, alas no divine knowledge; what I had re
ceived by the good instruction of my father was then
worn out by an uninterrupted series, for eight years,
of seafaring wickedness, and a constant conversation
with nothing but such as were, like myself, wicked
and profane to the last degree. I do not remember
that I had in all that time one.thought that so much
as tended either to looking upwards toward God, or
inwards towards a reflection upon my own ways.
But a certain stupidity of soul, without desire of good,
or conscience of evil, had entirely overwhelmed me,
and I was all that the most hardened, unthinking,
wicked creature among our common sailors can be
supposed to be, not having the least sense, either of
the fear of God in danger, or of thankfulness to God
in deliverance.
In the relating what is already past of my storn,
this will be the more easily believed, when I shaln]] itd.
that through all the variety of miseries that had o
this day befallen me, I never had so much as oi.
thought of it being the hand of God, or that it wias a
just punishment for my sin, my rebellious behaviour
against' my father, or my present sins, which were

great; or so much as a punishment for the general
course of my wicked life. When I was on the despe-
rate expedition on the desert shores of Africa, I ne'er
had so much as one thought of what would become of
of me; or one wish to God to direct me. whither 1
should go, or to keep me from the danger which ap-
parently surrounded me, as well from voracious crea.
tures as cruel sinvnaa hut I was merely thoughtlles
of a God, or a ., ....- acted like a mere brute
from the principles of nature, and by the dictates oi
common sense onli, and indeed hardly that.
When I was delivered, and taken up at sea by tho
Portugal captain, well used, and dealt justly and ho-
nouraily with, as well as charitably, 1 had not the
least thankfulness on my i.....,i~l. When again 1
was shipwrecked ruined and in danger, of drowning
on this island, I was as far from remorse, or looking
on it as a judgment ; I only said to myself often, that
I was an u7fjirtlioulte dog, and born to be always
It is true, when I got on shore first here, and found
all my ships crew drowned, and myself spared, I was
surprised with a kind of extasy, and some transports
ofsoul, which, had the grace of God assisted, might
have come up to true thankfulness; but it ended where
it begun, in a mere common flight of joy, or, as I
may say, being glad I was alive, without the least
reflection upon thedistinguishinggoodnessofthel Hand
which had preserved me, and had singled me out to
be preserved, when all the rest were destroyed ; or an
inquiryy why Providence had been thus merciful to
me ; even just the same common sort of joy which
seamen generally have, after they have got safe on
shore from a shipwreck, which they drown all in the
next bowl of punch, and forget almost as soon as it is
over; and all the rest of my life was like it.
Even when I was afterward s, on due consideration,
made sensible of my condition, how I was cast on this
dreadful place, out of the reach of human kind, out of
all hope of relief, or prospect of redemption, as soon

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